Thursday, February 28, 2013

2/28/2013 Tennessee Civil War Notes (TCWN)

     28, Excerpts from a letter by Surgeon William M. Eames (U.S.) to his wife in Ohio, relative to conditions in Nashville after a week of occupation

Camp 4 miles beyond Nashville, Tenn. Feb. 28

Friday 11 A .M.

Dearest wife,

You see by the above date that we have got through the rebel city of Nashville & are now we are encamped o­n a pleasant hill o­n the road to Murfreesborough where the rebel army is supposed to be fortifying -- about 40 miles from here. It is a very fine spring-like day & the last day of the winter months tho, we have had no weather like winter for a long time. The weather seems like what we get in May & the grass is springing up green & the buds begin to swell. The birds sing gaily among the trees & our camp begins to look cheerful o­nce more. For the past few days we have had very hard times & the men have been sick & discouraged & everything has had a gloomy aspect, owing to rainy weather -- want of good rations & tents to sleep under. It has rained at least half the time & the men have been drenched & soaked, & have had to wade thro, deep water & then lie down o­n the damp ground with no covering but the cloudy or cold regions above with nothing to cook their scanty food in & I have often been pained to see them toasting their slice of stinking ham o­n a stick as their o­nly supper or breakfast with sometimes a little parched corn -- roasted o­n the cob. The bridges have all been destroyed by the rascals: our teams of course hindered with all the cooking utensils, provisions -- tents, bedding, etc. The Cumberland River is high above the banks & now fills many cellars & covers the houses even to the eaves. The river runs past the city with a deep angry current but our men are now all carried over & nearly all their teams which have kept along with the Reg since we left Bowling Green. Our team with 4 others was sent back from B. to Munfordville for provisions & we have not seen them since consequently we are without means of transportation save what we can carry in the room of two men in o­ne of our ambulances. Our boxed of medicines were left & nearly all our necessary articles but we still keep along. I have not been in Nashville much except to pass through it o­n our way out here -- But I saw enough of it to conclude that it was at least half union in sentiment & that very many were heartily glad to see us come to relieve them from the southern tyranny which has so long ruled over them. I saw the public square in which Amos Dresser received his whipping & the very beautiful State House & many buildings with a yellow flag flying -- revealing the fact that they were occupied as Hospitals. I suppose there are many hundreds of poor secession soldiers -- sick & wounded now in the city besides 200 of our own soldiers who were wounded at the fight at Fort Donaldson [sic] & then captured & brought here where they were recaptured by our men. We took vast quantities of rebel stores with the city -- estimated at more then 2 million dollars worth. -- including all kinds of provisions & camp equipage -- tents, etc., four steam engines (Locomotives) & several passenger cars & freight cars. Large quantities of rebel arms -- some finished & some in their workshops partly done -- Cannon in their foundries ______, [sic] Tinker Dave Beatty's secret hideout, near Montgomery [a.k.a. Morgan Court House] in Morgan County & tons of shot & shell & other ammunition -- medical stores -- etc. etc. besides three steamboats - o­ne of which the rebels burned after we had got possession of it. Our army here is now very large & every day increasing. Nelsons [sic] division came down o­n the Ohio & up the Cumberland o­n boats the day we came into the place. He first raised the Stars & Stripes over the capital building. After it had waved a short time a citizen of Nashville came to him & requested that the flag he owned should be raised in its stead. He said he had used his flag to sleep o­n all the time since the reign of terror commenced & now he wanted the same flag to wave over the State-house -- & it does. Long may it wave.

....Two of [General U. S Grant's] gunboats are here & they are ugly looking customers. Not less than a dozen large size Steam boats are lying at the wharves or engaged in carrying over troops & wagons. Several Regts of Cavalry & Batteries of Artillery are here, but our Division is still ahead of all & we can look out o­n the enemies [sic] country just beyond us. Their pickets came up close to our lines & two nights ago they commenced firing o­n our pickets & lost three of their men. We have taken several prisoners & more are being found every day in the city. I am quite well today & have but little diarrhea [sic]. Appetite first rate. Rob is also well & all the rest of my crowd. 

* * * * 

Yours as ever,

Wm. M. Eames

William M. Eames Papers 



28, Public health initiative taken by the U. S. Army in Memphis


Office of the District Provost Marshal

Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 20th, 1864
It is hereby ordered that after Monday the 1st of March, 1864, persons occupying premises in the city of Memphis, or in case of vacant lots, the owners thereof will be held strictly responsible that the streets adjacent to their property or the premises occupied by them, as far as the middle of said street, are by 7 o'clock of every Wednesday afternoon, swept and cleaned. The dirt [is to be] placed in heaps convenient for removal, under a penalty of a fine of not less than $25.00 for each breach of this order. The city authorities are hereby charged with the duty of having the heaps of dirt removed by 7 p.m. of each Thursday.

Geo. A. Williams
Capt. 1st U. S. Inf. and Provost Marshal

R. P. Buckland, Brig. Gen. Comd'g. Dist.

Memphis Bulletin, March 4, 1864.



28, Federal program of small pox vaccination in Memphis, excerpt from SPECIAL ORDERS, NO. 32 
Headquarters, District of Memphis

Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 28, 1864

* * * *

VII. In consequence of the increasing prevalence of Small Pox, through the influx of foreign population and contrabands in the city, it is hereby ordered,
That physicians be appointed in each ward, by the city authorities, whose duty it shall be to visit all of this class, each in their respective wards, and vaccinate all found without well marked scars.

Every contraband shall have the certificate of some one of these physicians thus appointed, that he has been vaccinated, and has a well marked scar otherwise be liable to arrest, until he has been properly vaccinated. The city authorities will see that a proper Pest House will be established without the city limits, for the treatment of all cases sent by the ward physicians thus appointed.

Surgeon Geo. M. Hayes, 2d Iowa cavalry, and Surgeon in Chief, District of Memphis, is charged with the supervision and execution of this order.

By order of Brig. Gen. R. P. Buckland

Memphis Bulletin, March 4, 1864.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Wednesday, February 27, 2013

2/27/2013 Tennessee Civil War Notes (TCWN)

27, "Women can in no way more conclusively give evidence of the devotion to the cause of their country than in ministering to the wants of her suffering soldiers."


To the Ladies of Fayetteville.Headquarters 10th KY Cav.

Liberty, Tenn., Feb. 27, '63


Ladies: - The Kentucky soldiers of this command having by sickness and misfortune been thrown among you, I am informed by Dr. Jenkins, fully recovered, thanks to your unremitting kindness, watchful car, and dedicated attention. As commander of those brave boys, I cannot but feel infinitely grateful for the kind considerations you have shown for those, who were your patriotism governed by State lines, had no claim upon your sympathy or attention; and I thank God, that though far away from family and kindred, Kentucky soldiers have found friends in Tennessee upon whom the many always look with feelings of highest regard and affection' and may they, while contending o­n the bloody and war stained soil of your State for peace and liberty, allow their minds to revert to the patriotism and devotion of her daughters,, and the  thought, nerve, the arm, strengthen their determination, and act as an incentive to spur them o­n in the path of duty. Each o­ne as he arrives but confirms the story of the first in the loud acclaims of gratitude, until I almost wish myself an invalid and under your fostering care. Women can in no way more conclusively give evidence of the devotion to the cause of their country than in ministering to the wants of her suffering soldiers. You have, ladies, a noble and a prodigious part to perform in this terrible war, and generously have you done your duty as guardian angels to the suffering, who ever look upon woman as the same lovely creature, whether she be wiping the death-damp from the brow of the dying – wearing love knots in the gay bowers of Eden, or plucking the violets which surround the cradle of new-born Spring. And now, ladies, allow me in thanking you, to sincerely trust that grim-visage war may soon smooth his wrinkled front, and the glorious noon of peace shed around you that brilliant halo of light and happiness which truly belongs to a faithful and fee people.

Again I thank you in the name of the Kentuckians.

Most respectfully,

W. G. OWEN, Major Comdg.

Fayetteville Observer, March 12, 1863.



27 and March 17, Frank M. Guernsey's letter to Fanny relative to sickness and life in Memphis and attacks against Confederates

Navy Yard Memphis, Tenn
Feby 27th, 1863

My Dear Fanny

I have just received a letter from you of quite late date (Feby. 20th) and as I have not ambition enough to do any work, I will answer it. The Adjutant has gone away on an expedition against the Rebs and has left me chief cook and bottle washer, with lots of work on my hands.

I am taking things very easy however and do not intent to fret myself. I have been on the sick list lately; or at least very near so. I am around and doing duty simply because I will not give up and be sick. We have had very bad weather here lately, it has rained almost every day for some time excepting to day which is very pleasant, you may guess what kind of going we are having, the mud is a little less than two feet deep on a level, but I dont go out much so that it does not trouble me but very little.

There is very little news of any account here. Everything is very quiet, though our camp was somewhat excited this morning. We received orders to have part of our Regmt. fall in and proceed up the river to attack a camp of Rebels, we sent out three companies on board a tug boat. I was obliged to stay behind as I am hardly in shape to do much fighting. The boys were all very anxious to go, and have a fight. They may not meet the enemy but if they are to be found they will find them I commenced this letter yesterday but had not time to finish it so I will do it now. The expedition has returned. They found no enemy but captured a small quantity of medicine. They were rather digusted with the way their fight turned out. Fanny if you chance to see Glen please tell him that Lieut. Patten was brought into camp last night by a file of soldiers. Patten was a Lieut. In our Regmt. but deserted some time since while we were on the march, he came to Memphis; and when next seen was with a band of Rebels that were captured yesterday. His punishment will probably be severe as he has not a friend in the Reg. We all feel that he has brought a disgrace on our Reg. and are perfectly willing that he should suffer for it. Fannie, I hope ere this reaches you that your Mother may have recovered from her sickness. I understand that it has been very sickly north this winter. The last I heard from Almond Sister Lottie and her little Cora were both very sick with the Typhoid fever. I have not heard lately how they are and am feeling quite anxious about them. I suppose they will write soon.

I am beginning [sic]  to get sick of this kind of a life, and am longing for spring to come so that we can go into active service in the field. This being cooped up here in the City with the same old routine of duty to do day after day, soon becomes irksome. There is a lack of excitement and every thing gets stale. I like the excitement of a brisk campaign (in good weather) chasing the Rebels or being chased by them, though it is the most please [sic] to chase them of the two.

Fannie wouldn't I like to just step in and receive that greeting you described so well in your last. I guess you would find one who could return in fourfold if I am not mistaken.

March 17, 1863

I guess Fannie you will be supprised [sic] in the difference of the dates on this sheet. The fact of the business is I have been pretty sick since the foregoing was written. I have had a run of the fever but am now convalescing. It has been only a day or two since I have been able to sit up much so you see I am very weak yet. I will write again in a few days. good by, write soon, love to all and accept much yourself

Yours affectionately

Frank M. G.



27, Skirmish in the Sequatchie Valley

No circumstantial reports filed. 

Excerpt from the Report of Colonel John M. Hughs, [CSA], then conducting guerrilla activities in Middle Tennessee, including the Sequatchie Valley:

* * * * 

On the 27th February we routed a new company of State Guards, forming under Governor Johnson's orders, in Sequatchie Valley, under Capt. Pirom, capturing 23 prisoners and entirely breaking up the contemplated organization.

* * * * 

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 56-57.



 27, A page from a Shelby county smuggler's diary

February, Saturday 27, 1864

Annie Nelson and myself went to Memphis this morning - very warm, dusty and disagreeable. Accomplished all I went for - did not go near any of the Officials, was fortunate to meet a kind friend, Lucie Harris, who gave me her pass - 'tis a risk, yet we can accomplish nothing without great risk at times, I returned the favor by bringing a letter to forward to her husband, Army of Mobile. I sat up until 8 o'clock last night, arranging poor Green's mail to forward to the different command. It was a difficult job, yet a great pleasure to know I had it in my power to rejoice the hearts of our brave Southern Soldiers - most were Kentucky letters for Breckenridge's command - the rest were Mo. letters for Johnston's, Polk's, and Maury's commands. God grant them a safe and speedy trip.

We have glorious news from Dixie - Forrest has completely routed Smith and Grierson at Okolona - God grant my Bro Eddie may be safe - we hear his Col. Jeff Forrest was killed. The Yanks are perfectly demoralized, all that escaped have arrived in Memphis. I never witnessed such a sight as the stolen negroes, poor deluded wretches - Praise God for this Victory. 


January - November, 1864 

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Tuesday, February 26, 2013

February 26 - Tennessee Civil War Notes (TNCWN)

26, Brigadier-General Gideon J. Pillow reports to Richmond relative to his report on the fall of Fort Donelson and his judgment for a "remedy for existing condition of things."

MEMPHIS, February 26, 1862.

(Received Richmond, February 27, 1862.)


Great excitement here and depression in public mind. To correct misapprehension and explain necessity which compelled capitulation at Donelson I have had my official report published. My judgment is that there is but one remedy for existing condition of things; that is, abandon sea-coast defenses except New Orleans; concentrate all the forces in Tennessee; drive the enemy north of the Ohio River, and press invasion of Ohio, Indiana. That means will draw enemy's forces back and relieve the heart of country, and give up control of interior rivers until we can get power on water-causes. Enemy can inflict no great calamity on sea-coast.

If we do not relieve heart of the country, Mississippi River will be opened, and then cause of South is desperate.
GID. J. PILLOW, Brig.-Gen., C. S. Army.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, pp.908-909.

26, Nashville City Council acts to control Negroes

Resolved That all negroes laying around loose in this city and not employed, and having run away from their masters (some who are loyal to the United States) with the expectation of being free, and, as they are not capable of self-government, and are a nuisance to the community in which they live, unless they have a master to superintend and provide for them, that all such be arrested...and either confined in jail or made to labor on public works, or be advertised in order that their masters by paying all necessary expenses, may be reclaimed, and send them where they properly belong, and thereby rid the public of an intolerable nuisance, and show our constituents while we are in favor of a restoration of the Federal [constitution] at every sacrifice, we have no sympathy with negro worshipers, or those who would destroy our country, for the purpose of abolishing slavery, thereby placing the negro [sic] on an equality with the white race.

Resolved, That nothing in this resolution shall be considered a s coming in conflict with the military authorities or the suppression of this nefarious rebellion.

Nashville Daily Union, February 27, 1863.

26, Capture of Washington, Rhea County, by guerrilla chief Champ Ferguson 

FEBRUARY 26, 1864.--Capture of Washington, Tenn.
Report of Col. Robert K. Byrd, First Tennessee Infantry.
LOUDON, February 28, 1864.

SIR: The following dispatch just received from Col. Byrd, Kingston, dated February 27:

Champ Ferguson, with 150 men, made a raid on our courier-line last night at Washington, in Rhea County, killed the provost-marshal at that place, and captured all the couriers from there to Sulphur Springs, killing 1 and wounding 2 others. He carried off 11 horses and 11 repeating rifles.

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 485.

James B. Jones, Jr.
Public Historian
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN  37214
(615)-532-1550  x115
(615)-532-1549  FAX

Monday, February 25, 2013

2/25/13 Tennessee Civil War Notes (TNCWN)

25, Concerns expressed in Confederate-occupied Chattanooga about speculators in a newspaper editorial titled "The Extortioner."

[The Extortioner] is not a thief  because all his transactions square with the law. He is not a murderer or highway robber...yet he is a villain, possessing the will to rob, or steal, or murder, or do what not for money....He is in time of war, not o­nly the spoiler of the poor, but traitor to his country. The conduct of Judas Iscariot squared with the maxim of commerce...[but] there is a day of revolution. He will be an outcast from the new order of society....He will them be marked with scorn and hunted from the ease of his riches and the peace of mind, and will transmit the brand of infamy to his posterity." . 

Chattanooga Gazette and Advertiser, February 25, 1862



25, Ambassador Baron von Gerolt protests enrolling Prussian citizens into Memphis enrolled militia


Washington, February 25, 1864.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have the honor to inclose a copy of a note yesterday's date from Baron von Gerolt, together with its printed accompaniment, and will thank you to enable me to comply with his request for information concerning the true meaning of the general order (No. 2) of the military authority at Memphis to which he refers.

I am, sir, your obedient servant,



WAR DEPARTMENT, February 29, 1864.

Respectfully referred to the Gen.-in-Chief for report.

By order of the Secretary of War:

ED. R. S. CANBY, Brig.-Gen. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.


PRUSSIAN LEGATION, Washington, February 24, 1864.

Hon. WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State of the United States, Washington:

SIR: His Majesty's consul at Saint Louis, on the application of several Prussian subjects residing at Memphis, Tenn., has sent to me the inclosed general order (No. 2) of the military authority at Memphis of January 30 last, by which, according to article 2, it seems the subjects of foreign governments have to be enrolled in the military service of the militia, or will be required to leave the District of Memphis, &c.

As I have reason to doubt whether it was intended to apply this article to aliens residing in the District of Memphis, I would feel obliged to you by being informed of the true interpretation of the aforementioned order on this subject.

I have the honor to be, with the highest consideration, your obedient servant,


[Slip (printed) inclosed was cut from a newspaper. It is a publication of General Orders, No. 2, headquarters First Brigade Enrolled Militia, District of Memphis, dated Memphis, January 30, 1864, filed with S. 531, Hdqrs. of the Army, 1864.]


OR, Ser. III, Vol. 4, p. 136.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Sunday, February 24, 2013

Tennessee Civil War Notes (TNCWN) 2/24/2013

24, A call to arms in Jackson following the fall of Fort Donelson
….The Governor has called upon every man able to bear arms for service as soon as possible. As he has commanded the militia to come out, companies are being formed. Mr. Bond is trying to get up one exclusively of married men. I have joined with him. The paper today stated that the Federals marched into Nashville on yesterday….There is no disguising the fact that we are in anything but a pleasant situation. The are not men enough in the field & TO DRIVE THE ENEMY [sic]. They have overwhelming force and they must be driven back or we are a ruined people….

Robert H. Cartmell Diary, February 24 1862.




24, Capture of Confederate navy officers attempting commando attacks upon Tennessee River shipping 

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF EAST TENNESSEE AND FOURTH DIVISION, TWENTY-THIRD ARMY CORPS, Knoxville, Tenn., February 25, 1865--7.15 p.m. [Received 27th.]
Maj. S. HOFFMAN, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of the Cumberland, Nashville:
Two officers in the uniform of and claiming to belong to the Confederate navy were captured yesterday near Loudon. They state they were of a party sent from Richmond to destroy the bridges and steamboats on the Tennessee River. The balance of the party made their escape and are still at large.

DAVIS TILLSON, Brig.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg. District and Division.
Maj. Gen. JAMES B. STEEDMAN, Chattanooga:
Two officers in the uniform of and claiming to belong to the Confederate navy were captured yesterday near Loudon. They state they were of a party sent to capture and destroy the steam-boats on the river. The remainder of the party made their escape and are still at large; they may attempt to carry out their plan. I respectfully suggest that guards on the boats be increased and cautioned to exercise unusual vigilance.
DAVIS TILLSON, Brig.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg. District and Division.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, p. 769.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Saturday, February 23, 2013

2/23/2013 cwn

23, Confederate Orders No. 3 forbidding impressing of civilian property without written orders

ORDERS, No. 3. HDQRS. WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Murfreesborough, Tenn., February 23, 1862.

Under great necessity temporary possession may be taken of wagons, teams, and other property of our citizens for the use of the army; but this authority can be exercised by chiefs of the army alone.

It is positively prohibited to any officer to seize, take, or impress property of any kind except by written order of the commanding general or division commander, and this authority must be exhibited to the party from whom the property is taken.

Officers or soldiers violating this order will be arrested, proceeded against, and punished as plunders and marauders.

By command of Gen. Johnston:

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, p. 903.



23-25, Evacuation of Nashville byConfederates and occupation by Union troops


No. 1.--Hon. Thomas A. Scott, Assistant Secretary of War.

No. 2.--Brig. Gen. D. C. Buell, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Ohio.

No. 3.--Col. James Barnett, U. S. Army, of ordnance captured.

No. 4.--Gen. A. Sidney Johnston, C. S. Army, commanding Western Department.

No. 5.--Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd, C. S. Army.

No. 6.--Col. Nathan B. Forrest's responses to interrogatories of Committee of Confederate House of Representatives.

No. 7.--Col. Leon Trousdale's responses to interrogatories of Committee of Confederate House of Representatives.

No. 8.--Memorandum of Col. W. W. Mackall, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

No. 1.

Report of Hon. Thomas A. Scott, Assistant Secretary of War.

NASHVILLE, TENN., February 25, 1862.

Nashville was taken possession of to-day. The mayor, accompanied by committee of citizens, met Gen. Buell this morning on the north bank of the Cumberland. Interview entirely satisfactory to all parties. One gunboat and twelve steamers at the wharf. Troops passing the river in good order.



No. 2.

Report of Brig. Gen. D. C. Buell, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Ohio.

NASHVILLE, TENN., February 26, 1862.

I arrived opposite the city with Mitchell's division, about 9,000 effective, on the night of the 24th. The enemy's cavalry were still in the city in small force. I did not intend to cross until I could do so in sufficient force to run no great hazard, but during the night Gen. Nelson arrived with about 7,000 men, and landed before I was aware of it. I deemed it unadvisable to withdraw them, lest it should embolden the enemy and have a bad effect on the people, and so determined to cross with all the force at hand, and we are now crossing and taking a position some 4 or 5 miles out in the direction of Murfreesborough. The difficulty of crossing the river is very great. Notwithstanding we have steamers, the want of fuel for them is a most embarrassing matter. Our force is too small, and others a strong inducement to the enemy, only 30 miles distant, with some 30,000 men, to assume the offensive; but I have deemed it necessary to run the risk. I have dispatched steamers to bring up the force at Clarksville, and our troops are moving on from Bowling Green as rapidly as possible, but it must be two or three days before we will be able to show much force. Gen. Thomas' division ought to be here by water by the 13th of March. The troops from Clarksville may be here to-night. McCook's division will, I hope, be up to the river to-morrow, and will then have to cross. If the enemy advances, as said to be intention, we will probably meet him to-morrow. It is said here that the enemy has either evacuated Columbus or is doing so. There are no violent demonstrations of hostility, though the mass of the people appear to look upon us as invaders, but I have seen several strong indications of loyalty in individuals.

D. C. BUELL, Brig.-Gen.


No. 3.

Report of Col. James Barnett, U. S. Army, of ordnance captured.


GEN.: Below is a report of the number and caliber of guns, mounted and dismounted, at Nashville, which were captured from the enemy:

No. 1, 24-pounder iron gun, mounted on bank of river near reservoir.

No. 2, 32-pounder iron gun (Parrott), mounted on corner of reservoir.

No. 3, 24-pounder iron gun (smooth bore), mounted on Lebanon pike.

No. 4, 32-pounder iron gun (Parrott), mounted on end of Summer street.

No. 5, 32-pounder iron gun (Parrott), mounted at Gen. Palmer's headquarters.

No. 6, 24-pounder iron gun (smooth bore), mounted under Saint Cloud Hill.

Nos. 7 and 8, 24-pounder iron guns (smooth bore), mounted on Fort Negley.

No. 9, 24-pounder iron gun (smooth bore), mounted at railroad tunnel.

No. 10, 24-pounder iron gun (smooth bore), dismounted at Fort Negley.

No. 11, 32-pounder howitzer (iron), mounted at old Lunatic Asylum.

No. 12, 32-pounder iron Parrott, mounted on floating bridge.

Dismounted at ordnance depot: one 100-pounder columbiad, two 32-pounder rifled iron guns, five 24-pounder carronades, and twelve 6-pounder iron guns, unserviceable, spiked; three 24-pounder iron smooth bores and one 18-pounder iron smooth bore, serviceable, and four 6-pounder iron guns, unserviceable.

Of the guns at the ordnance depot there are but three 24-pounders and one 18-pounder iron smooth bores that are considerable safe.

Very respectfully,

JAMES BARNETT, Col., and Chief of Artillery Fourteenth Army Corps.

Maj. Gen. W. S. ROSECRANS, Cmdg. Fourteenth Army Corps.

No. 4.

Report of Gen. A. Sidney Johnston, C. S. Army, commanding Western Department.

HDQRS. WESTERN DEPARTMENT, Murfreesborough, Tenn., February 25, 1862.

SIR: The fall of Fort Donelson compelled me to withdraw the remaining forces under my command from the north of the Cumberland and to abandon the defense of Nashville, which but for that disaster it was my intention to protect to the utmost. Not more than 11,000 effective men were left under my command to oppose a column of Gen. Buell's of not less then 40,000 troops, moving by Bowling Green, while another superior force, under Gen. Thomas, outflanked me to the east, and the army from Fort Donelson, with the gunboats and transports, had it in their power to ascend the Cumberland, now swollen by recent flood, so as to intercept all communication with the South. The situation left me no alternative but to evacuate Nashville or sacrifice the army. By remaining the place would have been unnecessarily subjected to destruction, as it is very indefensible, and no adequate force would have been left to keep the enemy in check in Tennessee.

Under these circumstances I moved the main body of my command to this place on the 17th and 18th instant, and left a brigade under Gen. Floyd to bring on such stores and property as were at Nashville, with instructions to remain until the approach of the enemy, had then to rejoin me. This has been in a great measure effected; and nearly all the stores would have been saved but for the heavy and unusual rains, which have washed away the bridges, swept away portions of the railroad, and rendered transportation almost impossible. Gen. Floyd has arrived here.

The rear guard left Nashville on the night of the 23d. Edgefield, on the north bank of the Cumberland, opposite the city, was occupied yesterday by the advance pickets of the enemy.

I have remained here for the purpose of augmenting my forces and
securing the transportation of the public stores. By the junction of the command of Gen. Crittenden and the fugitives from Fort Donelson, which have been reorganize as far as practicable, the force now under my command will amount to about 17,000 men. Gen. Floyd, with a force of some 2,500 men, has been ordered to Chattanooga, to defend the approaches towards Northern Alabama and Georgia and the communication between the Mississippi and Atlantic and with the view to increase his forces by such troops as may be sent forward from the neighboring States.
The quartermaster's, commissary, and ordnance stores which are not required for immediate use have been ordered to Chattanooga, and those which will be necessary on the march have been forewarned to Huntsville and Decatur. I have ordered a depot to be established at Atlanta for the manufacture of supplies for the Quartermaster's Department and also a laboratory for the manufacture of percussion caps and ordnance stores, and at Chattanooga depots for distribution of these supplies. The machinery will be immediately sent forward.

Considering the peculiar topography of this State and the great power which the enemy's means of transportation affords them upon the Tennessee and Cumberland, it will be seen that the force under my command cannot successfully cover the whole line against the advance of the enemy. I am compelled to elect whether he shall be permitted to occupy Middle Tennessee, or turn Columbus, take Memphis, and open the valley of the Mississippi. To me the defense of the valley appears of paramount importance, and, consequently, I will move this corps of the army, of which I have assumed the immediate command, towards the bank of the Tennessee, crossing the river near Decatur, in order to enable me to co-operate or unite with Gen. Beauregard for the defense of Memphis and the Mississippi.

The Department has sent eight regiments to Knoxville for the defense of East Tennessee, and the protection of that region will be confided to them and such additional forces as may be hereafter sent from the adjacent States. Gen. Buckner was ordered by the Department to take command of the troops at Knoxville; but as he was at that time in presence of the enemy, the order was not fulfilled. As it would be almost impossible for me under present circumstances to superintend the operations at Knoxville and Chattanooga, I would respectfully suggest that the local commanders at those points should receive orders from the Department directly or be allowed to exercise their discretion.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. S. JOHNSTON, Gen., C. S. Army.

Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War, Richmond, Va.

No. 5.

Report of Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd, C. S. Army.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., March 22, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report in regard to the movements, disposition, and transportation of my command from the date of my arrival at Nashville until I reported to Gen. A. S. Johnston, at Murfreesborough.

I arrived at Nashville on a steamboat, together with a portion of the
command rescued from Fort Donelson, consisting of parts if the various regiments from Virginia, Texas, Arkansas, Kentucky, and Tennessee, at 7 o'clock on the morning of the 17th of February. Immediately on coming within view of the landing at the city I beheld a sight which is worthy of notice. The rabble on the wharf were in possession of boats loaded with Government bacon, and were pitching it from these boats to the shore, and carrying what did not fall into the water by hand and carts away to various places in the city. The persons engaged in this reprehensible conduct avowed that the meat had been given to them by the city council. As soon as practicable I reported to Gen. Johnston for duty, and on the same day I was placed in command of the city, and immediately took steps to arrest the panic that pervaded all classes and to restore order and quiet. One regiment, the First Missouri, Lieut.-Col. Rich, together with a portion of Col. Forrest's and Capt. Morgan's cavalry, were added to my command, and these were principally occupied in guarding public warehouses and the streets of the city. The only other force which I could use for the purposes above mentioned were the fragments of regiments that I had brought with me, and all of which were well-night totally exhausted from the exertions and fatigues to which they had been subjected on the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th days of February.

I immediately stopped the indiscriminate distribution of public stores by placing guards over them, and, having thus secured them from the gaps of the populace, I commenced the work of saving the stores that were in the city. Day and night the work was continued, being only temporarily stopped at times for the purpose of feeding the teams that were at work transporting articles of Government property from the wharves and store-houses to the railroad depot. My men worked incessantly with commendable perseverance and energy under my immediate supervision. Owing to the exhausted condition of the men thus engaged, it became absolutely necessary to force the able-bodied men who were strolling about the city unoccupied to assist in the labor before me. I was greatly assisted in this arduous duty by the energy of Col. Wharton, whose brigade was principally engaged and who promptly executed the orders issued be my. I likewise would express my appreciation of the valuable services of Maj. J. Dawson, of Gen. Hardee's command, of Lieut.-Col. Kennard, and of Capt.'s Derrick, Ellis, and Otey, of my staff. I finally succeeded in loading all the cars standing at the depot at about 4 o'clock on the evening of the 20th of February.

During the interval between the morning of the 17th and the evening of the 20th of February trains were loaded and dispatched as fact as they arrived. Much more could have been saved had there been more system and regularity in the disposition of the transportation by rail. Several trains were occupied in carrying off sick and wounded soldiers. The weather was exceedingly inclement during the entire time occupied as above mentioned, and there was an excessively heavy rain on the 19th of February.
As the moment for destroying the bridges had been left to my discretion up to a certain period, I allowed them to stand until a large amount of transportation, a large number of cattle, and some troops had been brought from the north side of the river. At 10 o'clock on the evening of the 19th the destruction of the suspension bridge was commenced; the wood work was burned and the cables on the south side were cut. At 3 o'clock on the morning of the 20th the railroad bridge was destroyed. I was greatly aided in this work by Lieut. Crump and Lieut. Forsberg, of the Engineers.
During the period embraced by this report Col. Forrest and Capt. Morgan, with their cavalry, rendered signal and efficient service in dispersing the mobs which gathered in the vicinity of the warehouses containing Government property, and which often had to be scattered at the point of the saber. I had succeeded in collecting a large amount of stores of various kinds at the depot, but as I had control of the transportation by rail, and hence obliged to await the action of others, much that would have been valuable to the Government was necessarily left at the depot. Among the articles saved were all the cannon, caisson, and battery wagons of which we had any knowledge.
At 4 o'clock p. m. on the 20th February I started with my staff for Murfreesborough, which point I reached on the morning of the 21st, where I reported to Gen. Johnston in person.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOHN B. FLOYD, Brig.-Gen.

H. P. BREWSTER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

No. 6.

Col. Nathan B. Forrest's responses to interrogatories of Committee of Confederate House of Representatives.
Interrogatory 1st. I was not at the city of Nashville at the time of its surrender, but was there at the time the enemy made their entrance into that part of the city known as Edgefield, having left Fort Donelson, with my command, on the morning of its surrender, and reached Nashville on Tuesday, February, 18, about 10 a. m. I remained in the city up to the Sunday evening following.
Interrogatory 2d. It would be impossible to state, from the data before me, the value of the stores either in the Quartermaster's or Commissary Departments, having no papers then nor any previous knowledge of the stores. The stores in the Quartermaster's Department consisted of all stores necessary to the department--clothing especially, in large amounts, shoes, harness, &c., with considerable unmanufactured material. The commissar stores were meat, flour, sugar, molasses, and coffee. There was a very large amount of meat in store and on the landing at my arrival, though large amounts had already been carried away by citizens.
Interrogatory 3d. A portion of these stores had been removed before the surrender. A considerable amount of meat on the landing, I was informed, was thrown into the river on Sunday before my arrival and carried off by the citizens. The doors of the commissary depot were thrown open, and the citizens in dense crowds were packing and hauling off the balance at the time of my arrival on Tuesday. The quartermaster's stores were also open, and the citizens were invited to come and help themselves, which they did in larger crowds, if possible, than at the other department.

Interrogatories 4th and 5th. On Tuesday morning I was ordered by Gen. Floyd to take command of the city, and attempted to drive the mob from the doors of the departments, which mob was composed of straggling soldiers and citizens of all grades. The mob had taken possession of the city to that extent that every spies of property was unsafe.

Houses were closed, carriages and wagons were concealed to prevent the mob from taking possession of them. Houses were being seized everywhere. I had to call out my cavalry, and, after every other means failed, charge the mob before I could get it so dispersed as to get wagons to the doors of the departments to load up the stores for transportation. After the mob was partially dispersed and quiet restored a number of citizens furnished wagons and assisted in loading them. I was busily engaged in this work on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. I transported 700 hundred large boxes of clothing to the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad depot, several hundred bales of osnaburgs and other military goods from the Quartermaster's Department, most, if not all, of the shoes having been seized by the mob. I removed about 700 or 800 wagon loads of meat. The high water having destroyed the bridges so as to stop the transportation over the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, I had large amounts of this meat taken over the Tennessee and Alabama Railroad. By examination on Sunday morning I found a large amount of fixed ammunition in the shape of cartridges and ammunition for light artillery in the magazine, which, with the assistance of Gen. Harding, I conveyed over 7 miles on the Tennessee and Alabama Railroad in wagons, to the amount of 30 odd wagon loads, after the enemy had reached the river. A portion was sent on to Murfreesborough in wagons. The quartermaster's stores which had not already fallen into the hands of the mob were all removed, save a lot of rope, loose shoes, and a large number of tents. The mob had already possessed themselves of a large amount of these stores. A large quantity of meat was left in store and on the river bank and some at the Nashville and Chattanooga railroad depot, on account of the break in the railroad. I cannot estimate the amount, as several store-houses had not been opened up to the time of my leaving. All stores fell into the hands of the enemy, except forty pieces of light artillery, which were burned and spiked by order of Gen. Floyd, as were the guns at Fort Zollicoffer. My proposition to remove theses stores, made by telegraph to Murfreesborough, had the sanction of Gen. A. S. Johnston.

Interrogatory 6th. No effort was made, save by the mob, who were endeavoring to possess themselves of these stores, to prevent their removal, and a very large amount was taken off before I was placed in command of the city.

Interrogatory 7th. It was eight days from the time the quartermaster left the city before the arrival of the enemy, commissaries and other persons connected with these departments leaving at the same time. With proper diligence on their part I have no doubt all the public stores might have been transported to places of safety.

Interrogatory 8th. Up to Saturday the railroads were open and might have been used to transport these stores. Saturday the bridges of the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad gave way. Besides these modes of conveyance, a large number of wagons might have been obtained, had the quiet and order of the city been maintained, and large additional amounts of stores by these means have been transported to place of safety.
Interrogatories 9th and 10th. I saw no officer connected with the Quartermaster's or Commissary Departments except Mr. Patton, who left on Friday. I did not at any time meet or hear of Maj. V. K. Stevenson in the city during my stay there.

Interrogatories 11th, 12th, and 13th. From my personal knowledge I can say nothing of the manner in which Maj. Stevenson left the city.

Common rumor and many reliable citizens informed me that major Stevenson left by a special train Sunday evening, February 16, taking personal baggage, furniture, carriage, and carriage-horses, the train ordered by himself, as president of the railroad.
Interrogatory 14th. All the means of transportation were actually necessary for the transportation of Government stores and sick and wounded soldiers, many of whom fell into the hands of the enemy for want of it, and might have been saved by the proper use of the means at hand. The necessity for these means of transportation for stores will be seen by the above answers which I have given. I have been compelled to be as brief as possible in making the above answers, my whole time being engaged, as we seem to be upon the eve of another great battle. The city was in a much worse condition than I can convey an idea of on paper, and the loss of public stores must be estimated by millions of dollars. The panic was entirely useless and not at all justified by the circumstances. Gen. Harding and the mayor of the city, with Mr. Williams, deserve special mention for assistance rendered in removing the public property. In my judgment, if the quartermaster and commissar had remained at their post and worked diligently with the means at their command, the Government stores might all have been saved between the time of the fall of Fort Donelson and the arrival the enemy at Nashville.

Respectfully, submitted.

N. B. FORREST, Col., Cmdg. Forrest's Brigade of Cavalry.

No. 7.

Col. Leon Trousdale's responses to interrogatories of Committee of Confederate House of Representatives.
RICHMOND, VA., March 11, 1862.

SIR: Herewith I hand you my answers to the interrogatories propounded to me by the committee and transmitted to me by you.

Very respectfully,


To the CLERK of the Special Committee on the Recent Military Disasters of Forts Henry and Donelson.

Answer to interrogatory 

1st. I am a resident of Nashville, and my occupation is that of editor and publisher of a public journal.

2d. I left the city of Nashville about 9 o'clock on the morning of February 23, just one week after the surrender of Fort Donelson.

3d. Gen. A. Sidney Johnston arrived at Nashville and took quarters in the village of Edgefield, on the opposite bank of the Cumberland River, a few days before the fall of Donelson; the precise date I do not recollect. His forces were left in the rear, and did not reach Nashville until Sunday, February 16, when they passed through the city and marched in the direction of Murfreesborough. I understand that the last brigade passed through the city on Monday. Gen. Floyd's brigade afterwards arrived from Donelson.

4th. The advance of Gen. Buell's forces arrived at Edgefield, opposite Nashville, on Sunday morning, February 23.

5th. The first report of Gen. Buell's expected advance was promulgated in the city on Sunday morning, February 16, accompanied by intelligence of the surrender of our forces at Donelson and the announcement that Gen. Johnston had determined not to make a stand for the defense of Nashville, which was verified during the day by the movement of masses of Confederate troops through the city in a south-easterly direction, on the Murfreesborough turnpike. The proximity of Buell's forces, as reported, however, was discredited during the day. As before stated, the enemy's advance did not reach the Cumberland at Nashville until the 23d.

6th. The citizens of Nashville were started and confounded by the intelligence, and by the announcement, said to have been made as the opinion of Gen. Johnston, that the gunboats would probably arrive in six hours, accompanied, as it was, by his expressed determination not to make a stand for the defense of the city. Large numbers of citizens had been drilling in companies and squads for several days, with the design of aiding the Confederate forces in making such defense as might be resolved on by the general commanding. They could now do nothing but fly from their homes or submit to the Federal despotism--virtual prisoners within the lines of the enemy, unable to write, speak, or act in any manner not in accordance with the will of their despotic enemies. Thousands chose the former alternative, however hard, and left their beautiful city, "fugitives, without a crime."

7th. I know nothing of the strength of Gen. Buell's army, now at Nashville, but I have heard it estimated, by persons from that vicinity, at 15,000 men.

8th. I do not think that Nashville could have been successfully defended after the surrender of Forts Henry and Donelson, in the incomplete state of the fortifications near the city, and with the rear and flank of Gen. Johnston's forces exposed, in consequence of the enemy having command of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. But I believe that those great disasters might have been prevented by energy and promptness; and, having occurred, that the enemy might have been checked in his advance by a proper demonstration.

No troops ever fought with more gallantry and endurance than the Confederate forces at Donelson, and I have been led to believe that moderate re-enforcements in season would have secured for them the fruits of their valor and patient sacrifices. An early attention to the fortifications on the Tennessee and Cumberland and greater enterprise in panning and perfecting them, I am satisfied, would have insured a different result.

9th. I learned from officers who were with the rear guard of our army at Bowling Green that large amounts of pork and some unopened boxes of Enfield rifles and Colt's navy pistols were left at that point, in consequence of the enemy shelling the town before they could be removed; but they were burned or otherwise destroyed, as best they could be, by Gen. Hardee. Less than $1,000,000, I was informed, would be the loss of stores at Nashville. Gen. Floyd and Col. Forrest exhibited extraordinary energy and efficiency in getting off Government stores at that point. Col. Forrest remained in the city about twenty-four hours, with only 40 men, after the arrival of the enemy at Edgefield. There officers were assisted by the voluntary efforts of several patriotic citizens of Nashville, who rendered them great assistance. Among these I remember Messrs. John Williams, J. J. McCann, H. L. Claiborne, and R. C. McNairy.

No. 8.

Memorandum of Col. W. W. Mackall, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.


GEN.: I heard you give the order to Gen. Floyd to take command of the city of Nashville. You said:

I give you command of the city. You will remove the stores. My only restriction is, do not fight a battle in the city.

W. W. MACKALL, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, pp. 424-433.



23, A boxing match and wagers in the Army of Tennessee then in winter camp in Tullahoma:


A pair of privates of the ____ Tennessee had a grudge, and one of them also [received] a newly arrived box of provision ‘from home.’ They resolved to fight for the latter in adjudication of the former. An hour was appointed, a vast assemblage collected, both entered the ring arranged, the combatants placed in position. Intense excitement; much gambling on the result; terrible odds. Do not be alarmed, I mean no description in detail....The battle was fought, the victory won, the box of provisions paid over when lo, a second champion appeared, and offered to eat the entire contents for ‘twenty five dollars Confed., or, in default of so doing to pay down to the owner, thereof, the handsome sum of one hundred ditto.’

The wager was accepted. Bets were again offered and taken. Excitement again resumed the sway. The box (hitherto mysteriously closed) was at length...[opened]. It contained the following articles of food: One turkey, two dozen eggs (boiled), one dozen biscuits, one pound of butter, six dried peach pies, one bottle of molasses, and six onions!

The wretch won his wager!

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, February 23, 1863



23, Skirmish at Calfkiller Creek

One account of the trouble at Calkfiller Creek tells of the cruel and inhuman treatment of Federal prisoners of war by Champ Ferguson and other guerrilla leaders in the vicinity, and the retribution taken by Stokes and the Fifth Cavalry on February 23, 1864. A detachment of the Fifth Tennessee Cavalry was attacked on Calfkiller Creek by a large force of guerrillas on the 22d, and a severe engagement followed. According to one rare Federal account:

Three or four soldiers were killed in the action, and nineteen others were taken prisoners and deliberately murdered after they had surrendered and given up their arms. The heads of some of the unfortunate prisoners were riddled with balls, one man receiving seven bullets. On the 23rd pickets of the 5th were attacked, and Wilcher, a vidette, a noble young soldier, captured, carried a short distance e and cruelly murdered. Colonel. Stokes, on hearing of the savage mode of warfare practiced by Champ Ferguson and other guerrilla chiefs, issued orders to take no prisoners. A desperate contest commenced , In which our loss was seven or eight killed and but a few wounded and that of the guerrillas not less than a hundred killed and a large number wounded. Captains Blackburn and Waters, in command of a detachment of the regiment, attacked Huhges and Ferguson on Calfkiller Creek, and on of the severest battles ensued, in which several were killed on both sides, Ferguson badly wounded and the guerrillas put to flight....This victory was won by Capt. Blackburn and his men.

Report of the Adjutant General, p. 442.

Excerpt from the journal of Amanda McDowell

I have just heard nine or ten big guns. It is the Yankees at Sparta. I fear they are fighting but they fired yesterday and were not fighting there, but there was a dreadful fight up the river yesterday. Our folks tell it that they killed 35 or 40 of the enemy and got two men wounded. They lay in wait for them and I fear killed them after they surrendered. But I do hope they did not do that....We are all dreadfully uneasy. Some of the neighbors started to town today to take the oath but, hearing that those that went to the speaking yesterday did not get back, they did not go. What a dreadful pass the country has come to! It is awful to think of men being slaughtered in such a style. The people are rejoicing to think that so many of the enemy are gone to their account. I can’t rejoice. I cannot be glad at any death, at any murder, and what is it but murder? I think I love my country, but if I had my way there would never be a single man killed.

Diary of Amanda McDowell, pp. 230-231.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Friday, February 22, 2013

2/22/2013 cwn

22, Celebrating George Washington's birthday in Federally occupied Nashville

February 23[1], Nashville

Today was the birth day of the great George Washington was [sic] celebrated with emence [sic] enthusiasm by the Soldiers and Cittizens [sic]  of Nashville: at Sun [sic] rise a national salute of thirty four ghuns were fiared [sic] from the State Capitol  and all the church bells mingled there [sic] silver live peals with the sound of the roaring cannon the military head quarters and many of [the] businesses and dwellings ware [sic] alive with the fluttering folds of the Star Spangled Banner at 11 o'clock [a] large processon [sic] of soldiers cittizens & refugees could be seen winding there [sic] way to the capital [sic] whare [sic] the celebration was to come off.

The large speakers [sic] hall crowds to overflowing and thousands ware [sic] and thousands weare compelled to remain outside the Service of the day ware [sic] opened  by music from the splendid brass band of the 8th Kansas Regt: then the glee club beautifully rendered the patriotic song of the red white  & blue which was received with rapturous applause & then followed a fervent prayr [sic] by the Rev. Dr. Huntington: Mayor Smith made a few eloquent remarks to a large assemblage of Ladies and Gentlemen present to prove that a large union element still existed in Nashville the declaration of independence [sic] was then read with good delivery by Lieutenant Sheriden of the Signal coprs then speeches interspersed [sic] with such strong [sic] fratrinite [sic] made ware [sic] delivivered by Parson Brownlow, Governor Crawford of Cansas [sic] & General Smith of Kentucky & Gordon Stokckes [sic] of Tennessee the speeches were frequently interrupted and shouts of tremendous applause [sic] Francer and myself was [sic] [there] about an hour [the] way trying to  the vast crowd up the winding [sic] stair the great hall [illegible] was [illegible]

John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.



22, Skirmish on Calfkiller River

Excerpt from the Report of John M. Hughs, on activities from January 1-April 18, 1864, relative to skirmish on Calfkiller River, February 22, 1864.

* * * *

On the 22d of February we met a party of "picked men" from the Fifth Tennessee (Yankee) Cavalry, under Capt. Exum. This party had refused to treat us as prisoners of war, and had murdered several of our men whom they had caught straggling from their command. The enemy numbered 110 men; my own force was about 60. The fighting on our part was severe in the extreme; men never fought with more desperation or gallantry. Forty-seven of the enemy were killed, 13 wounded, and 4 captured; our loss was 2 wounded.

* * * *

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 56.


The following report indicates a ruse de guerre on the part of Confederate guerrillas.

FEBRUARY 22, 1864--Skirmish on Calfkiller Creek, Tenn.

Report of Col. William B. Stokes, Fifth Tennessee Cavalry [Union].[2]

HDQRS. U. S. FORCES, Sparta, Tenn., February 24, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that I arrived at this place on the 18th instant with Companies A, B, G, I, K, and L, of the Fifth Tennessee Cavalry. I have occupied all of the deserted houses in the town with my men, barricaded the streets strongly, and fortified around my artillery. Since my arrival I have been engaged in scouring the country and foraging, the forage being very scarce and at some distance from the town. I have ascertained that the country is infested with a great number of rebel soldiers under Col.'s Hughs, Hamilton, Ferguson, Carter, and Bledsoe, the whole force being under Col. Hughs, a brave, vigilant, and energetic officer. There is little or no robbing being done by the guerrillas, their attention being directed toward my men. Col. Hughs' command is well armed, having secured the best of arms when on their raids into Kentucky. They number at least 600 fighting men.

On the 22d instant, two companies of my command of Hughs, Ferguson, Carter, and Bledsoe. After fighting some time they were surrounded and overwhelmed. The officers [6 in number] with 45 men have come in through the hills.

Yesterday Carter made a dash on one of my picket-posts. He had 6 of his men dressed in Federal uniform. The remainder were dressed in gray, and as those dressed in our uniform approached the vedettes they told them not to shoot, that the rebels were after them; and as those in gray appeared a few yards in the rear of those in blue hallowing to them to surrender the story appeared very plausible, and the ones in blue immediately rushed upon the reserve pickets. Four of my pickets were killed-3 after they had surrendered and the other after he had been captured. A great many of the rebels were dressed in our uniform at the time the two companies were attacked, and several of my men were killed after they were captured. Hughs himself does not allow this barbarity, but his subordinate officers practice it.

I have to fight for every ear of corn and blade of fodder I get.

Deserters from the rebel army are constantly joining Hughs. The people are thoroughly and decidedly disloyal, but a great many are taking the oath. The oath of allegiance has been found on the persons of several soldiers we have killed. The country is rocky and mountainous, and very had for cavalry to operate in. I have to fight rebel soldiers and citizens, the former carrying the arms and doing the open fighting; the latter, carrying news and ambushing.

Portions of Companies C, F, and H arrived to-day. The greater part of these companies remained at Nashville, being without horses. I earnestly urge that they be mounted as soon as possible, and ordered to report to me. Their services are needed very much here, and not at the city of Nashville. Horses are required to mount my men. There are no serviceable ones in the country, the rebels having taken all of them. The rebels are mounted on the fastest horses in the country, and they use them very much to our disadvantage. If all of my regiment were here and mounted, I would soon disperse the rebels. I again urge the necessity of mounting my entire regiment and ordering it to the field.

I respectfully ask that this communication be forwarded to department headquarters for the information of the general commanding.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

W. B. STOKES, Col. Fifth Tennessee Cavalry, Cmdg.

Capt. B. H. POLK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., District of Nashville.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 416-417.



22, Skirmish at Powell's Bridge

FEBRUARY 22, 1864.-Skirmishes at Gibson's and Wyerman's Mills, on Indian Creek, Va., and at Powell's Bridge, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. Theophilus T. Garrard, U. S. Army, commanding District of the Clinch.

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF THE CLINCH, Cumberland Gap, Tenn., February 24, 1864.

GEN.: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your dispatches of the 19th and 22d instant.

As I telegraphed on the 22d instant, the First Battalion, Eleventh Tennessee Cavalry, Lieut.-Col. Davis commanding, which was stationed at Wyerman's Mill, 5 miles east from the gap on the Jonesville road, was surprised at daylight that day, entirely surrounded....

Simultaneously with the surprise of Col. Davis' command the outpost at Powell's bridge, on Tazewell road, where I had 50 men of the Thirty-fourth Kentucky Infantry, in charge of Capt. Pickering, stationed at the block-house, was attacked by the enemy [a portion of Vaughn's command] three times, but without success. To prevent their being cut off, I moved Capt. Pickering, with his men, to within safe distance.

* * * *

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. T. GARRARD, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 411-412.


February 22.-Two companies of the Thirty fourth Kentucky infantry (A and I) were engaged in a hand-to-hand encounter of about four hours duration, [added] against superior numbers of the enemy. The rebels about five hundred strong, attacked them at Powell's River Bridge, Tenn., as six o'clock A.M., and after making four separate charges on the bridge, which were gallantly met and repulsed, the rebels were driven from their position and compelled to retreat in disorder, leaving horses, saddles, arms, etc., on the field. They took most of their dead and wounded with them.

There were a great many daring acts of bravery committed; but as the whole affair is one of the most brilliant of the war, it would be almost impossible to make any distinction. There is one, however, that is well worth recording. The attack was made by infantry, while the cavalry prepared for a charge. The cavalry was soon in line and moving on the bridge; on they came in a steady, solid column, covered by the fire of their infantry. In a moment the Nationals saw their perilous position, and Lieutenant Slater called for a volunteer to tear up the boards to prevent them crossing. There was some hesitation, and in a moment all would have been lost, had not one William Goss (company clerk of company I) leaped from the intrenchmetns, and, running to the bridge under the fire of about four hundred guns, threw ten boards off into the river and returned unhurt. This prevented the capture of the whole force.-Louisville Journal.

Rebellion Record, Vol. 8, p. 46.



22, Confederate censure of Federal martial government in Memphis

Military Rule in Memphis.

The Memphis Bulletin, of the 21st ult., contains a batch of orders from the new commander, for the government of the oppressed people of East [sic] [i.e. West] Tennessee.

The order for a more general enrollment in the militia is to be vigorously enforced; and heavy penalties are imposed upon the United State officers as well as the citizens. The former are pointedly directed to "not connive at the shirking from duty on the part of wealthy, influential or socially agreeable citizens." This will no doubt stop "wine-bibbing" by Yankee officials, at the expense of other people, and the "socially agreeable" Shirkers will have to try some other dodge.

A second order prohibits any person from entering the city, except upon other of the following roads: the Horne Lake, the Hernando road, the State line road, or the new Raleigh road.

President's island, a short distance below the city, by another order, is seized and set apart for the negroes, to be under the control of the "general superintendent of freedmen." The white residents were ordered to leave by the 1st instant.

For the purpose of raising a fund to defray the expenses of the militia, another order levies a tax on the cotton and tobacco speculators. This is comprehensive: "all cotton now in Memphis, or that may be brought into the port of Memphis, shall pay a tax of two dollars on each bale; and all tobacco of one dollar on each hogshead."

A "circular" also appears, from the same authority, of so grave (?) [sic] a character that we give it entire:


Memphis Tenn., Dec. 19, 1864.[3]

There is a troublesome class of persons within this department who, without any well grounded pretensions to legal attainments, assume the name of attorney, and on some frivolous pretext or other, for their own account or for that of some victimized client whose case they voluntarily agree to take charge of are constantly vexing the department at Washington, or the headquarters of the military division, by verbose petitions and complaints against the inconvenience brought on their petty private interest by necessary and just military restrictions, or by prayers for relief from well merited punishment.

This description of pests have tried rebellion, have failed, and having cloaked themselves under a too liberal administration of the amnesty oath, are now busy in troubling the Government in other ways, and they are now cautioned, once for all, that in the future, if they have any business so to trouble public functions with, they will send it to through the nearest post headquarters to these headquarters, from whence, if too frivolous to forward, it can be returned, and they and all citizens residing or doing business in this department, are admonished that if they are detected in disregarding the requirement, they will be granted the opportunity of travelling beyond the limits of this department to present their business in person, with permission not to return during the war.

By order of Major General N. J. T. Dana

T. H. Harris, A. A .Gen.

[A response]

This is rather contemptuous to the legal fraternity, and is reported to have cause much swearing not provided for by statute. The brethren cared but little for the restrictions they were placed under, as these they placed under, as these were expected to find means to evade; but to be officially classed as "a troublesome class of persons," "without any well ground pretension to legal attainments," "pests," etc., was the rub. We could have enjoyed a glimpse at the crest-fallen countenances of some who Dana thus spotted, beyond a doubt.

Several parties recently from Memphis inform us that the tyranny of the military rule practiced there is felt by every citizen, with bug very few exceptions. Detectives intrude themselves into every corner, and no one dares to criticize the course of the tyrants. Even the privacy of the family circle is invaded by the paid spies who throng the city;. No business is transacted except under the supervision of government officials. The municipal government has been made utterly subservient to the military, the social condition of the city has greatly depreciated, and the old residents are restless under the yoke imposed upon them. In Memphis, as completely as anywhere else, the worse [sic] kind of tyranny now rules, and will rule, until the self constituted masters are driven out. Heaven grant a speedy deliverance.


Houston Tri-Weekly, February 22, 1865

[1] Fergusson was writing his account the day after Washington's birthday, the 22nd.

[2] See also Col. Hughs' report of operations in Middle Tennessee, January 1-April 18, 1864, attached above.

[3] This order is not referenced in the OR.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX