Sunday, August 26, 2012

August 24 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

24, Patriotic Secessionist Sacrifice at Mary Sharp College Graduation 
Home Spun at the Mary Sharp [College].
It has already been mentioned in the Baptist that the Graduating Class of the Mary Sharp College appeared and read their Essays in home made cotton dresses. This was a pleasant surprise to most of the Trustees as well as the strangers present. It was designed to be emblematical of the intention of these young women to make themselves all that the present condition of our country may require her daughters to be. We have since heard of some of these graduates appearing at church in the same humble but most becoming garb, where it elicited the earnest admiration of the right thinking of the other sex.
After the exercises at the Examination were over, and most of the pupils and their friends had gone, the subject of introducing the Cottonade dress as the School uniform, in winter, until the war is over, was much talked of among some of the Trustees and the remaining teachers. It was suggested that a bolt of cotton goods of the best quality, and of such pattern and colors as the lady teachers should agree upon should be ordered from some of our own factories, and kept at the College for the supply of the girls—to be furnished to them at cost. They could thus be all dressed alike, and hence all temptation to extravagance would be removed. The dress would be uniform in thickness and fashion, and hence none of those "bad colds" which come from changing from thick to thin dresses, from close to open sleeves, etc. It would furnish a warm and comfortable garment not easily torn or readily soiled, and would comport better than lighter material with the strong shoes which school girls should always wear. The teachers with whom we conversed were more than willing to adopt it for themselves as well as encourage its adoption by the pupils.
The trustees have not adopted it as the uniform of the College by any formal vote, but we are sure there is not one that would not gladly see it introduced by the voluntary action of parents, teachers and pupils. We have heard of some pupils who are determined to wear it at all events. Can it not be a general thing? Will not the President of the Mary Sharp give some public intimation of what would be desirable in this time of our trouble. Will not the friends and patrons of the school prepare in time for the coming session, and advise those who are in Winchester to order the goods and have them in readiness.
One of the Trustees. 
Tennessee Baptist, August 24, 1861.[1]

[1] As cited in:

24, “The Ball Game.”
The lovers of the healthful and graceful game of Billiards will be pleased to hear that Fred. Myers has leased the El Dorado Billiard Saloon, on the corner of Second and Jefferson streets.
During his temporary absence in Cincinnati, Fred. Has been measuring his skill against that of Phil. Tieman, and other knights of the cue, and certainly upheld the reputation of Memphis most magnificently, making the largest runs made in the arduous games he played. His many admirers and friends will, doubtless, throng the favorite sale aux billiards [sic] one more, now that he resumes its management. It has been frequently asked why [sic] Meyers manages a billiard room than anybody else. “It takes a blacksmith to make a horseshoe,” which might be rendered: it takes a billiard player to please billiard players.
Memphis Union Appeal, August 24, 1862.

24, “For the Ladies.”
Our lady friends will, no doubt, be glad to learn that W. C. Potter, No. 65 Jefferson street, has just received a large supply of Hermstreet's Hair Restorative, Mrs. Winslow’s Soothing Syrup, Lubin’s Premium Extracts, and a very extensive assortment of Toilet Articles and fancy Goods. Potter is certainly one of the most popular merchants of the city. His Feather Dusters are so elegant that the ladies are purchasing rapidly out of his varied assortment.
Memphis Union Appeal, August 24, 1862.

24, “The Blacks in Arms.”
No [portion?] of [the population?] as implicitly credited the [rumor?] yesterday, that Forrest was about to attack Memphis, as our colored population. As one of them expressed it, ”Our time is come dis day;” and believing that in case of an assault on Memphis they would be in particular and extreme peril, they became greatly excited but their excitement was marked by extraordinary readiness to fight. Many rushed to the armories, the hospitals, the fort, and wherever there seems a chance to get hold of guns and ammunition. One officer gave out to these patriotic and belligerent blacks over a thousand guns; and there is no doubt that if there had been a chance the blacks would with alacrity have face Forrest’s men who have already have a most unwholesome dread of negro soldiers.

Memphis Bulletin, August 24, 1864.

Thursday, August 23, 2012

August 23 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

23, “The Concert;” a benefit in Clarksville for sick Confederate soldiers
The concert, given on Tuesday-evening by the ladies of this city, for the benefit of the sick soldiers at Camp Boone (KY), and elsewhere was a decided success. The large hall of the Female Academy was filled at an early hour, with an audience in which the female persuasion largely predominated, and which, under the brilliant gals-light, presented a magnificent coup d’oeil. Clarksville may justly feel proud of being able to muster such an audience, as graced that hall, on this occasion. As to the young ladies who so generously volunteered their talent for the noble object in views, -- they formed a galaxy of resplendent  beauties; and it was well remarked, by a connoisseur  in such matters of female loveliness, that another bevy, so perfectly unexceptional in personelle ], could scarcely be found, even in Tennessee. This may be truly said of them, en tout , and as truly may we say that two or three of them were nature’s perfection, in her happiest moments of creating the beautiful! -- But to the concert. We feel much more at home in a critique of live beauty, than of intricate music; and it is certainly a far pleasanter theme, -- but as it was generally believed that there was “a chief among them taking notes,” and, too that he was print ‘em [sic] -- we must not entirely disappoint that expectation however poorly we may fill it. So, now, a word or two about the music.
The opening chorus -- “Cheer, Boys, Cheer!" -- was given by a party of gentlemen from Camp Boone, with piano accompaniment, and this was followed by a piano solo by Mr. Wetherell of Memphis, which was executed very finely.
The first on, on the porgramme, was the Valley of Camous, by Mrs. G____k, but for some reason or other she substituted another in place to it. This Mrs. G. sang in a fine manner, though did not appear to us to be in much voice on this occasion, as she is known to possess.
After this came a duett [sic] by Miss [illegible]....
* * * * 
Another piano solo by Mr. Wetherell, and then a duet by Mrs. A_____k and her sister Mrs. G_____k. This latter piece was finely sung and the audience testified their gratification in loud applause.
Following this was La Manole [?] Miss Marion S_____t, a piece of more than ordinary difficulty, yet which she sang with an ease and grace which surprised, almost as much as they pleased, those who heard it. Another storm of applause, and rain of flowers, met the blushing young cantatrice, as she retired from the stage. Part first of the entertainment was concluded by a brilliant quartette which fairly bought down the house; ;and, after a recess of some fifteen minutes, --
Part second was opened, by Mr. Wetherell, with beautiful piece of dream music -- magic Bells [sic]. In his rendering of this piece, Mr. W. displayed high cultivation and skill, as a pianist, and won grateful acknowledgment from the audience of the pleasure he had afforded them. The second item of part two was -- “I’ve left my snow-clad hills a song by Miss Nannie G____d; who, though suffering from a cold, which made her somewhat hoarse, sand it smoothly; and the popular taste for simple ballad music was amply testified in the reception of this song. Number three was a duett -- “All things are beautiful” [sic] -- sung by Misses Mary and Julliet McD_____l. Both of these young ladies have a fine voice, and sing well, but when two are united, and blend in that remarkable harmony, of which they are capable, the effect is doubly pleasing. In this duett they took the house by storm, and when it was concluded, a persistent and irresistable encore  impelled them to reappear, when they sang, with happy adaptation to the moment, a pretty goodnight song. This was followed by a song by Mrs. A____k, which she had substituted for the Southern Marsaillaise , which was on the programme, much to the disappointment of the audience who were anxious to hear the latter. They were in no humor to pout, though, after they heard the song.
One of the decidedly noticeable features of the evening followed, not, in the execution, by Miss Eunice D_____s, of Nashville, of a most brilliant and difficult piece, on the piano -- a kind of fantasia, full of beauty and harmony and melody; now soft and gentle, then wild and thrilling -- a piece certainly not to be attempted by any ‘prentice [sic] hand. It Ws a piece of brilliant execution, and though played without notes, if there was any skip or slip in it, we failed to detect it. It elicited most rapturous applause.
The next piece was a selection from Traviata -- Je suis sauve enfinne -- sung by Mrs. C____n. The singular power and fine cultivation of this lady’s voice were so well known in musical circle, here, that the audience were prepared to expect a rich treat in her singing, and they were not disappointed. The case with which she compassed the highest notes, the wonderful command of voice that was displayed, and its melody, all combined to astonish, and to charm. Such indeed are Mrs. G’s powers, as a vocalist, that she would win merited applause before any audience -- even the most critical.
Following this rich morceau  was a piece to our liking; -- a piece perhaps better appreciated than any other on the programme. It was “The Minute Gun at Sea,” sung by Misses Nannie and Bettie G_____d. It is a favorite with us. True it’s an old piece, but like wine and friends it’s all the better for that. It was long since we had heard the old familiar strains, and they touched chords in our heart that that not vibrated in years. They led us back to day when we listened to music with less care upon our hearts than weighs there now, and when we hung upon the music of lips whose strains now are those of angels! Memories so blessed are not wakened often in life, -- but, when they are, like ripples on a wave of ocean, they stretch away to an eternal shore.
The singing of this duett was very fine; the blending of the two sweet voices, in the touching strains, the imagery of the storm, and the wrecked ship, and the distant solemn booming of the ‘minute gun at sea” -- all come home to the heart of every listener, in the plain English of feeling [sic]. It needed not the flowers that fell at the fair sisters’ feet, at the close of the song, to tell how well they had done -- how much they had pleased. A better testimony was in the [illegible]....
The last piece on the programme was another aria from Traviata -- Sempre Libre -- a composition evidently involving a severe test of the vocal powers, and requiring extraordinary capacity both in compass and command of voice. It was sung by Miss Marion S____t, and her execution of it, we believe, was faultless -- wonderful it certainly was, for one young as she ill. She may well feel proud of such a success, and of the natural endowment, and added cultivation that enabled her to accomplish it.
We can add but a few words now. The entire Concert was worthy of all praise -- all did well -- the gentlemen none the less [sic] because we have said so little of them. Our only regret is that such entertainments can not be more frequently enjoyed.
Clarksville Chronicle, August 23, 1861.

August 23, 1862,  The Tennessee Trots
Tennessee Quickstep. – This rapid and highly exhiliarating [sic] movement has a peculiar feature, that is, it is a very great deal easier to commence than to leave off. We have seen many instances, and many respectable army Surgeon can testify to the same, of individuals beginning who never ceased going through the mystic evolutions until it was found necessary to confine them in a wooden straight-jacket. To any who are desirous of instituting experiments as to their powers of performance and endurance in this peculiar exercise, not laid down in Scott, Hardee or McClellan’s Tactics, we will give a receipt, believed to be infallible. Take unripe apples, peaches, very green corn, pears, young cucumbers &c., eat heartily whenever you feel like it, with plenty of sour beer, milk &c.; to wash it down, and your success is almost certain. A heavy dose may produce Cholera-Morbus, or colic, when you can have music for your marching. Try it o­nce, skeptic.
Soldier's Budget [Humboldt], August 23, 1862.

23, “Our town is now a wreck.” A fire in Pulaski.
On the night of the 20th, I was aroused from slumber, by the cry of fire, & upon rushing into the street I saw the flames shooting forth from the top of Mrs. Wosely’s Hotel. I addressed the Sentinel in front of my door & inquired if he knew the origin of the fire, when he replies, “we suspect the confederates have fired it to make a light to fight us by” – I said, seeing the stillness which pervaded the streets & the total desertion of these streets, “why is it that there is no attempt being made to arrest the flames?” Said he, “we have orders to stand to our posts ready for the approach of the enemy, consequently we can render no assistance.” The citizens were fearful of arrest for some time if they attempted to even go to the fire, however, in a short time the fire became so terrific that ladies flocked to see it, then the gentlemen became desperate & determined to do all in their power to save the business houses. Mr. Martine made every effort by working his little [fire] engine & by urging lookers on to work diligently, but their efforts were of no avail. The block was consumed except Mr. Luther McCord’s house. By constant efforts he saved his house which fortunate circumstance has given all his friends great pleasure. He is a worthy young man & a favorite. Entreaties were of no avail in getting the negroes  to work, very few offering to work as to carry water, consequently Mrs. Carter’s cistern was emptied of water. Great indignation was felt toward the negro population, seeing their utter indifference in regard to the unfortunate fire. Twenty-one houses were consumed & 14 men thrown out of employment. Our town is now a wreck. What will be the feelings of our brave – hearted Southerners, whose homes are in this town & country, when they return & witness the works of a hostile foe in our midst. Do not think I mean to accuse the soldiery directly, perhaps I’d be wrong, but indirectly I think they are to blame by allowing negros [sic] to go where they please by deterring white men from even going from house to house within the corporation. If a negro  wished to avenge himself for any wrong he had (by the license allowed him) every chance. Citizens have appealed to the Provost Martial [sic] of the garrison now in command being two companies of Jewell’s Regiment to enforce orders in regard to the negros  prowling at night, which I trust will prevent further conflagrations. He has issue d them but whether subordinates will obey strictly his injunction I cannot tell. They are in power, we are their slaves. Giles County subjugated by 160 Pennsylvanians! Think of it & see how our hopes have been blighted in regard to the Southern Confederacy retaining Tennessee! The Cotton states are free from invasion but we have the reality to taste. Now I cannot see how we are to be relieved. We are shut in from communication with any section of country, even from the country & of course we have everything to depress us. Then in addition to immediate surrounding the confiscation act will sweep over us on the 25th of September, taking from us all our means of support. The men who are at home will take the Oath [sic] of allegiance to the United States to save their property, the men in the Southern Army will have to fight for theirs if they get it. The wives & children of those in the Army will have to suffer intensely  – deprived of every means of support & their husbands sworn to serve the Confederacy. The men will have to come home and see their children begging bread. The picture is dark, & if things present  now, I cannot find a ray to lighten it. Hopeful ones say all will right soon, while those less sanguine believe the worst must come. God help us & save us from utter destruction.
Diary of Martha Abernathy.

Wednesday, August 22, 2012

August 22 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

22, Federal foraging depredations in Jasper environs
Aug 22nd sunrise this morning found us scattered over the cornfields and orchards adjacent Jasper in search of anything nourishing to the inner man, such as roasting ears, peachiness, apples, &c. Jasper is a very gloomy looking prospect for a town, and especially a County Seat; the buildings are most brick, but generally in a state of dilapidation. About 11 o'clock A.M. our whole force composed of Crittenden’s and McCook’s Divisions, left Jasper and marched off in a northeasterly direction on [Gizzard] Road and traveled till about 1 o'clock P.M. our regiment being in the advance. We then halted and went into camp and the remainder of the day was principally consumed in passing the long supply trains to the front. One circumstance occurred after our halt and as it was the first of the kind I was ever witnessed I think it deserves special mention -- It was the shameful pillaging of a house within the precincts of the camp.  A bunch of straggling vagabonds, after having taken everything in the yard and garden afforded went into the house and searched through the whole hose, carrying off anything they could find that suited them. Despite the entreaties of a tender little girl they busted bureaus containing clothing, table ware, and anything they had no use for, and carried of the contents -- torn down ladies ward robes and carried off any and all that suited them, and what they could not carry off, they destroyed.
It was the first and I think the most blamable piece of robbery I ever saw committed -- and the greatest cause for dissatisfaction I ever had with our Guards was the attention I necessarily give to carelessness they generally exhibited in regard to this certain class of thieves who had crept into blue uniform, and were servings as soldiers, but who were daily committing deeds that would disgrace the humblest convict in “Sing Sing.” There seemed to be a charm about them as they turned out to stealing, and when provosts would charge upon a body of offenders, they were sure to escape.
Boy in Blue, pp. 88-89.*
*Ed. note - A Southern Boy in Blue: The Memoir of Marcus Woodcock, 9th Kentucky Infantry (U.S.A.), ed. Kenneth W. Noe (Knoxville: UT Press, 1996)

22, Federal occupation of Sparta begins
McMINNVILLE, August 27, 1862.
Maj.-Gen. BUELL, Decherd:
GEN.: I send you a letter, brought in last night by one of our soldiers, who was captured at Sparta on last Friday [22d]. He says he picked Capt. McMillin's pocket and found the letter, and soon after made his escape....
* * * * 
Respectfully, &c.,
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.
CAMP NEAR SPARTA, TENN., August 25, 1862.
DEAR COUSIN: I have an opportunity to drop you a few lines by a prisoner that I caught near Sparta 22d ultimo.
* * * * 
The Yankees are occupying Sparta at present, having moved up last night. We have two generals in the neighborhood looking out and reconnoitering, but who they are I am not at liberty to tell.
* * * * 
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, pp. 433-434.

August 22, 1862
Confederate Manner of Guerrilla Recruitment in Tennessee

New Southern Mode of Enlistment.
In Shelby and other counties of Tennessee, the rebel authorities have hit upon the honorable plan of enlisting men for home duty, giving the following interpretation and definition of that duty. The recruit is regularly sworn but not uniformed, mustered into service, but detailed to special duty o­n his own farm to act in concert with his neighbors similarly enrolled and detailed. When these bucolic legionnaires see a chance to shoot a picket, burn a bridge or run out a Union man, they remember they are soldiers of the Confederate States Army, or Confederate Stealing Association and do the job. When a Federal detachment comes along to hunt the rebels, the “soldiers” remember they are farmers, and come to the office with demands for protection or answer all inquiries with – “don’t know a thing about it.” Now this may be a very convenient thing for the framers, but it is rather exasperating to the detachment of undisguised solders of the nation; and gives them a clear and palpable right to treat such men as their crimes deserve. Our troops are fast discovering the guile and seeing through the flimsy veil; and for the sake of humanity and justice we do trust they will treat such men as their duplicity, cowardice and crimes deserve.
Where lurk guerrillas long, there the people are their coadjutors and deserve the punishment due to all accessories to crime.
Memphis Union Appeal, August 22, 1862

 “Negro Soldiers in Tennessee.”
The Decherd correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette writes:
A few days ago an order was issued from department headquarters at Winchester, ordering the immediate organization of the negroes [sic] in the army into regiments, to be armed and equipped and mustered into the service.  This work is now being done as rapidly as possible, and will shortly have about seven or eight regiments of contrabands in the field. At Nashville two regiments are being organized out of the men who have been for two years at work o­n the defenses of that city. About 1800 men have thus been mustered into service at Nashville, and o­ne or two parades have been had. Here at the front the regiments are yet skeletons, but are rapidly growing to be strong and important reinforcements to this army.  All contrabands in the army not personal servants of officers, are being gathered together for these regiments. The men go in willingly. There is no necessity for impressing them.
These negroes will fight much more willingly for the Union than they would for King Isham.*
Nashville Daily Union, August 22, 1863
*Meaning Isham Harris, the Confederate governor of Tennessee.

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

August 21 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

Weary citizens, overcome with heat, hard work, the last official war report, the weak tea drunk just before going to bed, find their hopes of sleep are vain. Open windows give entrance to the cooling night breeze; closed lace curtain keep from intrusion the musical mosquito bent on wounds and blood - but what shutters, bolts, locks, or designs of ingenious man can shout out the ceaseless bow-wow-wow, the howls the yells, the sleep destroying cries of countless dogs? "Soon as the evening shades prevail" the din begins. Barks no druggist's skill can resolve into healing tinctures or sublimate to strong but silent emences [?] - yells in every key, your shrieking contralto to the growling bars :making it hideous." Crying babies sometimes sleep, and scolding wives in the course of passing hours cease their curtain themes, but the dogs, the baying yelping babel-bawling dogs, never give up. While stars look out and night's dark curtain veils the scene, with voice vociferous and unwearying lungs the canine quadruped's curse drives from the couch life's gentle solace - sleep. In vain are pistols fired, and missiles thrown with curses deep and dire! The skulking herd, with drooping tail and cunning crawl, are off - off where no pebble, stick, or shot can reach, but not off to silence - still the bow-wow-wow goes on unending When comes the calm, no more is heard the angry dash the roaring of unchained winds, not deafening crash of fear - inspiring thunder - the echoing peal of the fading avalanche hurdling down the mountain side - the bellowing fury of the volcanoes' wrath have limit and an end; but the row, the racket, the fierce, sleep-destroying howl and y ell and bark of Memphian dogs, for nights unending, unmarked by stoppage or interval, banish balmy sleep. Not more constant was sweet Philomel, "who all night long her amorous descant sung" than is the canine curse. A flaming sword that every way showed its glittering edge, kept man from paradise, so noisy, deafening dogs keep Memphis citizens from the heaven of speed. Death to the dogs - that is the slogan of the coming war upon the nightly enemy. By shot or poisoning arsenic, quick death must be the fate of our relentless foes. Death to the dogs, death to the brute destroyers of our nightly rest. Death! death! no less will satiate our...revenge or curse the canine crowd we're cursed with.
Memphis Bulletin, August 21, 1862.

21, “With the few left I remained and held the enemy in check long enough to enable the greater portion of my command to ford the river, but finally, being completely surrounded by overwhelming numbers, I was compelled to surrender.”  Action and surrender of U.S. cavalry o­n the Hartsville Road. 
Report of Brig. Gen. Richard W. Johnson, U. S. Army, of action August 21.
HARTSVILLE, TENN., August 22, 1862
I have the honor to report that o­n the 11th instant I left McMinnville, Tenn., in command of three regiments of infantry, o­ne battery of artillery, and 640 cavalry, taken from the Second Indiana, Lieut. Col. Stewart; Fourth Kentucky, Capt. Chilson; Fifth Kentucky, Maj. Winfrey, and Seventh Pennsylvania, Col. Wynkoop. With this force I marched to Smithville, where I was joined by two additional regiments of infantry. With this command I proceeded to Liberty. Here I received an order recalling my infantry and artillery, and I sent them back to McMinnville.
Hearing that the enemy, under Col. Morgan, was encamped in an old field, in the angle formed by the Cumberland and Caney Fork, with my cavalry I marched to the designated, and found that I had been incorrectly informed, but was told that the force had left for Kentucky. I determined to return to Liberty, thence to Cookville, and await their return.
On my arrival at Cookville [sic] I received reliable information to the effect that the enemy was encamped in or near Hartsville, and I took up the march for that place; but o­n reaching it found that he had left the evening before, going in the direction of Gallatin. I took possession of his old camp, captured several prisoners, a number of wagons, mules, horses, &c., which had been taken from Col. Boone's command.
At this place I heard of the approach of Forrest in my rear, and decided upon uniting my force to the o­ne in Gallatin, for the purpose of resisting an attack from the combined forces of Forrest and Morgan; but o­n my approach to Gallatin I found that it was in the possession of Morgan's forces, which I was satisfied did not exceed 800 men. I immediately ordered an attack. Lieut.-Col. Stewart and Maj. Winfrey, gallantly leading the charge of their respective regiments, threw their whole strength against the enemy with terrible effect. Col. Wynkoop and Capt. Chilson also brought their commands handsomely into action, and for some time the conflict seemed to progress finely for us. Soon some horses were wounded, riders killed, and confusion began to appear. Regimental and company organizations were lost, and without any apparent cause at least half of my command precipitately fled, throwing away their arms, &c. Many of the men, after getting a thousand yards from the enemy, wildly discharged their revolvers in the air. I sent back a staff officer to rally them, but they could not be induced to reappear o­n the field. Seeing my advance wavering, I ordered a retreat and tried to rally them behind a hedge and fence, but as soon as the firing became general the whole line gave way. I tried to get them to stand at several different points with the same result. Finally, seeing that I could get them to fight no longer, I ordered a retreat, and marched to the rear about 3 miles, and undertook to reform them.
While reforming, seeing that I was not pursued, I sent in a flag of truce and asked that I might be allowed to bury the dead, but was informed that the dead were being buried, and I was requested to surrender, men and officers being promised their paroles. This request I declined.
Being well satisfied that my men would stand no longer I took up the line of march for Cairo, o­n the Cumberland, hoping to be able to take a strong position o­n the river and hold it; but my rear being hotly pressed I formed line of battle with the Second Indiana and Fifth Kentucky and made my arrangements to fight o­n foot. Soon the firing became brisk, and my line of battle broke and the men fled in every direction, leaving o­nly about 75 o­n the ground.
Seeing Lieut.-Col. Stewart and Maj. Winfrey I asked them if they thought it possible for them to rally their men, and they replied that they could not, and that a surrender of the few left was all that could be done. Lieut.-Col. Stewart made his escape.
With the few left I remained and held the enemy in check long enough to enable the greater portion of my command to ford the river, but finally, being completely surrounded by overwhelming numbers, I was compelled to surrender.
I regret to report that the conduct of the officers and men as a general thing was shameful in the lowest degree, and the greater portion of those who escaped will remember that they did so shamefully abandoning their general o­n the battle-field, while if they had remained like true and brave men the result of this conflict would have been quite different.
I turn form the mortifying recollection of their action to mention the names of those whose conduct was meritorious in the highest degree. My assistant adjutant-general, Capt. W. C. Turner, exhibited the same cool courage which characterized his conduct o­n the field of Shiloh. Lieut. Hill, Second Indiana Cavalry, and acting aide-de-camp, was of great service to me, and proved himself a man of courage. Adjutant Wynkoop, when his regiment became disorganized, joined me, and his gallantry and courage were conspicuous. He was killed at my side assisting me to rally the troops. Lieut.-Col. Stewart, commanding the Second Indiana, was foremost in the charge, and exhibited great coolness and courage. Capt. Leabo, Second Indiana, had command of four companies of his regiment and handled them well, but was taken prisoner early in the action. Capt. Starr, with his company (C), did good execution. Maj. Winfrey, Capt. Duncan and his company, Lieut.'s Cambell and Cheek, and Capt. Carter and his company, all of the Fifth Kentucky, behaved well, and managed their troops with skill and proved themselves gallant men.
My loss was 30 killed, 50 wounded, and 75 taken prisoners. About 200 horses were killed or disabled in this action.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
R. W. JOHNSON, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. I, pp. 871-873

Reflections on reading the proclamation of President Davis, for August 21, 1863, relative to setting that day apart for fasting, humiliation and prayer.

Ora et labora! The Lord commanded “that all men, everywhere should pray lifting up holy hands.”

Let us Pray

Our Father, who art in heaven,
Hallowed be they name,
Grant all our sins may be forgiven,
While we thy love proclaim,
Thy Kingdom come. Thy will be done,
In heaven, earth and air
While all they people, everyone,
Bow down in humble prayer.

Here Lord, we fast, and pray to thee
Obedient to thy will: -- 
Fall prostrate on the bended knee,
and plead for mercy still;
We all acknowledge, we have stayed,
And wandered far from God;
That Thou hast on this nation laid,
They mighty chast’ning rod.

Great God on high; to Thee we call,
Thou giver of all good;
Lord pardon and forgive us all,
And stop the flow of blood,
That’s flowing from the nations [sic] heart,
Through every bleeding pore;
And drenching earth in every part,
On mountain, sea, and shore.

Have mercy Lord, and heal the wounds,
Or soon we’ll faint and fall;
Deprived of strength with fetters bound,
All driven to the wall;
No more to rise the light to see,
Of freedom’s better days;
When all our fathers once were free
And sung thy glorious praise.

Destructive war is all the theme,
Of those that pant for fame
Napoleon like they never dreamed
That Thou art God, the same
That ruled the nations of the world,
In ages past as now;
Dethroning tyrants - downward hurled,
That ne’er to Thee would bow.

Remember Lord the Orphan’s cry,
And hear the widow’s prayer;
Have pity on the sick that lie,
Left wounded everywhere.
Lord Thou knowest what they need.
Have mercy on them all;
And answer prayers, while millions plead,
And save us great and small.

Lord God with humble hearts we bow,
To pray and plead with thee;
O! Lord have mercy; on us now,
And set the nation free,
And give us peace with all mankind,
And cause the world to know
That thou art God, with mercy kind,
That governs all below
WPA Civil War Records, Vol. 2, pp. 70-71.
*Ed. note - the identity of the poet is otherwise unknown.

Monday, August 20, 2012

August 20 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

20, Federal confiscation of private property and a change in the traditional relationship between slave and master, observations of one Madison County slave owner
….Negroes have everything in their own hands and they know it, surrounded and protected as they are by Federal soldiers. As many as see proper can walk of & there is no remedy.  We have to submit to any and everything. The Federals seem to think the property of the Rebels or Secesh as they term us, belongs to them & act accordingly. If horses or mules are wanted they go and get them. Peace how sweet! War how opposite!
Robert H. Cartmell Diary, August 20, 1862.

20, “Those Holes on the Levee.”
We once heard our city fathers talk about having those holes down on the levee filled up, and we understood them to say that a resolution was passed to have the work done. Weeks have passed away to the “dreamless by-gone time,” and yet the holes yawn their huge jaws just as they used to do so. But, to be serious, there is a very ugly rent in the levee at the foot of Adams street some ten yard long and five or six wide. The stone sewer pipe is all falling in and breaking. It cost the city money; and beside this, the bowlders [sic] used in paving the wharf are falling into the abyss and burying themselves in the mud. Can’t the thing be remedied?
Memphis Bulletin, August 20, 1863. 

20, “Arrest of a Modern Jack Sheppard.”
We have before alluded to the arrest of the fellow Brock in the Square on last Monday night. Since then we have take the trouble to inquire into his case, in order to find out every particular connected with that arrest. The result of our inquires was the unraveling of some three months of the life of a modern Jack Sheppard. Some three months ago a fellow calling himself John Brooke, was arrested as a deserter from the 8th Mo. Volunteer infantry, and placed in confinement in the Irving Block. Brooke only remained a few weeks in prison until he effected his escape by blacking himself and passing out, plate in hand, the sentinel supposing him to be one of the negro cooks, who were then permitted to pass in and carry victuals to the prisoners.
The next day, however, he was again arrested and recommitted to prison. This time his chances of escape were greatly lessened, by his being manacled. Here he remained some days, until he was went to the fort, where his liberty was still limited to a narrow cell, with his ball and chain to keep him company. He remained for a short time at the fort, when, with a squad of others, he was sent to the landing for the purpose of embarking for his regiment. When the officer in charge read the names of those to sent off, Brock did not answer to his name! When asked if he was not one of them, he replied in the negative, saying that he had just happened to wander down there, and that he thought he would stop and see what was going on. He then turned and went away. On that very same evening he got into a hack where a gentleman was seated. The gentleman was going out to the eastern portion of the city. The fellow, of course, made no objection to raveling the same way, as he said he was on his way to camp. When the hack had gone as far as the gentleman wished to go, he got out, and was followed by Brock, who immediately presented a pistol and demanded his money. Of course, the gentleman had no other resource left him, but to “shell out the greenbacks.” Some how [sic] or other, some of the city police force got on his track, and arrested him. He was brought to the Station house and Lieut. Morris, of the Irving military prison, was sent for. The Lieutenant recognized him as being one of the prisoners, and had him brought to his old quarters in the Irving Block, where he was heavily ironed, to prevent the possibility of an escape. There he was kept about six weeks, when he was a second time sent to the fort.
The gentleman who had been robbed having left the city, and there being no one left to testify against him, he was about to be sent under guard to his regiment to he tried for the crime of desertion. At the fort he only remain three days when he again broke loose. This was on Monday [17th], about 5 o'clock in the evening. About 10 or 11 o'clock on the same evening, one of the attaches of the Provost Marshal’s office became cognizant of his whereabouts, and procuring the assistance of two of the patrol guards belonging to the 25th Indiana, proceeded to the place where he had ensconced himself which was a house of ill-fame near Washington street and Front Row. They found him, arrested him, and were proceeding to the Irving Block. When near the corner of Main and Jefferson streets he made a bold attempt to get away from his captors by running. Several shots were fired after him without effect. He ran down Jefferson street to the alley between Main and Second streets -- reached Court Square, the gates of which were locked -- bounded over the fence, and ran to the Southeast corner of the square where he dropped down under a thick bushy evergreen. Here no doubt he supposed he was safe from further pursuit by the guard, but he was mistaken, for by this time the alarm was spread and the Square literally surrounded by armed men. Some person in the rooms of the pay department, Ayres Building, say the villain when he secreted himself under the evergreen. Capt. Hastings, of the 25th Indiana, with the activity of the bounding roe, cleared the fence, sought his lurking place, and dragged him from thence. He was immediately again recommitted to the Irving prison, where he will have ample time to mediate upon his many villainies. This fellow is one of the most consummate villains of his age. In person he is small, being not more than 5 feet and 3 inches in hight [sic]; he is apparently about 18 years of age. The expression of his features strikes one very disagreeably; bold and impudent in his bearing, yet capable of putting on the most sanctimonious face, -- and using the most melting and pathetic language. He is originally from St. Louis, and it is said was a notorious jail-breaker in that city. We have in this fellow, a full realization of the character and acts of Jack Sheppard and other notorious characters by the by gone days. Since he has been in this city he has found it convenient to use no less than three or four names, sometimes John Brock, John Roberts, still again, John Thornhill.
Memphis Bulletin, August 20, 1863

Friday, August 17, 2012

August 17 - 18 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

18, “The Circus in a New Performance.”
Yesterday morning as the brilliant cortege of Maginley’s Circus was making a parade through the city, a scene occurred which was not set down in the bills, and which in some respects eclipsed the usual performance of the ring. As the procession moved up Second street, and when near the corner of Adams, the horses attached to the wagon containing the band of music, became unmanageable; the drive was frightened and so were the horses, and a general kicking and dancing ensued. The two lead horsed attached to the music wagon, made a sudden turn, and plunged into a two horse buggy directly in front of them, which consisted of Mr. Maginley and another gentleman. At this stage of the performance there was a general mixing up of horses’ vehicles and men. How Mr. Maginley and his friend escaped we do not know, and we presume it would be difficult for themselves to tell. The horses in the buggy started off at full speed with whatever portion of it still remained, and the leaders belonging to the music wagon, becoming detached, followed the example of the buggy horses, the whole party bringing up at the corner of Second and Adams streets, after having run into a peacable [sic] horse attached to a light wagon doing him no other injury than to push him from his position and break some of the harness. There was no one injured so far as we could learn, though there was some “hairbreadth escapes.” The buggy was a complete wreck, and was strewn along the entire route of the runaways. The equestrian part of the procession beat a hasty retreat at the beginning of the performance, but appeared again looking gay and gaudy after things had been made all right. The whole affair occupied but a few minutes, and was a mingling of tragedy and comedy not often seen even in the circus.
Memphis Bulletin, August 18, 1863

17, “Dr. Coleman.”
A large proportion of the human race suffer more or less from venereal diseases, or their complaints. The taint once acquired is often [said?] to lurk in the blood, and manifests itself through succeeding generations. The great fault of the age immediately preceding this, was that this frightful class of disease were combated only in their symptoms, which being once subdued, the patient was declared cured, through the deadly virus is still unexpunged from the system. Fortunately for humanity, a better state of things has been inaugurated, and the increased knowledge acquired by the foremost in the ranks of medical practitioners, enables them to strike at the very root of the disorder. Prominent among them is Dr. Coleman, who had devoted the labor of his life to the discovery of the means of totally eradicating the venereal taint, and leaving the patient as free as before infection. That he has succeeded, his thousands of former patients testify; that he will still succeed, his large present practice plainly proves. Dr. Coleman is one among the very few specialists now practicing, who are able to what they promise – work a perfect cure. He can do this, and that in a safe and speedy manner, without danger or exposure. His office is located on Cherry street, between Cedar and Deaderick. Visit him, all ye who are afflicted. You cannot afford to remain away.
Nashville Dispatch, August 17, 1864

August 16 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

16, “To Southern Mothers.”
As our coast is Blockaded, our government has not been able to procure a sufficient supply of blankets for our sick soldiers. In this emergency they have called on you to aid them. Knowing as they do that there are thousands of families who can spare, without inconvenience, from one to six blankets or comforts, they feel that they have only to make their wants known to you.

Let each neighborhood at once make up a package. Throw into your box bed blankets (old or new) comforts, socks; add a jar of jelly or preserves, or anything your good sense tells you is needed by the sick and wounded soldier. Start at once your box on it s mission of mercy.. It will strengthen the heart it will nerved the arm of the soldier who is fighting our foes. Think of the fever wasted form of the bruised and bleeding soldier as he lies without cover on his pallet of straw! -- Shall he languish in want while his bleeding wounds are the brightest memetoes [sic] of that immortal field of Manassas? Think too of Manassas glorious dead! They died for you and yours.
Boxes should be sent to E. W. John’s, Med. Surgeon, Richmond, Va.
Southern papers please copy.
Clarksville Chronicle, August 16, 1861

16, “Intoxicated Women.”
This is a subject about which we very much dislike to write, for the reason that woman should be a model of all earthly goodness, an example of piety and virtue, instead of appearing on the public thoroughfares of a city, or in the custody of the Police, as an object of disgust or a victim of degradation. Such a spectacle is to us anything but pleasant, and ever begets feelings which our pen fails to describe. A drunken woman is, indeed a pitiable object. There was a woman in the Police Court yesterday morning, for being drunk, and was fined $5. We saw two policemen passing up Main street, last evening, leading a woman who was in an intoxicated condition. She was confined in the station-house.
Memphis Union Appeal, August 16, 1862

16, Tennessee to the Rescue!
Your country needs brave men and stout hearts. The brave and gallant Morgan with his equally brave and gallant band are in our midst! they have left their homes to protect ours! Shall we be idle in this struggle? Will we permit others -- strangers -- to do for us what we ought to do for ourselves? No! Let us to the onset, let us mingle in this bloody strife, let your strong arms be bared for the contest, let it be to the death. Our homes are invaded, our household goods destroyed, our hearthstones polluted by brutes in the garb of men, who have no inspiration but for plunder and wanton destruction. led by men who have risen from the filthy off scouring of the North; leaders and followers are moved by the same low and degraded impulses, these are the men, then, the materials sought to be forced upon us, will we permit the passage of such a rabble into our midst? No! answers every brave man who loves his home and his country; rather perish everything sacred than this to occur.
Rally, then, to your country. Save her from this degration [sic]. A few more days will herald the glorious news of a nation redeemed from foreign usurpation. Our general effort on the part of our citizen soldiery will throw back from our sacred soil the insolent foe, and peace once more gladden our happy land.
Tennesseans, come to the banner of freedom! Come where honor, fame, glory, duty calls you! Come! join the band now nearly ready to march against the foe! Come! unite with the gallant and brave Col. J. D. Bennett. Come cast your destiny with him. His renewed health warrants his acceptance of the position of leader. Rally, while you can. Wherever Morgan leads, there will our band be found.
The Vidette,
* August 16, 1862.

16, “The Women of the South”
The soldiers of the Confederacy, although fighting in the noblest cause, and for the highest stake that men ever battled for, have during the long and unequal conflict had much to dispirit them. Half fed and illy clad, they have been compelled to endure the rigor of a winter campaign in a climate to them alike unnatural and inhospitable. They have had to encounter the exhausting heat of a southern summer, deprived of all the appliances which secure either health or comfort. While their enemy has been bounteously provided with all the material of war, with all the medical science forwards to save life or alleviate suffering, with all that money and access to the markets of the world could supply to make war easy; the southern patriot shut out from all sources whence could come any such assistance, has had to struggle on through the gloomy series of hardships and sisters which have hitherto characterized this war, to him supported only by the indomitable fortitude with which the justice of his cause and the magnitude of the interests involved could give him. But amid all the trials of the doubtful struggle he has had one unifying sound of cheer -- the sympathy which the noble daughters of the South have extended to the defenders of their land -- it is not to much to say that but for the heroic spirit -- the self-sacrifice -- the generous devotion which they have displayed, the fight would ere now have been ended and lost. Every impulse of the southern heart has been fired, every manlier characteristic of the Southern Nation has been strengthened by the conduct of their women.
The chivalry they have inherited from Knightly ancestors -- the holy love they bear to wife, to mother and to sister -- they duty which they owe to those who have nursed them through the pangs of wounds and sickness and cheered them with high and holy encouragement upon the toilsome march , and ever on the eve of battle, have appealed to those emotions which once aroused, make men invincible.
Let the soldiers who survive this contest devote a life-long gratitude to the glorious being who deprived themselves of comforts to administer  to their necessities, and when the sound of war is hushed, and our people remember its terrible dangers only as visions for pride and thanksgiving, let the Confederacy not forget the accord, in highest honors, to show who, when its existence was a matter for doubt with its most unflinching defender, did so much to redeem it.
The Vidette, August 16, 1862. 
*Ed. note - The Vidette was the newspaper of Brigadier-General John Hunt Morgan which was published, in this case, in Hartsville, Tennessee, when Morgan had occupied the town. Other issues were published in other towns in Tennessee and Kentucky. There are but few of this occasional publication extant. These are provided through the courtesy of Mr. Fred Prouty, Executive Director of the Tennessee Wars Commission in Nashville, Tennessee.

16, “Juvenile Thieves.”
Last Friday [14th] Messers. Echerly & Co. were robbed of about sixty five dollars in money. The thieves had subtracted it from the drawer by some unknown means just before the store was closed. The Chief of Police was put in possession of the facts, and immediately set his detectives, Johnson, Morrison and Winters to work. These officers kept a sharp lookout for the robbers. From circumstances with which they succeeded in making themselves acquainted, they were led to suppose that the thieves were three boys of less than twelve summers. Acting upon the circumstantial evidence in their possession, the boys were arrested, and on examination of portion of the money was found in their possession. The balance of the stolen cash they had evidently spent for boots, shoes, clothing, etc. Their names are Thomas Dunn, Michael Burk and Pat McCarthy. These same boys, some months since, robbed a broker's office of some four or five thousand dollars, and afterward, the same young scamps robbed a soldier of several dollars and his watch while he was sleeping. What is to be done? Shall they young thieves run at large, committing their depredations and growing more hardened in vice every day? They are too young to be amenable to the law. No jury would convict boys of scarce ten summers, and yet they are already old in crime.
Memphis Bulletin, August 16, 1863.

Wednesday, August 15, 2012

August 15 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

15, Shortage of black powder for Confederate needs in West Tennessee

MILITARY AND FINANCIAL BOARD, Nashville, Tenn., August 15, 1861.

Maj. Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Memphis:

SIR: Your letter of the 13th to Governor Harris requesting him to send you gunpowder of every description has been sent to this department. We have but 11,000 pounds of blasting and 35,000 pounds of rifle powder, and are using from 600 to 700 pounds daily in making cartridges and field ammunition. Having sent a great part of our cartridges, &c., to Virginia and East Tennessee, we have scarcely any on hand. We have as yet but little saltpeter on hand, and but faint hope of getting it for some time in any considerable quantities. Under the circumstances, we feel reluctant to part with any part of our stock, unless there is a necessity for it. If your command requires it, of course we will send it to the last ounce, but we suppose from the last report of the ordnance department at Memphis that you must have double the quantity that we possess here. If you are compelled to have it, let us know.

With respect,

J. E. BAILEY, For the Board.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p. 130.

15, “Attempted Suicide.”

Michael Woolser, a private in the Nineteenth Regulars, was found in the streets yesterday, in a soporific condition, produced, as an examination proved, by swallowing an overdose of laudanum. The guard conveyed him to the prison hospital, where efforts were made to restore him. Whether or not the surgeons were successful in their treatment of him, we have not learned. At 12 o'clock , he was about a “goner.”

Nashville Daily Press, August 15, 1863.

15, “The Negro Procession;” an event to promote human freedom and political equality in Nashville

During the past week the following announcement was published in the Nashville Times, displayed and spread out to the extent of half a column. It will be read with considerable interest, and hence we re-produce it for the benefit of “whom it may concern:”


By invitation of the colored citizens of Nashville, John M. Lanston, Esq. the colored patriot and eloquent orator, of Oberlin, Ohio, will address them on the leading questions of the day, at “Fort Gillem,” on Monday, August 15th, 1864, at 11 A. M 

The citizens and public generally are invited to attend. Let every colored man, woman, and child come and spend one day in the cause of HUMAN FREDOM [sic] and POLITICAL EQUALITY. Let every one who values the glorious future of OUR COUNTRY -- and the future freedom of our race -- turn out and honor the distinguished orator. Come one, come all. Let us have a grand rally four our country, for the enfranchisement of our race, and FOR LIBERTY.

The 10th Tennessee regiment will be in attendance on the occasion. A grand Military and Civil Procession will form on the Northeast side of the Public Square at 9 o'clock A. M.

Order of Procession. -- 1, Military; 2, Chief Marshal; 3, Military Band; 4, Orator of the Day in open carriage; 5, President of the Day -- Elder Peter Lowry, and Vice-Presidents Elder Ransom Harris and N. Harris; 6, Ministers of the Gospel; 7, Benevolent Societies; 8, Citizens on foot; 9; Citizens in carriages and on horseback.

The State authorities have given their permission for our meeting, and guarantee to us ample protection and order. The officers and commanders of colored troops, and all colored troops are most respectfully invited to turn out and participate. The 15th and 17th Unites States Colored Troops are promised by their Colonels to be present, and all patriots and lovers of Liberty are expected to attend, and shall have a hearty welcome.

Marshals. -- William Sumner, Chief Marshal; W. Hickman, Jerry Stothart, Assistants.

President of the day. -- Elder Peter Lowry.

Vice-Presidents. -- Elder Ransom Harris, Nelson Walker.

Committee of Arrangements. -- B. Lewis, Chairman; W. Alex Sumner, B. J. Hadley, W. Hickman, Samuel Lowry, secretary.
Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 11, 1864

About 10 a. m. a crowd of sable damsels began to assemble on the public square, and soon after 11 the procession was formed. After moving around the square, they passed through Cedar to Summer street, in the following order:

Bill Hickman and Jerry Stothart

Leader of a Military Band

Band of the Tenth Tennessee

About sixty members of a COLORED CITIZENS.

The “Orator of the Day,” in a carriage with two or three other negroes [sic]. 

About 100 “American citizens of African descent”on foot.
About forty-eight vehicles of various kinds, including express wagons, dilapidated hacks and buggies, and one or two of Bill Summers’ best, containing the elite of negrodom [sic]. 

One white woman and child.

The vehicles were mostly loaded down with the numbers crowded into them -- some of the hack containing six full grown darkies, and other throwing in one or two youngsters to fill up the corners. We are not aware of what took place after leaving the corner of Summer and Cedar street.

Nashville Dispatch, August 16, 1864

15, Surrender of Thomas’ Indian Legion proposed

LOUDON, August 15, 1864--9.45 a. m.

Capt. W. P. AMMEN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

There is a proposition made in writing from one of Maj. Thomas' captains, stating many of Maj. Thomas' Indians and white soldiers will come in and give themselves up if they can be assured protection. Shall I send written communication to them insuring protection if they come in? Answer. 

M. L. PATTERSON, Lieut.-Col.

LOUDON, August 15, 1864.

Capt. W. P. AMMEN:

The captain of Thomas' Indians was at Murphy, N. C. Sent letter by his brother-in-law, who is a loyal man, to Capt. Devine, provost-marshal of Monroe County. Rumors of rebels at Athens. No official news. Capt. Aleshire, of Second Ohio Heavy Artillery, is in command at that place; presume he will keep us posted.

M. L. PATTERSON, Lieut.-Col.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p 253