Tuesday, April 30, 2013

April 30 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

30, Special rates on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad
N. & C. Railroad Company
Superintendent's Office
Nashville, Apr. 30, '61
To Whom this may Concern:-
The Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad Company will transport FREE OF CHARGE [sic] against the company, all volunteer companies, supplies and munitions of war, intended for the defence of the South. The commanding officer will be required to furnish the forwarding agent with a certificate showing them number of men and tonnage of freight so transported.
This proposition will not apply to individuals, but is confined to organized companies.
Nashville Daily Gazette, December 12, 1861.[1]

30, Excerpt from a newspaper report on threats of the Chattanooga Vigilance Committee and admonitions of Federal reprisals in kind
~ ~ ~
The following is from the Nashville Patriot of recent date:
We learn from a gentleman of veracity, direct from Chattanooga, that the Vigilance Committee of that place recently held a meeting and determined to put to death fifteen or twenty of the prominent Union men of that vicinity upon the approach of the National army.
Most certainly the approach of the Federal army to Chattanooga or anywhere else will not be prevented or retarded by any such hellish device as that. Our armies will assert and exercise the rights of war. If it be found that the  Vigilance Committee are really determined, in the event of the marching of our troops upon their place, let that number or twice that number of prominent rebels of Nashville or some other city be seized and sternly held as hostages for the safety of  the threatened victims. If the rebels will insist upon making this a war of barbarism, a war of extermination, a war shocking to the  moral sense of the world, they have unquestionably the power to do so, but the consequence, whilst terrible on both sides, would  be far most terrible to their  own,
Never in all the history of hostilities among nations, was any war prosecuted on higher and juster and nobler and more merciful principles than this has been on the part of the United States. Our Government and our people have alike seemed to bear in mind the great truth, that, whilst the legitimate object of the war is to preserve the greatest country of the age against the most atrocious rebellion of any age, it still a war of brethren.
Louisville Daily Journal, April 30, 1862. [2]

30, Excerpt from the Case of Asa Hodges, Suspected of Disloyalty to the Confederacy, Relative to the Memphis Committee of Safety
~ ~ ~
Gen. James A. Carnes states that he has known Mr. Asa Hodges for the last four or five years and has regarded him as a good citizen and a reliable and trustworthy business man; that he never heard his loyalty questioned, and regarded him as entirely loyal to the South; that the witness was a member of the committee of safety of the city of Memphis from its first organization and that his opportunities for getting the names of suspected persons was very good, [emphasis added] and the witness is of the opinion that had Mr. Hodges been suspected he would have heard of it; that gentlemen in whom he had implicit confidence informed him that he talked and evinced the right spirit in the Southern cause.
~ ~ ~
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 2, p. 1552.

30, Favoritism in the execution of Confederate conscription in Union county[3]
The following unique letter was handed us by Capt. Webb, of the Enrolling Office of this Department;
UNION COUNTY, April 30, 1863
To Col. Blake, Comeding Cornscripts and so fourth:
Now Sur, I beg leeve to make a few remarks. Are the cornscripts ov ower cownty liable and ordered to be arrested. And delivered over at Knocksville to who has the collection ov them. Are the cornscripts officers aloud to seez one man and send wurd to anuther to cleer out and hide hisself? And then Kernel ar we kumpelled to have rollin officers who send men and buoys ove the mountings, telling the young men not yet 18 that the C. Gov. had abanderud ages under 18, and was ketchin corncripts by weight. And by this they have actery sceered off sum who ar not 17 years old-one in particler Elber Dawl, near me wus told that ef he weighed 124 lbs, he sertinly must go into the service of the C. S., and that nite he left for Ky., and is over thar now. We has in this cownty every enrollin offiser for the very wust cort of Likninite, & every one relatives ov the Cheerman or Cownty Court Clerk & this clerk was Thornberg's 1st Lieut. & the Cheerman is no better. Can we not have these stowt young men cauld into the servis or let them run off as sum ov them will do & have men over, 45 appointed or appint ower justices ov the peas & uther persins exempt from Concript this would at once put amazingly formydable foarce ov young men into the field & leave them who now have nuthin to do offishally to attend to the enroaling clerks sheriffs justices & other exempts. I have ritten to Congress asken them to pass a kempulserry law on the cownty coarts to make up the rollin officers entirely ov the exempt whether you have the power to change the appointments I know not, but this ere you can do, put them into the army a foarce the cownty courts to make other appointments for the pressant incumbenters in moast of the cownties in East Tennessee is a burlesk on the military but I kno that we has sum very good uns if I can get an order I will arrest a phew bad men & who ar lyin out steling everything in thar reach I have extended my few disjointed remarks much further than I espceted at first yours truly
We are inclined to believe that the publication of the foregoing patriotic letter will result in important reforms in the enforcement of the Conscript act, and we accept in advance the thanks of Col. Blake for the invaluable suggestions presented.

Knoxville Daily Register, May 21, 1863.

30, 1864 - Elvira Powers remarks on the progress of her contraband students at the Refugee farm[4]
The aptness of the pupils, as a whole, is really surprising. Some have learned the alphabet, I am told, in three days, and others in a week.
It is said that all northern people who visit the school, very soon fall a victim to that fearful disease, known by the southern chivalry and northern copperheads, as "niggar [sic] on the brain." And I will confess my belief that were I to teach in this school very long, I might become so interested in some of my pupils I should sometimes forget that they were not of the same color as myself, and really believe that God did make of one blood all nations of the earth.
They present every shade of color from the blackest hue to a fairer skin than my own. It is often necessary to find out who the mother is before you know whether the person is white of black. The age [of the student body] varies from four to thirty.
The progress of some is really astonishing. One little black girl of seven years, and with wooly head, can read fluently in the Fourth Reader, and studies primary, geography, and arithmetic, who has been to school but one year. I inquired if any one taught her at home, if she had not learned how to read before that time. "Oh, no, I learned my letters when I first came to school, and I live with my aunt Mary, and she can't read. She's no kin to me, and I haven't any kin, but I call her aunt."
Perhaps she never had any, or is related to Topsey, and if questioned farther, might say she "'spects she grew." A boy about twelve, who has been to school but nine months, and who learned his letters in that time, reads in the Third Reader and studies geography. Some are truly polite. The first day of my taking charge of one of the division, a delicate featured, brown-skinned little girl of about nine years came to me and said with the sweetest voice and manner: --
"Lady will you please tell me you name?"
I did so, when she thanked me and said: --
"Miss P_____ can you please hear our Third Reader this morning." It was not an idle question either, for the school is so large that now, while two of the teachers are absent, from illness, some of the classes are each day necessarily neglected. And so eager are the generality of the pupils to learn, that most of them are in two or three reading and spelling classes at the same time.
One might now not only exclaim with Galileo, "The world does move," and we move with it. For though but a little time since the negro dared to say :I think," lest the master might exclaim,-- "You think, you black neggar [sic]-never you mind about that, I'll do your thinking for you." But would instead, say 'deferentially, with bent head and hand in his wooly hair, "Wall, massa, I'se been a studyin' about dat dar," is now learning to stand erect and confess that he does think; as well as learn to read and write.
One of the more advanced pupils told me that her father taught her to read and write before it was safe to let anyone know that he did, or that he could himself read.
Powers, Pencillings, pp. 61-63.

[1] The date is correct. The notice was reprinted in the December 12, 1861 issue.

[2] As cited in PQCW.

[3] All spelling and grammar original.

[4] Powers had agreed to teach negro children at the "Refugee farm", or the "Eweing farm" on Friday, April 22, 1864. See: Powers, Pencillings, p.58.

James B. Jones, Jr.
Public Historian
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN  37214
(615)-532-1550  x115
(615)-532-1549  FAX

Monday, April 29, 2013

4/29/2013 TCWN

        29, 1861 -  Excerpt from a letter by Robert D. Jamison of Murfreesborough relative to excitement surrounding secession crisis in Tennessee

... Uncle Atha is the most excited man I ever saw. He can talk about nothing else but the state of our country. Companies of soldiers are mustering at every point. They have two companies at Franklin, two at Columbia, one at Spring Hill, and one at Thompson Station. All of the schools have broken up around her except Uncle Atha's and Mr. Bond's.

....One of [Mr. Bond's]...scholars...has stopped and joined a company and I think some more will stop and join.

I never saw such excitement in my life. Everyone is trying to see who can do the most for his country. Mr. Bond is just on tiptoes. He has gone to Spring Hill to make a speech. The cry is heard on every side, "to arms, to arms."

Robert D. Jamison Papers, TSL&A.




29, 1861 - Mrs. Andrew Jackson Donelson appeals to General Winfield Scott to "arrest the civil war now begun."

Mrs. Donelson to Gen. Scott.—The following eloquent appeal to Gen. Scott from the wife of Andrew Jackson Donelson, we find in the Memphis Bulletin:

Memphis, April 29, 1861.

Gen. Scott—Dear Sir: I address you not as a stranger. I was introduced to you in 1834, at the White House, by President Jackson, as "my niece, Miss Martin, of Tennessee." In 1834 I married Louis Randolph, a grandson of President Jefferson. In 1837 he died, and in 1841 I married Major Andrew J. Donelson, whom you will remember. In 1852 I saw you frequently in Washington.

I write to you, Gen. Scott, as the only man in the country who can arrest the civil war now begun. When it was announced that "Gen. Scott had resigned," a thrill of joy ran through the South. Cannon told the glad tidings, and my heart said, "God bless him." Now it is said "you will never fight under any other than the Star Spangled Banner." We have loved that banner. We have loved the Union. But the Union is gone, and forever, and I wept as each star left the field of blue and set in night. Now we have another field of blue, and soon our fifteen stars will shine upon our right. The stripes are all that is left of the banner you have borne victorious in many battles.

Of you I may ask it, but not the usurper and his Abolition band, who now desecrate the honored place once filled by our Washington, Jefferson and Jackson—of Gen. Scott I ask it—STOP THIS WAR. Say to the North, you shall not shed your brother's blood. The sons of Tennessee and the South have buckled on their armor, and are ready for the fight. We will fight this battle, every man, woman and child, to the last cent in our pockets and the last drop of blood in our veins. The North boasts of its strength. If this boast be well founded, it were cowardice to destroy the weak. But "the race is not always to the swift, nor the battle to the strong!" God will defend us when our husbands and sons go forth to repel the invaders of our homes, our rights, and our soil. Then count the cost, Hero of Battles, and let after ages bless you.

Daily Advocate [Baton Rouge], May 24, 1861.




29, 1862 - Skirmish near Monterey at Adkin's House

Report of Brig. Gen. Patton Anderson, C. S. Army, of skirmish at Monterey, Tenn., April 29.

ADKIN'S HOUSE, ON MONTEREY ROAD, TENN., April 29, 1862--12.45 p. m.

MAJ.: A few minutes after my last note was written the cavalry which had been left and Monterey came dashing through my lines a little beyond this, reporting the enemy in hot pursuit in largely-superior cavalry force and infantry; not known how many. Most of Lieut.-Col. Kelly's command were halted and formed in front some 400 to 600 yards; many, however, passed through and have probably gone to Corinth. My dispositions had been made. A few precautions were, however, added. The artillery (three pieces Washington Artillery) was in the center of the right wing, sweeping the road. Our cavalry was soon fired upon by large squadrons, perhaps 500 men, and, returning the fire feebly, fell back. The enemy came in pursuit, and as soon as his columns were unmasked, as previously directed, Lieut. Vaught, commanding the artillery, opened upon the head of his column with canister and round shot and soon put the whole to flight, killing one or two and several horses. I had not the cavalry to pursue vigorously, but sent 50 men, under an officer, to follow on and learn where he had gone. They followed to within 1 mile of Monterey and report infantry and six pieces of artillery there.

Maj. Smith, commanding 150 mounted men, on his way from Corinth to Sand Hill, came up while the firing was going on and promptly reported to me for service. I ordered him to divide and form on my right and left and to send out small parties for observation, &c., all of which he promptly executed.

After the enemy's cavalry had retreated beyond the range of our artillery I ceased firing and occupied the position until half an hour ago, when I fell back through a boggy wood to this position, on the hill commanding Mr. Atkins' house.

I had expected the infantry and artillery to move up after the cavalry was repulsed; but waiting three hours for him, and finding this to be a better position, I crossed the creek near Adkins' and took the position I now occupy. I was much influenced in his move by a report which Lieut. Forrest, of Forrest's cavalry, made me after the repulse. He came, attracted by the firing, and reported the enemy moving up the Hamburg and Corinth road in a column of 10,000 infantry. He had been posted with 20 men on this road yesterday morning at a point near Babb's house. This morning he was driven in and cut off from his retreat to me and came back toward Corinth till he heard the firing and returned. If this information be true (and it concurs with former reports of scouts), it is important. That road (the Babb) intersects the Monterey and Corinth road 4½ miles this side of Corinth, at Shope's house.

The roads are in wretched condition. It is almost impossible to get our artillery through the mud with their weakened teams. A great deal of our cavalry cannot be got to make a stand from the same cause.

Lieut. Vaught and his men deserve much praise for the coolness, courage, and skill with which they handled their pieces. He was ably assisted by Lieut. Chalaron, who likewise displayed all the good qualities of an artillery officer. The infantry did not fire a volley, but stood coolly, ready to do so when ordered.

I would be pleased to receive any suggestions from the general commanding at all times in regard to my movements, and I shall endeavor to keep him informed of what I do.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Outpost, &c.

P. S.-I have said one or two were killed, because the first officer who rode over the field reported to me two; one who subsequently examined said he could find but one.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 800-801.



29, 1862 - Lack of confidence expressed in Memphis; contingency from the Daily Appeal's evacuation announced

The APPEAL will continue to punctually be issued in Memphis so long as the city is in possession of the Confederate authorities. Should it, however, be occupied by the enemy, taking a lesson from the despotic suppression of the Nashville journals by ANDREW JOHNSON, we shall discontinue its publication, here and remove to some safe point in Mississippi, where we can express our true political sentiments, and still breath the pure and untainted atmosphere of Southern freedom. We cannot do such violence to our feelings as to submit to a censorship under LINCOLN'S hireling minions that would deprive us of the privilege of depressing at all times our earnest God-speed to the progress of Southern independence, and write and speak what we think. Sooner would we sink our types, press and establishment in the bottom of the Mississippi river, and be wanderers and exiles from our homes.

Memphis Appeal, April 29, 1862.




29, 1862 - Female entrepreneurs in Nashville

New Southern, Straw Hat and Bonnet Manufactory.

The People of Nashville and vicinity are informed that they can be supplied with Hats and Bonnets from the production of their own soil—no way inferior, if not surpassing any English importation or any handicraft of the Northern States. Also, that their old Hats and Bonnets, however much soiled and out of modern style, can be made to compete with new ones, in shape and finish, at very short notice, and on reasonable terms. Hats and Bonnets are colored and finished in superior style.

Black lace Veils, &c., although reduced to an apparently worthless condition, may be restored to their primitive beauty in color and finish. Feathers colored white and red, and finished to equal new. All those who wish to see "old things pass away and all things become new" in the way of Hats, Bonnets, Lace, &c., will please call at No. 15½ Kirkman's Block, Summer street.

Mrs. Lloyd,

Mrs. C. C. Dow.

Nashville Dispatch, April 29, 1862.




29, 1863 - Special Order [sic], No. 13

Office District Provost Marshal,

District of Memphis

Memphis, Tenn., April 29th, 1863

I.* * * * [sic] If, after ten days from the date of this order any house of ill fame, kept for the purpose of prostitution and lewdness, is discovered in this District, the inmates thereof will be arrested and sent North,[1] and their household furniture reported to the Commanding Officer for confiscation.

II. Any officer or soldier of the United States Army, who in this District should so far forget the respectability and dignity of his position, as to appear in places of the above named character, except on official duty, will, upon discovery, be reported with his name, and regiment, to the Commanding General.

III. Masters of steamboats are prohibited from bringing to this District and landing, as passengers, "prostitutes" [sic] or women of disreputable character. A violation of this order will subject the offender to arrest and fine.

The local Provost Marshals in this District will see that these orders are enforced.

MELANCTHON SMITH, Lieut. Col., and District Provost Marshal.


Headquarters District of Memphis

Memphis, Tenn., April 30th, 1863


By order of Brig. Gen J. C. Veatch.

F. W. FOX [sic], A. A. G.

Memphis Bulletin, May 1, 1863.




29, 1863 -  "I rose up and fired one shot and fell back." J. M. Winn, Confederate soldier, to his wife in Robertson County

Camp 15 miles East [sic] of Carthage

April 29th, 1863

Dear Priscilla:

Learning that I have an opportunity of sending you a letter I proceed to write to you, hoping very cincearingly [sic] that it may reach you in safety & find you well and doing well. These lines leave me in fine health & the boys are all well so far as I know, (of our Reg[iment].)

Thos. R. Mason I learn is getting well of his wound. I haven't been in but one battle since I came out this time, that was at Snows Hill[2] near Smithville. I leigh [sic] under the Enemies' [sic] fire about ½ an hour, was then ordered to retreat. I rose up and fired one shot and fell back. Our company lost Lieutenant Ashbrook, wounded in the head he is getting well.

Puss I hardly know how to write for I wrote you a letter soon after I cam[e] through and started it by a man that said he was going through. Some of the boys say that he didn't go. This is the only chance that I have of sending a letter to you. I have been anxious to write all the time. I am very glad that I have this opportunity.

Puss, I expect when I hear from you, to hear that you have been confined, I hope as at any rate and hope that you[r] man have had an easy time of it. That you have brought forth[3] & that you both are doing well.

The boys see a tolerable hard time, everything is high out here. Corn is worth $10. per lb., Bacon from 25 to 35 cts. per lb. Horses are worth from 100 to 800 Dollars.

Write soon, write how you are & how you have been all the time, and if you have anything there say what it is and its name. Give all the particulars.

Winds of Change, p. 57.




29, 1864 - Special Orders, No. 120, expulsion of sutlers from the army in the field in East Tennessee


Knoxville, Tenn., April 29, 1864.

I. Until further orders, no sutlers will be allowed with the troops in the field. Division commanders will see that all sutlers with the army in the field are sent to the rear at once.

* * * *

By command of Maj.-Gen. Schofield:

R. MORROW, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 541.




29, 1864 -  "…subject to bushwhacking  rule…." An entry from the Diary of Eliza Rhea Anderson Fain

Night before last [27th Tuesday] a few minutes before one o'clock I was aroused I suppose by the barking of the dogs. I listened very attentively when one of the dogs make a noise like someone has struck it. I felt alarmed but did not get up A few moments afterward the report of a gun fell upon my ear. My heart rose within me. My first thought was bushwhackers at Sarah's are killing some of our men or being killed. I was soon out of my bed and awakened my praying child. In a short time the report of another gun reached us; we went upstairs to look and see if we could what was going on. We then came back to my room. I dressed myself and with earnest prayer prepared to meet what I felt would soon be our terrible fate, subject to bushwhacking rule, every moment for at least half an hour was one of intense feeling and one of prayer that my father would be a shield of fire by night round about us. Sallie lay down and as did I after awhile; but not to sleep. Sallie, Fannie and Nannie with myself were awake until after three.

This evening I learned the cause of our great alarm. Four [Union] bushwhackers went to Mr. Sensabaugh's and demanded two rebel soldiers who had gone there to stay all night. Mr. Sensabaugh roused the men up, they came down and gave themselves up. They tied them and brought them down the road as far as the lane between Mr. Netherlands and brother Hiram, here they began their murderous work. They had left their horses there and walked to Mr. S's. The names of the two soldiers were Corriger and Southern. Corriger made his escape but Southern fell a victim to their wrath. Two of the bushwhackers left to go in search of a mule. Our men I suppose made some resistance and perhaps were gaining some advantage over the two when one of them knocked Corriger down with a gun. Southern started to run, they took after him and Corriger made his escape getting on his own horse. Southern would also have gotten away but the other two coming up at the time stopped him. They beat him with a pistol on the head bruising him so badly. They also stabbed him and then took him to Mr. Pryors and left telling Mr. P., so I understand, that he must send for a doctor and have him taken care of. If he failed to do it they would come and serve him in the same way.

A scout of some 20 of our men came down on Thursday [28th]. Cousin Bay and Stevens came by and took some supper with us. They intending going over the river but did not, I suppose, why I cannot tell. They took Mr. Southern with them on Friday [29th]. We were so rejoiced to see and know our men were coming back.

Fain Diary.




29, 1865 -  Returning Confederate soldiers required to take the oath of allegiance in East Tennessee

CHATTANOOGA, April 29, 1865.

Brig. Gen. W. D. WHIPPLE, Chief of Staff:

There are large numbers of paroled rebel soldiers from Lee's army and Forrest's here and coming into our lines at all points, who are utterly destitute, and who will inevitably be driven to stealing and robbery, if not bushwhacking, unless they can be permitted to go to their homes or be provided for in some manner. What shall I do with them?



KNOXVILLE, April 29, 1865--12.55 p. m.

Maj.-Gen. THOMAS:

Your telegram received. Numbers of men have come into East Tennessee with authority from Gen. Grant to go to their homes, which are in East Tennessee. Do your instructions include such persons; and if so, shall they be sent without the limits of the State? There are others whose homes are in Georgia, Alabama, and the other Southern States. They are penniless and without food, and must live by begging or stealing. Can I issue such persons a limited amount of rations and send them by rail to Dalton and get rid of them; also obnoxious and troublesome characters?

GEO. STONEMAN, Maj.-Gen. of Volunteers, Cmdg.



Maj.-Gen. STONEMAN, Knoxville:

By decision of the Attorney-Gen., no Confederate is entitled to come into a loyal State on his parole. He will have to take the oath of allegiance to the United States to enable him to remain. You are authorized to give a limited amount of subsistence to such rebel soldiers who have to pass through East Tennessee to get to Georgia and Alabama. They must not be allowed to stop on the way.

1.   GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army, Cmdg.

Send the above to Gen. Steedman and Gen. R. S. Granger entire. Send the first sentence to Gen. Washburn.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 518-519.



[1] A similar action would take place in Nashville in early July 1863. The tactic of mass expulsion of prostitutes worked in neither city, leading to a martial-management strategy characterized by a system of liscenced prostitution and medical inspection, established in Nashville in the summer of 1863 and in Memphis in the fall of 1864.

[2] See April 2-6, 1863, "Reconnaissance, Murfreesborough to Auburn, Lebanon, Carthage, Cherry; Valley, Statesville, Snow Hill & Liberty," above.

[3] That is, given birth.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Sunday, April 28, 2013

4/28/13 = TCWN

28, Call for public assistance for the families of Confederate volunteer soldiers

Families of Volunteers.—In most cities a generous patriotism has liberally provided for the families of those whose devotion to the southern cause leads them away from wife and children. This subject must not be lost sight of in Memphis. Men who pour out their blood in our defense must not have the ardor of the battle damped with a fear that their loved ones are a prey to want. What says our city council on this subject, and what say our citizens generally. Let us have appropriations, and subscriptions.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 28, 1861



28, Pikes and the Methodist Publishing House

Publishing House-The Nashville Book Concern.-Our Nashville correspondent gives a sadly graphic account of the doings of the Methodist Publishing House at Nashville in its efforts to add fuel to the flame of rebellion. Under the pretext of serving that God whose son was given to the world as the harbinger of "peace on earth and good will toward man," its officers have converted its rooms into armories, and we have now in our office one of the tracts which they were preparing to send out, in the shape of a pike, which was seized, with five hundred others of the same sort, on its premises. The exposure of our correspondent is crushing, and the effrontery of the Concern, in asking facilities from the Government they have abused and imperiled, exceeds anything which ever came under our observation.

Louisville Daily Journal, April 28, 1862. [1]




28, General Joseph E. Johnston's continued anxieties relative to procuring food for the Army of Tennessee

TULLAHOMA, April 28, 1863

Hon. JAMES A. SEDDON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 17th instant. The difficulty of procuring subsistence stores in the country is increasing fast. Corn is still abundant 40 or 50 miles to the west, but its transportation requires much time. Meat is procured in small quantities beyond the enemy's flanks, but at great risk, over routes lying near his positions. This risk is becoming greater daily, the enemy's entrenchments and superior numbers enabling him to make detachments safely. The large Federal force now approaching Decatur will probably increase these advantages very soon.

It would be very difficult I think, to make purchases in Kentucky with cotton, on account of the long distance from our railroad to the Kentucky line. Where that exchange is permitted, it should be under such circumstances as to enable the Government to keep it out of the hands of individuals. That trade has subjugated our people where-ever the they have engaged in it.

Should this army be compelled to abandon Middle Tennessee, its position for the defense of East Tennessee will be extremely unfavorable, as its communications will be from the flanks instead of to the rear. Such a defense would be impossible against an enterprising enemy; hence the great importance of Gen. Bragg's holding his present position, and hence my applying, more than once, for re-enforcements for him.

I have been informed that a considerable quantity of bacon may be procured for sugar. An officer has therefore been sent to attempt to make the exchanges.

In writing to the President on the 11th instant, being then, as now, unfit for service in the field, I suggested that if conference with Gen. Bragg was still desired, a confidential officer should be sent to his headquarters for the purpose.

* * * *

Most respectfully, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 799.




28, "Clairvoyance for One Week Only."

Madame Cora James will be found at her rooms on Second street between Madison and Monroe streets, where she is daily astonishing people of the highest rank by her wonderful predictions by clairvoyance in all things pertaining to the past, the present, and the future. All who wish to learn the final [sic] result of this war, and hear from absent friends, or investigate matters of importance, should avail themselves of this opportunity and come at once. Soldiers. Learn your doom! Don't defer so important a matter. – Madam Cora James' predictions are true and interesting. Rooms at (recently called) Bluff City House.

Memphis Bulletin, April 28, 1863



27-28, Small pox and vaccination, starving refugees, confederate prisoners of war, cowards and African American troops: the news from Murfreesboro and Short Mountain environs

Redoubt Johnson

Murfreesboro Tenn.

November 27/63

Fother [sic] and Mother

I received a letter from you a few days Since  and have neglected answerin  until now[.] My health is good and hoping these lines will finde  you all well[.] Capt nut  Started  this Morning  for Chattanooga to his Regt Lieutinant [sic] pool [sic] is commanding our company not the mail trane [sic] has not come threw  to day[.] the word is now that wee have had another hard fight near Chattanooga I seen [sic] fifteen hundred Rebel  prisoners to day Just  from the battle field the cars halted here a few minutes to wood and water they are the Ragidest [sic] looking Set  you ever Saw  they are gone on to Nashville  i [sic] Suppose there will bee [sic] More  of them threw from all accounts[.] Wee  have not learned any of the particulars yet Concerning  the fight[.] there  was a Nigro [sic] Regiment  passed here this forenoon going on to the front I suppose[.] Some folks are opposed to arming them but i [sic] think it is only by those that are too big a Cowards [sic] to fight them Selvs [sic] [.] If  an man would rather Soldiers  than to See  a negro  at it down here is the place for him[.] Cowards are the greatest men to talk that wee [sic] have and know Just [sic] about as little for my part[.] i [sic] Say Make [sic] use of any and Every Measure [sic] that will crush the rebellion[.] let [sic] any man bee [sic] Jamed [sic] about over the Country  as I  and thousands of others have and he will Say the Same that is my notion about things[.] there [sic] is families pasing [sic] here all the time going north[,] they are the poorest people you Ever Saw [.] Some of them are going with a one horse wagon and some in ox carts and Some  on foot[.] they [sic] Say they have nothing more to live on here[.] I seen a man to day that had Come [sic] from Short Mountain that is up South East of here near Mcmimille [sic] he Said [sic] he was Just Starved [sic] out and Couldent [sic] get away from here and he said [sic] there was any amount of families where he come from Suffering [sic] for Something to Eat  and couldent [sic] get away[.] the  Men  are in the Reble army and they are left to do the best they can[.] Wee  have had no new cases of Smallpox  in the company[.] the [sic] ones that had it are well again it is not about Sunset and Supper is about Rready So I will quit for the present[.]

Saturday Evening Nov. 28/63

yours  of the 22[nd] is before me now I received 4 letters to day….Wee  had a very heavy rain here last knight [sic] and this Morning  [.] it [sic] has turned very Cool and Still drizling [sic] the river is tolerable high I have not Seen  any paper today I dont  know what the news is you wanted to know if I  had been vaxinated ][.] i [sic] was vaxinated  last Spring [sic] [.] My arm was Sore  all Summer  and then it only left a blew Spot  [.] the  doctor Said  it wasent [sic] the rite kind of Stuff [sic][.] there  is a good many in the Company [sic] now that are vaxinated [sic] I believe I  will try it agan and See [sic] what it will do[.] one [sic] of our boys Come [sic] back from the hospittle  to day[;] he has Just  got over the Smallpox [,] it has left a good many marks on him[.]….

J. H. Jones

Letter of James Jones, 57th Indiana Infantry.



28, The end of the war is accepted by a Madison County farmer

Lizzie came from school this evening says there is news in town. The substance as she gives it, is that there is to be no more [sic] fighting & peace is to be made. If true it would be glorious news, even considering the future is no easy one....

Robert H. Cartmell Diary

[1] As cited in PQCW.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Saturday, April 27, 2013

4/27/2013 TCWN

27, "The Feeling in Tennessee."

The Feeling in Tennessee. _ We are permitted to make the following extract from a private letter received in this city from a member of a leading banking firm in Nashville, Tennessee. – It only tends to confirm our previous advices tat Tennessee will shortly be redeemed, regenerated ad disenthralled. The writer says:

"Fifteen cheers for Old Virginia. Tennessee is up in arms. The grandest revolution that ever took hold of any people is going on here now. It is sweeping like wild-fire all over the State. – Every man of any prominence has taken high Southern ground, except, Andy Johnson, and John Bell. The people have this thing in their hands. Johnson is a black hearted traitor; Bell is too slow in making up his mind. Go on in your good work; we will be with you in less than thirty days.  We are with you now in heart land feeling, and ready to fight with you or for you.

But your cause is our cause, my word for it. – Tennessee will never turn her back on you all. Her sons are ready and willing to die on your soil, or any other, for your cause, which is the great cause of liberty. In less than ten days Tennessee will have 25,000 men in the field in Gen. Davis' command, and twice that number if wanted. If you should hear anything in a few days, that sounds like an earthquake, don't be alarmed, for it will only be Tennessee going South!"

Montgomery Advertiser.

Daily Morning News (Savannah, GA), April 27, 1861.[1]



27, Confederate orders to burn all cotton on the banks of the Mississippi River

HDQRS. ARMY OF THE WEST, Memphis, Tenn., April 27, 1862.

Capt. JOHNSON, Memphis:

SIR: You will proceed in the steamer furnished for the purpose by the quartermaster along the Mississippi River. You will inform the planters on its banks that the river is now open to the enemy, and that the interests of our country demand that they shall at once destroy all of their cotton. No time is to be lost in the execution of this duty. Should any hesitate or fail to comply with your call upon them, you will yourself take possession of and burn the cotton, taking care to injure no other property.

It is made your duty to see that all of the cotton within reach of the river is destroyed at once. The proprietors will take an account of the amount destroyed, as you will of all of which you may have to destroy yourself. These orders are given to you by Gen. Van Dorn under instructions from Gen. Beauregard.

In executing the above orders you will go as far up and down the Mississippi as the gunboats of the enemy will allow; and in the event of your being pursued by them, if you cannot run your boat into a place of security from them, you must, on abandoning, destroy her, to prevent the enemy from getting possession of her.

Very respectfully, yours,

DABNEY H. MAURY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

(Copies to Lieut. Hill, Capt. Lyles, Capt. Clendening, Memphis.)

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 455.



APRIL 27, 1863.- Skirmish on Carter Creek Pike, Tenn.

Report of Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army.

FRANKLIN, April 27, 1863--9.20 a. m.

GEN.: I pushed out my cavalry at 1 o'clock this morning between the Columbia and Carter Creek Pikes, to surprise and capture the Texas Legion, posted 8 miles from here, on the latter. Our troops reached their camp at daybreak, surrounded and made prisoners of the entire force, consisting of 9 commissioned officers and 112 men, 300 horses and mules, 8 wagons, all their camp and garrison equipments, arms, accouterments, &c., all this without the loss of a man on our part. Several rebels were killed and wounded. This daring feat shows what our cavalry is made of. The surprise and capture was made almost immediately under the eyes of Van Dorn, within 1 mile of his main body.

Col. Watkins and captain Russell, of my staff, led the expedition and behaved handsomely.

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 321-322.



27, Confederate scout with skirmish, Smithville to Liberty environs

HDQRS. HARRISON'S CAVALRY BRIGADE, Smithville, April 27, 1863


Cmdg. Cavalry Division:

GEN.: The scout just returned from the direction of Liberty reports the enemy's pickets about 3 miles this side of Liberty. The scout drove in the pickets. After retiring a short distance, they reappeared, and were a second time driven back. The scout then procured forage near there, and saw no further signs of the enemy. They learned the enemy was encamped at the fork of the pike beyond Liberty. Col. [C. C.] Crews establishes the line of couriers.

By order of Col. Thomas Harrison, commanding cavalry brigade:

GEO. M. DECHERD, Acting Aide-de-Camp.

P. S.- It does not appear expedient to move down the river while the enemy occupy Liberty. I will remain here and examine the country above to-morrow.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 798.




27, Lieutenant-General Hardee issues contingency retreat orders


Should this command be ordered to retire on Tullahoma before the completion of the bridges over Duck River and Garrison's Fork, the following dispositions will be made:

Breckinridge's division will retire via Manchester. Helm and Brown will move on the Murfreesborough and Manchester pike, and Adams and Preston on the road leading from Wartrace to Manchester.

Cleburne's division will move direct to Tullahoma crossing Duck River at the bridge known as Schoefner's Bridge, about 5 miles from Wartrace.

Division and brigade commanders will at once examine all the roads indicated in this order over which their respective commands will pass, and with which they are not already thoroughly acquainted.

Should Garrison's Fork, in rear of Helm's and Brown's brigades, be come so swollen as to be impassable, then these brigades will retire by moving direct to Wartrace, and thence following Cleburne.

By command of Lieut.-Gen. Hardee:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 797.



27, 1864 - Entry in Alice Williamson's Diary, Sumner County

Sis has just come from Mrs. Lane's: while there she visited the grave of the stranger soldier who was shot Friday. The yankees [sic] took his coat and boots off and put him in the grave without coffin or wrappings of any kind.

Williamson Diary





27, 1865 - John Wilkes Booth and Roman Catholicism, a Bolivar school girls thoughts

Dreary and dark this whole day has been, and I have been so sad. When unconsciously a thought of the unhappy situation of our beloved country crosses my mind my feelings are such as would almost cause a heart to break which is weighed down by such calamity. But the heart of the whole nation seems callous from familiarity with oppression, degradation, misery, and humiliation. Humiliation that no nation under heaven ever experienced, oppression far more grinding than that under which our forefathers labored, degradation more humble than the honest menial ever knew, and misery that no human mind can ever conceive of unless as participant. Saw a paper this evening containing a letter from John Wilkes Booth in which he intimated his intention of doing some desperate act of revenge for the tyranny practiced upon the people of the South. His name should be written on the highest pinnacle of fame for that one deed. He has scarified more than any one of his contemporaries, sacrificed his profession which brought him twenty thousand [dollars] a year, home, friends, family, all for the purpose of ridding the world of the most consummate villain under the sun. Heard more concerning Clara Peters. She writes her father that the Jesuits are the finest, most holy people on earth, and begs him to send her two little brother for (I suppose) the Roman Catholic Jesuits to raise. Warns her father of the nearness of the latter days and tells him he had a great deal better be preparing himself for eternity than seeking to enrich himself with earthly goods....

Diary of Sally Wendel Fentress.




27, 1865 - Growing Awareness in East Tennessee of the Defeat of the Confederacy. An Entry from the Diary of Eliza Rhea Anderson Fain

Yesterday I could not write as my spirit was overwhelmed within me. I felt so rebellious, I felt I could not submit to the thought of having to bow to the Union element in East Tennessee. The larger proportion o fit is so degraded and even the respectable portion can have no affinity for or with them. I heard yesterday evening that Gen. Johnston was preparing to surrender his army and that Gen.Smith had disbanded his. This is Union news.

We were cheered last night by the sight of one of our dear noble boys. The children went to bed and the dogs began to bark so fiercely I felt some one must be coming and I do confess my heart grows sick at the thought of another scene as I witnessed on the 5th. The girls soon cane downstairs saying somebody is coming. Liz went to the door. He spoke we knew it was some of our loved ones. He rode into the yard, dismounted and came in. It was no other than the noble Pete Fain. I was also glad to see him. The sight of one Reb although disarmed and helpless does me good. He and brother Hiram had arrived after dark Pete brought home an old horse for us which I feel so thankful to my Heavenly Father.

Pete brought us news from some of my precious treasures. My dear husband and Sam are still with my good old uncle. My dear boy is improving his wound is a flesh wound but I fear worse than we at first anticipated. Nick Fain and Mike McCarty are in Blountville. Powell alt Uncle Bob's and Sam Gammon in Virginia. My poor boy Ike and Ed Powell travelling somewhere in the Southern land. We fear the dear boys who left us when Samuel left have struck out for South Carolina. My firstborn it is said is at Mrs. Lyons.

Pete came over this evening telling us Mr. Sizemore was in town with about 25 men. It is really so painful for any of us to hear of his presence. I am confident that no rebel squad has left such a thrall of horror to the heart of any Union woman since the war began.

Fain Diary.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX