Monday, April 1, 2013

4/1/13 Tennessee Civil War Notes = TCWN

April 1, 1862, Army of Tennessee Brigadier-General William H. Carroll arrested for drunkenness[1]


Maj.-Gen. BRAGG, Chief of Staff:

GEN.: I have the honor to report that in obedience to your orders I visited the command at Iuka yesterday, and made as thorough an investigation of the reports against Maj.-Gen. Crittenden and Brig.-Gen. Carroll as opportunity afforded. I found sufficient evidence against them to require their arrest. I accordingly arrested Brig.-Gen. Carroll last night, and this morning ordered Brig.-Gen. Wood to relieve Maj.-Gen. Crittenden of the command of that place. The latter was ordered to consider himself in arrest for drunkenness, after turning over his command. I arrested Brig.-Gen. Carroll for drunkenness, incompetency, and neglect of his command.

I caused an inspection of the guards of three regiments to be made by Maj. Shoup, of my staff, and his report shows a most wretched state of discipline and instruction.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,

W. J. HARDEE, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 379.




1, The course of martial law in Federally occupied Murfreesboro, excerpt from the diary of John C. Spence

....Soldiers parading the streets; the cavalry men on horse back galloping in and out of town, without having much object in view.

The Military Gov. Parkhurst and provost marshal O. C. Rounds now duly installed, commence business.

The provost marshal has set to in a vigorous manner to put things strait [sic] and restore the union. [sic]

About the first thing that is done of any importance is to send out files of men all over the town for the purpose of searching the houses of citizens for guns and amuntion [sic] and any thing [sic] else that has the appearance of danger in the way of shooting. In these searches many little things of value disappeared, and nothing was said about it.

They looked in drawers, trunks, and boxes, and in fact, even in every thing: Kitchens, smoke houses, pantrys [sic], and cellars. In these rounds they collected a great many old guns, some without stocks, some with locks, and now and then a fine rifle or shot gun, [sic] would be found which was favorite guns of the owners. [sic] Among their collection of fire arms, short pieces of gas pipe was brought in. Suppose it looked, to them like it might shoot.

...all the fine guns was [sic] boxed up by the Provost and shiped [sic] home as trophy [sic] from the south, captured from the rebels.

The next thing men are arrested for some pretended cause. Some are put in jail for safe keeping, and some are sent to the penitintiary [sic] at Nashville without knowing the cause.

They claim that all citizens are disloyal to the U. S.; therefore, it was necessay [sic] that they should take an oath before they would be permitted to do any thing or go about and then they must carry a pass.

And, for this purpose, the gov. [sic] and provost marshal manufactures [sic] an oath to suit the occasion. [sic] Such a thing had never been in existence as to swear a man to allegiance who had been born and raised in the country. [2]

* * * *

Should a squad of cavalry go in the country and meet with a small skirmish, and any one of them get hurt or killed -- in this case a number of citizens nearest were ordered to be arrested and brought to town and placed under guard in the court house and kept there for some time. Not unfrequently, a lot would be sent to Nashville to the Penitintiary [sic] and undergo a confinement there for a time. When they did get released...they had to enter in a bond and security for their future good conduct, frequently approved by A. Johnson, military gov. of the state.

The matter of taking an oath then were but fiew [sic] that would submit, unless as a matter of necessity. All felt too independant [sic] for that.

* * * *

Spence Diary.




1, Francis Miller, Female Soldier


Camp Near Memphis, Tennessee

March 18, 1863

Editors Bulletin:

The following biographical sketch of one of America's bravest daughters, I deem worthy of a place in your columns. Upon the arrival of the 90 Illinois, more unanimously know as the "Irish Legend," at Lafayette, Tennessee, I became acquainted with some facts in the history of a lady connected with the regiment that exceed anything in romance, the wildest works of fiction. Her name is Francis Miller. She resided in Chicago, Ill., and has a father and two brothers in the Union army, and she determined to make the fourth of her family that were willing to offer up their lives in defense of our country. Acting on this patriotic impulse, she donned her brother's pantaloons and presented herself in the costume of a young gent of the Ton [sic], at the office of a recruiting officer, and, as required for the ranks (plenty for commission) came in very slow, she was received readily, and no questions asked. She was assigned to a company in the _____ Regiment, Illinois Volunteers, but did not remain long in it until her sex was discovered and she was mustered out of service. She was not discouraged however, for the next day she visited on Captain _______, who was making up a company for the 90th Illinois. To him she expressed her desire to serve her country in the field, and as he required a few more to fill up his company he gladly received her. She did her duty in this company – and did it well – stood guard, drilled, and, in fact, did all that is required of any soldier in active service. She was an apt scholar, and soon learned the details [?] of camp, and excelled her masculine comrades in the manual of arms. She would frequently go up in the city with her mess mates on "sparking expeditions," and being remarkably good looking, it is needless to say, that the ladies with whom she associated thought that "Frank" was the most charming young man in the army.

She had thus enjoyed the pleasures of male costume for six weeks, when her former Captain visited Camp Douglas, and recognized "Frank" as the girl in boys clothing that had duped him so clearly in getting into his company. He immediately reported her to Col. O. Miran, commanding the 90th, who summoned her to his tent. On her arrival, he [gestured to a chair(?)].She seated herself and the Colonel interrogated her as follows:

What is your name, young man?"

"Frank Miller."

How old are you?"

"Eighteen, sir."

"Well, my lad, do you think yare able to carry a knapsack?"

"I think I can sir," was the modest reply.

After a few more questions the Colonel told her that he was aware of her sex, and that she would have to be mustered out of service. This news fell like a thunder clap to her ears. She tried to convince him that she would make as good a soldier as any in his command, but in vain did she plead; the Colonel was immovable.

She was mustered out of the service for the second time but not yet satisfied with military life. She married and excellent young man, a "member of her mess," and remained with the regiment ever since. She was with the regiment at Cold Water when Van Dorn made his celebrated raid on Holly Springs. Learning the Van Dorn raid had taken place and that he was moving on the 90th at Cold Water, she immediately threw her petticoats aside, put on a jacket and [pantaloons(?)] and shouldered a musket and took her place in the ranks by the side of her husband. When the rebels made their appearance, all eyes were turned on the "petticoat warrior" – as the boys called her – to see how she looked, in this, her first appearance before the enemy; but she was so firm and resolute that she made the most of them ashamed of themselves. She fired two volleys into the rebel ranks with the coolness of a veteran. The rebels, seeing that the "Irish Legend," was made out of sterner material that the 101st "retired" in true Southern style. The 90th is now quartered at Lafayette, Tennessee. "Frank" is still living in union with her husband, is loved and respected by the entire regiment, and declares that "she is for the Union of State, union of heats, and the union of all loyal men and women to put down this rebellion.


Co. B., 14th Ill. Infantry

Memphis Bulletin, April 1, 1863

[1] Even though the Nashville native demanded a hearing, one was never held and he resigned on February 1, 1863. This was not the first time that others had noted his propensity for alcohol. For example, as early as November 1861, while nominally in charge of Confederate pacification efforts in Chattanooga, his subordinate Col. Sterling A.M. Wood telegraphed General Braxton BraGALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN   that Carroll had been "drunk not less than five years. He is stupid and easily controlled." [see OR, Ser. I, Vol. 4, pp. 248-250.] After resigning his commission in 1863 he joined his family in Montreal, Canada, for the duration of the war. He died in Montreal on May 3. 1868, and was temporarily buried in that French Canadian city. He was subsequently re-interred in Memphis, at the Elmwood Cemetery, in 1869. The headstone in Memphis cemetery is inaccurate both as to the years of his birth and death. He never received a pardon from the United States, partly because he was suspected of conspiracy in the death of President Abraham Lincoln. His route to Montreal is not known.

[2] It seems Spence and his compatriots had forgotten about secession, that those who could not or would not swear allegiance to the Union were enemies of the Union.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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