Thursday, May 31, 2012

May 31 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

31, Sarah Estes's reflections on life as altered by warfare
I have been quite sick for several days and my journal has been discontinued. I have suffered much, having had a spell of Neuralgia in my body and I am not yet quite well. We have heard since I have been sick that Corinth has been evacuated. We do not yet believe it, but fear it, the news depresses me very much, thick darkness that might be felt sometimes to have settled over my soul. I could see no merciful Father hand in the stern decree that night. I have suffered more mental anguish. It made me restless and aggravated my bodily sufferings. Oh! How brightly my dear children's images rose up before me. Every fresh disaster to us and success to our oppressors makes our separation longer, but now I have more faith, our cause looks dark, but I still have faith that the Lord will interfere in our behalf. He may see fit to destroy us and them may he give us a spirit of submission to say "Thy will be done."
My husband left us again this morning, he scarcely knows for what or where, being unable to hear from Corinth. He will try to go there I expect. It made my heart ache to see him to thus, so unlike what he was once. Not knowing where to turn his footsteps. May the Lord be with him and direct him in the right path.
I will determine my future course when he is settled.
* * * *
[General] Beauregard has ordered all the cotton to be gathered and burned in this country and the Cavalry [sic] commenced two days ago. They have not yet got here but the cotton is piled for the torch.
Mr. S. sent word yesterday to Denmark [Tennessee] for any one who wanted spinning [sic] cotton to come and get it today, and many have sent. It looks awful to have to burn such beautiful cotton. The Fall was dry and it is so white and free from trash, and if it is true that England is now suffering for cotton what will it be another year, last years [sic] crop destroyed and none making.
We will not suffer for it we can make bread and meat, the Lord blessing with the rain. But suppose they are willing to suffer for they will not help us. It will show the world that we are terribly in earnest, and I hope it will have good effect; but the whole world is against us. It will show that we are against us on account of our institutions, and I feel the can see no good in us.
* * * *
Mr. Estes returned this evening, the cars are not running and of course he could not get off. Some say that they are fighting at Corinth, but we do not know and must wait patiently until time reveals what is happening.
Estes's Diary, May 31, 1862

Entry from May 31, Kate Carney's Diary
Sunday May 31st 1862
Rather warm today. Aunt Judy Lytle came by & left cousin Mary & Johnny here to dinner, while she took me out to see Sister Amanda with her pass. I was rather uneasy for fear some union man or woman would stop Aunt Judy & say something to her and find out I was along, for they wouldn't begin to give me a pass. I had on cousin Mary's hat, two veils & was to pretend I was quite sleepy. The guards didn't say a word to me, & I got home safely after an hour or two's visit out at Uncle Tommie's. Cousin Mary is going to remain with us, & Aunt Judy & Johnny went home. That same old French Yankee came again this morning, & by Pa's permission remaining all night long. He has not been down to any of his meals, been quite unwell. I hope he will not be troubled much longer with any such. It is reported there is bad news for us, but I do not believe it. I will copy the dispatch "Near Corrinth May 30-To Gov. johnson. We are in possession of Corrinth. The enemy are retreating South. H. W. Halleck, Maj. Gen."
Kate Carney Diary
April 15, 1861-July 31, 1862

Fremantle's further impressions of the Army of Tennessee and of the Confederacy
31st May, Sunday.--The Bishop of Georgia preached to-day to a very large congregation in the Presbyterian church. He is a most eloquent preacher; and he afterwards confirmed about twenty people--amongst others, Colonel Gale, (over forty years old,) and young Polk. After church, I called again o­n General Bragg, who talked to me a long time about the battle of Murfreesboro' (in which he commanded.) He said that he retained possession of the ground he had won for three days and a half, and o­nly retired o­n account of the exhaustion of his troops, and after carrying off over 6,000 prisoners, much cannon, and other trophies. He allowed that Rosecrans had displayed much firmness, and was "the o­nly man in the Yankee army who was not badly beaten." He showed me, o­n a plan, the exact position of the two armies, and also the field of operations of the renowned guerillas, Morgan and Forrest.

Colonel Grenfell called again, and I arranged to visit the out posts with him o­n Tuesday. He spoke to me in high terms of Bragg, Polk, Hardee and Cleburne; but he described some of the others as "political" generals, and others as good fighters, but illiterate and somewhat addicted to liquor. He deplored the effects of politics upon military affairs as very injurious in the Confederate army, though not so bad as it is in the Northern.
At 2 P. M. I traveled in the cars to Wartrace, in company with General Bragg and the Bishop of Georgia. We were put into a baggage car, and the General and the Bishop were the o­nly persons provided with seats. Although the distance from Shelbyville to Wartrace is o­nly eight miles, we were o­ne hour and ten minutes in effecting the trajet, in such a miserable and dangerous state were the rails. o­n arriving at Wartrace we were entertained by Major General Cleburne. This officer gave me his history. He is the son of a doctor at or near Ballincolig. At the age of seventeen he ran away from home, and enlisted in her Majesty's 41st regiment of foot, in which he served three years as private and corporal. He then bought his discharge, and emigrated to Arkansas, where he studied law, and, eschewing politics, he got a good practice as a lawyer. At the outbreak of the war he was elected captain of his company, then colonel of his regiment, and has since, by his distinguished services in all the Western campaigns, been appointed to the command of a division (10,000. men)--the Page 79 highest military rank which has been attained by a foreigner in the Confederate service. He told me that he ascribed his advancement mainly to the useful lessons which he had learnt in the ranks of the British army, and he pointed with a laugh to his general's white facings, which he said his 41st experience enabled him to keep cleaner than any other Confederate general.
He is now thirty-five years of age; but, his hair having turned gray, he looks older. Generals Bragg and Hardee both spoke to me of him in terms of the highest praise, and said that he had risen entirely by his own personal merit. 
At 5 P. M. I was present at a great open air preaching at General Wood's camp. Bishop Elliott preached most admirably to a congregation composed of nearly three thousand soldiers, who listened to him with the most profound attention. Generals Bragg. Polk, Hardee, Withers, Cleburne, and endless brigadiers, were also present. It is impossible to exaggerate the respect paid by all ranks of this army to Bishop Elliott; and although most of the officers are Episcopalians, the majority of the soldiers are Methodists, Baptists, &c. Bishop Elliott afterwards explained to me that the reason most of the people had become dissenters was because there had been no bishops in America during the "British dominion;" and all the clergy having been appointed from England, had almost without exception stuck by the King in the Revolution, and had had their livings forfeited.

I dined and slept at General Hardee's, but spent the evening at Mrs. ----'s, where I heard renewed philippics directed by the ladies against the Yankees.
I find that it is a great mistake to suppose that the press is gagged in the South, as I constantly see the most violent attacks upon the President--upon the different generals and their measures. To-day I heard the officers complaining bitterly of the "Chattanooga Rebel," for publishing an account of Breckinridge's departure from this army to reinforce Johnston in Mississippi, and thus giving early intelligence to the enemy.

Fremantle, Three Months, pp. 78-79.

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

May 30 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

Fremantle on the Army of Tennessee

30th May, Saturday.--It rained hard all last night, but General Polk's tent proved itself a good o­ne. We have prayers both morning and evening, by Dr. Quintard, together with singing, in which General Polk joined with much zeal. Colonel Gale, who is son-in-law and volunteer aid-de-camp to General Polk, has placed his negro Aaron and a mare at my disposal during my stay.
General Polk explained to me, from a plan, the battle of Murfreesboro'. He claimed that the Confederates had o­nly 30,000 troops, including Breckinridge's division, which was not engaged o­n the first day. He put the Confederate loss at 10,000 men, and that of the Yankees at 19,000. With regard to the battle of Shiloh he said that Beauregard's order to retire was most unfortunate, as the gunboats were doing no real harm, and if they (the Confederates) had held o­n, nothing could have saved the Federals from capture or destruction. The misfortune of Albert Johnston's death, [together] with the fact of Beauregard's illness and his not being present at that particular spot, were the causes of this battle not being a more complete victory. 

Ever since I landed in America, I had heard of the exploits of an Englishman called Col. St. Leger Grenfell, who is now Inspector General of Cavalry to Bragg's army. This afternoon I made his acquaintance, and I consider him o­ne of the most extraordinary characters I ever met. Although he is a member of a well known English family, he seems to have devoted his whole life to the exciting career of a soldier of fortune. He told me that in early life he had served three years in a French lancer regiment, and had Page 77 risen from a private to be a sous-lieutenant. He afterwards became a sort of consular agent at Tangier, under old Mr. Drummond Hay. Having acquired a perfect knowledge of Arabic, he entered the service of Abd-el-Kader, and under that renowned chief he fought the French for four years and a half. At another time of his life he fitted out a yacht, and carried o­n a private war with the Riff pirates. He was Brigade Major in the Turkish contingent during the Crimean war, and had some employment in the Indian mutiny. He has also been engaged in war in Buenos Ayres and the South American republics. At an early period of the present troubles he ran the blockade and joined the Confederates. He was adjutant general and right hand man to the celebrated John Morgan for eight months. Even in this army, which abounds with foolhardy and desperate characters, he has acquired the admiration of all ranks by his reckless daring and gallantry in the field. Both Generals Polk and Bragg spoke to me of him as a most excellent and useful officer, besides being a man who never lost an opportunity of trying to throw his life away. He is just the sort of a man to succeed in this army, and among the soldiers his fame for bravery has outweighed his unpopularity as a rigid disciplinarian. He is the terror of all absentees, stragglers, and deserters, and of all commanding officers who are unable to produce for his inspection the number of horses they have been drawing forage for. He looks about forty-five, but in reality he is fifty-six. He is rather tall, thin, very wiery and active, with a jovial English expression of countenance; but his eyes have a wild, roving look, which is common amongst the Arabs. When he came to me he was dressed in an English staff blue coat, and he had a red cavalry forage cap, which latter, Ceneral Polk told me, he always wore in action, so making himself more conspicuous. He talked to me much about John Morgan, whose marriage he had tried to avert, and of which he spoke with much sorrow. He declared that Morgan was enervated by matrimony, and would never be the same man as he was. He said that in o­ne of the celebrated telegraph tappings in Kentucky, Morgan, the operator and himself, were seated for twelve hours o­n a clay bank during a violent storm, but the interest was so intense, that the time passed like three hours.
General Polk's son, a young artillery lieutenant, told me this evening that "Stonewall Jackson" was a professor at the military school at Lexington, in which he was a cadet. "Old Jack" was considered a persevering but rather dull master, and was often made the butt of by cheeky cadets, whose great ambition it was to irritate him, but, however insolent they were. he never took the slightest notice of their impertinance at the time, although he always had them punished for it afterwards. At the outbreak of the war, he was called upon by the cadets to make a speech, and these were his words: Soldiers make short speeches: be slow to draw the sword in civil strife, but when you draw it, throw away the scabbard." Young Polk says that the enthusiasm created by this speech of old Jack's was beyond description.
Fremantle, Three Months, pp, 76-78.






30, "Military Hospitals -- Chap. XX."
Number 12. -- Headquarters of No. 12 is situated in the Broadway Hotel building, and the two large store houses adjoining, fronting on Broad street, between Summer and Cherry streets. In this hospital there are ten wards, of nine of which we give the exact measurement as follows:
No. Length Breath [sic] Heighth [sic] Total
1 100 28 9 25,200
2 59 28 9 14, 860
3 100 28 10 28,000
4 59 28 10 16,520
5 70 38 10 26,000
6 70 17 13 15,470
7 70 17 13 15,470
9 28 18 8 5,472
The ceilings of some o these wards are not so high as in some other hospitals, nor is the light so good, the rooms being very long, and no side windows, but the ventilation seems to be god, the rooms being cool and sweet, even during the hottest part of Wednesday last, when the thermometer reached as high as 88 degrees in some shady places about the city, Ward 2 is a very fine one, and all are in excellent condition.
Nearly all the officers, and the Surgeons' apartment are situated in the hotel building, and all are in good condition.
The dining room is in the middle building, and will seat about two hundred persons, comfortably and pleasantly. The kitchen is large, well-arranged, and very clean, and is situated in the rear of the dining room, a bed-room for the kitchen attendants being between the dining room and kitchen. In the front, on the first floor of the western building, is the office of the Officer of the Guard, who has under him twenty-five men, detailed from convalescents unfit for field duty. The headquarters of the Officer of the Day is situated to the left of the main entrance to the hotel.
Hydrant water is introduced on each floor of the three buildings. The cots are nearly al of iron, and nearly all the patients are able to walk about.
The negro servants (males) are quartered in comfortable tents in the yard, which is in excellent order, and well arranged. A number of trees in the yard form delightful shades under which convalescents can lounge during fine days.
The following is a list of officers: Surgeon in Charge -- J. S. Maurer, Acting Asst. Surg., U. S. A.
Assistant -- W. K. Mavity, Contract Surgeon
C. B. Volgt " "
Chaplain -- Rev. R. Delo, 30 Indiana
Steward -- John Hall, 29th, Regulars
Druggist-- do do
Chief Clerk -- W. J. Merchant, 49th Ohio
Ward Master -- B. F. Turner
Commissary Clark n-- James Estelle
Matrons -- Mary McDonald and Mrs. Bolpin.
There are 25 nurses, 9 cooks, 22 colored females, and 20 colored nurses, employed in and about the hospital, which is furnished to accommodate 283 patients, 160 of the beds being occupied on Wednesday last.
Religious services are held in the hospital every Sunday at 2 p. m.
There is but one bath-tub at present connected with the hospital, but arrangements are in progress for increased bathing accommodation.
All the wards and other apartments connected with the hospital are in excellent condition, and we are informed that the dispensary, commissary, linen-room, etc., are abundantly supplied with all that is necessary for a full hospital of patients.
In walking over the hospital with the officer of the day, our attention was attracted to a young boy, scarce sixteen years old, who had lost is left arm, and another, only 19 years, who was wounded in the left arm. Both were doing well when we say them.
An extraordinary case which is worthy of notice is that of John Vance, a private in Co. B., 72d Indiana Volunteers. According to his statement, he, in company with others, left near Murfreesboro' to go on a scouting expedition toward Taylorsville, Tenn., and was taken prisoner by the Confederates on the 3d day of April last. He was afterward put under guard for the night, and the next morning he was informed that in consequence of the guard (four in number) being obliged to go on an expedition, they would have to tie him to a tree until their return. They tied him and left, but had only gone a few yards when they drew their pistols and shot him through the face and neck, one ball entering posterior to the left ear, and passing through the left orbit, entirely destroying the eye; two other balls passed between the superior and inferior maxillaries, and the fourth passed under the inferior maxillary, fracturing the left angle, and inflicting a sever flesh wound. They then cut losses the cords that abound him and he fell insensible to the ground., How long Vance lay in this condition he cannot tell, but recovering his consciousness, he crawled along the road in search of relief, not knowing whither he was going, until, after making about six miles, he fell in with some Federal cavarly, and he was conveyed thence to camp, about nineteen miles to the rear, where his wounds were dressed, and he was properly cared for. He is not doing well. This was truly a miraculous escape from death, and is an instance of the power of man to endure extreme pain and suffering very; rarely to be met with. We can vouch for th e wounds as above described, having examined them ourselves.
The officers are all attentive and polite, and the patients appear perfectly at home and happy as can be expected.
Nashville Dispatch, May 30, 1863.


30, "Special Order No. 107."
Office of the Provost Marshal
District of Memphis
Memphis, Tenn., May 30th, 1864
It is hereby ordered that all crying or selling of Newspapers on Sunday, between the hours of 9 A.M. and 5 P.M. shall be discontinued.
The Provost Guard will arrest all persons disobeying this order.
Geo. A. Williams
Capt., 1st U.S. Infnty and Provost Marshall
C.C. Washburn, Maj. Gen. Comd'g.

Memphis Bulletin, June 3, 1864.

Tuesday, May 29, 2012

May 29 - 30 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

30, "I hope he will regret taking that oath, I wish there was no blood in his vein that is in mine."

Rather warm today, remained up in my room until supper, or rather until the sun was down. I've felt quite unwell all day, o­nly ate a biscuit & drank a cup of coffee for breakfast, the first I have eaten since I came home from Mrs. Anderson's, I did not eat any dinner, didn't feel like it. William Carney was in town today, o­n his way out met Rev. Eagleton, brought him out in his buggy. I did not see them, heard that William looked as well as they ever saw him. I hope he will regret taking that oath, I wish there was no blood in his vein that is in mine. Cousin Kate McColloch & children spent the day here, but I did not see them. Sue Brady called out here this evening, & Bettie went out riding in the barouche with her. That old Yankee Frenchman came & staid until after dinner, although no o­ne paid him any attention. Maj. Ledbetter & Col. Ready got back from Nashville today, o­n two weeks parole, I am glad they have gotten back, even for so short a time. It is reported the Federals are fortifying Nashville in a hurry. I am glad to hear that as they must certainly be expecting an attack of our men. I heard that Mary Spence accompanied old Andy Johnson out to her Uncle Billy Spence's the night of the Union meeting, & remained over night and returned, as he came in the next morning. She is the Miss that says if the people of Murfressboro don't stop talking about Bill Spence he will make them suffer for it. Hurrah! for her. I forgot to mention in here about a grand parade they had o­ne day over a little secession flag they got from some private family. Pretended as if they had gotten it in a fight, & tied it [to] the mane of o­ne of their horses & dragged the flag, & strewed flowers where the flag went along. That was a contemptible act, equaled o­nly by the arrest of Mr. Winship, to make him look at their Union flag that Mrs. Matilda Spence and her niece Mary made them, just because he helped raise the Confederate flag when it was first hoisted in our town, but he would not look up, but smoked away like he didn't care a fig for all of them & their old flags.
Kate Carney Diary

April 15, 1861-July 31, 1862]



29, Federal train derailed by Confederates at La Vergne
LA VERGNE, May 30, 1863.
Guard at Mill Creek Bridge No. 3 reported a small body of rebels, about 30, crossing the railroad track early this a. m., at the point where train was captured on 10th of last month. A small party was seen yesterday by trackmen near same place. I have notified Gen. Steedman. Engine was thrown from track here last night. Have it now on. Will not delay trains much. Engine not damaged.
J. B. ANDERSON, [Railroad Superintendent.]
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 372.


Friday, May 25, 2012

May 25 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

     25, "MURDER WILL OUT" by William G. Brownlow

A secret of some importance has been cautiously communicated to this city form Alabama by a man not likely to be deceived. The same facts in substance have been intrusted to a most estimate individual here under the solemn injunction of secrecy for a specified time. There are now three other gentlemen besides ourselves and they are men of high positions who know the facts and have the evidence of them. This stupendous and appalling conspiracy amounts to this:

Johnson, Nelson, Baxter, Temple, Trigg, Maynard, Brownlow and George W. Bridges are to be arrested after the election in June by a military force and taken in irons to Montgomery and either punished for treason or held as hostages to guarantee the quiet surrender of the Union men of East Tennessee.

The facts of his conspiracy against the rights of America citizens together with the names of those concerned in urging it o­n, all, will be left in the hands of reliable, bold an fearless men who will make them public at the proper time. The thousands of Union men of East Tennessee devoted to principle and to the rights and liberties of those who fall at the hands of these conspirators will be expected to avenge their wrongs. Let the railroad o­n which Union citizens of East Tennessee are conveyed to Montgomery in irons be eternally and hopelessly destroyed. Let the property of the men concerned be consumed and let their lives pay the forfeit and the names will be given. Let the fires of patriotic vengeance be built upon the Union altars of the whole land and let them go out where these conspirators live like the fires from the Lord that consumed Nadab and Abihu, the two sons of Aaron, for presumption less sacrilegious. If we are incarcerated at Montgomery or executed there or even elsewhere all the consolation we want is to know that our partisan friends have visited upon our persecutors, certain secession leaders, a most horrible vengeance. Let it be done, East Tennesseeans, though the gates of hell be forced and the heavens be made to fall.

In disclosing this bold and deep-laid plot against the liberties of freemen we have not intended a sensation article. Some may smile at its alleged senseless absurdity but we are not alone in putting forth these facts. We most solemnly implore our friends throughout East Tennessee as they regard our welfare and as they cherish principles for which we are likely battling not to molest any person or property in advance of an attack upon any of us but to hold themselves in readiness for action, action. As yet the conspiracy is o­nly partially revealed, the murder partly out; the mask will be taken off in due time. We are not in possession of the names of any confederates and abettors outside of the limits of East Tennessee though some have been closeted with East Tennesseeans and the details of their plans agreed upon. Again in the name of everything sacred we ask for ourselves and those threatened with us that no more shall be made by our friends toward injuring the person or property of any living man or existing corporation until further developments are made; and then let every brave man act and let all act together. Thanks be to God for the vigilance of some true men and for their promptness in making communications. A Union man of high character who will disguise himself and travel hundreds of miles at his own expense to serve true men to him personally unknown deserves to be immortalized and to live forever.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, pp. 911-912.



     25, Governor Isham G. Harris o­n Confederate strategy for Tennessee

Hon. L. P. WALKER, War Department, Montgomery:

SIR: Your dispatch of the 20th instant was placed in my hands by Gen. Zollicoffer o­n the 22d. I sent Lieut. McCall, of the Confederate Army, to West Tennessee o­n yesterday for the purpose of mustering into the service of the Confederate States such of our West Tennessee regiments as may be willing to enter that service, and think it probable that the four regiments to be armed with muskets will be mustered into service within a day or two. If, however, the whole number shall not be made up in that division of the State, I will make up the deficiency in regiments already formed in Middle Tennessee. I do not think it advisable to station a regiment of Confederate troops in East Tennessee at this time. We have about fifteen companies of the troops of the Provisional Army of Tennessee stationed at Knoxville, and sound policy requires that they should be continued there for the present instead of troops sent from or mustered into the service of the Confederate States. I approve your suggestion as to the use of the sporting rifle with minie-ball, and have no doubt it may be made a highly effective arm for all shooting purposes upon the battle-field. I am taking steps to raise the four regiments called for by your dispatch to be thus armed, and hope to have them ready for the field at no distant day.

Your dispatch is silent as to the subsistence, transportation, pay, &c., of the troops called for. I feel warranted, however, in assuming that these all follow as necessary incidents to the act of being mustered into the service of the Government of the Confederate States, and therefore have given orders to have them mustered in as fast as regiments are found organized and ready. The number of troops stationed at Cairo and above that point o­n the river and railroads, taken in connection with many other indications unmistakable in their character, but unnecessary to be enumerated here, drives me to the conclusion that the settled purpose of the Federal Government is to attempt to descend the Mississippi River with an overwhelming force at an early day, in view of which fact I regard it as a matter of the highest importance to the Confederate States, as well as to Tennessee, that a large force, fully armed and equipped, be stationed in the northwestern portion of this State. We find very little difficulty in raising any reasonable number of men, but unfortunately we have not a sufficient number of small-arms for such force as will be necessary for present purposes. We have been fortunate in securing a sufficient number of heavy guns for our stationary batteries, but have little or no field artillery. We have all the means of supplying this indispensable necessity of the service if I could secure the services of an experienced ordnance officer to direct us in their manufacture and to apply the proper tests when made. If you know of such an officer, whose services can be secured, I shall be greatly obliged to you for the information.

I am informed that there are a number of regiments, armed, equipped, and ready for the field in the States of Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana. If this be true, it seems to me that every consideration of prudence and security requires that these troops should be stationed immediately upon the northern boundary of West Tennessee. They will be more healthy, more comfortable, and more cheaply subsisted there than farther South, and if there is to be battle to prevent the invasion of the Valley of the Lower Mississippi it must be fought in the northern part of West Tennessee. I am concentrating such force there as I am able to arm, but such force as I may be able to concentrate there will, I fear, be unequal to the task of driving back so large a column of invaders as will be thrown upon us in that quarter. Indeed, if our forces and energies are not concentrated to meet the enemy at this point--if he should be permitted to lay waste to West Tennessee, flushed as he would be by this temporary success, and strengthened by the possession of Memphis as the base of his operations against the Valley below and the Southern States east of him--I am at a loss to know where the stand can be made to prevent his o­nward march to New Orleans. These suggestions have presented themselves to my mind with so much force that I have left authorized to submit them to you for such consideration as you may see proper to bestow upon them, after which, if you should take the same view of the matter that I have done, I shall be very happy to have your aid in inducing the States names to station their organized troops as suggested.

Very respectfully,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 108-109.



25, Skirmish near Woodbury
MAY 25, 1863.-- Skirmish near Woodbury, Tenn.
Report of Col. William C. P. Breckinridge, Ninth Kentucky Cavalry (Confederate).
CAMP HEATH, June 6, 1863.
SIR: In accordance with the other of the general commanding, I submit the following report of the operations of my regiment upon the 25th ultimo:
My picketing required about 90 privates daily, and the pickets were relieved at 9 a. m.
About 10.15 o'clock upon the morning of May 25, when both the old and new pickets were out of camp, I received information from my advanced pickets on the Woodbury road, placed within 1 1/2 miles of Woodbury by order of Gen. [Joseph] Wheeler, through Lieut. Campbell, that a body of Federal cavalry were advancing upon them. I immediately ordered Capt. [T. H.] Hines to take all the well-mounted men of Companies A, C, and E, and re-enforce the picket base, while I moved the regiment from its camp to the Woodbury and McMinnville road. Before Capt. Hines had time to move off, I received information that the enemy had driven in the advanced pickets, cutting off three of them, and were advancing with cavalry, infantry, and artillery, I immediately sent a courier to you with this information, and a courier to the officer commanding my chain picket, running to the Georgia pickets, upon my left, ordering that officer to make pickets fall back upon the roads they were respectively posted upon toward McMinnville, to redouble his vigilance, be prepared to collect his pickets, and send the information to the Georgia pickets. In a few moments I received information that the chain picket had been pierced at two places and part of two posts captured; that a heavy force of cavalry, accompanied by artillery, was rapidly advancing upon the road to Jacksborough, and another force of cavalry advancing upon a country road nearly unused, and which led into my camp. My horses were nearly unfit for service, having been on constant service with very scant rations for several months. My instructions were to fall back, when compelled to retreat, in such a way as to protect the road to Chattanooga.
Upon receiving that information, I ordered Maj. [J. P.] Austin to move the regiment to the junction of the McMinnville and Woodbury and McMinnville and Jacksborough roads. I ordered Capt. Hines to fall back rapidly nearer McMinnville than my camp, to prevent being cut off by any of the numerous roads that intercept the main road between Mrs. Glasscock's and the tan-yard. I ordered Capt. [W. P.] Roberts, with Company I, to scout the country toward, and, if possible, beyond, Jacksborough, and sent a small scout toward Short Mountain. Capt. Hines had scarcely time to obey my order when my camp was entered in four directions. Indeed, the rear guard of Capt. Hines' detachment was cut off, and but for the coolness of Capt. [F. G.] Hill and the few men under him, they would have been captured. I in person collected together the pickets and the men out of camp upon various excuses, and a few with good horses, and re-enforced Capt. Hines. The cavalry force of the enemy was so much larger than my own, the condition of my horses was so deplorable, that it was impossible for me to either check their advance but for a moment at a time or to send a scout around them. To prevent being cut off from the Chattanooga road, to give timely information to you and the Georgia pickets, and to protect my own regiment, were all I could hope to accomplish. The enemy advanced nearly to Mr. Hopkins', are there prepared an ambush for me. Capt. Roberts returned, reporting no enemy at Jacksborough, and that force returning toward Woodbury. Before his return I left scouts in front and upon the left of the enemy, with orders to report every movement, and keep me well informed, while I feel back slowly to the regiment, to prevent the enemy from cutting my command in two. Had I been left without instructions to protect the Chattanooga road, I would have remained close to the enemy, and, when cut off from McMinnville, fallen back toward Smithville. The enemy received, by some Union citizens, information of some movement in his rear, and fell back in the early part of the night, followed by my scouts, who followed him closely to his encampment near Readyville. Whatever information I received, I reported, either in writing or in person or by my adjutant, to you.
I lost 6 prisoners, captured by reason of the poor condition of their horses. The enemy lost 1 killed and 6 wounded, besides several horses.
I need not say how chafed I was that the condition of my regiment prevented me from punishing this advance, as I might easily have done under other circumstances.
I have the honor to be, &c.,
WM. C. P. BRECKINRIDGE, Col., Cmdg. Regt.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 347-348



25, Peace comes to the Cherry Creek community in White County; an excerpt from the journal of Amanda McDowell
There has so much taken place that I shall not try to write it all. But I guess peace is made. That is all I care much for. The soldiers have all come that are alive and able to get here. They say they are not whipped but "overpowered," but I wonder what is the difference. The guerillas [sic] all surrendered but "Old Champ" (and some say another one or two) and he went back and offered to give up but they refused to take him and took him to go back and wait for further orders.....
Fiddles in the Cumberlands, p. 278.


Thursday, May 24, 2012

May 24 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

An entry from Kate Karney's (Murfreesboro) Diary
Saturday May 24th 1862
It was drizzling rain this morning, but it soon cleared off. I was in hopes it would have proved a disagreeable day, so the country people would have been prevented coming in town to hear old Andy Johnson speak.* I heard he had very few to hear him speak, & most of them were soldiers, which I was glad of. An old friend of Pa's was to see him today, a Mr. Hall. He wouldn't stay long, said he wanted to leave town before they began speaking. He is the gentleman who was so kind to our two friends the Dr's Tiddings of Ky. They have staid a long time with him, after they left here. They have joined Morgan, but for a long time they could not make their escape. They can boast of many narrow escapes they have had when they return home especially the one they had here. Uncle Tom Turner has been here today. A remarkably prudent man, won't say a word scarcely. Said Sister Amanda heard from Bro. Jno. a short time since. He was well, but Bro. Will was sick down at Sister Mary's in Miss. and that Legrand was not well. They were all in the fight down at Pittsburgh Landing. Sister Amanda is not going to name her daughter until Bro. Jno. gets back home. Cousin Henry Tilford was out here also today. Rosa spent last night at Uncle Avent's, & Kate returned with her this morning, & going to spend the night with her. Sallie & Harriet Wendle came out to see the children this evening. Bettie & I walked down in the lot, met Mrs. Camp, that told us her husband had been discharged from our army on account of ill health, but she wanted it kept a secret for fear he would be arrested. Said she could not tell any thing, but if Pa would go down to see him, that he could get all the news. She asked permission for her horse to stay in the lot, and I told her I guessed it might, but would ask Pa, and it was all right, and he told the servants not to turn it out. Ma then got Pa to go down to see him. He said our boys were all in high spirits, that they had enough provisions to last them a year, that troops daily flocked to our army at Corinth, & there was no danger of our boys being defeated. He also said Morgan had raised 10,000 men from Ky. & it was thought he had recaptured his prisoners that were taken in Lebanon. It is certainly cheering to hear such good news, for inside the lines here we seldom ever see, only the dark side of the picture. Bettie and I were sitting out on the front steps when we saw some men coming up, but it was so dark we could not distinguish who they were, but when we found it was not Pa coming from Mr. Camp's, run in and shut the door. Ma stepped to the door, and on finding it was strangers stepped back & got a light, & lo & behold it was that little Yankee from the convalescent hospital that came up, and told Ma when Pa was arrested that it was negro news, & wanted to know about her money, & I firmly believe if he had thought that Ma had had money in the house he would have robbed her. He wanted Ma to pay him to get Pa out of jail, said he was a Pittsburgh lawyer. He wanted Mr. Tally to make out a bill and receipt it, so he could go to the government officer & make him pay it, & when Mr. Tally refused, he swore he would get as much money out of that old government as possible meaning the U. S. It was he and two others (I guess of the same stamp). One was a Capt. & the other had some office, I don't know what, Pa came after awhile, & still they staid on, & when supper was announced they went in, although they said they had taken theirs before the came. I suppose they thought they would get to see us & go off, and report that we had received them, but only Pa, Ma, & Cousin Ann went in to supper. They asked for music, both before and after supper, but I would cut my hands off before I would play for Yanks. I thought it was a great piece of impertinence in that little chap bringing those others up here to hear music, as he said just as if we dare not refuse to see them. The very idea, I hope I will die before I am found receiving a Yankee. They said they had never received a single kind word from any one in Murfreesboro, & had no sympathy for secession. How can they look for kindness when they have come to take every thing away from the citizens down South, & ruin every thing we hold dear.
Kate Carney Diary
April 15, 1861-July 31, 1862
*Ed. note: For coverage of his speech found in the New York Herald, June 4, 1862, see LeRoy P. Graf and Ralph W. Haskins, eds., Patricia Clark, assoc. ed., The Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, 1861-1862, (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979), 416-417.



  24, Skirmish at Davis' Mill Road*
No circumstantial reports filed. 
*Ed. note - There is some confusion regarding this accuracy of this event and this date. The OR General Index, Vol. I, p. 239 indicates that there was a skirmish at Davis' Mill Road o­n May 24, 1863 and that information is to be found in Ser.I, Vol. 24. However, this event is listed in the Index of Vol. 24, pt. I pp. 811 and 832 as having occurred in March 24, 1863. In Vol 23, pt. I, pp. 472-473 is found the report of Lieutenant-Colonel Reuben L. Loomis, 6th Illinois Cavalry of a skirmish o­n the Davis' Mill Road o­n March 24, 1863 [see also March 24, 1863] Consequently it cannot be determined whether or not there was a skirmish, etc., for this date at Davis' Mill Road. [see also, March 24, 1862, p. 472 of OR, Ser. I,Vol 24, pt. I.]
Not listed in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.


24, Skirmish in Winchester, guerrillas rob U.S. Army paymaster Report of Col. Henry K. McConnell, Seventy-five Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry.
HDQRS. RAILROAD DEFENSES, Tullahoma, Tenn., June 2, 1864.
Maj. B. H. POLK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Nashville:
SIR: I send herewith a copy of a report from Col. McConnell. I have had no opportunity to control this lawlessness for want of sufficient cavalry force. I shall be ready in a few days. The same men are concerned in all of the depredations on the railroad. I have learned the names of some of them and several of the persons who keep up and harbor the outlaws.
Respectfully submitted.
Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 18.

HDQRS. SEVENTY-THIRD Regt. OHIO VET. VOL. INFTY., Elk River Bridge, May 30, 1864.
I have the honor to respectfully state that on last Tuesday night [the 24th] the guerrillas robbed Winchester of about $10,000. They knew men and houses and events only as citizen guerrillas can. No one came to notify me of the raid. I heard incidentally that the citizens were industriously circulating the report that our troops had robbed the town. I sent Capt. McConnell to inquire into the matter. They gave but partial information. The squad was small; only six or eight. They have been lurking in the neighborhood ever since. They fired into the train on Saturday night [28th] between this and Decherd, and yesterday they stole a horse near Winchester. We are very much embarrassed for want of a telegraph office here.
Very respectfully,
Col. Seventy-first Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, pp. 18-19.


Wednesday, May 23, 2012

May 23 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

23, "Military Hospitals" Chap XII
The Prison Hospital is not numbered; it is located in the Second Baptist (Dr. R. Ford's) Church, on Cherry street, beyond South Union, a few hundred yards South of the Howard High School. There are two wards in the building, both large rooms, and both above ground, well lighted and ventilated, and very clean and comfortable, the hospital being well stocked with everything needful for the comfort of the patients. Indeed, in this respect we think it excels man others, but we may be mistaken as in this hospital we find more seriously wounded men than in other, and the various modern contrivances for easing of pain and relieving the discomforts of the bedfast, many have come more prominently before our eye.
The interesting features in this hospital, to us, was the great care and attention bestowed upon the patients -- Confederates and Federals alike -- who are mixed up with each other most admirably. Side by side the Federal and Confederate soldier eat, and sleep, and chat, and play, and comfort each other, and nurse each other, with that care and attention, shad heart-felt sympathy, which are always to be found prominently n the brace heart of the soldier. This hospital is not as some suppose, exclusively for Confederate prisoners, but for all military prisoners. All the Federals, we believe, have been guilty of mere petty offences, such as being out with a pass, exceeding by a few hours the limit of their leave of absence, attempting to break from the guard, and such like. The kind and affectionate manner in which each patient is addressed by the Surgeon in Charge as well as other officers, and the confidence and great respect which the patients entertain for them, is very striking and truly gratifying to the sympathizer with human sufferings. And here, indeed, is room for sympathy. Ghastly wounds of all descriptions are visible in every direction. Here are several who lost an arm, amputated close to the shoulder; many others a leg; many whose bones have become again unified but leaving one limb much shorter than the other; some deformities; some having lost an eye. Our attention was called to one interesting case, where a Confederate was struck by a minie ball on the second finger of the right hand, which was broken, and the ball lodged in the fleshy part between the thumb and index finger, a portion of the ball being cut off by coming in contact with his musket, and entering his right eye, which he has lost, and a buckshot entering his neck, and lodged there, and where it remains, just under the skin, but causing him no pain or uneasiness.
Another interesting case is that of an intelligent little boy -- a mere child, -- pretty and delicate, not yet fifteen years old, named John Taylor, of Chattanooga. He was wounded and taken prisoner some time ago, and is now doing very well. He seems to be quite at home, but would much like to obtain permission to stroll about town a little every fine day until he is well enough to be exchanged [sic]. 
Capt. King, of Louisiana, is also here, badly wounded in the right thigh. The Surgeon informed us that he has suffered severely, but uncomplainingly, for a long time, and several times feared he would lose him; but is not doing well, and likely to recover.
All inmates of this hospital are received from Col. Martin, the Provost Marshal, and to him returned or accounted for.
Among the other inmates were two lunatics, one of whom was sent to the Lunatic Asylum while we were at the hospital; the other is the one who was formerly in the Penitentiary -- a quiet, inoffensive man, who sits in one position all day, eats well, never talks, sleeps well, and takes not the slightest notice of any person or thing. The one who was sent away urgently requested our company to town, and insisted on getting himself ready immediately.
There are many other interesting cases here, Which we may allude to hereafter, in another chapter. For the present we must concern ourselves to a statement of a few general facts connected with the hospital.
The following are the names of the officers of the Prison Hospital:
Surgeon-in-Charge -- T. G. Hickman, Acting Ass't Surg. U. S. A.
Chaplain -- Rev. Mr. Poucher.
Steward -- Jas. Yerkes.
Sergeant of the Guard -- John McFarland, 19th Ill. Vols.
Ward Master -- Alfred Hemmings.
Matron -- Mrs. Foster.
Druggist -- John Foley.
There are thirty men detailed to guard this hospital under Sergeant McFarland. Six nurses, three cooks, six colored females, and six colored males are employed. There are in the building, for patients, 100 iron cots, 25 of which were occupied on the night of the 19th, but eleven of the Confederates were removed on the 20th, with a view to an early exchange.
They is no regular chaplain belonging to this hospital, but Mr. Poucher visits the patients occasionally, and administers religious consolations to such as desire it. There are not regular religious services. The Sanitary Commission has furnished books on several occasions for the use of the inmates, and the Surgeon informs us that the patients feel grateful to MR. Crawford for his kindness in this respect.
The bath-room contains only one tub, but that proves sufficient under existing circumstances, there being few able to avail themselves of the luxury of sporting in a large and well filled bath tub. Dr. Hickman encourages a desire to bathe frequently.
For amusement and pastimes, chess, checkers, dominoes, and, we presume, a social game at euchre, are indulged, beside reading and writing. 
The officers are on the first floor at the West end of the building; and in a small building in the rear, are the laundry and the room for cooking the delicacies for those unable to bear hospital fare with convalescents. The kitchen is on the north side of the building, and the dining room is a very comfortable one, in which meals are served to guards and convalescents at 7, 12, and 6 o'clock.
The Commissary is abundantly stocked and in addition to the ordinary supply furnished by government, Dr. Hickman informs us that he ins indebted to Dr. Reed and Mr. Robinson, of the Sanitary Commission, for liberal grants from that organization. The Dispensary and Linen room are also abundantly stocked with everything needful, or likely to be needed.
Good order, cleanliness, and quiet, prevail throughout this establishment, and the intimacy and familiarity existing between doctors and patients, betokens a confidence and good understanding between all parties.
The friends of Sergeant McFarland will regret to learn that he is very sick, and has been for some time. He is recovering, however, and hopes soon to be able for active duty.
Nashville Dispatch, May 23 1863.



Health Office, Memphis, Tenn., May 23, '64
Brigade and Regimental companies are hereby notified to have all filth and nuisances removed from all the camps and barracks in and around the city.
By order of [W.?] Noel Burke, Surgeon, U. S. Volunteers and Health Officer
W. Underwood, Health Commissioner
Memphis Bulletin, May 24, 1864.

Tuesday, May 22, 2012

May 22 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

     22, Correspondence from Edmund Cooper to Military Governor Andrew Johnson relative to secessionists in Shelbyville

Shelbyville Ten. May 22 1862 [sic] 

Govnr Andrew Johnson

Dear Sir:

We have in our community a few active talking secessionists, between the ages of 20--and 40--that never have been to war, and have a "holy horror" of fighting-In other words-they are all "gass," and no "deeds." They are too insignificant to be to be arrested and sent to Nashville-and yet as carriers of Grape vine telegraphs, they do some harm-

Now, what think you of this suggestion-Have about three or four of them arrested, who are liable to the "conscription act" of the so called confederate states-and send them down to "Dixie"-for the purpose of giving them a chance to act treason amongst their friends-instead of talking it here. They are all cowards-would not fight if they can help it-yet are always talking.

We could not be charged with tyranny in sending them amongst their friends [sic] -- and yet we could not get rid of them?

The idea I think is a good o­ne--and will be the most efficient way of breaking up the squad.

One or two of them, that I would select have actually come here to avoid the [Confederate] "Conscription" --

We are moving along very quietly here, and the cause of the [U.S.] Government is rapidly gaining ground with us.

Hope to meet you at Murfreesboro.

Very Truly Yr friend,

Edmund Cooper

The Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 409-410.



22, "Improvements about Nashville."
It is scarcely possible for one man to keep pace with the improvements made and making in and around this city. The laws in regard to the construction of frame houses are a dead letter, for everywhere, west, north and south, frame buildings are being erected, additions made to others, barns and stables converted into stores and dwellings, and the march is still onward. Every nook and corner in the business part of this city, that can be bought or hired at any price, no mater how exorbitant, I taken possession of , and in a few days a store of some kind is erected. Even the rocky hill beyond Spruce street, between Cedar and Church streets, is rapidly filling up with grocers, confectioners, sutlers, dwellings, etc., beyond the trestle work is a range of two story frame buildings erected by the Government. On Cedar street, the Square, College, Market, Union, and Cherry streets, owners of property could sell at the rate of a bushel of greenbacks per foot, with a peck or two thrown in if necessary. Everybody seems to be overburdened with money, and yet they are desirous of making more.
Nashville Dispatch, May 22, 1864.


Monday, May 21, 2012

May 21 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

1861, May 21, Tennessee – Confederate passion and rhetoric; Dr. Robert C. Abernathy of Pulaski to Dr. Hern of Indiana regarding Southern enthusiasm to defend itself from the Federal invasion
Dear Friend, 
Your very welcome letter reached me in due time & met with a cordial reception by all your friends (to whom I showed it) – I would have answered it sooner, but my time has been monopolized by my profession & my mind preoccupied in anxious reflections upon the impending crisis. Your friends are all well so far as I know & hopeful as to the result of the conflict. Pro. Mooney preached the most soul-stirring sermon to the volunteers ever heard in this country, - all were delighted, his text was the 45th verse of the 17th ch. Of the 1st Book of Samuel, - he read the whole chapter as preliminary to the sermon, &made Goliath personify the North & David represent the South – said that the world was full of Good & Evil; David representing the Good & virtuous of his day & his seemingly invincible adversary, the evil. You can imagine from the text the character of the sermon, but you cannot conceive [sic] the true effort. We will publish it & I will send you a copy. Our volunteers numbering about 25,000 are near the Kentucky line, near Cairo & other convenient points in camp. Well provisioned and well armed [sic]. Such entire unanimity prevails that the first intimation of invasion [sic] 75,000 freemen will rise as one man to repel & crush out the vandal hordes & scoundrels [sic] who would dare to put their infamous feet upon the soil of Tennessee. I tell you, my Friend, the race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong." We are resolved to conquer a peace & dictate [sic] the terms of it, - we have asked to be let alone, & have been told in cowardly defiance, "that it did not belong to the vanquished to dictate terms to the victors.["] I say cowardly defiance, because noting but the confidence which brute force inspires could ever have induced the Gentry [sic] of the conscientious-scruple sick school of fanaticism to have given expression to so wonderfully a heroic a sentiment, - the most chivalrous sons of Tennessee are in the field & they will know no defeat [sic]. We who are the fathers of the land are forming reserved companies of Minute Men [sic] & we are all resolved to go whenever out Governor calls us. Our Negroes are all in fine [sic] spirits, many have gone with the Army & many more want to go & if God shall (in his wisdom) suffer us defeated in the first engagement [sic], we will muster 10,000 or perhaps 50,000 slaves who will meet death cheerfully in defense of their masters rights. Subjugate us!! Never, never, never!!! [sic] Mind you, we wage no offensive war; - & we claim to be freemen [sic] & to be possessed of the right to live in a Government of our own [sic] making. The North denies us this right & affirms that they will conquer us & hold us as conquered provinces, - Now in the name of all that is good & right! [sic] what sort of Government will this be if Lincoln & his minions succeed in subduing us? Could it by possibility be maintaining the Unions [sic]? A Union of 8,000,000 of high tone4d, brave & chivalrous men & women with [the] yoke of Northern bondage & oppression upon our necks? Talk of Union of gunpowder [sic] with fire of religion [sic] with sin [sic], of Heaven [sic] with Hell [sic] as well as [the] union of these two elements, the one claiming to be free & independent, the other [sic] planting its unhallowed foot upon our necks [sic] & crushing us into submission to their heterodox ideas. The idea at the North seems to be to whip us into submission & then make us trade with them, & this must be done before the 1st of Jan. 1862 – well, they may possibly accomplish their object but it will be the most costly [sic] patronage the world has ever seen.
Diary of Martha Abernathy 



1863, May 21, Emigration from Middle Tennessee

There has been a pretty heavy emigration from Middle Tennessee during the past three or four months, mainly to the Western States. These people go to seek homes where they hope to be free from the annoyances inseparably connected with a state of war, like that of which Tennessee is made the theatre. A considerable number of the best citizens of Nashville have left here for the same reason. A portion of these have located in Louisville, while others have gone further North or West. 

An old citizen of Nashville, who has located in Louisville, remarked to us the other day that he met more Nashville men in Louisville than he did here. Another citizen, who returned to Nashville a few days ago, after an absence of five months, remarked that he could find comparatively few acquaintances in Nashville, and that in a stroll around three or four squares he met but one man he knew. This will give the reader an idea of the exodus that has taken place from our midst; and almost every day adds to the number of those leaving. 

Nashville Dispatch, May 21, 1863.[1] 


[1] As cited in: .[note: recent issues contained lists of Confederate sympathizers being sent beyond the lines]



1864, May 21, Vendetta on White's Creek Turnpike, Nashville
Saturday [21] morning two men dressed as soldiers and reported to belong to the twelfth Tennessee, met Wm. Pearson, who was driving a wagon, a few miles out from the city on the White's Creek Turnpike, and after a few words they drew their revolvers and commenced shooting at him. Pearson left his team and endeavored to escape. Five or six shots were fired, one of which is supposed by parties who witnessed the affair, to have hit him. When last head of he was proceeding along the pike in the direction he had started when endeavoring to escape. His friends fear that he has wandered into the woods, and has died from the effects of his wound. Pearson was a young man, and formerly lived in Grundy county, in this State. The men who attacked him stated to some parties who witnessed the shooting, that the affair had its origin in a difficulty of several years standing. Any information in regard to Pearson left at this office will be delivered to his friends.
Nashville Dispatch, May 23, 1864.


Friday, May 18, 2012

May 18 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

18, "When will the day of peace come?" Mrs. Estes reflections upon the war
I attended Church today, heard a sermon by Rev. Gillespie, the minister of my childhood.
The dear friends of my childhood are scattered and gone, some to the grave, but mostly like myself have linked their fortunes with another. Yet I meet with many in our old church who are dear to me and bring back the days of my girlhood. The happiest of these I spent with my lover often wandering side by side for hours, all unconscious of the rapidly flying hours. Ah! We dreamed not then of such a time as this, that after years of labor and toil for success in life, the rude hand of war would come upon us and blast our brightest hopes. It is not a wonderful providence that we cannot see into the future? If we could have seen this dark hour we could not have been so happy with all my dear husband's care and struggles to establish himself in his profession, we have been as happy as is allotted to mortals.
I hope we may again be settled in our home with our darling around us. That will be a happy day for us. May we not forget to thank the Lord.
This has been another beautiful Sabbath. The last Friday was appointed by our President [Davis] as a day of fasting and prayer. I did not mention it in the proper place because I did not know of it, not having received any paper that gave us the information. I have no doubt many were like us, as all mail communications are quite irregular. But we pray that Our Father will hear the prayer of those who met to humble themselves before Him. Oh!! That God would say to the destroying Angel that is passing over us, "Cease, thus far shall thou go and no farther." When will the day of peace come? 
Estes's Diary, May 18, 1862.



19, "Opening [sic] of the Northwestern Railroad."
By invitation, a large number of influential gentlemen assembled at the depot of the Nashville and Northwestern Railroad at 6 o'clock on Thursday morning for the purpose of celebrating the opening of that important route to the west and northwest by a trip to the Tennessee river, a distance of seventy-eight miles.
Forty minutes having been consumed in storing away a car load of creature comforts for the inner man during the day, and making other necessary preparations, the word was given, and the train whirled away over the trestle work toward the beautiful Tennessee. Company C, tenth [sic] Tennessee infantry, Captain Philips, accompanied the party as a guard, and the brass band of the same regiment honored the occasion by discoursing airs patriotic, pathetic, and enlivening, at every station or stopping place throughout the trip.
Having got well under way, we took a survey of those composing the party, and recognized his recognized his Excellency Gov. Johnson, Comptroller Jos. S. Fowler, Col. Browning, His Honor the Mayor of Nashville, Recorder Shane, Hon. M. M. Brien, Attorney, Gen. Stubblefield, Gen. R. S. Granger and his Adjutant General Capt. Nevin, Col. Scully, 10th Tennessee Infantry, Cole Thompson, John Clark, and Fladd [sic], Capt. Maurice P. Clarke, W. S. Cheatham, Esq., E. B. Garrett, Esq., and many others.
As may be imagined, there was not much to attract attention on either side of the road, it being cut, for the most part, through a wild uncultivated country; yet the scenery was pretty and the air pure -- a pleasure and a blessing always grateful to the denizen of a city. Newsom's place is very near, and his substantial rock dwelling corresponds with the goodness of his heart, as well as his taste in industry. The road is an excellent one, and is well laid, the wheels gliding smoothly over it. There are numerous bridges of various dimensions, the trestle work of some being from fifty to eight seven feet high; the Harpeth river is crossed five times in a very few miles, some of the bridges being very long, and all of them well guarded by troops, some white, other black, infantry, cavarly, and artillery, and strong stockades and fortifications; one of the stockades, built by the tenth [sic] Tennessee Infantry, under the direction of Col. Scully, is the strongest, neatest, and best, we have ever seen.
For twenty five or thirty miles, much of the country is under cultivation, the soil being tolerably productive; but beyond that, until you reach Waverly, sixty seven miles distant from Nashville, there are only a few "clearings," and these chiefly in the neighborhood of the Irish settlement. On reaching Waverley, a salute was fired by the first Kansas battery, under direction of Captain Terry, and everywhere on the road, when troops were stationed, the men were drawn up in review, with arms presented as the train passed.
At one o'clock we reached the Tennessee river, and all walked to the bluff for the purpose of feasting their eyes upon the beauties of nature with which that river abounds. On the opposite side is a dense forest, extending as far as they eye can reach; the water is smooth as glass, and all nature is hushed. At this point the river is 903 feet wide at low water mark, and there is at least four feet [of] water at all seasons of the year.
Nashville Dispatch, May 21, 1864.

Thursday, May 17, 2012

May 17 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

17, Confederate A. J. Rice, in Wartrace, to his cousin, Mary L. Paine

Wartrace, Tennessee

May 17, 1863

My Dear Cousin,

I received your very kind letter day before yesterday and as we had to move our encampment I had to postpone writing until today. We have left our Brigade for a while and moved nearer town and our Regiment does all the guarding about town. I have not heard anything from the Yankees for some time except that they have sent all their tents and heavy baggage to the rear and I expect there will be something done down here before long. We are sending all our sick off to Chattanooga. Our men are laying the track from here to Bellbuckle a distance of five miles and I expect we will advance soon. The track has been torn up ever since our retreat from Murfreesboro. There is a Yankee deserter comes [sic] in nearly every day [sic], but we don't get to talk with them unless we are guarding them. Some thinks that we will fight down here soon and some thinks that we won't fight down here for some time to come.

Hab is camped out near Fairfield but I have not seen him since we left Tullahoma. I have not heard from home for nearly a week. I am looking for a letter this evening. Cousin Mollie I wish I was with you all today. We would certainly enjoy ourselves, but I assure you that there is very little enjoyment in camp but I hope that this cruel war will soon end that we may be turned loose and permitted to return tour friends and relatives who are waiting so anxiously for our return. It may be soon or it may be a long time. But I hope that the time will come when we can all meet and spend a happy time together as we have done in days that are past. and gone and I am fearful never to return. I have not been at home since I wrote to you nor do I expect to get home soon. Today is very dull in camp for since we have moved off from our Brigade we have had no preaching in the Regiment. There is a big protracted meeting going on in our Brigade and has been for over two months. There has been a good may conversions. I don't know how long it will go on, but I am in hopes that it will be a general thing throughout the army, for there is a great deal of wickedness going on in the army. There has been some depredations done down here by our men down here [sic]. Some four Artillery men went to a man's house down here the other day and knocked him down and took all his money and some eggs and butter and milk and they have all been arrested and chained down awaiting their trial. I expect they will go up for ninety days. There is also two or three men in the guard house for murder and I expect that they will be hung is a short time. God speed the time when all such men will be hung as high as the hayman. I am glad to hear that Jo got off as easy as he did. I never want the cut throats to get a hold of me.

I want you to write to me as soon as you may bet this for I am always glad to hear from you.

Give my love to all. I remain

Your True Cousin, Andrew

Write soon and address:

A. J. Rice

Johnson's Brigade
Cleburne's Division
Wartrace, Tennessee
PS Please excuse confed [erate] paper [money] for it is the best that I can do at present.
Write soon,
TSL&A Civil War Collection*
* TSL&A, Confederate Collection, mfm 824-3, Accesson no. 1576, Box 11, folder 11.



May, Tuesday 17, 1864
Oh! most miserable day - Mrs. Perkins almost made me mad at her deep distress - Poor, poor Nannie, my heart aches for her, would to God I might be the medium through which all could be made happy - Miss Em is so widely different in her political feeling, there will never be any happiness, I fear, with poor Nannie. May God guide the dear child, keep her firm to the cause she has espoused, may she never have her pure, noble Southern feelings polluted with Yankee treachery or tyrany - keep her firm and true to her noble Brother Dashiell and his Country rights - she dreams not, but oh! my heart trembles and bleeds for her in this great trial and affliction. I received a letter from Dr. Moses - Tate did also - Oh! why am I tempted - guide, oh! comfort me, my Savior - poor Father is quite sick - Joanna went to Hernando this morning - 
January - November, 1864 

Friday, May 11, 2012

May 11 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

11, Pacification measures ordered in Murfreesboro by Military Governor Andrew Johnson
Nashville May 11 [1862]
Col Parkhurst
Commanding officer,
Murfreesboro, Tenn.
I have just had consultation with E. L. Jordon, G. W. Ashburn and E. D. Wheeler prominent citizens of Murfreesboro in regard to the shooting which took place last night. There was some statement made to them just on starting which induced the belief that some development would be made throwing more light upon the affair. Has any thing of the kind transpired since the left. [sic] If not and no steps be taken satisfactory to you will at once arrest as many persons as you in your judgment may believe will have proper effect upon spirit of insubordination [which] seems to prevail in that community. Transactions of this kind must be met and dealt with as the public interest requires. Act our you judgment & you shall be sustained[.]
I omitted to send back [a] list of names for arrest leaving it to you to consult with [the] mayor.
If you desire a list of names telegraph back immediately.
Teach them a lesson they will not forget.
Andrew Johnson
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 377.


11, Public health inspection reminder
Nashville, Tenn., April 26, 1863
The owners and occupants of businesses and dwelling-houses within the limits of this city, are hereby reminded of the Order published March 16th, 1863, requiring them to have the streets, alleys, and backyards adjoining their respective houses thoroughly cleaned.
A thorough inspection of the city by proper authorized persons will be had in a few days, and anyone found to have neglected to obey the Order will be severely punished.
By Order of Brig. Gen. J. D. Morgan,
Nashville Daily Press, May 11, 1863.




11, "Sale of Condemned Horses."

HEADQUARTERS There occurred a sale of condemned horses during the past week, which afforded the citizens of the town and country opportunities to replenish their exhausted stock. Th efficient A. A. Q. M., Lieut. C. Harvin, selected the eccentric Capt. Hammer as the auctioneer for the occasion, and, as the result proved, he was the right man in the right place. The total amount of sale of 250 horses – and sorry looking beasts they were – amounted to over $6000, at an average of more than $27 each, a result the Government may well feel proud of. A stand was erected at the horse-yards of Lieut. Irvin, and the animals to be sold were led out singly to be disposed of. The captain starts the sale: "Well, gentlemen, how much am I offered for this fine blooded horse, known through the army, was sire by imported Lexington, and damned by everybody who ever rode him – start the bid – how much? Five dollars I am offered, who'll give ten? Ten, ten, who'll give fifteen? Fifteen is offered by two of you, now twenty. Twenty-five – who'll give thirty?" Thirty is offered, and the horse disappears and another led forward. "Now, gentlemen, here is a jay-bird – observe his gait – a little foundered, but that don't hurt him, though he'd be a good deal better without it – all ready; to put right before a plow and work to-morrow – start him up young man, every time he trots he increases five dollars in value" This animal ultimately sells for fifty dollars. 
"Now Gentlemen, how much for this fine bay mare –sound-kind – good under saddle or in harness. Cars not afraid of her, will tie without standing. Start her gentlemen – how much? Nothing in the world aids her except the distemper – would be just as good without it – start her, how much?" Bidding runs up to $50 and the distempered mare is destined to graze in Williamson County, until she doubles in value. Men of all nationalities and occupations are present, butchers, bakers, farmers, merchants, sporting men, and officers, all desirous of investing in a broken down, good horse. One genius from Green Erin who had purchased two horses at the extravagant price of $1 each, mourned to see his property, elongated in the muddy ground with no ultimate prospect of their ever arising again, and if horses could be said to on a man's hands, the two one dollar animals perished on the palms of the unfortunate Hibernian. Many of the horses brought high prices and but few sold for less than ten dollars. Occasionally an animal would appear on whom no bid could possibly be had. This drawback on the sale was promptly remedied by the Auctioneer who would immediately call for another horse and then sell the pair. We have every reason to believe that the results of the sale meets the approbation of the authorities. Visitors to the yards were charmed with the neatness of the fences, the shops and store-houses, and the admirable arrangements for feeding and watering the large number of horses and mules under Lieut. Irvin's charge. He has, indeed, succeeded in creating a system and order, where before all was delay and confusion, and, therefore, merits the praises freely bestowed on him by both officers and citizens of being one of the mot efficient Quartermasters ever in this Department.
Nashville Daily Press, May 11, 1863.