Thursday, April 30, 2015

4.30.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

APRIL 30, 1861-1865


        30, Sallie Gannaway Jamison[1] to Camilla Jamison in Murfreesborough

War with all its horrors, is upon us. I hear and think of but little else. 'This the greatest calamity that could befall us. Who dreamed that we would ever come to this? The United States! The star country! The model government -- by which other nations endeavored to frame theirs,-but I fear the star has sunk, -- her glory has departed... All is confusion, -- no telling what the future will be; but 'tis the privilege of the Christian to stand all of this as the sun amid the flying clouds of heaven, calm and serene; -- trusting not in any mighty warriors as brave army but in the Lord of Hosts. The ladies are highly excited in some places, quite patriotic. I expect we are all intensely southern in feeling about now, believe in withdrawing our patronage from the North and encouraging home manufactory exclusively, but none that I have heard of have proven this faith by their work so prominently as out neighbor Mrs. Morton. She has made herself and all of her daughters three home-spun [sic] dresses apiece, and she (the old lady) to show that she intends carrying out her principle to the letter wore one of them to town the other day... There are two military companies preparing for service. Mr. Donnell [a school master] is Capt. Of one, and has almost given up his place in the school; doesn't pay much attention to it... He said he was glad Ada didn't go back [to school], that he didn't expect to be there in two weeks himself. The excitement has gotten into the school, and the girls are making make the military clothes. Miss Searey is President of a company of ladies who are making military clothes. I guess the girls had all better be at home, for I don't expect they are doing much good studying.

Robert D. Jamison Papers, TSL&A

        30, Special rates on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad

N. & C. Railroad Company

Superintendent's Office

Nashville, Apr. 30, '61

To Whom this may Concern:-

The Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad Company will transport FREE OF CHARGE [sic] against the company, all volunteer companies, supplies and munitions of war, intended for the defence of the South. The commanding officer will be required to furnish the forwarding agent with a certificate showing them number of men and tonnage of freight so transported.

This proposition will not apply to individuals, but is confined to organized companies.

Nashville Daily Gazette, December 12, 1861.[2]




        30, A. J. Campbell and the exile of Mrs. Johnson and Mrs. William B. Carter

JONESBOROUGH, [April] 30, 1862.


Mrs. Johnson, her two sons, Mrs. Carter and her two children will leave to-morrow night for Norfolk. You will send passports, transportation for myself and everything else that is necessary. Send them by the conductor of the next train; if otherwise I will not get them in time. Also send me $50.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 1, p. 887.

        30, News from a refugee concerning Memphis and West Tennessee

Late from Memphis, Tenn.

The Details of the Fall of New Orleans Suppressed by the Rebels.

Cairo, April 30.-A refugee from Memphis reports that the town of Humboldt was occupied by a small Rebel force, engaged in throwing up defensive works. He brings Memphis papers of the 26th [April].

They contain but little matter, further than a conflagration of the falloff New Orleans. The Avalanche grumbles that the Rebel authorities suppress the details in regard to the affair, and says noting but the bare facts of the surrender is known.

The same papers say the Southern people are fast losing all confidence in their river defences. It is generally admitted that the Union army can be no longer successfully resisted.

It also intimates a lack of confidence in the stability of the Southern Confederacy by advising its patrons to invest whatever money they have in real estate while the purchase can be made with the currency now in circulation, which consists principally of Rebel treasury notes.

The conscription law is being rigidly enforced. The Union men are secreting themselves of flying to avoid its operation.

The same refugee also reports that those merchants who are of avowed Secession proclivities are removing their good s to places of concealment and security. Large numbers of families are moving away daily.

The ideal of burning the town has been abandoned, in consequence of the determined opposition of property-holders. It was currently reported at Memphis that Beauregard has not over 80,000 men at Corinth, and no hope is entertained of his successfully resisting Gen. Halleck, who was believed to have 200,000 men.

As our informant left Memphis it was reported that the Rebel gun-boat fleet from New Orleans was in sight, bound up the river, to join Hollin's fleet.

Philadelphia Inquirer, May 1, 1862.

        30, Excerpt from a newspaper report on threats of the Chattanooga Vigilance Committee and admonitions of Federal reprisals in kind


~ ~ ~

The following is from the Nashville Patriot of recent date:

We learn from a gentleman of veracity, direct from Chattanooga, that the Vigilance Committee of that place recently held a meeting and determined to put to death fifteen or twenty of the prominent Union men of that vicinity upon the approach of the National army.

Most certainly the approach of the Federal army to Chattanooga or anywhere else will not be prevented or retarded by any such hellish device as that. Our armies will assert and exercise the rights of war. If it be found that the Vigilance Committee are really determined, in the event of the marching of our troops upon their place, let that number or twice that number of prominent rebels of Nashville or some other city be seized and sternly held as hostages for the safety of the threatened victims. If the rebels will insist upon making this a war of barbarism, a war of extermination, a war shocking to the moral sense of the world, they have unquestionably the power to do so, but the consequence, whilst terrible on both sides, would be far most terrible to their own,

Never in all the history of hostilities among nations, was any war prosecuted on higher and juster and nobler and more merciful principles than this has been on the part of the United States. Our Government and our people have alike seemed to bear in mind the great truth, that, whilst the legitimate object of the war is to preserve the greatest country of the age against the most atrocious rebellion of any age, it still a war of brethren.

Louisville Daily Journal, April 30, 1862. [3]

        30, Excerpt from the Case of Asa Hodges, Suspected of Disloyalty to the Confederacy, Relative to the Memphis Committee of Safety

~ ~ ~

Gen. James A. Carnes states that he has known Mr. Asa Hodges for the last four or five years and has regarded him as a good citizen and a reliable and trustworthy business man; that he never heard his loyalty questioned, and regarded him as entirely loyal to the South; that the witness was a member of the committee of safety of the city of Memphis from its first organization and that his opportunities for getting the names of suspected persons was very good, and the witness is of the opinion that had Mr. Hodges been suspected he would have heard of it; that gentlemen in whom he had implicit confidence informed him that he talked and evinced the right spirit in the Southern cause.

~ ~ ~

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 2, p. 1552.




        30, Near Gallatin, Confederate attack on supply convoy on the Cumberland River bound for Carthage

GALLATIN, April 30, 1863.

Brig.-Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:

A gunboat and four transports were coming up the river this morning; the rebels fired into them, and one transport ran on a log and sank. One-third of her charge can be saved. I shall go to her relief immediately. There were 200 men, with officers, on the fleet, and only 30 armed, and when they arrived here they were out of ammunition. I shall supply them. The fleet was going to Carthage.

E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen.

GALLATIN, April 30, 1863--8.15 p. m.

Brig.-Gen. GARFIELD:

I have just returned from the wreck. The boats were fired upon by soldiers and citizens, with muskets and rifles. The gunboat returned the fire. The rebels had no artillery. The pilot or some other officer must have been frightened, and carelessly ran the boat on a log. It was loaded with bread mostly. I think I can save one hundred boxes. I sent one regiment across the river, to go down, and sent down my flat-boats to unload the wreck. I expect a fight on this side. The gunboat was out of ammunition. I furnished what was required from the magazine.

E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I., Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 296. [4]

        30, Federal contingency plans anticipating Confederate attack in Middle Tennessee

HDQRS. TWENTY-FIRST ARMY CORPS, Murfreesborough, Tenn., April 30, 1863.


The information I conveyed to you on the morning of the 28th concerning the movements of the enemy at Beech Grove, the threatening your encampments at Cripple Creek and Readyville, was written hastily during the night. It was indefinite at the best, and I write now with the view of expressing my wishes more explicitly to you and your post commanders in the event of an emergency. In the first place, they must never forget that they are outposts of my command and for the Army of the Cumberland; that it is not contemplated to bring on a general engagement at either station, and, therefore, that in an engagement they must not look for re-enforcements, but fall back to my lines for protection.

In the event of a formidable attack on Readyville (and which from information previously received, might prove fatal to our position there), it would be better for Gen. Hazen to fall back on Cripple Creek, fighting if need be, than for Gen. Cruft to advance to Readyville, for should a general engagement take place in the vicinity Readyville in itself will be of no value to us.

In this event, Gen. Hazen will destroy, so far as practicable all works that might be of value to the enemy. Should the posts be attacked simultaneously and with a force and energy that might cut off or capture either, both must withdraw, Gen. Hazen through the woods on the new road indicated by you. I can conceive of no circumstances whereby Gen. Cruft should retire without communicating with or notifying Gen. Hazen. Should authentic information reach these commanders of a general fight going on (or the sound thereof) on any other approach to Murfreesborough than that guarded by them, they will unite as speedily as possible to rejoin my command. Whilst instructions contemplating an attack by an unknown force, and time and plan of the enemy alike unknown, must necessarily be very imperfect, yet, relying as I do on the good judgment discretion, and valor of my commanders, I feel that with these suggestions you, sir, with Gen.'s Cruft and Hazen, will fully realize and appreciate my views, and that in the hour of trial the best interests of the cause will be subserved in your hands.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. L. CRITTENDEN, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.


Respectfully forwarded to Brig.-Gen. Hazen.

This letter was prepared by the corps commander, at my request, that we might have his views in definite shape for the government of Gen.'s Cruft and Hazen and myself.

J. M. PALMER, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 295.

        30, The war against prostitution in Memphis [see April 29, "Special Order [sic], No. 13 above]

Closing Houses of Ill Fame.-It is a fact too notorious that our city at the present time is a perfect bee hive of women of ill fame. The public conveyances here become theirs by right of conquest, so much so, that a lady fears to side through the streets for fear of being classed with them. To a certain extent the steamboats plying between this and other cities North of here have not the same respectability that characterized them in former years. In fact morality, from importation of lewd women from the North, is almost at a discount. It is no common occurrence to see that class of beings walking arm and arm with men who wear the apparel of gentlemen, who are here in civil as well as military capacity, in broad daylight, to the infinite satisfaction of the women and the great annoyance to respectable people. The nuisance can be stopped, will it be? An order closing houses of ill-fame, punishing officers and soldiers for associating with the inmates of those houses and making it a heavy penalty for steamboatmen [sic] to bring lewd women down the river would no doubt have the desired effect.

Memphis Bulletin, April 30, 1863.

        30, "Latest Attractions."

Cary's great Show made a brilliant and highly successful opening in our city on last evening. The entertainment was of a very creditable and amusing character, and consisted of pantomimes, theatrical farces, gymnastic and acrobatic feats, light and heavy ballooning, dancing, singling, etc. all of which was executed with the greatest skill, reflecting much credit upon the various artists. May they realize their highest anticipations, and be crowned with the success they so deservedly merit.

Memphis Bulletin, April 30, 1863.

        30, "…we had our shooting match at Tuesday… "Letter of Corporal W. C. Tripp, Company B, 44th Tennessee Infantry, in camp near Wartrace, to his wife Martha Ann

April the 30 1863

Camp near Wartrace Bedford Co Tenn

Dear Wife I Seat my Self to drop you A few lines to let you no [sic] that I am well at this time ….there is talk of us a staying here a good while I have heard no news from the Yankees since you left here Martha I want to come home worse [sic] than I ever did cints [sic] you left here I suppose that Col Frelton ses [sic] all that wants to come home they can come before Christmas god grant how soon that hit may bee [sic] the boys is still a quarling [sic] yet but hit [sic] aint me turn over

The boys all sends thear [sic] love and respects to you …the helth [sic] of the regiment is very good at this time we had our shooting match a tuesday [sic] we shot wild we shot 160 yards heap of the boys mist [sic] the target the target was 6 feet hie [sic] 10 feet long I must bring my few lines to a close I remain youe [sic] effectionte [sic] husband untill [sic] death


        30, Political endorsement from the Eighth Regiment of Tennessee Volunteers

Camp Near Shelbyville, Tenn., April 30, 1863

Mr. N. O. Wallace:

Sir – although distant from the country of my nativity, still we feel some anxiety that she gets off on the right foot in the ensuing August [Confederate] election. It encourages those who are in the field to see principles for which they are contending appreciated and sustained. We cannot have a man more warmly devoted, or more ready to sacrifice all, for the good of the cause, than our last Representative from Lincoln county; but I understand that he does not want his name to come before the people of the country for re-election. This being the case, I am decidedly in favor of a man who has shown his devotion to our cause by his works - other thing being equal. Among if not first, stands Capt. Wm. P. Tolley, on this list, who so ardently espoused our cause in its infancy in Lincoln Co, and he has shown his warm devotion to he cause by enlisting the first opportunity that was offered, and serving one year in the ranks, when he was chosen by his company as their leader and continued in his command until the ever memorable second charge at Gaines' Mill, when he sealed his devotion to our country's cause with his own blood while gallantly leading his "little host" [sic] to victory. In action he was cool and decided, and I have heard the boys remark that he and the lamented Major McLaughlin (daring almost to a fault) did more to rally the Brigade, than any other officer in it – Gen. Archer being almost exhausted – and Lieut. Col. Shackleford having just fallen. I merely give this short sketch as nothing but due one who has acted his part so nobly in the great struggle for Southern rights [sic] and Southern independence [sic] and would commend him to the favorable consideration of the people of Lincoln Co., as their candidate to represent them in the lower branch of our next Legislature, believing him to be in every way qualified for that position, and having as many claims on the people as any other man on account of services rendered.

A voice from the 8th Reg't Tenn. Vols.

Fayetteville Observer, May 21, 1863.

        30, Orders to carry on anti-insurgent operations on the Obion river and report of the capture of Confederate guerrilla leader Captain Cotter and 25 of his men near Eaton, Gibson County

COLUMBUS, KY., April 30, 1863--10.20 p. m.

Lieut. Col. HENRY BINMORE, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Memphis, Tenn.:

At the request of Maj.-Gen. Curtis, I ordered, on 28th, six companies of Fourth Missouri Cavalry to co-operate with the New Madrid troops against Marmaduke, and to operate on their return on the Obion against the two rebel captains, Porter and Cotter. I have not yet head from the expedition, but Capt. Frank Moore, Second Illinois Cavalry, has just reported with Capt. Cotter and 25 of his men, captured in the vicinity of Eaton,[5] Gibson County, Tennessee, after a six days' scout and pursuit through the swamps. Capt. Moore nearly succeeded in capturing Capt. Porter also, who escaped in a skiff across the Forked Deer River, with Moore in hot pursuit.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, pp, 248-249.

        30, Favoritism in the execution of Confederate conscription in Union county[6]

The following unique letter was handed us by Capt. Webb, of the Enrolling Office of this Department;

UNION COUNTY, April 30, 1863

To Col. Blake, Comeding Cornscripts and so fourth:

Now Sur, I beg leeve to make a few remarks. Are the cornscripts ov ower cownty liable and ordered to be arrested. And delivered over at Knocksville to who has the collection ov them. Are the cornscripts officers aloud to seez one man and send wurd to anuther to cleer out and hide hisself? And then Kernel ar we kumpelled to have rollin officers who send men and buoys ove the mountings, telling the young men not yet 18 that the C. Gov. had abanderud ages under 18, and was ketchin corncripts by weight. And by this they have actery sceered off sum who ar not 17 years old-one in particler Elber Dawl, near me wus told that ef he weighed 124 lbs, he sertinly must go into the service of the C. S., and that nite he left for Ky., and is over thar now. We has in this cownty every enrollin offiser for the very wust cort of Likninite, & every one relatives ov the Cheerman or Cownty Court Clerk & this clerk was Thornberg's 1st Lieut. & the Cheerman is no better. Can we not have these stowt young men cauld into the servis or let them run off as sum ov them will do & have men over, 45 appointed or appint ower justices ov the peas & uther persins exempt from Concript this would at once put amazingly formydable force ov young men into the field & leave them who now have nuthin to do offishally to attend to the enroaling clerks sheriffs justices & other exempts. I have ritten to Congress asken them to pass a kempulserry law on the cownty coarts to make up the rollin officers entirely ov the exempt whether you have the power to change the appointments I know not, but this ere you can do, put them into the army a foarce the cownty courts to make other appointments for the pressant incumbenters in moast of the cownties in East Tennessee is a burlesk on the military but I kno that we has sum very good uns if I can get an order I will arrest a phew bad men & who ar lyin out steling everything in thar reach I have extended my few disjointed remarks much further than I espceted at first yours truly


We are inclined to believe that the publication of the foregoing patriotic letter will result in important reforms in the enforcement of the Conscript act, and we accept in advance the thanks of Col. Blake for the invaluable suggestions presented.

Knoxville Daily Register, May 21, 1863.





        30, "Clippings from Brownlow"

We copy the following from Brownlow's Whig of April 30th:

* * * *

"Green Flies and Rebels"

Last year, as the citizens report, there were more green flies here than ever appeared in East Tennessee since the first settlement of the country. Cold and backward as the spring is, they are returning by thousands and are to be seen in every house, in every yard and in every street. They came last year to [bless?] the Confederates, as they were in fine condition to produce a crop of maggots. [sic] They return this spring under the misapprehension that rebels are holding the country!

Memphis Bulletin, May 14, 1864.

        30, "Reducing the Poor Man's Wages"

There are those in our country who, at all hazards, are resolved on holding on to the negro [sic], and perpetuating slavery, even in the loyal region of East Tennessee. They know and feel that the people are sick and tired of fighting to perpetuate slavery in the Cotton States; that not one in ten of all the voters in East Tennessee have any interest in the institution; that they have seen their homes made desolate, and their loved ones slain and cruelly murdered on account of the nigger [sic]; that the spirit that actuated these outrages is showing itself as malignant as ever, under the guise of Unionism, [sic] and of upholding the constitution and laws, and finally, the real people see that there will be no peace in the country while the struggle is kept up to hold on to the disturbing element.

Gentlemen, with a view to carry the poor and laboring classes with them, at the ballot-box, to bolster up the institution, take the ground that if the negroes [sic] are emancipated, the competition will become so great between the negroes [sic] and the laboring classes of the whites, that poor men will have to work for nothing. This is all stuff. The emancipating of negroes [sic] will not increase their numbers, but diminish them. [sic] They are already here, and as slaves are in competition with white laborers, and really keep down the white man's wages. [sic] Emancipate them, and they will cease to be in competition with white laborers. Nay, more, our theory is, that in process of time they will, like the Indian tribes, become extinct.

But it is of no use to argue this question. The institution will be wiped out, and out to be, and that section that clings to it longest will see the most trouble, and the last to get rid of the horrors of war. Men who lend themselves to help bolster up slavery now, whether they own any or not, are in their own light, and will prove to be their own tormentors.

Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal and Rebel Ventilator, April 30, 1864.

        30, "Refugees from the South."

A gentleman at Cleveland, Tennessee, writing to his brother in Cincinnati, says that no man who has been in the service and observed Rebels closely, can avoid the conclusion that many of the refugees who now come within our lines are fugitives, not from the conscription, but from starvation. They hate the [Federal] Government, but love its rations. Even at Nashville there are many of this class, who return no service for their daily food. As a nut for copperheads to crack, we commend to their attention the fact that four or six weeks ago, but of every hundred rations drawn by refugees, ninety-six were drawn by whites and four by negroes [sic]; the latter, to a great extent, support themselves by their labor, Cincinnati Gazette.

The contrabands in this direction must be a superior race to those in Louisiana, for in the interview between the "Christian delegation" from Chicago and President Lincoln in 1862, the latter is reported as saying: "General Butler wrote me, a few days since, that he was issuing more rations to the slaves who have rushed to him than to all the white troops under his command. They eat, and that is all.' [sic]

Nashville Dispatch, April 30, 1864.

        30, Elvira Powers remarks on the progress of her contraband students at the Refugee farm[7]

The aptness of the pupils, as a whole, is really surprising. Some have learned the alphabet, I am told, in three days, and others in a week.

It is said that all northern people who visit the school, very soon fall a victim to that fearful disease, known by the southern chivalry and northern copperheads, as "niggar [sic] on the brain." And I will confess my belief that were I to teach in this school very long, I might become so interested in some of my pupils I should sometimes forget that they were not of the same color as myself, and really believe that God did make of one blood all nations of the earth.

They present every shade of color from the blackest hue to a fairer skin than my own. It is often necessary to find out who the mother is before you know whether the person is white of black. The age [of the student body] varies from four to thirty.

The progress of some is really astonishing. One little black girl of seven years, and with wooly head, can read fluently in the Fourth Reader, and studies primary, geography, and arithmetic, who has been to school but one year. I inquired if any one taught her at home, if she had not learned how to read before that time. "Oh, no, I learned my letters when I first came to school, and I live with my aunt Mary, and she can't read. She's no kin to me, and I haven't any kin, but I call her aunt."

Perhaps she never had any, or is related to Topsey, and if questioned farther, might say she "'spects she grew." A boy about twelve, who has been to school but nine months, and who learned his letters in that time, reads in the Third Reader and studies geography. Some are truly polite. The first day of my taking charge of one of the division, a delicate featured, brown-skinned little girl of about nine years came to me and said with the sweetest voice and manner: --

"Lady will you please tell me you name?"

I did so, when she thanked me and said: --

"Miss P_____ can you please hear our Third Reader this morning." It was not an idle question either, for the school is so large that now, while two of the teachers are absent, from illness, some of the classes are each day necessarily neglected. And so eager are the generality of the pupils to learn, that most of them are in two or three reading and spelling classes at the same time.

One might now not only exclaim with Galileo, "The world does move," and we move with it. For though but a little time since the negro dared to say :I think," lest the master might exclaim,-- "You think, you black neggar [sic]-never you mind about that, I'll do your thinking for you." But would instead, say 'deferentially, with bent head and hand in his wooly hair, "Wall, massa, I'se been a studyin' about dat dar," is now learning to stand erect and confess that he does think; as well as learn to read and write.

One of the more advanced pupils told me that her father taught her to read and write before it was safe to let anyone know that he did, or that he could himself read.

Powers, Pencillings, pp. 61-63.

        30, A Report on Female Confederates in Knox County.

Four She Devils.

A short time since, in the North-eastern corner of this county, and near the Union county line, the wife of a villian [sic] at Camp Chase, two single girls of another family and a rebel Negro woman, dressed themselves in rebel uniform and caps, and visited the house of a Union lady and frightened her all but out of her life, making threats and cutting up generally. This was beautiful conduct for – we will not say ladies [sic]-but for females. The authorities must erect a female prison [sic] here for all such, and when done, we move that these gallant rebels in breeches [sic] must be sent for. The only blunder they committed was in not having with them a negro man [sic] instead of a woman!

Brownlow's Knoxville Whig and Rebel Ventilator, April 30, 1864

        30-ca. May 5, Expedition in West Tennessee to capture Forrest

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., May 2 [Monday], 1864.

Brig.-Gen. BRAYMAN, Cmdg. District of Cairo:

GEN.: I wrote you what my plans were some days ago. I have no Official information that the force which I asked to be sent to Crump's Landing was sent; on the contrary I have a dispatch from Gen. Sherman, dated Nashville, April 28, [Thursday] 11.30 a. m., in which he says: "Don't calculate on a force moving inland from Tennessee River now, as we cannot spare it, but rely upon your own command." I sent out my force on Saturday morning [April 30] as I wrote you I should, but the [command] left with the understanding that they were not to have the co-operating force I asked for, and so understanding will not reach Bolivar Sunday [May 1] night as I stated. On the contrary, they may be delayed two or three days [i.e., until May 4 or 5, Wednesday or Thursday] hunting out a force of 2,000 or 3,000 of Forrest's men who are near Oakland, Mason's Station, and Covington, between the Hatchie and Wolf Rivers. Those streams are much swollen, and what men are in there I hope to capture Forrest with most of his force is north of the Hatchie, and it is very much swollen by heavy rains, so it will be impossible for him to cross below Bolivar, and probably not below Crump's Mill. It is very important that the space between Crump's Mill or Bolivar on the Hatchie should be held and Forrest's retreat south cut off until Sturgis can whip out the force south of Hatchie and come up. I hear from officers who have come down from Cairo that on the 28th [Thursday] an expedition left there for the Tennessee River in light marching order, and it was understood to be ordered to operate against Forrest.

I suppose these are the troops I asked for. If this be so I fear that they will move out toward the Hatchie, and failing to hear from Sturgis will return. This they should not do. They must wait for Sturgis, and prevent Forrest from escaping. He has ordered all his troops to join him on the 4th May [Wednesday] at Jackson. If there is danger of them returning before communicating with Sturgis (you will perhaps know the officer's orders who went in command), you will immediately send a dispatch-boat, with a copy of this letter, to the officer in command.

If my information is correct in regard to the present disposition of Forrest's forces, I think we shall punish him badly if I can have this co-operating force from the Tennessee. If this force has gone up the Tennessee for the purpose I now suppose, why was I not informed?

I am, general, your obedient servant,

C. C. WASHBURN, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, pp. 8-9.

        30-May 9, Expedition from Memphis to Ripley Mississippi and skirmish at Bolivar May 2 [See May 2, 1864, "Skirmish at Bolivar" below]





        30, Surrender of guerrillas along the Clinch River

No circumstantial reports filed.

RUTLEDGE, TENN., April 30, 1865.

[Maj.-Gen. STONEMAN, Cmdg. District of East Tennessee:]

GEN.: I have the honor to inform you that I have been constantly scouting both sides of the Clinch. There are but few guerrillas remaining in this vicinity, they having nearly all left since I came here. I have endeavored to carry out your instructions, but it is necessary to explain why I have taken some prisoners. When I found those men, the most of them had hidden or otherwise disposed of their arms, and others came and gave themselves up. I had not sufficient evidence at the time of their being bushwhackers or guerrillas, until they were identified by citizens who knew them to be such. In this manner several have come into my hands as prisoners. The most noted of these are Dr. J. P. Legg and P. H. Starnes, whom I captured north of the Clinch. I sent them to Knoxville by Lieut. Jackson and squad of Ninth Tennessee Cavalry. I have seven prisoners now at this place, which I send to Knoxville by Sergt. Edward Stokeley and squad of my company. I have just received orders from Col. Parsons to move, with my company, to Bull's Gap, which has created especially those grand jurors and others who are witnesses against prominent rebels. Many of the citizens have called on me this morning and desired me to state to the general commanding that their lives will be endangered by the removal of the soldiers from the place. On their behalf, if it is not inconsistent with the service, [I request] that may company be ordered to garrison this place until it may be considered safe without a military force.

I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. W. HARRINGTON, Capt. Company G, Ninth Tennessee Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 528-529.

        30, Arrest of women for "rejoicing over the death of Lincoln."

On that morning, Mollie was carried away to Tullahoma – she and Mrs. McMillan having been arrested by order of Gen. Milroy on the evening of the 29th (Saturday). The charge was "rejoicing over the death of Lincoln." It seems that Mollie heard some days before that she had been reported for that at Lewis head-quarters, by a boy who came up with her from Woodbury. She had gone to Mrs. Grizzel's (where the boy lived, he was a bound boy) to attack him about it-he denied it all until he was black in the face, and said it was a Mrs. Boyd (who also came up with them,) who did the reporting – saying that she heard Mollie tell Jane Morford after they had gone to bed – that "When she heard Abe was dead she waved a Secesh-flag!" The Commandant of the post hated M. because she and other rebel girls had declined calling on Miss Sullivan because she drove out with him! Consequently, with Lewis personal pique and Clift persuasion [sic] – her case sent to Milroy – who sent for them. Seven armed men (!!!) [sic] were sent under an officer to arrest her! One, lone woman! The Lieut. Mollie says, looked ashamed of the array, and quite plagued when she quietly remarked that "really it was amusing to think she was so formidable – she had never though of it before." Everything was raked up against her that could be-as it was merely a case of personal pique and they pounced on the first excuse they could get to arrest her. The day Mollie and Mrs. McMillan went to Grizzell's to give the boys some of their mind about his lying, there was a woman there – a Mrs. Bell who went on in their presence to bewail her lot – she was a prisoner and so ill – threatened by the Yankees, and she cried and sobbed wonderfully over her troubles. When M. and Mrs. Mc. Rose to leave this woman came forward – shook hands with them – and told M. "she hoped she would have no further trouble" etc. Mr. And Mrs. M. had said nothing – but as soon as they were gone-what does she do but ups and reports [sic] to the powers that be – and old Miss Boyd, a tale-bearing woman as Wash calls her was hurried in, and M. arrested! After the ladies were taken off – the greatest efforts were made by Lewis to get evidence against Mollie but he failed. They even sent for old Mrs. Long – way on the road away down the road to Woodbury – as well as for Jane Morford but both of these evidenced for instead of against her. It was a all a made up thing – the old spy had not caught up and body and had been here a month, she was not getting her rights as to pay, she thought – consequently the little reports concerning M. and Mrs. Mc. Were magnified into a few mountains of falsehood and conjecture and sent flaming to Milroy. Lewis having a personal pique at Mollie caught at it as a god-sent [sic], and to gratify his own malice determined to put it thro [sic]. He did his best – and that proved one of the best of failures. Milroy's' scout, John Lee, who was to take them down to Tulahoma [sic], boarded sometimes at Henderson's – Mr. H. is M's friend and from him Lee was prepossessed in her favor – he was melted down too – when he saw them all crying at Mrs. Myers when M. left – going up the Ambulance just after he had put her in – he looked up in her face and said with a smile "Never mind Miss, I'll bring you back in a day or two, or my name is not John Lee." And it was principally to his reckon so that M. was indebted for her release – for he had great influence with Milroy and tho [sic] there was no evidence against M. worth 5 cents. Lee had to tell Milroy it wasn't worth a d__n or that discriminating officer would never have seen it. They are indebted to Captain Can for a quiet good word in their favor tho [sic] he claimed no credit for doing anything and for kind words to themselves. What he did, was done for their sakes alone and not for no interested motive. [sic] Joe Clift on the contrary had an interest of his own to subserve – and yet in doing this, he also served them. He did them the great favor to tell them exactly how they would be treated and dhow they must act, which was of the greatest benefit. Said he "There is no evidence you of any account it seems for Col. and Mrs. French's letter – no need for you to lay the case before Rousseau – at present – they will try to scare you with Camp Chase – and [the] Nashville Penitentiary but don't you give way an inch – stand your ground – don't say much – be pleasant – give Billings rope and he'll hang himself." Clift was getting up evidence against Billings and Milroy himself for abuse of their office as they had had him arrested for disobeying orders and he wanted M. to give him all Billings irrelevant questions and talk to her, which she put in writing for him. I will get M. to vie me a written statement of the whole affair – I mean to use it some day. Armstrong wrote down to Milroy – I wrote to Mollie, and on the way they came home – Armstrong was going around with a petition getting all the "Loyal Ladies" to sign it – except the Clifts. I was out in the yard in the evening when I saw the Col. Come around the bluff – and a lady with him, I knew the rebel dress-the grey dress and grey hat and plumes – it was Mollie! I had spent that afternoon – or the most of it writing a letter to Milroy – a long mile document [sic], and the Col. was going down to Tulahoma [sic] in the morning to see if he could not get the ladies released….But, as it turned out this was not necessary, they were at home. M. and I like to have never gone to bed that night – she had so much to tell me and so many funny things to say about those fools Gen. & P. M. of Tulahoma [sic].

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, entry for May 10, 1865.


[1] Sallie Gannaway Jamison is not identified, but may have been a cousin in Ohio.

[2] The date is correct. The notice was reprinted in the December 12, 1861 issue.

[3] As cited in PQCW.

[4] Referenced neither in the OR General Index nor in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee. See also: Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pp. 88-90.

[5] Eaton is located on SR 188 in the western section of Gibson county, near the Crocket county line.

[6] All spelling and grammar original.

[7] Powers had agreed to teach negro children at the "Refugee farm", or the "Eweing farm" on Friday, April 22, 1864. See: Powers, Pencillings, p.58.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Wednesday, April 29, 2015

4.29.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

April 29, 1861-1865


        29, Report of Henry W. Hilliard to Confederate Secretary of State Robert Toombs relative to Tennessee's probable secession from the Union, including pertinent sections of Governor Isham G. Harris's secret message to the General Assembly on the same subject[1]

NASHVILLE, TENN., April 29, 1861.

Hon. ROBERT TOOMBS, Secretary of State:

SIR: Under instructions from the Government, I left Montgomery on Thursday evening and arrive at this place on Saturday. Governor Harris having been informed of my arrival, gave me an interview promptly, and I had that honor of delivering to him my letter of credence from the President. He gave me a warm reception, and expressed his gratification at my mission at this important conjuncture. The information which he gives me is of the most important and satisfactory character, and he will heartily co-operate with me in accomplishing the objects of my mission. The Legislature assembled in accordance with his proclamation, and upon receiving his message, resolved forthwith to go into secret session. It was thought best also to withhold the message from publication; the Governor has, however, submitted a copy to me. He recommends that the connection of Tennessee "with the Federal Union be formally annulled in such manner as shall involve the highest exercise of sovereign authority by the people of the State, and best secure that harmony so much to be desired, in times like the present, upon questions of even mere details."

"Therefore I respectfully recommend the perfecting of an ordinance by the Gen. Assembly formally declaring the independence of the State of Tennessee of the Federal Union, renouncing its authority, and reassuming each and every function belonging to a separate sovereignty; and that said ordinance, when it shall have been thus perfected by the Legislature, shall at the earliest practicable time be submitted to a vote of the people, to be by them adopted or rejected."

"I therefore further recommend that you perfect an ordinance, with a view to our admission as a member of the Southern Confederacy (which it is evident must soon embrace the entire slave holding States of the South), to be submitted in like manner, at the same time, but separately, for adoption or rejection by the people; so that they may have the opportunity to approve the former and reject the latter, or adapt both, as in their wisdom may seem most consistent with the future welfare of the State. However fully satisfied the Executive and Legislature may be as to the urgent necessity for the speedy adoption of both these propositions, it is our duty to furnish the amplest means for a fair and full expression of the popular will."

The object of the Governor in recommending separate ordinances is to secure beyond all possibility of doubt the speedy secession of Tennessee from the Government of the United States. The Legislature will within the present week carry out these recommendations of the Governor, and the first proposition will be ratified by an overwhelming popular vote. As to the second, which provides for the admission of Tennessee as a member of the Confederate States, there will be decided opposition, for many desire to establish a middle confederacy, formed of the border States, as they are termed. You will readily comprehend that personal considerations influence opinion to some extent in regard to this measure. From all that I can learn, however, I do not doubt that the people, by a large majority, will vote to add Tennessee to her sister States of the South. A number of the leading men here have already called on me, and they favor it. The governor warmly advocates it in his message and in conversation. He is unwilling to interpose a convention between himself and the people, and therefore proposes to decide the question in the way suggested. A great change has taken place in public sentiment here within a few days, and the feeling in favor of our Government rises into enthusiasm. The flag of the Confederate States floats along the line of travel, from public residences and public buildings, and in this city it is largely displayed.

So soon as the ordinances referred to shall pass the Legislature I shall confer with Governor Harris as to measures for bringing the State into such relations to our Government as may insure thorough co-operation, and facilitate the admission of Tennessee as a member of the Confederacy. Ii shall be pleased to have your views as to the proper steps to be taken by the State, and will, I am informed, appropriate $5,000,000 for that object. The State is very deficient in arms and ammunition, and the greatest anxiety is felt to obtain them; any amount of money can be raised for that purpose. It is proposed to bring into the field from 20,000 to 25,000 troops, and to provide as many more as a reserved force. The spirit of the people is roused, and the war popular beyond description. By existing laws the Governor has no authority to send troops beyond the limits of the State, but the Legislature will authorize him to order them to any point, and in anticipation of this, or under the pressure of affairs, Governor Harris is now sending troops into Virginia. The greatest activity is displayed in providing military stores, and our Government is looked to eagerly to supply them. I do not know to what extent that can be done, and shall be leased to have early and precise information on the subject.

Some 200 tons of lead and other stores intended for this State fell into the hands of the Federal troops at Cairo a few days since. A remarkable transaction, by the way, for the Government at Washington, having made a requisition on Tennessee for troops, surely should allow them to receive munitions of war. Professing to regard Tennessee as loyal, its agents intercept military stores ordered by the Governor. That act has roused the people, for the free navigation of the Mississippi is a matter so important to the people of this State that they have embodied a declaration that it shall forever remain so in their organic law. The leading men here have generally called on me, and I am impression favorable to our Government, and I do not doubt a speedy accomplishment of the objects of my mission. Our Constitution is highly approved, and the conduct of our Government inspires respect and admiration. The Kentucky troops tendered to our Government are at this time in the city. They make a fine appearance and are eager for action. I learn that the people of Kentucky want arms. If they had them that State would promptly throw off the authority of the Government at Washington. The Governor will to-day, in a special message, communicate to the legislature the fact and object of my mission. I was invited to deliver a speech in the Capitol on Saturday evening-indeed, bills were posted throughout the city stating that I would do so-but I declined, preferring to wait for an introduction to the Legislature before addressing the public. I shall hope to receive such instructions from you as may enable me fully to carry out the wishes of our Government.

I have, &c.,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 76-78.

        29, Excerpt from a letter by Robert D. Jamison of Murfreesborough relative to excitement surrounding secession crisis in Tennessee

... Uncle Atha is the most excited man I ever saw. He can talk about nothing else but the state of our country. Companies of soldiers are mustering at every point. They have two companies at Franklin, two at Columbia, one at Spring Hill, and one at Thompson Station. All of the schools have broken up around her except Uncle Atha's and Mr. Bond's.

....One of [Mr. Bond's]...scholars...has stopped and joined a company and I think some more will stop and join.

I never saw such excitement in my life. Everyone is trying to see who can do the most for his country. Mr. Bond is just on tiptoes. He has gone to Spring Hill to make a speech. The cry is heard on every side, "to arms, to arms."

Robert D. Jamison Papers, TSL&A.

29, Mrs. Andrew Jackson Donelson appeals to General Winfield Scott to "arrest the civil war now begun."

Mrs. Donelson to Gen. Scott.—The following eloquent appeal to Gen. Scott from the wife of Andrew Jackson Donelson, we find in the Memphis Bulletin:

Memphis, April 29, 1861.

Gen. Scott—Dear Sir: I address you not as a stranger. I was introduced to you in 1834, at the White House, by President Jackson, as "my niece, Miss Martin, of Tennessee." In 1834 I married Louis Randolph, a grandson of President Jefferson. In 1837 he died, and in 1841 I married Major Andrew J. Donelson, whom you will remember. In 1852 I saw you frequently in Washington.

I write to you, Gen. Scott, as the only man in the country who can arrest the civil war now begun. When it was announced that "Gen. Scott had resigned," a thrill of joy ran through the South. Cannon told the glad tidings, and my heart said, "God bless him." Now it is said "you will never fight under any other than the Star Spangled Banner." We have loved that banner. We have loved the Union. But the Union is gone, and forever, and I wept as each star left the field of blue and set in night. Now we have another field of blue, and soon our fifteen stars will shine upon our right. The stripes are all that is left of the banner you have borne victorious in many battles.

Of you I may ask it, but not the usurper and his Abolition band, who now desecrate the honored place once filled by our Washington, Jefferson and Jackson—of Gen. Scott I ask it—STOP THIS WAR. Say to the North, you shall not shed your brother's blood. The sons of Tennessee and the South have buckled on their armor, and are ready for the fight. We will fight this battle, every man, woman and child, to the last cent in our pockets and the last drop of blood in our veins. The North boasts of its strength. If this boast be well founded, it were cowardice to destroy the weak. But "the race is not always to the swift, nor the battle to the strong!" God will defend us when our husbands and sons go forth to repel the invaders of our homes, our rights, and our soil. Then count the cost, Hero of Battles, and let after ages bless you.

Daily Advocate [Baton Rouge] May 24, 1861.

        29, Pro-Confederate feminine militancy in Memphis


The following letter, addressed by Mrs. A. J. Donelson to Gen. Scott, appears in the Memphis Bulletin of May 19th:

"Memphis, April 29, 1861. General Scott: Dear Sir:-I address you not as a stranger. I was introduced to you in 1824, at the White House, by President Jackson, as "my niece, Miss Martin at Tennessee."  In 1835 I married Lewis Randolph, a grandson of President Jefferson. In 1838 he died; and in 1841 I married Major Andrew J. Donelson, whom you will remember. In 1851 I saw you frequently in Washington.

I write to you, General Scott, as the only man in the country who can arrest the civil war now began. When it was announced that 'General Scott had resigned,' a thrill of joy ran through the South, Dannon told the glad tidings, and my heart said "God bless him."  Now it is said, you never will fight under any other than the Star-Spangled-Banner."  We have loved the Union. But the Union is gone and forever, and I wept as each star left the field of blue and set in night (line is cut off the page)

They replied they had come down to "take them d—n Stars and Stripes."  She instantly drew a revolver from her side and presenting it, said, "Go on, I am good for one of you, and I think for both!"

"By the looks of that girl's eye, she'll shoot," one remarked. "I think we had better not try it; we'll go back and get more men and come take it down, if you dare!"

They returned with a company of ninety armed men and demanded that the flag should be taken down. But on discovering that the house was filled with gallant men, armed to the teeth, who would rather die as dearly as possible, than see their country's flag dishonored, the secessionists retired.

When our informant left Knoxville, the Stars and Stripes still floated to the breeze over Parson Brownlow's house. Long may they wave! Have another field of blue and soon our fifteen stars will shine upon our sight. The stripes are all that if left of the banner you have borne victoriously in many battles.

Of you I may ask it, but not the usurper and his Abolition band, who now desecrates the honored place ones filled by our Washington, Jefferson and Jackson-of General Scott I ask it-stop this war. Say to the North you shall not shed your brother's blood. The sons of Tennessee and the South have buckled on their armor, and are ready for the fight. We will fight the battle, every man, woman and child, to the last cent in our pockets, and the last drop of blood in our veins. The North boosts of its strength. If this boast be well founded, it were cowardice to destroy the weak. But the race is not always to the swift, nor the battle to the strong. God will defend us when our husbands and sons go forth to repel the invaders of our homes, our rights and our soil. Then count the cost, Hero of Battles, and let after ages bless.

Elizabeth A. Donelson

Chicago Journal.

New Hampshire Sentinel, June 6, 1861.



        29, Repulse of Federals at Cumberland Gap

Reports of Maj.-Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army, including orders for movement of troops.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., April 30, 1862.

The enemy attacked Cumberland Gap yesterday in force. I go to-day to re-enforce Gen. Stevenson with all my available troops. Yesterday the enemy attacked Gen. Leadbetter's command at Bridgeport. It was necessary to retreat, and the bridge there was burned by Gen. Leadbetter.

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

Gen. S. COOPER, Adjt. and Insp. Gen., Richmond, Va.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.

GEN.: The enemy has attacked at Cumberland Gap. Move with all your disposable force toward Jacksborough. I will overtake you to-night or to-morrow morning. You will withdraw all the cavalry, except one company at Clinton and Cobb's Ferry, respectively. Those remaining will be directed to keep up communication with this point, and also to communicate to you across the country any important intelligence. You will take with you, if practicable, six or seven days' rations, but be careful to have the wagons in condition to travel lightly. The troops should be without impediments and in fighting order. If the steamboat is at Clinton you will keep it there.

Respectfully, you obedient servant,

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.

GEN.: The major-general commanding has received your dispatch of the 28th instant, and direct me to inform me to inform you that he will move immediately with all his disposable force up Powell's Valley to your assistance. He will be to-morrow at Jacksborough.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.

Push on by forced marches toward Jacksborough and join Brig.-Gen. Barton. Leave a sufficient force at Kingston.

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.

COL.: You will move your regiment immediately to the railroad depot, where a train awaits to transport it to the terminus of the Kentucky Railroad. From that point you will proceed to Clinton, Tenn., and report to Brig.-Gen. Barton.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

HDQRS., Fincastle, Tenn., May 3, 1862.

MAJ.: Since their repulse at Cumberland Gap, on the 29th ultimo, the enemy have made no demonstration at that point. My intelligence is that they are removing the obstructions in the Big Creek Gap road west of Fincastle. With my effective force here (1,500) I shall operate through the mountain on their rear, which is beyond support from the main body at Cumberland Ford.

Small as my command at this point is, it is all the disposable force in the department, and was collected from every direction to co-operate with Gen. Stevenson at Cumberland Gap.

The Georgia regiments ordered to this department were weak when reported; they have since been so reduced by measles, mumps, and typhoid fever that they do not average an effective strength of 300. Besides their numerical weakness, they are disheartened by sickness and its effects. The troops lately raised in Tennessee are in the same condition.

When my intelligence became conclusive that the enemy were concentrating for an attack on Cumberland Gap, I telegraphed Gen. Marshall and asked his co-operation. He replied that his command, all told, did not number 1,000, and that he was inclined to doubt the accuracy of my information, having been so often deceived himself, &c. In its present condition I can expect no assistance from Gen. Marshall's command.

Whilst the people of East Tennessee believe my force to be large and effective, to the department alone have I exposed its weakness and inefficiency.

I shall resist the enemy's entrance into East Tennessee with all the means at my disposal, but with the people in my midst enlisted against me, and with a force of at least four to one, more efficient and better equipped, it will be alone assistance from on High that enables us to maintain possession of the department.

In case of any irretrievable disaster, I have given instructions to the chiefs of departments for the quiet and speedy removal of all their stores.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. 1, pp. 75-77.

        29, Skirmish near Monterey at Adkin's House

Report of Brig. Gen. Patton Anderson, C. S. Army, of skirmish at Monterey, Tenn., April 29.

ADKIN'S HOUSE, ON MONTEREY ROAD, TENN., April 29, 1862--12.45 p. m.

MAJ.: A few minutes after my last note was written the cavalry which had been left and Monterey came dashing through my lines a little beyond this, reporting the enemy in hot pursuit in largely-superior cavalry force and infantry; not known how many. Most of Lieut.-Col. Kelly's command were halted and formed in front some 400 to 600 yards; many, however, passed through and have probably gone to Corinth. My dispositions had been made. A few precautions were, however, added. The artillery (three pieces Washington Artillery) was in the center of the right wing, sweeping the road. Our cavalry was soon fired upon by large squadrons, perhaps 500 men, and, returning the fire feebly, fell back. The enemy came in pursuit, and as soon as his columns were unmasked, as previously directed, Lieut. Vaught, commanding the artillery, opened upon the head of his column with canister and round shot and soon put the whole to flight, killing one or two and several horses. I had not the cavalry to pursue vigorously, but sent 50 men, under an officer, to follow on and learn where he had gone. They followed to within 1 mile of Monterey and report infantry and six pieces of artillery there.

Maj. Smith, commanding 150 mounted men, on his way from Corinth to Sand Hill, came up while the firing was going on and promptly reported to me for service. I ordered him to divide and form on my right and left and to send out small parties for observation, &c., all of which he promptly executed.

After the enemy's cavalry had retreated beyond the range of our artillery I ceased firing and occupied the position until half an hour ago, when I fell back through a boggy wood to this position, on the hill commanding Mr. Atkins' house.

I had expected the infantry and artillery to move up after the cavalry was repulsed; but waiting three hours for him, and finding this to be a better position, I crossed the creek near Adkins' and took the position I now occupy. I was much influenced in his move by a report which Lieut. Forrest, of Forrest's cavalry, made me after the repulse. He came, attracted by the firing, and reported the enemy moving up the Hamburg and Corinth road in a column of 10,000 infantry. He had been posted with 20 men on this road yesterday morning at a point near Babb's house. This morning he was driven in and cut off from his retreat to me and came back toward Corinth till he heard the firing and returned. If this information be true (and it concurs with former reports of scouts), it is important. That road (the Babb) intersects the Monterey and Corinth road 4½ miles this side of Corinth, at Shope's house.

The roads are in wretched condition. It is almost impossible to get our artillery through the mud with their weakened teams. A great deal of our cavalry cannot be got to make a stand from the same cause.

Lieut. Vaught and his men deserve much praise for the coolness, courage, and skill with which they handled their pieces. He was ably assisted by Lieut. Chalaron, who likewise displayed all the good qualities of an artillery officer. The infantry did not fire a volley, but stood coolly, ready to do so when ordered.

I would be pleased to receive any suggestions from the general commanding at all times in regard to my movements, and I shall endeavor to keep him informed of what I do.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Outpost, &c.

P. S.-I have said one or two were killed, because the first officer who rode over the field reported to me two; one who subsequently examined said he could find but one.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 800-801.

        29, Skirmish at Monterey [see also April 29, 1862, Skirmish near Monterey at Adkin's House above]

Report of Brig. Gen. David S. Stanley, U. S. Army, of skirmish at Monterey, Tenn., April 29.

HDQRS. SECOND DIVISION, Army of the Mississippi, May 3, 1862.

MAJ.: I have the honor to report that as early as guides could be procured on the morning of the 29th of April I marched to attempt the surprise of the rebel force at Monterey and make a reconnaissance of the country. My force consisted of the First Brigade of my division, Col. John Groesbeck commanding; sixteen companies of cavalry, Col. W. L. Elliott commanding, with Dee's and Spoor's batteries. We met the first of the enemy's pickets 2 miles north of Monterey, and soon after learned that the enemy were probably retreating. In accordance with Col. Elliott's desire, I directed him to follow with the entire cavalry force at speed through their deserted camp and the village of Monterey. The cavalry fell upon the retreating enemy, scattering them and taking some 20 prisoners. Maj. Love, Second Iowa Cavalry, pushed on the main Corinth road at a run until crossing a small bridge over a creek he was fired on by a cross-fire of four pieces of artillery, not over 50 yards distant, shooting canister. He here lost 1 man killed and 4 wounded. As he found the creek impassable, excepting by the bridge, he returned to me for orders. Believing that the major-general's instructions and the nature of the case did not justify an attack in force upon the enemy's position, I marched my force back to camp. To Col. Elliott and the cavalry belong the credit of this little dash, and I am happy to bear testimony to their gallantry and readiness for service.

Inclosed please find reports of Col. Elliott and Maj. Love.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. S. STANLEY, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Second Division.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 799.

        29, Raid on the Mobile & Ohio Railroad near Bethel Station

No circumstantial reports filed.

        29, Special Orders, No. 15, for the arrest of Joseph C. Rye, Cashier of the Bank of Tennessee in Columbia, for treason

Head Quarters U. S. Forces

Columbia, Tenn. April 29, 1862

Special Order No. 15

Sir: Capt. Thos. H. Green, Provost Marshall, will immediately arrest Joseph C. Rye, Cashier of the Bank of Tennessee to answer to the charge of Treason against the Government of the United States.

Joseph C. Rye will be closely confined to his residence without any intercourse until he can be handed over to the military authorities at Nashville.

The Bank and all the Bank officials wherever situated will be placed in charge of Capt. Edward M. McGovern assisted by a guard.

By Command of Brig. Gen. Negley

Records of the Adjutant General's Office

        29, "BURN THE COTTON."

We published in our last issue the order of General Beauregard, urging upon the planters of the Mississippi valley the necessity and duty of burning all cotton that is in danger of falling into the hands of the enemy. We cordially unite with him in this injunction, and believe that the tried loyalty and patriotism of our people will be fully equal to the sacrifice. It is beyond all cavil or dispute the design of the Lincoln authorities to seize all of this staple which they can lay their hands on, in the name of their government, and subject it to confiscation. They have invariably pursued this policy, since our soul was first polluted by their unhallowed footsteps. They will continue it, and it is now the privilege and the duty of our planted to defeat their dishonest and infamous designs. The only question is, shall our cotton be given to the flames with the certainly to being paid by the Confederate Government, or shall the enemy be allowed to seize and confiscated it to his own use and benefit without a farthing's compensation. If the military authorities burn it, very well. But where they do not, let the planters do so themselves. [sic] They are requested to keep an account of the number of bales destroyed, and compensation will be duly made by our authorities, when the necessity of the destruction is established, at the proper time. The "fires of patriotism" were soon blazing out from untold numbers of cotton bales upon the approach of the enemy to New Orleans. Let the white smoke be seen issuing from every town, village and plantation in the Mississippi valley, when the verdict of necessity shall demand it. This policy defeats the thieving design of the foe, and inflicts a blow upon him scarcely less powerful than the rout of his armies or the defeat of his arms. By all means let it be tried-and tried before it is too late. [sic].

Memphis Appeal, April 29, 1862

        29, Lack of confidence expressed in Memphis; contingency from the Daily Appeal's evacuation announced [see also May 1, 1862, "If the Enemy Shall Reach Memphis – What Then?" below]

The APPEAL will continue to punctually be issued in Memphis so long as the city is in possession of the Confederate authorities. Should it, however, be occupied by the enemy, taking a lesson from the despotic suppression of the Nashville journals by ANDREW JOHNSON, we shall discontinue its publication, here and remove to some safe point in Mississippi, where we can express our true political sentiments, and still breath the pure and untainted atmosphere of Southern freedom. We cannot do such violence to our feelings as to submit to a censorship under LINCOLN'S hireling minions that would deprive us of the privilege of depressing at all times our earnest God-speed to the progress of Southern independence, and write and speak what we think. Sooner would we sink our types, press and establishment in the bottom of the Mississippi river, and be wanderers and exiles from our homes.

Memphis Appeal, April 29, 1862.

        29, Female entrepreneurs in Nashville

New Southern, Straw Hat and Bonnet Manufactory.

The People of Nashville and vicinity are informed that they can be supplied with Hats and Bonnets from the production of their own soil—no way inferior, if not surpassing any English importation or any handicraft of the Northern States. Also, that their old Hats and Bonnets, however much soiled and out of modern style, can be made to compete with new ones, in shape and finish, at very short notice, and on reasonable terms. Hats and Bonnets are colored and finished in superior style.

Black lace Veils, &c., although reduced to an apparently worthless condition, may be restored to their primitive beauty in color and finish. Feathers colored white and red, and finished to equal new. All those who wish to see "old things pass away and all things become new" in the way of Hats, Bonnets, Lace, &c., will please call at No. 15½ Kirkman's Block, Summer street.

Mrs. Lloyd,

Mrs. C. C. Dow.

Nashville Dispatch, April 29, 1862.

        29-10 June, Operations against Mississippi Central Railroad

HDQRS. ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Corinth, Miss., April 29, 1862.

Maj.-Gen. LEONIDAS POLK, Cmdg. First Corps, Army of the Mississippi:

GEN.: Since my order of this morning information from the front relative to the advance of the enemy on this place requires that Gen. Cheatham and all available troops should remain at this point.

Gen. Maxey will have to act as already instructed, i.e., to stand his ground until he is hard pressed, then fall back on this place, if practicable; otherwise on Bolivar; but the first is preferable.

The cavalry will fall back on Bolivar to defend the Mississippi Central Railroad, as already instructed.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. T. BEAUREGARD, Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 464.



        29, Reconnaissance and skirmish on the Chapel Hill Pike

APRIL 29, 1863.- Reconnaissance on the Chapel Hill Pike, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. John M. Schofield, U. S. Army, commanding Third Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.


COL.: I have the honor to report that I went to the front this morning with a brigade of infantry, one battery, a small cavalry force, and forage train, as far as Jordan's Store, on the Chapel Hill pike. We found and brought in an abundant supply of good forage. While the trains were loading, I went forward with about 200 cavalry to within about 4 miles of Chapel Hill. The enemy's picket was found at Rigg's Cross-Roads, and retired, skirmishing with our advance. One of the rebels is known to have been killed and several wounded. Three prisoners were taken. No loss on our side.

From conversation with negroes [sic] and citizens living within the rebel lines, I am satisfied there is no force in the vicinity of Chapel Hill, except about 500 or 600 cavalry, and that there has been no large force there recently. I failed to ascertain the whereabouts of the main body of the enemy's cavalry.

I am informed that there are three large flouring mills at and near Chapel Hill, which furnish large supplies to the rebel army. They can easily be destroyed, if it is deemed advisable. Whether or not, will, I presume, depend upon contemplated movements of our army. I will wait for instructions from the major-general commanding before making such an expedition.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. M. SCHOFIELD, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 326.

HDQRS. SECOND BRIGADE, MARTIN'S CAVALRY DIVISION, Unionville, Tenn., April 30, 1863--6 a. m.

Lieut.-Gen. Polk's Chief of Staff:

* * * *

Brig.-Gen. [Maj.-Gen.] Schofield commanded the expedition we drove back yesterday. It consisted of about 500 mounted men and some artillery. The latter was not brought into action, but fell back almost immediately to Triune.

* * * *

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Col., Cmdg. Second Brigade, Martin's Division of Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 804.

        29, Request for funds to pay negro laborers working on Federal fortifications at Nashville

MURFREESBOROUGH, April 29, 1863--5.10 p. m.

(Received 8.40 p. m.) Maj. J. D. KURTZ,

Corps of Engineers, Assistant Chief Engineer:

The general commanding this department has expressed his wish that the negroes [sic] employed upon the fortifications at Nashville be paid wages, and so enabled to support their families. Their case being at present a very hard one, I respectfully ask your attention to the letter I wrote to the Department on this subject, I think in November last I will shortly prepare and forward estimate to put this matter in definite shape. At present the commanding general directs me to request you officially to give it your consideration. The chief difficulties are, of course, the obtaining the money and the doubt as to propriety of paying slave negroes [sic] of loyal and of rebel owners not present, or free negroes [sic] who cannot prove their being free.

I remain, very respectfully, truly, your obedient servant,

J. ST. C. MORTON. Brig.-Gen., Chief Engineer, Army of the Cumberland.


The necessity for paying them is, that from want, say, nine-tenths have deserted, and I think justly.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 291-292.

NEAR WOODBURY, April 29, 1863--10 p. m.

Maj. D. G. REED, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., McMinnville:

MAJ.: This morning I sent two scouts, on different roads, in the direction of Liberty. They have both returned, and report the enemy moving in the direction of Murfreesborough, with the greater portion, if not all, of his forces. Their wagons were loaded with citizens, furniture, &c.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 802.

        29, Special Order [sic], No. 13 [see April 30, 1863, The war against prostitution in Memphis below]

Office District Provost Marshal,

District of Memphis

Memphis, Tenn., April 29th, 1863

I.* * * * [sic] If, after ten days from the date of this order any house of ill fame, kept for the purpose of prostitution and lewdness, is discovered in this District, the inmates thereof will be arrested and sent North,[2] and their household furniture reported to the Commanding Officer for confiscation.

II. Any officer or soldier of the United States Army, who in this District should so far forget the respectability and dignity of his position, as to appear in places of the above named character, except on official duty, will, upon discovery, be reported with his name, and regiment, to the Commanding General.

III. Masters of steamboats are prohibited from bringing to this District and landing, as passengers, "prostitutes" [sic] or women of disreputable character. A violation of this order will subject the offender to arrest and fine.

The local Provost Marshals in this District will see that these orders are enforced.

MELANCTHON SMITH, Lieut. Col., and District Provost Marshal.


Headquarters District of Memphis

Memphis, Tenn., April 30th, 1863


By order of Brig. Gen J. C. Veatch.

F. W. FOX [sic], A. A. G.

Memphis Bulletin, May 1, 1863.

        29, "I rose up and fired one shot and fell back." J. M. Winn, Confederate soldier, to his wife in Robertson County

Camp 15 miles East [sic] of Carthage

April 29th, 1863

Dear Priscilla:

Learning that I have an opportunity of sending you a letter I proceed to write to you, hoping very cincearingly [sic] that it may reach you in safety & find you well and doing well. These lines leave me in fine health & the boys are all well so far as I know, (of our Reg[iment].)

Thos. R. Mason I learn is getting well of his wound. I haven't been in but one battle since I came out this time, that was at Snows Hill[3] near Smithville. I leigh [sic] under the Enemies' [sic] fire about ½ an hour, was then ordered to retreat. I rose up and fired one shot and fell back. Our company lost Lieutenant Ashbrook, wounded in the head he is getting well.

Puss I hardly know how to write for I wrote you a letter soon after I cam[e] through and started it by a man that said he was going through. Some of the boys say that he didn't go. This is the only chance that I have of sending a letter to you. I have been anxious to write all the time. I am very glad that I have this opportunity.

Puss, I expect when I hear from you, to hear that you have been confined, I hope as at any rate and hope that you[r] man have had an easy time of it. That you have brought forth[4] & that you both are doing well.

The boys see a tolerable hard time, everything is high out here. Corn is worth $10. per lb., Bacon from 25 to 35 cts. per lb. Horses are worth from 100 to 800 Dollars.

Write soon, write how you are & how you have been all the time, and if you have anything there say what it is and its name. Give all the particulars.

Winds of Change, p. 57.

        29, Report on successful Federal feint in Middle Tennessee[5]

FRANKLIN, April 30, 1863--9.20 a. m.


The rebel advance turned out as I predicted. It was their ox that was gored by our bull. They were sure that we were advancing on them, and moved their stores and baggage back 20 miles behind Shelbyville. Forrest went to Florence and Decatur. All quiet in front. Rebels mighty vigilant and mad since our last rampage.

G. GRANGER. Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 295-296.

        29-May 5, Scout from LaGrange to North Mississippi

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 579.[6]



        29, Skirmish in Berry[7] County Tennessee

No circumstantial reports filed.

        29, Spies in McMinnville, excerpt from a letter by John L. Spurlock in Nashville to his wife Lou in McMinnville

Nashville 29th April 1864

Dear Lou,

I had intended to start home in the morning but find myself disappointed. I expected to dispense of some business this morning but the court refused to take it consequence of the of the judges. I will leave here next Saturday morning on the omnibus will go [sic] on it to Murfreesboro, where I will have to make some other arrangements to get from there up home [i.e. McMinnville]. I do not know how I will do....James Robison passed through here a few days ago on his way to Alton, Illinois. He was entrapped by a federal [sic] spy who was at McMinnville pretending to be a confederate [sic] soldier or something of the kind. I understand there are others involved in & about McMinnville and that was for their arrest have been ____[?]______ this you must not speak of for I do not intend to knowingly or unintentionally be mixed up in any of their difficulties. Tell father to tell Jim to keep his tongue in his teeth. I do not suppose he has any aspirations to do otherwise, but you know the influences that surround him. In addition every artifice is restored to entrap & ensnare by some unworthy [artifice?] [those] who basely seek by that means to curry favor with the federal [sic] authorities. By them [strictest construction?] will be place on language immoderately use. I do hope & trust my friends will be prudent, if they are not inevitable ruin awaits them.

* * * *

John L. Spurlock

Bentley Papers, TSL&A

        29, Skirmish in Shelby County, Dick Davis' Guerrillas ambush Federal scouting party at Pigeon Roost crossing[8]

….the Gurrilla's [sic] ambushed a scouting party of fourteen, at Pigeon Rooste crossing on yesterday, killing the Yankee's three horses-wounding two Yanks and capturing three and one horse, only six out of the crowd got back to Memphis-they are very much exasperated-the lines have been closed since, and that may have detained the girls-hurrah! for the Dick Davis and his band-I hope they may break into this thieving band of Yanks roving over the Country-both of Helen's little pups died today-

God bless our armies and give us success –

Diary of Belle Edmondson, April 30, 1864

        29, Special Orders No. 4, Instructions for Provost Marshals in the Department and Army of Tennessee


No. 3. OFFICE PROVOST-MARSHAL-GEN., Huntsville, Ala., April 29, 1864.

In accordance with General Orders, No. 4, headquarters Department and Army of the Tennessee, April, 1864, the following instructions are published for the guidance of provost-marshals:

Provost-marshals in this department will be divided into two classes: First, those serving with troops in the field as provost-marshals of corps and divisions; second, those serving at posts or in geographical districts.

The first class are staff officers of the generals commanding their corps and divisions, and accompany the movement of the troops of the several commands to which they belong. When in the field their duties are confined principally to the custody and disposition of prisoners of war and citizens suspected of giving information to the enemy or of other crimes, and to the enforcing of order in such towns as the troops may pass through or be encamped near during the march.

Any property seized by a provost-marshal while on the march, and needed for the use of the army, will at once be turned over to the proper officer entitled to receive the same, as the quartermaster, commissary, ordnance officer, &c., and all other property not belonging to any military department, and which circumstances render it impracticable to turn over to the Treasury agent, will be destroyed or disposed of as the commanding general may direct.

When permanently in camp they are required to enforce the military laws, maintain order in and around their camps, and to perform such other duties of a kindred nature as their commanding officer may direct.

The second class are appointed by the provost-marshal-general, with the approval of the general commanding the department, and will not be considered as upon the staff of the post or district commanders. Their position will not be affected by any change that may occur in such commanders. They will attend to such duties as are usually performed by the magistrates and civil officers of towns, as far as consistent with the military occupation of a place; grant licenses for carrying on such traces and occupations as the post or district commander may decide to establish; maintain order, quiet, and cleanliness; punish those guilty of vice and crime; try all citizens guilty of violation of orders; inflict fines or order imprisonment as the nature of the case may require; decide all cases of dispute as to personal property or question of right arising among citizens; arrest and punish all parties engaged in giving information to the enemy, in smuggling or carrying on illicit trade of any kind; seize and confiscate all goods belonging to such parties; receive and forward to the proper camps prisoners of war; hold in custody other prisoners awaiting trial; dispose of deserters and refugees in accordance with existing orders; give permits to soldiers and citizens to pass from the post, under such restrictions as the post commander or superior headquarters may impose, and enforce such orders as the post or district commander may find it necessary to issue. When prisoners are arrested whose crimes are punishable by long imprisonment or death their cases will be referred to a military commission for trial.

Provost-marshals will make application to post or district commanders for the necessary officers and men to enable them to perform the duties required of them.

By order of Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson:

JAMES WILSON, Lieut.-Col. and Provost-Marshal-Gen.


Reports will be made on the 15th and last day of each month.


Provost-marshal of corps will cause the assistants in their several divisions to make to them true and correct reports of all prisoners of war captured, and to furnish rolls properly made out in alphabetical order, due succession of rank, with company, regiment, when, where, and by whom captured, and in the last column such remarks as may be necessary, stating the disposition made of the prisoners.

These rolls will be made out on the blanks furnished by the Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners. If there are no blanks on hand, then foolscap sheets will be used, opened out and ruled to cover the entire sheets when opened.

When it is not practicable to forward the prisoners North, directly to a camp established for rebel prisoners, they will be sent to the nearest post and placed in charge of the local provost-marshal there, who will consolidate all rolls of prisoners and forward the prisoners to the proper camps under charge of a sufficient guard. The officer placed in charge of the prisoners in transit to such camps will be furnished with two rolls, one of which will be turned over with his prisoners, and the other, when receipted by the officer in command of the camp, will be returned to the provost-marshal who forwarded the prisoners. A full record will be kept of the prisoners thus turned over, and the receipted roll will then be forwarded direct to the Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners at Washington, D. C., with a letter of transmittal, a copy of which will be kept on file.

Officers in charge of prisoners en route to the camps in the North will received written instructions as to what is required of them, and they must be particularly directed to note all changes that may occur among their prisoners until they are turned over; if any die, are left sick in hospital, or escape, the fact must be noted in the column of remarks opposite their names.

When prisoners of war are forwarded from one post to another, a note will be made on the rolls that accompany them that "no copy has been sent to the Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners," and it shall be the duty of the provost-marshal having them in charge last, previous to sending them to the camp for rebel prisoners, to forward the rolls to Washington, and he will be held accountable for any omission. A copy of the roll of prisoners as forwarded to the Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners, with the alterations noted on it, will be sent to this office. No other rolls of prisoners will be required here, but in the letter of transmittal accompanying the semi-monthly reports the number of prisoners passing through their offices will be stated.


The oath of allegiance will be administrated to all deserters from the rebel army as soon as they have been examined by the commander of the division or detached brigade nearest to place of surrender. They will not be permitted to run at large near the lines, but when practicable will be forwarded North, or may be employed in the rear of our lines in the quartermaster or engineer departments as provided for by Gen. Orders, No. 10, headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi, December 12, 1863. Particular attention is called to this order and to General Orders, No. 64, War Department, present series, as covering the whole subject of the disposition to be made of deserters.

Rolls of deserters will be forwarded to this office with the usual semi-monthly reports; in the column of remarks must be stated what disposition was made of the men.


A correct report must be made of all property seized, which will be headed, "Semi-monthly report of property seized by ------- -------, provost-marshal of --, from the ---day of ---to the ---day of ----," and columns as follows: Date, number or quantity, articles, number or marks, weight, from whom seized, why seized, condition, disposition; and the report must be dated at the time of making out the same and signed officially.

All property abandoned, captured, confiscated as belonging to disloyal persons, or seized under military orders, which shall come into possession of any provost-marshal, shall be turned over to the agent of the Treasury Department, excepting arms, munitions of war, forage, horses, mules, wagons, beef-cattle, and supplies which are necessary in military operations, which shall be turned over to the proper officers of the ordnance, or of the quartermaster, or of the commissary departments, respectively, for the use of the army.

When the property is turned over it will be invoiced to the officer receiving it and receipts taken in duplicate, one of which will accompany the report as a voucher.

The attention of provost-marshal is especially called to the Treasury regulations and to General Orders, No. 88, War Department, March 31, 1863, with the requirements of which they will strictly comply.


Money received by local provost-marshals for fines, licenses, &c., will be accounted for semi-monthly. The report will be headed, "Report of cash received by -------- --------, provost-marshal of --------, from the -------- day of ---------- to the --day of ---," and will contain columns headed as follows: Date, from whom received, for what, by whose order, remarks; and in addition a regular cash account will be forwarded. The balance on hand from last accounts will be brought forward. All payments will be accounted for particularly, and duplicated receipts taken for all expenditures, one of which will be forwarded with the account as a voucher. A balance will be struck showing the amount on hand at the date of the report. These balances, when exceeding $100, will be forwarded by local provost-marshals to the district provost-marshal, who will, after making up his accounts and reports, forward the balance on hand to the provost-marshal-general Department of the Tennessee by express. When there is no district provost-marshal the reports and balances will be forwarded directly to this office.

All Confederate money captured will be reported and forwarded separately, and a statement will be made of all the circumstances connected with the seizure, and if any has been paid out state why or by whose order. Confederate money seized is ordered to be reported and sent to the Adjutant-Gen. of the Army, and provost-marshals will be particular to forward all information referring to such seizure, so the order can be fully complied with at this office.

The necessary expenses of local and district offices will be paid out of the funds collected. Whatever is required for the full and complete working of the office will be obtained, but no unnecessary or lavish expenditure will be allowed.

Provost-marshals will use great caution in the employment of detectives. Many abuses have crept into the provost-marshal's department from the employment of worthless and dishonest men. When any such can be convicted of improper conduct, of compromising with persons guilty of violating orders, or concealing or withholding information that may come in their possession, of accepting bribes, or of any other offense, they will be at once arrested and punished by the provost-marshal, or their cases will be brought before a military commission for trial, and they must not be merely sent out of the department, as is too frequently the case.

Citizens must not be employed as clerks when it is possible to obtained enlisted men. If it is absolutely necessary to hire clerks, preference will be given to soldiers honorably discharged from the service.

General Orders, No. 4, headquarters Department of the Tennessee, April 19, 1864, designate what moneys properly belong to the provost-marshal fund.


In administering the oath of allegiance (as embodied in the President's proclamation of March 26, 1864) to refugees and others, the blanks that have been distributed for that purpose will be used whenever practicable; when such blanks are not on hand, the oath will be written out on the top of a sheet of foolscap, commencing, "We, the undersigned, do solemnly swear," &c., and columns will be ruled, headed date, name, residence; this will be signed by the persons taking the oath, and when the sheet is filled the officer will certify on it that the oath was administered to the parties by him on the date opposite to their names. These lists will be forwarded directly to the Department of State, Washington, with a letter of transmittal.

Persons taking the oath will be furnished with a certificate, and a record will be kept in the office.

A statement of the number of oaths administered will be made to this office at the time of making the usual reports and for the time covered by the reports.

JAMES WILSON, Lieut. Col. and Provost-Marshal-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 537-541.

        29, Special Orders, No. 120, expulsion of sutlers from the army in the field in East Tennessee


Knoxville, Tenn., April 29, 1864.

I. Until further orders, no sutlers will be allowed with the troops in the field. Division commanders will see that all sutlers with the army in the field are sent to the rear at once.

* * * *

By command of Maj.-Gen. Schofield:

R. MORROW, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 541.

        29, "…subject to bushwhacking  rule…." An entry from the Diary of Eliza Rhea Anderson Fain

Night before last [27th Tuesday] a few minutes before one o'clock I was aroused I suppose by the barking of the dogs. I listened very attentively when one of the dogs make a noise like someone has struck it. I felt alarmed but did not get up A few moments afterward the report of a gun fell upon my ear. My heart rose within me. My first thought was bushwhackers at Sarah's are killing some of our men or being killed. I was soon out of my bed and awakened my praying child. In a short time the report of another gun reached us; we went upstairs to look and see if we could what was going on. We then came back to my room. I dressed myself and with earnest prayer prepared to meet what I felt would soon be our terrible fate, subject to bushwhacking rule, every moment for at least half an hour was one of intense feeling and one of prayer that my father would be a shield of fire by night round about us. Sallie lay down and as did I after awhile; but not to sleep. Sallie, Fannie and Nannie with myself were awake until after three.

This evening I learned the cause of our great alarm. Four [Union] bushwhackers went to Mr. Sensabaugh's and demanded two rebel soldiers who had gone there to stay all night. Mr. Sensabaugh roused the men up, they came down and gave themselves up. They tied them and brought them down the road as far as the lane between Mr. Netherlands and brother Hiram, here they began their murderous work. They had left their horses there and walked to Mr. S's. The names of the two soldiers were Corriger and Southern. Corriger made his escape but Southern fell a victim to their wrath. Two of the bushwhackers left to go in search of a mule. Our men I suppose made some resistance and perhaps were gaining some advantage over the two when one of them knocked Corriger down with a gun. Southern started to run, they took after him and Corriger made his escape getting on his own horse. Southern would also have gotten away but the other two coming up at the time stopped him. They beat him with a pistol on the head bruising him so badly. They also stabbed him and then took him to Mr. Pryors and left telling Mr. P., so I understand, that he must send for a doctor and have him taken care of. If he failed to do it they would come and serve him in the same way.

A scout of some 20 of our men came down on Thursday [28th]. Cousin Bay and Stevens came by and took some supper with us. They intending going over the river but did not, I suppose, why I cannot tell. They took Mr. Southern with them on Friday [29th]. We were so rejoiced to see and know our men were coming back.

Fain Diary.

        29-May 7, 1864, Investigation of depredations committed against Southern loyalists by Confederate forces in Kingsport, Bristol, Blountsville and Sullivan County

BRISTOL, TENN., April 29, 1864.

Col. GEO W. BRENT, A. A. G., Hdqrs. Armies of the C. S.:

COL.: From the investigation I have been able to make, I have to report that the complaints of the citizens of Sullivan County, Tenn., contained in the memorial referred to me, are well founded. I am satisfied that the limitations of the impressment law have not been uniformly observed. Supplies needed for the support of the household have been taken; disputed questions have not been referred to the board of arbitrators, required by law. Agricultural operations have been left, signed by forage-masters, commissary sergeants, officers of the line, and sometimes without any indication of the command for which the supplies were taken. In addition to these abuses, robberies by soldiers in small parties have been frequent. In October last, it is stated, a regiment of cavalry (Peter's Twenty-first Virginia) was mounted in East Tennessee by the indiscriminate license granted by Gen. Williams to seize horses wherever they could be found. No receipts were given, no money paid, and no form of law observed. Gen. A. E. Jackson assured me that he had himself taken from men of this regiment more than 100 horses thus seized, which he recognized as belonging to perfectly loyal Southern men. Gen. William E. Jones, in March, directed his purveying officers to leave there bushels of corn or two and a half of wheat for each member of a family, but his quartermaster informed me that he was satisfied this limitation had not been respected. I have received assurances from Gen. William E. Jones, in March, directed his purveying officers to leave three bushels of corn or two and a half of wheat for each member of a family, but his quartermaster informed me that he was satisfied this limitation had not been respected. I have received assurances from Gen. A. E. Jackson, from the chief quartermaster and chief commissary of the department, from the quartermaster and chief commissary of the department, from the quartermaster of Jones' brigade, and from numerous citizens that the country contains a large number of informal receipts of the kind above described. A good many of these I have myself seen. Mr. Mr. Wyndham Robertson declared to me that he knew of numerous cases in which all the safeguards of the impressment law were disregarded. The accompanying documents, marked A and B, will illustrate the various kinds of depredations to which the people something may be done toward paying the debts represented by informal vouchers. I would suggest that as full powers as the law will allow be conferred upon Maj. Glover, chief quartermaster for the liquidation of claims of this character in his department in this quarter, and that similar powers be conferred upon Capt. Shelby, chief commissary at Gen. Buckner's headquarters.

It would seem that cavalry officers might devise some plan of foraging their detachments without subjecting the citizens to the enormous Hardship of collecting his money upon irregular vouchers. Their quartermasters might at least be required to follow and take up immediately all such paper. At present the quartermaster of this department is making no impressments. The commissary has impressing agents out, who are provided with money or blank forms receipted and with copies of the impressment law and the orders thereon, which they are instructed strictly to respect.

I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ARCHER ANDERSON, Lieut. Col., Asst. Adjt. Gen., on Inspector Duty.

[First indorsement.]


Respectfully submitted to His Excellency the President.

A copy of this report will be sent to Brig. Gen. William E. Jones, commanding department, that a rigid scrutiny may be made and all offenders brought to justice. It is confidently hoped he will not allow a continuance of the lawless and disgraceful transactions.


[Second indorsement.]

MAY 6, 1864.

It is painful to know that such outrages as those described have been committed by any portion of our Army, the justice and humanity of which has generally been scarcely less conspicuous than their gallantry. It is due to the citizen, to the good soldier, and the fair fame of the Government that these abuses should be visited with such correction as will serve for future warning to evildoers.


[Third indorsement.]

MAY 23, 1864.

Respectfully referred to the Adjutant-Gen.


[Fourth indorsement.]

All that is requisite seems to have been done at Gen. Bragg's headquarters.




Memorandum of affidavits in the possession of J. R. Anderson, of Bristol:

Conrad Shirrett declares that 4 milch cows belonging to him were impressed, against his consent and in violation of law, by Maj. John Hockenhull, commissary of subsistence. In an indorsement on the papers appears an order from Maj. Latrobe, of Gen. Longstreet's staff, to return the cows, but they were never returned. On the night of April 1, 5 soldiers forcibly took from James Torbit 125 pounds of bacon, 12 pounds of flour, and 6 gallons of molasses. From the same man 2 bay mares were taken by soldier of Peters' regiment of cavalry (Twenty-first Virginia) on the 18th October, 1863.

On the 11th April, 1864, Lieut. C. T. Whitehead, Company G, Sixteenth Georgia Battalion of Cavalry, took 12 bushels of corn from James Morton (all he had), during his absence and against his family's cries and protestations, leaving the following receipt: "Rec's April 11, 1864, of James Morton, 12 bushels of corn for the use of public animals, Co. G, 16th Ga. Batt'n Cavalry.-Lt. C. T. Whitehead, Comdg. Co. G, 16th Ga. Batt'n Cav'y."

November 8, 2 men, giving their names first as Ross and Roller and then as Thomas Rolliff and James Watmore, and as belonging to the Sixteenth Georgia Battalion Cavalry, forcibly took from Abram Baker 1 gray mare and 1 bay horse. He had but 1 other work animal. Neither money nor receipt was given.

Isaac C. Anderson, sr., declares in a letter that on the 7th April some men from Vaughn's brigade took from him his last ear of corn, by impressment, it is supported. Men from the same brigade stole from him a black mare. Longstreet's men impressed his bull, the only breeding stock he had.

W. H. Litheal makes affidavit that 600 pounds of hay needed for his own stock were impressed by an agent of Capt. H. Kenneworth, Buckner's division. No citizen seems to have been called on.

Mrs. Hannah Thomas makes affidavit that several wagon loads of forage necessary for her own stock were impressed without her consent.

Mr. J. R. Anderson states (not on affidavit) that on Monday, 25th April, two men, calling themselves of Ashby's regiment of cavalry, which had just passed, forcibly took from Isaac Sells 1 roan mare and from Andrew Cowan 1 horse. He further states that Benning's brigade, Field's division, encamped on his farm, near Zollicoffer, went off without settling for 10 acres of timber which they had consumed, though they knew they were to move a week before they started.

ARCHER ANDERSON, Lieut. Col., Asst. Adjt. Gen., on Inspection Duty.


HDQRS., Near Kingsport, April 18, 1864.

Maj. T. ROWLAND, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

MAJ.: Three nights ago the house of a highly respectable woman living near Dixon's Ford, above here, was entered and robbed in her presence. The drawers were rifled, her jewelry was taken before her eyes, and she was compelled to give to the thieves her finger-rings. Hearing of it, I ordered and commenced an immediate search and investigation. Very soon I had reason to suspect that Lieut. Gen. Vaughn and against whom other charges were already pending), was implicated. So soon as the discovered that the investigation would lead to his exposure, he cautiously slipped out to where his horse was, and in a few moments was not to be found. He has deserted and gone. I would have placed him in close arrest before the hour of his escape, but the evidence against him was too uncertain and rather vague to authorize it without further investigation. Two others, however, members of Company G, Fifty-ninth Tennessee Cavalry, who were accomplices in the theft, I have in close arrest and dismounted. One of them, if not both, I am persuaded is an experienced scoundrel, and therefore advise that they be sent at once to prison, or at least to some more secure point than this. Please advise Maj. Toole what to do with them. We have use for their horses here and I will hold them, with you permission, subject to Gen. Ransom's order. I communicated with Gen. Vaughn fully as to Kedd's breach of arrest and escape. I also sent two men in pursuit of him, but I have little thought of capturing him very soon. He rode an uncommonly fine horse, and is a very shrewd villain.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAS. W. HUMES, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. Detachment Second Brigade.


MAY 7, 1864.

This officer should be dropped from rolls as a deserter.


COUNTY COURT, April Term, 1864.

On motion, the chairman of court appointed L. M. King, F. W. Earnest, and Joseph R. Anderson a committee to memorialize Lieut.-Gen. Longstreet, through this court, to grant relief to the citizens of this county from depredations from soldiers, and report immediately to this court.

BLOUNTSVILLE, April 4, 1864. STATE OF TENNESSEE, Sullivan County:

SIR: We, the undersigned citizens of said county, being a committee appointed by the worshipful county court of this county to draft a suitable memorial to you in behalf of the citizens of the county, do most respectfully submit the following:

This county has furnished in all about 2,000 troops for the defense of the South and Southern institutions, a large number of whom have left poor families dependent upon the citizens for support, and owing to the present system of impressments and the daily violations of the laws governing the impressment of supplies we are utterly unable conservator of our rights, and in the name of humanity and the cause of Southern independence we appeal to you for protecting and relief. Families are being daily robbed of the supplies absolutely necessary for their support, by officers of the army, claiming to be authorized by you, while a well-organized system of robbery is carried on all over the country day and night, the only authority claimed for which is the terror of the bayonet. If this state of things continues it will not only demoralize an ruin the army, but will force good men to quit the ranks and return to their homes to defend their families against the excesses and outrages of unprincipled men soldiers, who plunder and rob with impunity when we are already reduced to a bare subsistence. Many of the impressments, we think, made by officers are in positive violation of the law of Congress and the orders of Gen. Cooper on the subject. We are willing, as we ever have been, to contribute to the utmost of our ability to a cause so vital to our social and political existence. In consideration of these things we therefore most respectfully ask you to protect us against further aggressions of the kind, and prevent the further impressment of supplies so necessary to the support of families of soldiers in the field. The exigencies of our situation, should we fail to get that relief which we pray at your hands, will compel us to appeal to the authorities at Richmond.

All of which is respectfully submitted.


The foregoing resolutions or memorials being submitted by the committee to the court, the same was unanimously adopted by the court, and it is ordered by the court that David S. Lyon, L. M. King, Joel L. Barker, esq., and Joseph R. Anderson and L. F. Johnson be appointed a committee to present this memorial to Lieut.-Gen. Longstreet and await his answer, and report the same to the court instance, together with these proceedings.

A true copy of the proceedings of the court, this 4th day of April, 1864.



TUESDAY, April 5, 1864.

The court had the following proceedings on the report of Lieut.-Gen. Longstreet:

Returned into court the report of the committee, whereupon the court refers this matter to His Excellency Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of American, and appoints L. M. King and F. W. earnest, gentlemen and citizens of Sullivan County, to bear these proceedings to Richmond, that His Excellency may grant such relief as the exigencies of the case demand.

STATE OF TENNESSEE, Sullivan County:

I, John C. Rutledge, clerk of the country court for said county, hereby certify the foregoing to be a true copy of the record as will appear in my office.

Given under my hand and private seal (having no office seal) at office in Blountsville, this 5th day of April, 1864.



[First indorsement.]

HDQRS., April 5, 1864.

Respectfully forwarded.

The orders in this department require the strictest enforcement of the impressment authority. This is rendered absolutely necessary in order that our troops and animals may be partially fed. If we cannot get supplies from the East we must soon be forced to take more than the law allows to avoid starvation.

J. LONGSTREET, Lieut.-Gen., Cmdg.

[Second indorsement.]

Gen. Bragg, for attention.

The indorsement of Gen. Longstreet does no touch the complaint of the citizens against illegal seizures, robbery, &c.

J. D.

BLOUNTSVILLE, TENN. April 6, 1864.

The committee to whom the worshipful court referred the foregoing memorial would state further (without any intention of boasting) that the citizens of this county on the whole are as loyal as any within the Southern Confederacy, and as such have a right to claim and expect protection from wanton abuses on the part of our own army. They have contributed all their surplus to the use of the C. S. Army, even to a deprivation of their common pursuits in agricultural interests. This county has already paid into the C. S. treasury as war tax upward of $100,000, as will appear from the files in said office. Notwithstanding all this, and much more that could be said in our behalf, the citizens of this county are willing to abide the acts of Congress and Gen. Cooper's instructions on impressments; yet when within the last few days the whole county has been stripped by forage and commissary wagons (in many cases without even a receipt being given), one universal wail of lamentation has to be borne with this memorial in behalf of many families to you for relief. They are to-day dependent upon the C. S. Government for supplies, and it is believed and hoped you will grant them. This county has to-day quarter upon it the whole of Gen. Longstreet's army from its length and breadth, which will of necessity make it a dependency upon the Government before any relief can reach us for the supplies of soldiers and other families. We trust you will not turn a deaf ear to the complaints of a people who still struggle to maintain their loyalty to the C. S. Government.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 847-852.



        29, Continuation of Guerrilla Activities near Mulberry Gap

RUTLEDGE, TENN., April 29, 1865.

Maj.-Gen. STONEMAN, Cmdg. District of East Tennessee:

GEN.: I have the honor to report all quiet as far as my scouts have reached. I hear of guerrillas committing some depredations near Mulberry Gap. I don't think they will remain there. The citizens here express a desire for this place to be permanently garrisoned until the guerrillas are entirely destroyed. We should like very much to have some small rations here; salt, especially, is very much needed. The men are in good health. If I had all my sick here from Cantonment Springs and Knoxville they would do much better than there.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. W. HARRINGTON, Capt. Company G, Ninth Tennessee Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 519-520.

        29, Returning Confederate soldiers required to take the oath of allegiance in East Tennessee

CHATTANOOGA, April 29, 1865.

Brig. Gen. W. D. WHIPPLE, Chief of Staff:

There are large numbers of paroled rebel soldiers from Lee's army and Forrest's here and coming into our lines at all points, who are utterly destitute, and who will inevitably be driven to stealing and robbery, if not bushwhacking, unless they can be permitted to go to their homes or be provided for in some manner. What shall I do with them?


KNOXVILLE, April 29, 1865--12.55 p. m.

Maj.-Gen. THOMAS:

Your telegram received. Numbers of men have come into East Tennessee with authority from Gen. Grant to go to their homes, which are in East Tennessee. Do your instructions include such persons; and if so, shall they be sent without the limits of the State? There are others whose homes are in Georgia, Alabama, and the other Southern States. They are penniless and without food, and must live by begging or stealing. Can I issue such persons a limited amount of rations and send them by rail to Dalton and get rid of them; also obnoxious and troublesome characters?

GEO. STONEMAN, Maj.-Gen. of Volunteers, Cmdg.


Maj.-Gen. STONEMAN, Knoxville:

By decision of the Attorney-Gen., no Confederate is entitled to come into a loyal State on his parole. He will have to take the oath of allegiance to the United States to enable him to remain. You are authorized to give a limited amount of subsistence to such rebel soldiers who have to pass through East Tennessee to get to Georgia and Alabama. They must not be allowed to stop on the way.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army, Cmdg.

Send the above to Gen. Steedman and Gen. R. S. Granger entire. Send the first sentence to Gen. Washburn.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 518-519.



[1] On the 6th of May 1861, the legislature of Tennessee passed an act of secession, subject to a vote of the people on June 8 following; and on the 7th of May 1861, it ratified a military league, offensive and defensive, between the State and the Confederate States. On June 8, 1861, the vote to secede was confirmed by a majority of voters in the Volunteer State.

[2] A similar action would take place in Nashville in early July 1863. The tactic of mass expulsion of prostitutes worked in neither city, leading to a martial-management strategy characterized by a system of licensed prostitution and medical inspection, established in Nashville in the summer of 1863 and in Memphis in the fall of 1864.

[3] See April 2-6, 1863, "Reconnaissance, Murfreesborough to Auburn, Lebanon, Carthage, Cherry; Valley, Statesville, Snow Hill & Liberty," above.

[4] That is, given birth.

[5] This is apparently the only document to speak to this particular event which may have taken place on the 29th.

[6] This scout took place in Mississippi, but originated in Tennessee.

[7] OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 6. This was most likely Perry County; even so, the OR offers no further clues because there was no circumstantial report submitted for this skirmish which could help better correct the error. Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee also references a skirmish at Berry County. It is likewise referenced in OR General Index, Vol. I, p. 73. It is, nevertheless, counted in the enumeration.

[8] This event is not listed in the OR or Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 115

(615)-532-1549  FAX