Friday, November 30, 2012

November 30 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

30, "Attention, Militia." Opinion concerning the military draft.

It seems that a great deal of dissatisfaction is prevailing among the different classes of people of the State concerning the drafting of one part of the Militia into active service. Judging from all that I can see and hear, I thin there is a great injustice in regard to the non-drafting of those working for the State. I am confidently informed from some militia men who are working for the State, and who earn from twelve to thirty dollars per week, that they would rather for eleven dollars per month, with rations (soldier's pay,) than to lay out in camp during the wet and frosty, winter months.

To put the whole population on an equal footing, there ought to be no exception. Let them be all drafted alike and give those who work for the State if drafted, the choice either to go to the filed, or work for soldier's pay at home for the Government, and only excuse such men who cannot be spared or replaced by others in the different branches of Government work.

Another injustice is done by a great many doctors in this city, by giving certificates to a great many individuals certifying their unfitness for active service. Such certificates, some of which were bought with money, should not be accepted, and those men unfit for service if drafted, should be compelled to wait on the sick soldiers, if they are any way fit for that service, for the same pay as soldiers in active service.

If the State would follow this plan, a great deal of treasure would be saved by it, and justice done to all classes.


Nashville Daily Gazette, November 30, 1861



30, "Why Must Tennessee be Disgraced?" Anti-draft sentiment in Confederate Nashville

Had the people of Tennessee exhibited a reprehensible backwardness in furnishing men and money to the prosecution of the war, the fact might now be cited as a paliation [sic] for the present threatened attempt to draft those of her citizens who have not yet enlisted. If, seeing the imminent danger of the invasion of her own and the soil of her sister Southern States, by strong armies of the bloody and beastly Northmen, Tennessee had failed to stretch out her strong arms, in the face of the defiant foe -- had, in any respect, failed in the war preparations required by the trying emergencies of the times -- had, in any degree, exhibited the want of patriotism and liberality necessary to the assumption of her full share of the common burthen, her proud-spirited citizens could not today with so much good cause, cry out against the infamous outrage threatened to be visited upon her by her Chief Magistrate -- he who, of all men, should most vigilantly guard against the coming of harm to her sacred honor. The Executive of no other Southern State has yet found it necessary to say to his people that he would resort to forcible means to get them into the military service of the Southern Confederacy, or that he even thought such a necessity would arise in the future. No page of history of either of the Southern States, either in their relation to the old or new government, is blackened with the disgraceful chronicle, telling posterity that, in a time of war, its citizens were dragged, and thus dragged, forced, nolens volens, into military service.

In no Southern State did such dire necessity ever occur -- in no Southern State will a resort so disgraceful and humiliating to freemen ever be necessary. It is no more necessary to-day in Tennessee than it is in South Carolina or Georgia, and no more necessary in either of those two States than it is in our good county of Humphreys, which has sent, strange as it may see, almost twice her voting population into the field. Facts and figures can make the truth of this assertion apparent to every inquiring, reasonable mind; and to none is its truth more evident than to the authorities, civil and military, of the State. Why, then, should Tennessee be disgraced with a draft upon those of her citizens, who, for good and sufficient reason, are not at present disposed to volunteer for a term lasting through a series of years -- but are, nevertheless, perfectly willing to offer their services for a shorter term. 

There is reason in all things, even in panics and revolutions, but there is not reason in all men, not even in all men who wear Gubernatorial robes and military feathers. In this matter, so directly and immediately threatening the reputation of the brave and chivalrous people of Tennessee, there is either a miserable trick and conspiracy upon the part of certain parties to make the disgrace of the State complete, or an inexcusable incompetency upon the part of those most immediately charged with the keeping of the State's fair fame. If life and liberty be spared us we shall ascertain and show to which of the two caused this threatened disgrace is attributable, The truism "Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty," is sometimes quite as applicable to tyranny at home as to despotism from abroad

Nashville Daily Gazette, November 30, 1861



30, Battle of Franklin


General U.S. Grant was promoted to Supreme Commander of the Federal Army after the Union victory in the Battle of Chattanooga. He was transferred to Virginia to initiate an offensive against the Army of Northern Virginia. In the West Federal General W.T. Sherman moved toward Atlanta where General John Bell Hood had replaced General Joseph Johnston in command of the Army of Tennessee and in charge of the defense of Atlanta. After four disastrous attacks which brought about consequential Confederate losses, General Hood was compelled to forsake Atlanta and fall back into Alabama. Hood concocted an industrious strategy to both cut off Sherman's supply lines in Tennessee and through a war of attrition, starve the Federal troops in the Volunteer State into submission. Hood's plan called for the seizure of Nashville, a vital rail and supply center for the Union, where he could resupply his troops. Then, refreshed and rested, Hood planned then to move northward to attack Louisville and Cincinnati, after which he would join General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia for an expected Confederate comprehensive offensive on Washington, D.C. Jefferson Davis, however, heedless of the need for secrecy, openly discussed Hood's plans. General Sherman became aware of Hood's strategy when Davis's remarks appeared in the northern press. Sherman briefly pursued Hood, but concluded that the Federal cause would be better served by sending Major-General John M. Schofield to oppose Hood in Tennessee. Sherman was free then to return to his base in Atlanta and begin his march to the sea. Hood's plans to divert Sherman were thus ultimately futile.

On November 21, 1864, Hood advanced the Army of Tennessee from its refuge in Alabama into Middle Tennessee. When Hood learned that Major-General Schofield's army was only 30 miles away at Pulaski, he devised a scheme to arrest Schofield's forces from linking-up with Federal troops in Nashville. Schofield, however, cleverly managed to skirt Hood's army as it literally slept at Spring Hill. By this time, many believed that Hood's perception was marred by his very serious wounds which had left him with but one leg and a shattered right arm. 

The Federal troops entrenched themselves on top of a hill, behind earthen fortification built hastily at a bend on the Harpeth River, on the south side of Franklin. Hood aggressively followed when he discovered Schofield's new position and hurled his army at the entrenched Federal troops with six direct frontal assaults in the afternoon of November 30. In a battle lasting about six hours, more than 6,000 Confederates including 12 generals were killed or severely wounded. While Hood's army was not yet defeated, it would be vanquished at the Battle of Nashville later in December.

Private Sam R. Watkins of Company H, 1st Tennessee Regiment of Carter's Brigade wrote about the battle from a common soldier's viewpoint: 

As [we] marched through an open field the to the rampart of blood and death, the Federal batteries begin to open and move down....'Forward, men,' is repeated all along the line. A sheet of fire is poured down into our very faces....'Forward, men!' The air [is] loaded with death dealing missiles. Never...did men fight against such...odds...'Forward, men!' And the blood spurts in a perfect jet from the dead and wounded. The earth is red with blood....The death angel shrieks and laughs....I had made up my mind to die - [it] felt glorious. We pressed forward....Cleaborne's division was charging....I passed on until I got to their [Yankees] works and got over on their side. But in fifty yards of where I was, the scene....seemed like hell itself....Dead soldiers filled the entrenchment....It was a grand holocaust of death." 
Sam Watkins, Co. "Aytch" 

Just after the slaughter at the Battle of Franklin, Confederate Captain S.T. Foster wrote in his diary that:

General Hood has betrayed us. This is not the kind of fighting he promised us at Tuscumbia and Florence, Ala. when we started into Tenn.

This was not a 'fight with equal numbers and choice of the ground' by no means.

And the wails and cries of widows and orphans made at Franklin, Tenn Nov 30th 1864 will heat up the fires of the bottomless pit to burn the soul of Gen J B Hood for Murdering their husbands and fathers at that place that day. It can't be called anything but cold blooded Murder.
Diary of Capt. Samuel T. Foster, Granbury Texas Brigade. 

The following is Major-General John B. Hood's Official report on the Battle of Franklin. It is noteworthy for its brevity and focus on the loss of general officers and not the thousands of ordinary Confederate soldiers. Union sources had intercepted it from Confederate newspapers, and it was then forwarded to Lieutenant-General U.S. Grant:

CITY POINT, VA., December 16, 1864.

Lieut. Gen. U. S. GRANT, Washington, D. C.:

* * * *

Gen. Hood's Official report of the battle of Franklin has at last been received. It will be seen that our reported extraordinary loss of general officers is but too true. The following is Gen. Hood's dispatch:

"HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, "Six Miles from Nashville, Tenn., December 3, 1864. (Via Mobile 9th.)
"Hon. J. A. SEDDON:

"About 4 p. m. November 30 we attacked the enemy at Franklin, and drove them from their center line of temporary works into the inner line, which they evacuated during the night, leaving their dead and wounded in our possession, and retired to Nashville, closely followed by our cavalry. We captured 7 stand of colors and about 1,000 prisoners. Our troops fought with great gallantry. We have to lament the loss of many gallant officers and brave men. Maj.-Gen. Cleburne, Brig.-Gen.'s John Adams, Gist, Strahl, and Granbury were killed; Maj. Gen. John C. Brown and Brig.-Gen.'s Carter, Manigault, Quarles, Cockrell, and Scott were wounded; Brig.-Gen. Gordon was captured.
"J. B. HOOD, "Gen."

A subsequent telegram from Gen. Hood says that our loss of officers was excessively large in proportion to the loss of men.

* * * *

JNO. A. RAWLINS, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 445, pt. II, pp. 211-212.

The following newspaper account of the Battle of Franklin, Tenn., November 30, 1864, written by Isham Green Harris, Confederate Governor of Tennessee, was published in the December 20, 1864 number of the Milledgeville, GA, Southern Recorder. From the Governor's standpoint, the battle was a victory for the Confederacy


We pursued and overtook the enemy at Franklin, where he had thrown up one line of breastworks and commenced two others.
The enemy evidently intended to hold permanently the line of Franklin and Murfreesborough.

We attacked him in position about 4 o'clock p.m. and successfully carried their two outer lines.

At dark we had reached and stood upon the outer edge of their interior and last line of works while the fight continued until 11 o'clock.

We held our position during the night, expecting to renew the fight in the morning, but unfortunately under cover of the darkness, about 12 o'clock, the enemy had retired, leaving killed and wounded on the field.

We were unable to use our artillery on account of the presence of the women and children in the town.

We massed about 100 pieces of artillery that night [and] opened on the enemy at daylight, expecting the non-combatants to have gotten out before day.

We have lost an unusual large proportion of officers.

Generals [Patrick Ronayne] Cleburne, [Hiram Bronson] Granbury, [William Wirt] Adams, [Otho French] Strahl, and [States Rights] Gist were killed.

Generals [John Calvin] Brown, [William Andrew] Quarles, [John carpenter] Carter and [Thomas Moore] Scott were wounded.

We have captured about 1,300 prisoners and picked up on the battlefield about 6,000 stands of arms.

We have also captured a large number of colors.

We have also captured four locomotives and trains and are running the Tennessee and Alabama railroad.

Other trains are cut off, which we hope soon to have in our possession.

About 5,000 of the enemy are cut off at Murfreesborough.
The Army is in fine health and excellent spirits, and confident of success. 

The people are delighted and enthusiastic at our advance.

SOR, Ser. I, Vol 7, pp. 677-678.

[A map of the battle is available in OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 225.]



30, A McMinnville Confederate Woman's Impressions of the Battle of Franklin 
* * * * 
....Wednesday [30th] was a golden day....I was out in the yard the greater portion of the day--and set out some hyacinths and tulips. While at our pleasant work on this pleasant day--I would pause every now and then to listen to a dull shudder in the air, which we so well knew to be distant cannon. It reminded me so forcibly of the day when the battle of Stone's River was fought--Tho' that was just one month later, and the day tho' bright was not so warm. There was a fresher breeze on that day too and the cannonading sounded much louder. Towards evening on Wednesday the guns seemed to redouble their efforts, but the sound was different. Instead of being a shudder in the air, the reports came like a thick--falling thud--Mollie had come home that day and we listed to the guns with hearts filled with varied emotions. Hope and fear, joy and sadness swayed us by turns. Towards nightfall all was quiet Towards nightfall all was quiet....
* * * * 
War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, entry for December 3, 1864.

Thursday, November 29, 2012

November 29 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

29, A Wisconsin soldier's assessment of Nashville

November 29, '62

Camp 7 miles below Nashville Nov. 29, '62

Dear father & mother,

Since I last wrote to you, we have moved our camp across the Cumberland River, marched through Nashville, & on for 7 miles into the interior where we have encamped in the woods. But I anticipate, I should have related our doings near Nashville, before telling of our removal. It was thought at first that we should remain some time in camp, on the river so that the brigade was set to work felling trees for firewood, clearing away the brush & sweeping the streets between the tents so that our camp presented quite a neat appearance. Our reg every fourth day was sent out on picket duty, which was very light duty that side of the river, as we were in no imminent danger of being attacked by the rebels. Another day there were twelve detailed from every company for "fatigue duty" which consisted in coming over to the city & spending the day in working on the entrenchments. I was one of the twelve detailed from our company. Our party was divided into two companies, who work every alternate hour & rest the rest of the time. Taking advantage of the time I was off duty, I went up town to "see what I could see." I visited the state house. It is now occupied by the Governor[']s Guard. Soldiers in crowds were to be seen throughout the whole building. There is a flight of stone steps on each side & end of the building. The whole building is strongly fortified. It is placed on a high hill. The outworks were built partly of square blocks of stone & partly of earth; these are defended by 4 brass 6 pounders. Within these outworks were heavy palisades, with small port holes for musketry. Between the building & the palisades were mounted six heavy siege guns, while in the porches between the pillars were piled cotton bales for infantry to screen themselves behind; but to a description of the interior. The first story is divided into a number of rooms, viz., the Governor[']s private room, the Archives, Treasury, Weights & Measures, Clerk of the Court of Appeals, & etc. The banisters of the stair cases leading to the second story are made of Tennessee marble, which has the color & appearance of polished Castile soap. The second story was divided into the Library rooms, Senate Chamber, & Hall of Representatives. I entered the first the Hall of Representatives. The Hall now presents altogether a different aspect, from what it did when Congress made use of it. The aisles and seats are occupied by soldiers, smoking or playing cards. Back of the speakers c hair is a wall of polished marble surmounted by an eagle holding the talons the U. S. Shield. The Senate Chamber is not so much occupied by soldiers. The galleries are supported by pillars of polished marble, but the style of the Senate chamber, was a good deal simpler in construction than the Hall of Representatives. The cupola of the building commands an extensive view of the surrounding country. Nashville must once have been quite a business place, but at present most of the shops & etc. are closed. The handsome suspension bridge that once crossed the river is entirely destroyed by the rebels. Two days after our brigade marched to our present camp. We are now so near the rebel lines, that when we go out on Picket, no matter how cold the night is we are not allowed no [sic] fire. I received the portfolio & gloves & thank you very much for them. The gloves are just what I needed….The soldiers here all voted. The majority of our Co. voted the Republican ticket, but the Reg. principally voted the Democratic. They are tired of this weary long marching and have mostly the idea that by voting democratic, something or other will be brought around to enable them to return home. This induced numbers of Republicans to vote [the] Democratic ticket. Some of the Reg. Like the late emancipation proclamation, but the majority are opposed to it….You ask me how I like soldiering? I would ask for nothing better than to have the war ended an my self on the way home, free to go where I have a mind to, sleep all night, no picketing to do or guard duty & no more marching. I have found soldiering not such a "gay and easy life" as represent to be. I have however learned the drill thoroughly, so that I could easily drill a company. As to understanding the "art of war in it more comprehensive principles," I begin to do so, to some extent. We some times have political discussions amongst us, but our favorite theme is the length of time it will be before we go home…

Your affectionate son,

A. Silsby

Silsby Correspondence, letter of November 29, 1862.



Marriage seems to be one of the few local institutions and everyday practices of ordinary times which the war has not so seriously affected as one might have been led to anticipate in estimating the costs of the conflict when it began. On the contrary, this very healthful and necessary social habit has been prompted visibly by the stirring events and scenes around about us. The ladies, (heaven bless them!) who are proverbially fond of soldiers are doubtless influenced to these connubial proclivities by the substantial consideration that this trade of war is an uncertain and varying business, and may knock so many poor fellows on the head before it is done with, that the pluerality will be left with their own sex for ever after; and the men (jolly blades!) go upon the principle of "living whilst we live," with an attendant natural desired of leaving a widow to mourn an untimely or heroic fate. Thus, the papers are fuller of "hymenial " notices than they were in times of peace.
Love, too, is decidedly cultivated to a greater degree now than under the jog-trot system of quiet and order. Soldiers are as proverbial for their capacity in this direction as the ladies themselves. It is with them a matter of course - as sure it ought to be - and to one and all they are at liberty; to swear allegiance.
"Madam, I do as bound in duty
Honor the shadow of your shoe-tie." [?]
A falling by the way, which include the "foot" itself, and "ankle too," modestly omitted by the poet. We said the other day that the flag and the petticoat are twin sisters; and all the songs on the same subject assure us that "love is the soul of a slashing dragoon," as well as of every other branch of the service, each following that orthodox principle that - 
"When far from the lips we love
We have but to make love the lips that are near."
But, after all, practically carrying out the advice of Old Rowley [?] in the end 
"Go take a wife unto thin[e] arms, and see
Winter and browning hills
Shall have a charm to thee!" -
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, November 29, 1862



29, Engagement at Spring Hill

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Abstract from journal of Brig. Gen. Jacob D. Cox, U. S. Army, commanding Twenty-third Army Corps (temporarily) and Third Division, Twenty-third Army Corps relative to the Engagement at Spring Hill, November 29, 1864.

* * * * 

Tuesday, November 29.--Rebels reported crossing two corps at Huey's Ford [Columbia Ford?], five miles above, having driven away our cavalry and laid a pontoon. Wagner's division, Fourth Corps, move to Spring Hill, where they have a lively engagement with advance of enemy. Kimball's and Wood's division, of Fourth Corps, and Ruger's division, of ours, arranged in echelon, connecting with Wagner's. I hold the ford till night, having a sharp affair, losing about 75 men but holding the enemy from crossing the remaining corps, which, with all their artillery, is in town. March at 7, leaving out pickets till midnight.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, I, p. 358.

Excerpt from the Report of Surgeon J. Theodore Heard, Medical Director, Fourth Army Corps, of operations November 29-30 and December 15-26, 1864, relative to the Engagement at Spring Hill, November 29,1864.
* * * * 
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the medical department of the Fourth Army Corps at the battle of Spring Hill and Franklin, November 29 and 30, respectively:

On the morning of the 29th of November the Fourth Corps (three divisions) and the Twenty-third Corps (two divisions) were in position on the north bank of Duck River, opposite Columbia, Tenn. The enemy, or the larger portion of the rebel army, was upon the south bank and confronting our lines. At 9 a. m. the Second Division, Fourth Corps, marched for Spring Hill, accompanied by and guarding all the trains of the army, with the exception of twenty ambulances left with the First and Third Divisions, Fourth Corps, which divisions were ordered to remain with the Twenty-third Corps until dark and then withdraw with the rest of the army. About 2 p. m., the head of column being within one mile of Spring Hill, the general commanding was informed that the cavalry of the enemy was pushing back our cavalry and rapidly approaching the town. The troops were at once pushed forward at double-quick, passed through the town, charged the enemy, checked him, and finally caused him to retire. The division was then placed in position to protect the pike on which the trains were moving. About 4 p. m. the right brigade (Third Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Bradley) was furiously attacked by what afterward proved to be two brigades of rebel infantry. The attack was continued until nearly dark, when our right gave way toward the pike, followed by the enemy. Fortunately, however, all trains had then passed and were parked north of the town, where also division hospitals were temporarily established and the wounded rapidly cared for. A few wounded were unavoidably lost when the right gave way. One hundred and fifteen wounded were brought to hospital. Shortly after dark orders were given to break up hospitals, load ambulances, and be ready to move with the other trains at a moment's notice. The rest of the army reached Spring Hill about 10 p. m., and continued their march through the town toward Franklin. The hospital and ambulance trains moved at the same time, reaching Franklin at 10 a. m. November 30, without loss, although several times attacked by the enemy's cavalry. The wounded and sick were shipped by rail to Nashville early in the afternoon. The two divisions of the Twenty-third Corps, with the First and Second Divisions of the Fourth Corps, remained south of Harpeth River and entrenched themselves; the Third Division, Fourth Corps, crossed to the north side of the river, and was not engaged in the battle of Franklin.
* * * * 
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 174-175.


Wednesday, November 28, 2012

November 28 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

28, "Tennessee Patriotism." Arguing against conscription. 

Wearing justly the proud title of the "Volunteer State," and every citizen of hers feeling that in the future as in the past, Tennessee will still deserve and bear the high distinction won by her chivalric and patriotic sons in former wars, in the number and character of troops she sends into the field, nothing would at this time so much mortify the feelings of Tennesseans or disparage their reputation abroad, as a resort to compulsory means to induce those now remaining at home to enter the military service of the country. We have never thought compulsion would be necessary, and do not think so now. In furnishing men and money for the prosecution of this war, the patriotism a liberality evinced by Tennessee, will safely bear comparison with that shown by any other member of the Confederacy's population and means taken into the account. Realizing the dangers with which the State is now threatened, and feeling that the services of every man who can possibly leave his home, will be necessary to stay the march of the invaders, the people of Tennessee, with an unanimity hardly to be expected at this time, are flocking to arms, and volunteering their service for the common defense. The number of enlistments required can be obtained in good time, probably before arms are ready to be placed in their hands, and we regard it as peculiarly unfortunate, both for the character of the State and the cause we are we are struggling to sustain, that any portion of our people should be threatened with the compulsory process indicated by that hated and infamous term drafting.
The mere suggestion that such a resort would be made in a certain contingency was not only premature and in bad taste, but will prove, we fear, the source of such harm to cause it was designed to aid. Tennesseans needed no such threats to make them sensible of their duties as patriots in this hour of their country's peril. Needless alarm in high places, misapprehension of the temper of our people, or probably an inordinate desire upon the part of certain little men to wear big honors, has had a good deal to do with the indelicate hast and bad judgment displayed in this matter, and it is especially desirable that the patriotic spirit being evinced by the people of the State to enter the service as volunteers, should no longer [be] dampened by threats of compulsion.
Nashville Daily Gazette, November 28, 1861.


28, Confederate guerrillas kidnap prominent Union men at Troy

UNION CITY, November 28, 1862.

Brig.-Gen. SULLIVAN:

I have reliable information that three of the most prominent Union citizens of this country were last night captured at or near Troy, in this county, a town noted for the treason of its inhabitants. They were captured by guerrillas, who infest the Obion Bottom, near that town, and are daily carrying off Union citizens and robbing them of their property, especially their horses.

Troy is a hot-bed of traitors; not a Union man living in the town. The 3 men captured have been our main stand-by for five months past, one of whom is Col. Bradford. I propose, if it meets with your approval, to give the authorities of the town notice that if the 3 men captured are not returned in five days that I will burn up the town. Gen., as unwell as I am, if you will give me the command at Trenton, which is a central point, I will have this country from the Memphis and Ohio Railroad to the Hatchie cleared of the last guerrilla in it before the return of my papers, as I know every district of the country. This will be a pleasure to me, as I have done so once before.

THOS. W. HARRIS, Col. Fifty-Fourth Illinois.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 365-366.



28, "O! That I could kiss them sweet lips of lovely Susan Ann and little children;" Jesse P. Bates' letter to his wife Susan Ann in Hickman County

McMinnville, Warren County, Tenn.
Nov. the 28th 1862

My Dear wife, I take this opportunity of writing you a few lines to let you know that I am well and I hope that these few lines may find you enjoying the same. We come here 2 weeks ago from Tullahoma. There is but 2 Regiments of troops her and I expect that our Regiment will stay here all winter. Our regiment is in tolerable good health at this time. Jo Steele, the 2 Morgans and Jo Loflen are well. Tom Jackson is in the hospital and he is either crazy of something else is the matter. He is not rational. Sexton left us on detail at Knoxville and he has not returned yet. Dan and A. L. Hamilton was at Chattanooga when we last heard from them. A.L.H. was sick and Dan went to wait on him and Louis Miller was near Chattanooga at a hospital and we had heard that A.L. and Louis was furloughed and gone home. I saw Baird the day before we feet Tullahoma, and he was well. You said you wanted his likeness, but there has been no chance to have it taken as yet. We are expecting a battle near Nashville and it may be going on now as there was a cannon heard in that direction yesterday. I have not heard anything from our folks in Hickman only that Beverly B. Bates was in the army and Sam is exchanged and was in Miss. When heard from. I can't hear nothing from you mother. I wrote to you from Knoxville and Tullahoma and I hope you have got both letters by this time. I sent you $250.00 by J. M. Lindly from Knoxville and now I sent you $100.00 by J. J. Moore who is discharged by reason of old age. I wrote to you to buy you a mare if you had money enough after supporting yourself.

My dear, I want you to be cautious and not let no cut throats and swindlers cheat you out of your money. Get Isaac Moore or some other good man to trade for you. I know you have a hard time and my prayers goes up to god every day sick for you and the day may soon come when we will have peace and all return to our loved ones at home. My dear, you had a hard time and a great deal more than one would put up with, if I could help my self, [sic] but you ought to be thankful that your condition is no worse than it is. There is thousands of women and children that the Yankees have stripped of everything in the world and insulted and abused in the most outrageous and in [page torn] manner. My lovely Susan Ann, I want you to try to console your self the best you can. Put your trust in God and pray without ceasing for there is some hopes of peace at this time and I hope that instead of a furlough, that we will all be discharged and come home crowned with independence and blessed with sweet peace. Our fare here is meat and bread, only when we by potatos 
and dryed fruit and other things; the weather has been very fine so far, but it has been intolerable cold and it not looks like it mite snow. I have got me a new pair of shoes and pants and some new socks and drawers though we generally sleep [out in the cold] and then I pray to be with you. Tell frank and Sarah to be good children and kiss ma for Pa. May the God of heaven bless and protect and comfort my loved ones. Give my love and respects to they that enquire after me. I send my love to you and our little ones. Write every opportunity. So farewell until I hear from you again.

Jesse P. Bates

O! That I could kiss them sweet lips of lovely Susan Ann and little children.

TLSA Confederate Collection. Box C 28, folder 11, Letters, Muster Roll & Officers' Pay Accounts -- Bates, Jesse P., 1861-1864


Tuesday, November 27, 2012

November 27 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

27, Brigadier-General G. M. Dodge explains the rationale for army foraging and anti-guerrilla activities in Middle Tennessee

HDQRS. LEFT WING, SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Pulaski, Tennessee, November 27, 1863.

Col. HENRY R. MIZNER, Cmdg., Columbia:

I regret that any of my soldiers should have been guilty of acts in violation of the laws of war. When officers and men are not designated, it is almost impossible to fasten it upon the guilty parties. I will endeavor to do so in this case. My orders are that my troops shall live upon this country (my trains are supplied by stock from it), but that it must be done in an orderly and legitimate manner. I propose to eat up all the surplus, and perhaps the entire crops in the country, take all serviceable stock, mules, horses, &c., so that when we leave here no rebel army, if it should ever get here, can live a day. These people are proud, arrogant rebels, who beg our protection, but wish to be allowed at the same time to oppose our armies and our Government. The hands of all Federal officers should fall justly but heavily upon them, so that they should respect us-not from love, for they never will do that, but from fear of the power of our Government. Now I propose, so far as I can, to let these people know that we are at war; that we are in a country of rebels, and that they must support my command, respect and obey my orders, and that all they possess belongs legitimately to the U. S. Government. If they bring it to me freely I propose to pay for it, not that it is their right, but that it is cheaper for us and for the Government. If I go after it I never pay. I never ask them to take the oath, but treat them as they act. Every rebel takes the oath to save his property. I know no Union man in this country unless he openly declares and shows by his acts that he is willing and ready to shoulder a musket in our cause. My soldiers know the penalty of any violation of orders; they also know what is proper and right, and if detected in wrong-doing will be punished to the extent of the law.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 261-262




        27, "Condition of the Contrabands at Nashville."

The correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial, writing from this city on the 20th instant, says:

There is another dark subject upon which light is wanted-the contrabands. Thousands of negroes came into our lines when Nashville was first included in them. Each movement of our army increased the number of contrabands, until their name is legion. The army is full of them, and they are to be found in every possible position where labor for an army is required. These blacks enlist in the colored regiments, and fill them up a soon as recruiting is opened. The mulattoes keep aloof, and in but rare instances are to be found in uniform and cross belts. The cause of this I cannot affirm; the fact is remarkable. Meanwhile, what becomes of the families of these colored soldiers? They are scattered about everywhere, homeless, shelterless, and left to ship for themselves. Many of the women and grown girls are used as laundresses, cooks, scullions, etc., in hospitals, but they do not receive a cent of wages. Surgeons possessing humanity and a sense of justice have tried in vain, for months, to procure payment for these wretched by necessary people, for the drudgery of camps and hospitals can not be done without them. It is a fact that may of the women now laboring in the hospitals have hardly sufficient clothes to cover their nakedness, and they would absolutely starve but for the food they procure while at work. I have been requested again, and again, by the best surgeons here, to give publicity to these facts, which press themselves upon the most careless and indifferent observer. Is it any wonder that these poor creatures "forget Christ"-like the old deacon when he kissed the pretty young girl-and steal? And who shall blame them? The shirts, drawers and hose of the patients, and the sheets and other bedding of the hospitals are heavily taxed by these people, purely out of self-protection, and it is high time the matter was taken up and justly disposed of. While seeing as the Medical Directory of the post, Dr. Wm. Clendenin had the papers of the different hospitals so arranged as to include payment for the colored laborers, and yet not conflict with any existing regulation: but when he was relieved no one took sufficient interest in the matter, and it fell to the ground, where it still lies, a crying evil among a great many others. Some of the surgeons contemplate making a public appeal in behalf of the poor colored people, since their efforts to have them paid by the Government have failed.

Nashville Dispatch, November 27, 1863.


Saturday, November 24, 2012

November 23 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

23, Skirmish at Orchard Knob*
Report of Lieut. Col. Frank Askew, Fifteenth Ohio Infantry.
HDQRS. FIFTEENTH REGT. OHIO INFANTRY Volunteers, Camp near Knoxville, Tennessee, December 20, 1863.

SIR: I have the honor to report the following as the part taken by this command in the operations in front of Chattanooga, from the 23d to the 25th days of November, inclusive:

About noon on the 23d, we received the order to prepare to move out immediately, with two days' rations in haversacks and 60 rounds of ammunition. Our preparations were soon made, and about 1 p.m. we moved out of the works, following the Forty-ninth Ohio, and formed directly in front of Fort Wood, being on the right of the first line of the brigade, and connecting with the left of the first line of Gen. Hazen's brigade. We remained here a short time waiting for the other troops to form. When all was ready, at the signal we moved forward with the whole line, the pickets moving forward as skirmishers and driving the enemy's pickets before them, under a sharp fire. When we had gained the summit of Orchard Knob, we rested, the object of the movement-which was understood to be a reconnaissance-having, I suppose, been accomplished. After resting here a few minutes, in pursuance of the orders of the general, we began to erect a barricade or breastwork of logs and stones, and whatever loose material we could find, on the knob. As soon as we began to work the enemy opened on us with his batteries from the top of Mission Ridge, and also from batteries at the foot, and although their firing was rapid, and continued until nearly dark, it did not materially interfere with the progress of our work, so that by the morning of the 24th we had erected a very good protection against the fire of infantry.

During the forenoon of the 24th, we were relieved by the Thirty-second Indiana Regiment, and took their place in the second line, where we remained until the forenoon of the 25th, when we relieved the Thirty-second Indiana, taking again the right of the first line of the brigade, covering our own front with Company A (Capt. J. C. Cummins) and Company B (Lieut. Smith) deployed as skirmishers, supported by Company F (Capt. Glover) and Company G (Capt. Dawson) in reserve, all under the command of Maj. McClenahan. We were disposed in this manner on the afternoon of the 25th, when the signal for the general advance was given, at which we moved forward with the whole line, taking the double-quick step as soon as we reached the open ground in front of the first line of the enemy's works at the foot of Mission Ridge.

The skirmishers, with the supporting companies deployed with them went into the works at the foot of the ridge, meeting with very little resistance from the few infantry of the enemy, who occupied these works. Their artillery had all been removed during the nights of the 23d or 24th. Our skirmishers were soon followed by the regiment in line, which, as we neared the foot of the ridge, was exposed to a very heavy fire from artillery and infantry, posted behind the works on the top of the ridge, the artillery fire doing us but little damage, however, as they shot over us. Here, every one being considerably exhausted by the rapid pace at which we had reached the foot of the ridge, and under the protection of the log huts which had been the camp of the enemy, most of the command halted, and rested for a moment before undertaking the difficult ask of climbing the steep face of the ridge, "crowned with batteries, and encircled with rifle-pits;" however, the stouter ones soon pushed out, followed by the whole command, and slowly and stubbornly began to climb the hill, exposed all the while to a deluge of grape and canister from the batteries and musket-balls from the rifle-pits. Still on they went a stage at a time, picking of any of the enemy who dared show his head above their works; finally the works were reached, and, with a yell, the men went over them and in among the terror-stricken and confused enemy; many of whom threw down their arms and yielded themselves prisoners, and were sent to the rear. Those who attempted to escape were pursued down the eastern slope of the ridge and many of them captured, and pieces of artillery and caissons, which the enemy were attempting to get off down the road-which leaves the summit of the ridge where this command gained it and runs down the eastern slope of the ridge to the valley-were pursued, some of the horses shot, and the artillerists driven off or captured. The command being by this time very much scattered and disorganized, and fearing that there might be an attempt on the part of the enemy to regain the ridge, I caused the rally to be sounded, and in as short time as possible we were reorganized and ready for any movement, offensive or defensive, and awaited orders.

While resting here, Capt.'s Dawson, Carroll, and Pettit were sent with details from the regiment to bring up the artillery and caissons, which we had compelled the enemy to abandon.

They returned with five pieces of artillery and several caissons.
Shortly after this I received the order to join the brigade on the top of the ridge, which we did, and our operations for this day were ended. I desire to call the attention of the general to the gallant conduct of Sergeant Ward, our color bearer, who, while climbing up the ridge with the colors in advance of the regiment, received a severe wound. The colors were taken up by Corporal Norton, one of the color guard, and borne on up, and we have the gratification of knowing were among the first which were planted on the enemy's works.

Robert B. Brown, a private of Company A, also deserves special mention for having captured a flag of the enemy. Maj. McClenahan and Adjutant Dubois were present during the operations of the three days, and fully sustained their reputation as brave men and good officers, which they had gained on other battle-fields.

Capt. J. C. Cummins (who has his left arm shot away after he had gained the top of the ridge), Capt. Glover, Capt. Dawson, Capt. Carroll, Capt. G. W. Cummins, Capt. Pettit, and Capt. Byrd (who was again wounded, having just rejoined the regiment from an absence on account of wound received at Chickamauga) were conspicuous for their gallantry, and were with their men cheering them on. The subalterns of the regiment bore themselves well, and rendered valuable service. Lieut. Sanders, who was killed, although but lately promoted, gave promise of being as good an officer as he was an excellent soldier.

I regret that on account of the already voluminous extent of this report I cannot furnish you the names of every non-commissioned officer and private of this regiment who participated in the assault on Mission Ridge, but I hope that measures may be taken to have their names preserved and recorded, so that in after days, when their labors shall have been rewarded with the blessings of peace, they may be able to point with pride to the fact that they were among the heroes of Mission Ridge....

* * * * 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant


Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. Regt.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. II, pp. 274-276.

*Ed. Note - There are 65 reports on the skirmishes at Orchard Knob, Indian Hill and Bushy Knob in OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. II. These make up some of the most exciting reading in the Official Records. Only one is presented here.

November 22 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

22, "Meeting of the Memphis Clergy"


At the meeting of the clergymen of the city yesterday afternoon [22nd], the different denominations of the Protestant church, the Catholic, and the Hebrews were represented. Rev. Dr. White, of the Episcopal church, was called to the chair, and the Rev. Philip H. Thompson, of the Presbyterian church, appointed Secretary.

The chairman stated that the object of the meeting was to devise some way by which the spiritual wants of the sick and wounded soldiers in the different hospitals of the city, might receive regular and systematic attention. After discussing various methods by which the object could be obtained, it was concluded best to memorialize the government to have a regular chaplain appointed, and the following resolution was unanimously adopted:


Resolved: 1st, That the chairman and secretary of the meeting be appointed a committed to write to the secretary of War to inform him of the necessity of having some resident chaplain appointed to attend to the spiritual wants of the inmates of the several hospitals of sick and wounded soldiers in this city and vicinity.

Resolved 2d, That the Rev. Charles Jones be recommended as a suitable person to fill said office.


Mr. Jones is a venerable and devoted minister of the Baptist church, a native of Georgia. The great and increasing number of the sick and wounded soldiers in our midst, requires the constant attention of a minister of the gospel. The pastors in the city have visited the sick and wounded, and will continue to render all the assistance in their power. But in the multiplicity of their engagements they feel unable to give the regular attention which is so much required. The chaplain, if appointed, will devote his whole time to the hospitals, and when a patient desires to see a minister of any particular denominations, the chaplain will notify the pastor. The meeting was characterized by the most perfect harmony and fraternal regard.


Memphis Appeal, November 23, 1861.




        22, Call for Memphis women to sew soldiers' underwear

To the Ladies.—The ladies of the Military Aid Society having purchased materials for underclothing for the sick and wounded soldiers at Columbus, earnestly request the ladies of Memphis to meet in the ladies' room in the First Presbyterian Church on Saturday morning at 9 o'clock, to assist in cutting and making the garments. It is hoped that the ladies will not wait until another battle is fought, and be obliged to work on Sundays, and all night, to get clothing ready for the wounded, but that they will make it up at once, to have on hand when needed. All interested can get work at any time from the president of the society, Mrs. E. H. Porter, corner of Exchange and Third streets. 


Memphis Daily Appeal, November 22, 1861.




        22, Unionist Judge and Andrew Johnson's son-in-law arrested in East Tennessee



The Knoxville Register, of the 20th, states that D.S. Patterson, Judge of the First Judicial Circuit of East Tennessee, and a son-in-law of Andrew Johnson, have been arrested on the charge of treason and taken to Knoxville for trial.


Macon Daily Telegraph, November 22, 1862.

Wednesday, November 21, 2012

November 21 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

21, Letter from M. B. Stewart in Decatur to his brother Richard Stewart [Confederate] relative to dispersion of Unionist Camp near Chattanooga on November 15

Decatur, Tenn.

Nomber  21th  1861

Richard Stewart

Dear Brother

We received a letter from you today dated the 13th and was glad to here  from you and here that you were still improving we are all in Tolerable halth at this time Mother has a very bad coughf  there is a great deal of excitement here at this time the Union Men is getting very badly scird  they have been treated them  very rough since they burnt the Bridges they are disarming them all and taking a great many of them Prisoners and Kiling  some of them I have taken two trips but got no fight I went down on the river to Jeff Mathes but found nobody there I then went to rhea  to Crossroads it was reported that they was gathering up there at Sale Creek Campground but they left the night before I got there I thought I though when I got there we was agoing  to have a fight the pickets come in this  as I got there and reported that there was a thousand Linkinites  there and they had fired on our pickets and Kiled  one and wounded one you ought to have heard them holering and purrading their Companies but when we got there it was a Alabama regiment come up on the boat and got of at the mouth of Sale Creek and fired at our pickets they shot one of them through the foot so I will close noing  that you will here  all about it before this comes to hand give my best respects to all your affectionate brother.

M. B. Stewart 

Records of East Tennessee, Civil War Records, Volume 2, Prepared by the Historical Records Survey Transcription Unit, Division of Women's and Professional Projects, Works Progress Administration, Mrs. John Trotwood Moore, State Librarian and Archivist, Sponsor, Nashville, Tennessee, The Historical Records Survey, June 1, 1939, p. 182. TSLA


"the miserably poor water we have to drink, a northern cow would hardly drink it;" Frank M. Guernsey's letter home.

Camp Howe, 32nd Reg Wis Vol

Memphis, Tenn., Nov. 21st [1862]

My Dear Fannie,

This is a warm beautiful day and for a wonder we have had no drill so that I have a little time to myself. Your very welcome letter was received today, and you may be assured that it was read with no small degree of interest, it had been over three long weeks and I don't know but four since I had received a word from you, and you know that is a long while.

Your letter found me feeling first rate. I had been quite unwell for several days owing no doubt to the change in the climate and to the miserably poor water we have to drink, a northern cow would hardly drink it, yet we are obliged to or go dry, there is a quite a number of sick in our Regmt. I think on account of having to such drink such water, there has been but two or three deaths in the Reg. since we came south, which I think is doing pretty well considering everything, but the rainy season will soon set in and then of course we shall have more exposure and hardships to endure, but let them come, we will meet them as soldiers.

The expedition which left about the time I last wrote you has returned all safe and sound they brought back about one hundred mules quite a number of horses and about fifty negroes they sacked one town of Secessionists and burned several house we make a point to punish all Rebels severely there is but very few that escape there is but few good union men in this country there may some of them be secessionist from a pecuniary motive but they are few, most of them are Rebels at heart.

You said you wanted my picture to send to your brother. I suppose I shall have to send it, but he probably don't want to see it. The one I send is the last of some that I had taken in Berlin, it is difficult for me to go down town long enough to get any; more taken at present so I will send you the one I have.
Last week I received a letter from my mother and one from Mrs. Richmond., I had not heard from either of them since I enlisted until then so you can guess how well please I was. Mrs. Richmond enquired very particularly about you and sent her regards, she has been quit sick she wrote but was better then . if I ever return from this war about the first thing to be done will be to pay them a visit.

Glendenning was just in he says tell Fanny that that I am all right, he is a good boy I like him well come to get acquainted with him, we have some pretty god times together, but I see that I must think of closing letter as my sheet is nearly full. Now dear Fanny write soon and good long letters. I shall write again in a few days, as often as my time will permit please give my regards to you people and to kiss B. good by accept much love and believe me


Frank M.G.

P.S. My address will be as before until I give you notice, have you seen any of the Poetry yet.

Gurnsey Collection, UML




21, Andrew Johnson's reply to his son Robert's resignation

Nashville, Nov 21st 1863

My dear Son,

Your note of the 17th inst is now before me— My sources of grief and care have been enough without your adding to them at this time— I have been determined that no act of mine Should be an excuse for your recent course of Conduct and do not now intend to depart from it— You tender your resignation, predicated upon my wish for you to do so, and as I obtained the Commission for you have the right to require you to resign and therefore you do resign— I have not indicated to you by work or deed any desire or wish on my part, that you Should resign your Commission as Col of the regiment: but on the contrary have expressed myself in the most emphatic terms, that I would rather See you once more yourself again and at the head of your Regiment going to your own native home than be possessed by the highest honors which Could be conferred upon me— In this so far I have been doomed to deep disappointment— I have said and now repeat that I feared you would be dismissed from the Army unless you reformed and took Command of your Regiment and give Some evidence of determination to Serve the country as a sober upright and honorable man— I have also said further, that your own reputation and that of an exiled family, required one of two things, reformation in your habits and attention to business, or to withdraw from the Army—one or the other is due yourself, the Regiment and the Govnt— This is what I have Said, it is what I now feel and think— Though my son I feel that I am but discharging the duty of a father who has devoted his whole life to the elevation of those he expects to leave behind him—

In your letter you Say my will is the law with you in reference to the resignation—I do most sincerely wish that my will was the law in regard to your future Course— I would be willing this night [to] resign my existence into the hands of him who gave it—

Your devoted father,

Andrew Johnson

PAJ, Vol. 6, p. 485.




Tuesday, November 20, 2012

November 20 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

20, Small pox in occupied Murfreesboro, an excerpt from the diary of John C. Spence

[Small pox]...has been raging here to some extent since the summer. Is mostly confined to the negro population. Some white persons caught the disease, a few died with it. A great many negros [sic] have fallen victims [sic] to the disease. It is a great wonder the plague has not been of a more alarming nature, as there were such a large number of negros [sic] in from the country, fit subjects, one in ten who had been vaccinated, and it being almost impossible to keep them from mixing about through one an other [sic]. They seem to be like rats [sic], [and] are going at all times and places.

The army had a hospital built for that purpose, on the bank of the river near the Nashville pike. At this place the cases were moved to as fast as they were found out, which is the cause of the disease being kept down.

Being told by one of the negros [sic], who had been sick there, said the Drs [sic] and nurses paid little attention, or cared, whether or not the got well....Says as soon as the breath was out, they would lay the dead out side [sic] of the door, sometimes lay [sic] there a day or two before they were moved or buried....Large number died. [sic]

If this tale be true....It shews [sic] one of the modes of emancipation for the slave, making them free indeed.

Spence, Diary, p. 117.

Monday, November 19, 2012

November 19 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

19, General Order No. 12; "Let the soil of Tennessee be preserved from his unhallowed touch...."

To the Officers in Command of the Militia of the State of Tennessee in the 2d, 3d, and 4th Divisions.

The danger of invading upon the part of the Federal forces is imminent. This invasion threatens the quiet and security of your homes, and involves the destruction of your sacred rights of person and property. The warning example of Maryland, Missouri and Kentucky, bids you, if you would preserve your firesides, you homes and the sanctity of you wives and daughters to meet the despotic invaders and his minion at the threshold of your State and drive him back. Let the soil of Tennessee be preserved from his unhallowed touch, and let him know the in defence of our liberties and our altars every Tennessean is ready to yield up his life. Gen. A. S. Johnston, commanding the forces of the Confederates States in this Department, in view of its threatened danger has called upon me to send to the field such force as can be armed by the State.

In obedience to which requisition, and to repel the invader, thirty thousand of the militia of this State are hereby called to the field.
Officers in command of the militia of the 2d, 3d, and 4th divisions will hold their commands in readiness to receive marching orders by the 25th inst., unless in the meantime a sufficient number of volunteers have tendered their serviced to fill this requisition.

Special orders to the commanders of the militia apportioning this requisition among the different brigades of said divisions, will be immediately forwarded, accompanied with such instructions and directions as may be necessary to the movements of troops to the places of rendezvous.

In the meantime Captains will direct their companies to parade on some given day , with whatever arms they may have, and they will take all other proper and legal steps to possess the arms, within the bounds of their respective districts, and immediately report to the commanding officer of their regiments the number of arms and accouterments as well as the strength of their companies.

By order of Isham G. Harris,

Governor and Commander-in-Chief

W. C. Whittorne, Ass't. Adj't. General.

Nashville Daily Gazette, November 30, 1861.




19, SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 301, relative to reducing absentees from the Army of Tennessee

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 301. HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Missionary Ridge, November 19, 1863.

I. Lieut. Col. H. W. Walter, assistant adjutant-general, is assigned to the special duty of gathering the absentees from this army. He will visit the quartermasters, commissaries, commandants of post, provost-marshals, and hospitals in the rear. Within this department he will send to the army all officers and soldiers thereof improperly or unnecessarily detailed and improperly in arrest or custody, and will substitute any disabled officer or soldier for a healthy detail where the former can discharge the duties required.

In any other department he will [with the approval of the officer commanding the same] send to their commands all officers and soldiers detailed from this army and all improperly in arrest or confinement.

He will arrest and send to the army all officers and soldiers thereof found absent without authority from the commanding general. He will report weekly to these headquarters, and through them to regimental officers, the name of each officer and soldier sent to the army and the name of any one substituted for a detail and the length of time and the place for which the substitute is detailed.

Cmdg. officers of regiments will send to Lieut.-Col. Walter, through this office, a list of all absentees this side the Mississippi, stating their present locations as far as known.

* * * *

By command of Gen. Bragg:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, p 717.




19, "Battle in Smoky"

A number of soldiers belonging to the third Tennessee cavalry got into Smoky yesterday afternoon, and raised considerable excitement. One or two of them were arrested by the military police, but they were unable to cope with a whole regiment, armed and using their weapons freely. One soldier got his head so badly smashed that his life is despaired of; the police officers made a narrow escape, and were finally compelled to beat a retreat through the back door of one of the houses the soldiers were firing into. As length, having driven the "enemy" from the field, the soldiers quieted down for a time. It appears plain to us that such disgraceful conduct might easily be avoided if officers would remain with their companies, and insist upon good discipline. If this cannot be done, soldiers ought to be disarmed before they are allowed to run wild through the streets.

Nashville Dispatch, November 20, 1864.