Thursday, January 30, 2014

1/31/2014 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        31, On the Death of Zollicoffer.

First in the fight, and first in the arms

Of the white winged angels of glory,

With the heart of the South at the feet of God,

And his wounds to tell the story!


The blood which flowed from this hero heart,

On the spot where he nobly perished,

Was drank by the earth as a sacrament,

In the holy cause he cherished.


In Heaven, a home with the brave and best,

And for his soul's sustaining,

The Apocalyptic eyes of Christ!

And nothing on earth remaining


But a handful of dust in the land of his choice,

A name in song and story,

And fame to shout, with her trumpet voice,

Died on the field of Glory!

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, January 31, 1863.




        31, Guerrilla raid on railroad in the Richland Woods

GALLATIN, February [1], 1863.

Col. C. GODDARD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

At dusk last evening [January 31] an outlaw by the name of Peddicord, with 40 men, tore up four or five rails in the Richland Woods, about 14 miles from here. They were attempting to burn a cattle guard on the road, when 15 men of the One hundred and twenty-ninth Illinois approached. The rebels ran. They were dressed in our overcoats. I have 350 men after them, and I expect to hear that the rebels fell off their horses and broke their necks. Fifty or more citizens collected at the place with the rebels, to look on, aid, and assist. I propose to make an example of some of them. The trains are running.

E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 33.



        31, Skirmishing between Collierville and Mount Pleasant, Mississippi

No circumstantial reports filed.

MEMPHIS, January 31, 1864.

Col. L. F. McCRILLIS, Collierville:

Watch the enemy closely; do not allow him to reach the road between Germantown and Collierville. Give a warm reception if they come within striking distance.

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.

COLLIERVILLE, January 31, 1864.

Capt. WOODWARD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

Our scouts are fighting rebels between here and Mount Pleasant. A courier sent in reports them about 1,000.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, p. 278.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


1/30/2014 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        30, Skirmish at La Vergne[1]

Report of Capt. J. H. Wiggins, Arkansas battery, including skirmishes at La Vergne December 26-27.

FEBRUARY 10, 1863.

In compliance with General Orders, No. 6, I have the honor to submit the following report of the part borne by Wiggins' battery in the fights before Murfreesborough.

On the evening of December 26, [1862] the enemy advanced upon La Vergne, and one section of the battery was advanced, under Lieut. [J. W.] Calloway, to engage the enemy. During the engagement that evening we lost 3 horses and had 2 men wounded. That night the section under Lieut. Calloway retired about a mile, and one section under Lieut. [J. P.] Bryant was left in La Vergne on picket.

On the morning of the 27th, Lieut. Calloway, with his section, was ordered to the front to engage the enemy again, while Lieut. Bryant, with his section, was posted on a hill to the left of the pike and in rear of La Vergne, to relieve the retreat of Lieut. Calloway. The battery retired to Stewart's Creek that evening, engaging the enemy by sections alternately. Loss that day, one horse. One section, under Lieut. Bryant, was left on picket at Stewart's Creek until Monday morning, the rest of the battery retiring to the rear.

On Monday, the 29th, we retired to our lines In front of Murfreesborough, firing in the same manner as at Stewart's Creek, and moved with the command to the right and encamped until midnight [the 29th], when, in compliance with orders from Gen. Wheeler, took Lieut. Calloway With a section of guns and moved with the command on the Lebanon pike and north of Old Jefferson, where a camp of the enemy was attacked [30th], and the battery fired about a dozen; then moved on with the command by way of La Vergne and Nolensville, but had no other engagement until Wednesday [31st] evening, when the enemy was attacked and the battery engaged two hours. Lost 1 man wounded, 1 horse killed, and several horses wounded.

On Wednesday (31st), one piece of the section which was left behind was taken out by Lieut. Bryant, by order of Gen. Bragg, with Gen. Breckinridge's division, and was engaged in the action that day. Total loss, 3 men wounded, 4 horses killed, and several more wounded. The stock was very much exhausted, not having been unharnessed in six days.

The officers and men all bore themselves well and with coolness. Sergt. A. A. Blake especially displayed much gallantry.

Respectfully submitted.

J. H. WIGGINS, Capt.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 20, pt. I, pp. 965-966.



        30, Skirmish at Nolensville

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Report of Brigadier-General Jefferson C. Davis, U. S. Army, commanding 1st Division.

HDQRS, 1st Division, Right Wing, 14th Army Corps, during the Stones River Campaign and relative to the skirmish at Nolensville on December 30, 1862. Report filed January --. 1863.

* * * *

On the morning of the 30th the division moved forward and took position on Gen. Sheridan's right, about 300 yards south of and parallel to the Wilkinson pike, in which position it remained until 2 p. m. A few companies of skirmishers thrown to the front in a skirt of timbered land soon found those of the enemy, and for several hours a brisk skirmish was kept up with varying results. About 2 p. m. the general commanding ordered a general advance of the whole line. This the enemy seemed at first disposed to resist only with his skirmishers; gradually, however, as both parties strengthened their lines of skirmishers, the contest became more animated. Our main lines steadily advanced, occupying and holding the ground gained by the skirmishers until about half an hour before sunset, when the enemy's position was plainly discerned, running diagonally across the old Murfreesborough and Franklin road.

The enemy's batteries now announced our close proximity to their lines. Carpenter's and Hotchkiss' batteries were soon brought into position and opened fire. Woodruff's and Cartlin's brigades by this time felt the fire of the enemy's main lines, and responded in the most gallant manner. Post's brigade, moving steadily forward on the right, after a most obstinate resistance on the part of the enemy, succeeded in driving his skirmishers from a strong position in our front, forcing them to retire upon his main lines. Night soon brought a close to the contest.

* * * *

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 20, pt. I, p. 263.



        30, Skirmish and capture of supply train at Jefferson

Report of Capt. T. H. Mauldin, Third Alabama Cavalry, Wheeler's brigade, including skirmishers December 26-January 5.

FOSTERVILLE, TENN., February 19, 1863.

COL.: The Third Alabama Cavalry was engaged in skirmishing with the enemy on December 26,27,28, and 29, 1862, from La Vergne to Murfreesborough, Tenn.

On the 30th, was present at a skirmish near Jefferson, La Vergne, and Nolensville.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 20, pt. I, p. 961.


Excerpt from the report of Major-General Joseph Wheeler's report of January 29, 1863, relative to the skirmish and capture of a supply train at Jefferson:

New Fosterville, Tennessee, January 26, 1863.


* * * *

By daylight on the 30th we had reached Jefferson, and son after met a [Union] brigade train, with all the equipage of one brigade. We attacked vigorously, drove off the guards, and destroyed the train, baggage, equipage, &c., also capturing about 50 prisoners. We then proceeded toward La Vergne, and captured a party of Federals out stealing and gathering stock, and soon after overtook and captured a small foraging train.

* * * *

OR, Ser. I, Vol. Vol. 20, pt. I, p. 958.



        30, Newspaper report on the condition of the Confederate Army at Tullahoma after the Battle of Stones River


Tullahoma is a melancholy place. It is a little wayside depot, with a few squalid huts, a few framed housed and cottages, and a great many body lice-just now. It was once a famous locality for maple sugar and gin cocktails. Devilish little of both "at last advises." Camps, soldiers, and snow now predominate. The ground is covered with snow. It flies through the crevices of this tent, even as I write. A motley tent this, I tell you -- made out of a Brussels carpet and a coffee sack. Four of us occupy it and pass our time in martial meditations fancy free. Lord, if the General could only hear us! However, we regard this situation as a good one because it isn't likely to bring us into a fight shortly. Fighting, since Murfreesboro, is at a discount....

That Murfreesboro business was bloody, you can yet see the traces of it. An empty sleeve now and again, or two crutches, or a face with a big patch on the side of its head. But the boys are in good spirits, never saw them better. I meet many an old friend, "Well, how goes it old boy?" says he, "Sorry you were not with us down there, but-better luck next time Jolly old fight!" For endurance, personal daring and enthusiastic onset it has not been equaled since the time the war began. Here's a health to its heroes!"

(signed) "BUSTEMENTE"

Chattanooga Daily Rebel January 30, 1863.



        30, Skirmish with guerrillas at Dyersburg

JANUARY 30, 1863.-Skirmish at Dyersburg, Tenn.

Report of Col. Oliver Wood, Twenty-second Ohio Infantry.

HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Trenton, Tenn., February 4, 1863.

SIR: I respectfully send you the following report of the skirmish at Dyersburg, of the forces under my command, with [W. A.] Dawson's guerrilla band:

The expedition, consisting of 100 of the Eleventh Illinois Cavalry, under Capt.'s Burbridge and Moffitt, and 38 of the Twenty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry, under Lieut. Whitehead, left this place at 2 p. m. January 30, in three detachments--the right, under Capt. Burbridge, taking the Newbern road; the center, Capt. Moffitt, the Dyersburg road; the left, Lieut. Whitehead, with mounted infantry, taking the Chestnut Bluff road--with orders to concentrate at Dyersburg as soon as possible.

Capt. Moffitt was the first to arrive at Dyersburg, and found the enemy posted in a house at the west end of the bridge across the Forked Deer River. The rebels had been in this position for some time during the day, skirmishing with a detachment of the Third Michigan Cavalry, under Capt. Quackenbush, to prevent them from crossing the bridge. It was near midnight when Capt. Moffitt arrived, and, finding where the enemy was posted, ordered his men to charge, which they did in gallant style, Capt. Moffitt leading the advance, completely routed them, killing 2, wounding 4, and capturing 17, when the rebels broke and fled in every direction. Capt. Moffitt was severely wounded in the thigh. This was the only casualty on our side. Capt.'s Bubridge and Quackenbush and Lieut. Whitehead arrived soon after with their commands, and were sent in different directions in pursuit of the fugitives. The country was completely scoured for several miles in every direction, and every ferry destroyed on the Obion and Forked Deer Rivers that could be found. The search was kept up for three days, when I ordered it discontinued, the men and horses being nearly worn down from hard service and exposure. We captured in all 30 prisoners, 25 horses, and 28 guns, of all kinds, calibers, and descriptions.

Every officer and man did his duty faithfully and with alacrity. Were I to personate [sic], duty would compel me to name every officer and man of the command. One incident will illustrate the temper of the men. Lieut. Whitehead, commanding the mounted infantry, swam his command across a branch of the Forked Deer rather than march 2 miles to a ford, fearing that he would be behind time. Many of the horses failed on the march, and I allowed the men to take the captured horses and remount. I have taken charge of the horses that had given out on the march and brought them to this place.

I regret to state that Lieut. Neeley, Third Michigan Cavalry, was accidentally, and, I fear, mortally, wounded in the thigh. The surgeon thinks there is but little hope of his recovery.

I left three companies of the Eleventh Illinois Cavalry, under the command of Capt. Burbridge, at Dyersburg, to watch the movements of the rebels and report to me. If Dawson shows himself, we will soon be on his track.

Respectfully, yours,

O. WOOD, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I. Vol. 24, pt. I, p. 335.



        30, U. S. S. Lexington destroys storehouse used as a base by Confederates on Cumberland River and intelligence report on strength of Confederates near Harpeth Shoals

OFFICE MISSISSIPPI SQUADRON, Cairo, Ill., January 30, 1863.

SIR: In obedience to your order, I proceeded up the Cumberland River with the gunboat Lexington to Nashville, Tenn., and returned to this place last night [January 29]. Meeting with a transport that had been fired upon by artillery 20 miles above Clarksville, I at once went to that point and, landing, burned a storehouse used by the rebels as a resort and cover. On leaving there to descend to Clarksville, where I had passed a fleet of thirty-one steamers with numerous barges in tow, convoyed by three light-draft gunboats under Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, the Lexington was fired upon by the enemy, who had two Parrott guns, and struck three times, but the rebels were quickly dislodged and dispersed.

I then returned to Clarksville and, agreeable to the arrangement already made by Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, left that place at midnight with the whole fleet of boats, and reached Nashville the following night without so much as a musket shot having been fired upon a single vessel of the fleet. Doubtless the lesson of the previous day had effected this result.

From the best information to be had, it appears that the rebels have a number of guns with a considerable covering force extending along Harpeth Shoals, a distance of some 8 or 10 miles. This force can readily operate upon both the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers. Besides these guns the enemy also has several pieces about Savannah on the Tennessee. No steamer should be permitted to run on either river above Forts Henry and Donelson without the convoy of a gunboat.

Lieutenant-Commander Fitch has not at present an adequate force to protect Government transports upon the two streams, and I would suggest the propriety of sending him the Lexington. Her heavy guns have great effect with the rebels, and while they will fire upon vessels immediately under the howitzers of the light-draft gunboats, they will not show themselves where the heavier gunboats are. I have no doubt, with the aid of the Lexington, Captain Fitch will be able effectually to protect all the Government vessels in those rivers. I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. L. PHELPS, Lieutenant-Commander.

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pp. 21-22.



        30, Capture of Confederates near Tennessee River near N&NW Railroad

CHATTANOOGA, TENN., January 30, 1864.

(Received 3 a. m., 31st.)

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief:

The report regarding Corinth was received from prisoners by Col. Miller. I do not consider it reliable. Brig.-Gen. Gillmer reports having sent parties out from the line of the Northwestern Railroad as soon as he learned of the rebels crossing the Tennessee River, and having returned with Lieut.-Col. Brewer, 2 captains, 3 lieutenants, and 20 men as prisoners. Work on the road is progressing favorably.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, p. 264.



        30, Report of Maj.-Gen. Rousseau regarding conditions in Middle Tennessee

The Report of Major-General Lovell H. Rousseau regarding conditions in Middle Tennessee at the end of January 1864 is remarkable inasmuch as it speaks to the effects of military rule in the area. The report provides a rare and striking glimpse into the social circumstances and change rendered by two years of war and military occupation.


HDQRS. DISTRICT OF NASHVILLE, Nashville, Tenn., January 30, 1864.

Brig. Gen. W. D. WHIPPLE, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of the Cumberland:

GEN.: I think it proper I should report to you touching affairs in this district generally, and I do so.

The troops are generally under good discipline and very well drilled; far better than I expected to find.

They are well equipped and in good condition, excepting of course the Fifth Tennessee Cavalry, Col. Stokes, and a few others who are neither well drilled, disciplined, or equipped.

It is proper for me to remark here that two battalions of that regiment will never be of service together, and I shall press upon Governor Johnson the suggestion of the general commanding the department to separate them.

Generally matters go on pretty well between the military and the people in the district, but with some exceptions. They have not gone so well at and about Gallatin. At other posts in the district there has been no real cause for compliant, the post commanders having been vigilant in suppressing the rebellion and just in their treatment of the people.

I call especial attention to the admirable administration of affairs in his command by Col. Henry R. Mizner, Fourteenth Michigan Volunteers, at Columbia. His troops, generally led by Maj. Thomas C. Fitz Gibbon, a very efficient and gallant officer, have captured, I believe, more armed rebels than he has men in this regiment.

The disposition of the people to return to their allegiance is general and apparent. I think that eight-tenths of the people of this district desire the restoration of civil authority and the old Government, and will say so when the proper occasion is offered. I have conversed with most of the leading and influential men of the district, and think I am not deceived.

The change is very marked and decided, and the general commanding himself would be surprised to see it.

The disorders and confusion incident to the war have caused great suffering, of which they are heartily tired, and are desirous of peace on almost any terms.

The negro population is giving much trouble to the military, as well as to the people. Slavery is virtually dead in Tennessee, although the State is excepted from the emancipation proclamation. Negroes leave their homes and stroll over the country uncontrolled. Hundreds of them are supported by the Government who neither work nor are able to work. Many straggling negroes [sic] have arms obtained from soldiers, and by their insolence and threats greatly alarm and intimidate white families, who are not allowed to keep arms, or who would generally be afraid to use if they had them. The military cannot look after these things through the country, and there are no civil authorities to do it.

In many cases negroes [sic] leave their homes to work for themselves, boarding and lodging with their masters, defiantly asserting their right to do it. It is now and has been for some time the practice of soldiers to go to the country and bring in wagon-loads of negro women and children to this City, and I suppose to other posts. Protectionists are granted to some slaves to remain with their owners, exempt from labor, as in case of Mrs. Buchanan, relative to Secretary E. H. East, whose letter on that subject is forwarded with Thos. Gen. Paine has adopted the policy of hiring slaves to their owners by printed contracts, made in blank and filled up for the occasion, which, though a flagrant usurpation, I have not interfered with his action on that and many other subjects, preferring to submit such matters to the consideration of the general commanding the department, which I shall do in a separate communication forwarded at the same time this goes. Inclosed I send you blank contract used by Brig.-Gen. Paine.[2]

Officers in command of colored troops are in constant habit of pressing all able-bodied slaves into the military service of the United States.

One communication from citizens near McMinnville on that subject I have already forwarded you. Many similar complaints have been made.

This State being excepted from the emancipation proclamation, I supposed all [these] things are against good faith and the policy of the Government. Forced enlistments I have endeavored to stop, but find it difficult if not impracticable to do so. In fact, as district commander, I am satisfied I am unable to correct the evils complained of connected with the black population, and, besides, I am not without orders or advice from department headquarters. At best, the remedy would be difficult to find, and I suppose can only be furnished by the restoration of civil authority. By proclamation Governor Johnson has ordered elections in March of civil officers.

I desire to call attention to another matter. From impressments, legal and illegal, and from thefts, there are very few horses, mules, or oxen left on the farms, and the few that are left are almost worthless. At present there are many large farms without one serviceable work beast on the place. The farmers are afraid to purchase because of repeated impressments. Every mounted regiment that goes through the country takes what it pleases of stock, &c., and pays what price, or none at all, it likes. Between the loyal and disloyal no discrimination is made. Unless an order be made preventing future impressments and protecting the farmers, little or no crops will be produced.

When the civil authority shall be restored, assurances of protection from department headquarters to all persons who would take the oath of amnesty prescribed in the President's proclamation, in my opinion, would induce the community almost in a body to voluntarily take that oath and seek the protection of Government. At present that proclamation is of little practical utility amongst the people, as there is no person appointed by whom the oath should be administered, no place or time fixed for that purpose. It would seem that some importance should be attached to the administration of that oath to produce the effect designed, and should not be (as oaths heretofore) lightly administered.

The policy of seizing houses in Nashville in which to place commissary and quartermaster stores is bad for the Government and unjust to the people; it is done at an enormous expense, as rents average high here and the Government cannot afford to take a loyal man's store-house without paying him a fair compensation. A very small portion of the rents thus paid would be sufficient to erect temporary buildings, which would furnish ample room for all such stores. Several quite extensive buildings of the character indicated have been erected and others are nearly completed, but it would certainly be better if all Government stores were kept in Government buildings, as it would save expense of labor in handling the stores and placing them in and taking them out of upper sorties of houses, as well as of money in rents.

The building of the Northwestern Railroad is progressing pretty well. The following is a report of the present condition of the road:

From Nashville: Road in running order, 34 miles; ready for grading and iron, 20 miles.

From Tennessee River in this direction: Ready for iron, 18 miles; grading yet to be done, 6 miles.

Col. Innes, First Michigan Engineers and Mechanics, reports that he requires two more negro regiments, [with] which, in addition to some 300 of McCallum's men (he understands is ordered to report to him, and that if the quartermaster will send forward the iron he can get one or two more engines to send to the Tennessee River), he can finish the road ready for business in sixty days. Fifteen hundred tons of iron for that road left Pittsburg for this place three days ago. I shall endeavor to supply Col. Innes with the forces he desires as soon as it may be done.

The Fourteenth Michigan (Col. Mizner) is re-enlisting, and will soon probably go on furlough as veterans. Other troops will have to fill their place.

The road to Columbia, including bridges built, was repaired by men principally under my command. Some time since, as you were informed at the time, I sent a regiment of colored troops to guard at small bridges and to erect stockades. This I thought necessary, as squads of the enemy were going through the country and might interrupt transportation by the destruction of those bridges. When Gen. Ward's brigade, now ordered to the front, shall leave here, there will not be enough troops to guard the railroad between this and Murfreesborough and the supplies at this point. There will then be but four regiments left here-the Thirteenth Wisconsin, Seventy-third Ohio; one of them must be sent on the railroad toward Murfreesborough.

The Thirteenth Wisconsin has re-enlisted and will soon go home, thus leaving two regiments of infantry and Col. Galbraith's battalion of cavalry to guard this place. It seems to me that now one of the two regiments at McMinnville could be spared from that point-Twenty-third Missouri Volunteers-to this place, thus leaving Col. Gilbert, the more efficient of the two, in command of the post. It is hoped that the bridge now being built by him will be finished by the time the Twenty-third Missouri starts for this place, if you think it should be so ordered; but even the addition of that regiment will not afford a sufficient guard for the supplies here. I have telegraphed on this subject to-day. The Eighth Iowa Cavalry is on the line of Northwestern Railroad, and Gen. Gillem thinks it is needed there.

Respectfully submitted.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, pp. 267-270.




[1] At times verification for an event is found incidentally in reports covering larger time frames and other actions. 

[2] Not found.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Tuesday, January 28, 2014

1/29/2014 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        29, "Working Men Read."

A correspondent of the Union and American[1] talks in the following plain and sensible terms to the working classes of the South. Let every mechanic, farmer, and all others interested in the prosperity of the South read and reflect:

An effort is being made in Tennessee to array the working classes against their more wealthy neighbors. The attempt runs on this wise: "The rich men of the South own the slaves -- they are the nabobs of the land -- they are interested in slave property -- the poor people are not personally interested [in slave property] -- let rich men do the fighting if collision must come -- if the rich were deprived of their negroes [sic], we would be on a level, and there would be more equality in society." Specious, but most fallacious arguments. I undertake to say that the laboring classes of the South are as much or more interested in the question [of slave property (?)] that agitates the country than the rich. It is a fact, first, that most of the slaveholders in Tennessee are among the laboring classes. There are only, comparatively, a few extensive slaveholders in the State. A large proportion of those who own negroes [sic] have from one to a half dozen slaves, while a few hold them in large numbers. The small farmers in the country have one or two or three servants each to aid them in cultivating the soil. With these slaves they and their sons toil in the same field, and feel no degradation. The abolition of slavery would seriously affect large numbers of this class.

Secondly. It is a fact that large slaveholders usually have wealth over and above their slaves. They generally own large tracts of land, stock of various descriptions, bank stock, money, etc., so that if their slaves were gone they would soon become landholders of the country, and would hold the poorer whites as tenants at will; and being proprietors of the soil they would soon prescribe the terms and conditions on which men without means should till the land.

Thirdly. The emancipation of slaves, and the flooding of the country with free blacks, would reduce the price of labor, and thus materially injure the prospects of white laborers. Who does not know that the price of labor in the South is above the wages at the North?[2]

Fourthly. The policy of the abolitionist is to drive out slave labor, so that our "sunny South" may be overrun with hordes of free laborers from the North and foreign countries, that they may reap the advantages now enjoyed by industrious working men at the South.

Fifthly. The policy is to make black men equal to white men, in all respects. They require that the free negro shall vote with the white man send his children to the same school; sit in the same pew at church; eat at the same table; sleep in the same bed; move in the same social circle; work in the same shop or field in equal rank, and finally, as advocated by some, intermarry, and thus become one race by amalgamation. Now, I ask the working men of Tennessee if they are ready to indorse all these sentiments? Are they willing that their children shall become the cstlers [sic],[3] shoe blacks, carriage drivers, washer women and become servants of wealthy land lords, the rich merchant the lordly bankers of the country, while they themselves shall be put on a level with free blacks?

It is a fact that no man can gainsay, that in the free States, especially in the older and more aristocratic, that as the rich grow richer the poor become poorer, and that property creates castes in society.

Let the working people of the South look well to their own interests, and not suffer themselves to be deluded by cunning politicians. This is the advice of One Raised at the Handles of the Plow.

Nashville Daily Gazette, January 29, 1861



29, Report on Widespread Alarm in Paris

~ ~ ~


The greatest excitement prevails at Paris, and the inhabitants are fleeing from certain destruction of Henry county in which Pairs is situated, is perfectly bare of military force, having sent two regiments into the field. Besides, the adjoining county is said to contain a large number of Union men.

Colonels J. Cook and Cummins, together with their families, and several hundred negroes, all from the neighborhood of Paris, arrived in the city last night, and represent that the greatest apprehensions exist in that vicinity. The prudent people are all moving their negroes off as there is said to be nothing in the way, except their cowardice, to prevent the Federals from coming over and possessing the railroad and the country in the vicinity. We cannot believe, however, that such an impression is correct, for as Generals are too sagacious to permit so valuable an artery as the Memphis and Ohio railroad to remain in an exposed condition.

~ ~ ~

Paris was in a perfect ferment of excitement yesterday, and many, anticipating an immediate descent of the army which the deemed themselves utterly powerless to resist, were preparing to leave with negroes and other property for various points southward. Mr. Wise informs us that one gentleman alone endeavored to obtain transportation on the train for seventy negroes fearing they would fall into the hands of the Federals.

~ ~ ~

Philadelphia Inquirer, January 29, 1862



        29, Patrols south of Collierville and East to Moscow

No circumstantial reports filed.

MEMPHIS, TENN., January 29, 1864.

Col. A. G. GRACKETT, Collierville:

Enemy are reported moving north. Keep patrols well out south and east as far as Moscow. Watch the bridge at Moscow for a day or two by patrols. Notify Col. McCrillis to do this when you have left. The First Alabama are at LaGrange and will come through to-morrow by wagon road. Notify Germantown to be vigilant; cavalry from the north are daily expected at Moscow.

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, p. 258.

[1] There is no copy of the Union and American available for this date.

[2] His reference to the ratio of slave workers to free workers and wages was not a new one. For example, on May 19, 1831, the Nashville Republican and State Gazette featured a letter advocating the hiring of free mechanics, not slaves, to do construction work in Nashville. The fact that there were too few honest white mechanics in the capitol city was because "the influence of slavery may be mainly referred to as the source of this evil."

May 4, 1849, Nashville. A letter was printed in the Daily American which complained that journeymen mechanics were not getting as much pay as before because "Property holders complain that they are 'taxed to death'" and therefore must hold their houses and slaves at a rate sufficient to enable them to make a percentage on capitol so invested. The city's free and white working classes, said the letter, were usually renters and hirers and therefore they are in the end forced to bear all the burdens of taxation. "Only a few mechanics make over $10 a week and most with families not even one half that," the mechanics' advocate wrote.

May 5, 1849, Nashville. Yet another letter appeared in the Daily American complaining that "It is these capitalists that advance or hold up rents and keep wages down." White free masons had to compete with slave masons rented out by their owners at much cheaper wages. In many cases "white workmen are discharged and negroes employed..." The work of slaves was, according to the letter, shoddy and put free white masons out of work in Nashville. Slave owners and capitalists argued the letter writer, "will soon have nothing but themselves, their money and their negroes to look after-they are working a system which will surely drive off white mechanics and laborers because [slaves] work [for] so low [a wage] that they cannot afford to pay proper wages to a good journeyman."

[3] Most likely "coster," or "coster-monger," a British term for a hawker of fruits and vegetables

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Monday, January 27, 2014

1/27/2014 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        27, Noting Nostradamus in Memphis

The following is translated from the Courier des Etats Unis, of the 29th ult.:

Although many of the predictions made by Nostradamus (especially those concerning the deaths of Henry IV and Louis XVI of France) have been completely verified, they are generally discredited in our times. But in the Prophecies of Vaticinations, of that great man, vol. 2d, (edition of 1609,) we find the following, which seems to deserve attention:

"About that time (1861) a great quarrel and contest will arise in a country beyond the seas (America). Many poor devils will be hung, and many poor wretches killed by a punishment other than a cord. Upon my faith you may believe me. The war will not cease for four years, at which none should be astonished or surprised, for there will be no want of hatred and obstinacy in it. At the end of that time, prostrate and almost ruined, the people will embrace each other in great joy and love."

The period of four years, it will be observed, comprises the exact term of Lincoln's administration. At the close, a new era, it seems, will commence of harmony and peace. Well, if we are to go through this fiery ordeal we must make up our minds to bear up manfully through the conflict, and acquit ourselves like men. The more signally the Hessians are thrashed and humbled by our arms, with greater joy and love will they embrace us when the quarrel and contest have ceased.

Memphis Daily Appeal, October 27, 1861.



        27, 1862 - Observations of a nurse in a Confederate hospital in Chattanooga; an excerpt from the diary of Kate Cumming

Patients from Bragg's army are coming in daily, the hospital is full of them. I never saw such exhausted and worn-out men; they are in rags, and many of them barefooted. It is said they who the army suffered much that many a time they have nothing to eat by parched corn.

Mrs. W. is much worse; has typhoid fever. There is a negro girl waiting on her, which to me is a relief.

I thought I had found a treasure in a white woman whom I have made my head cook; but, on going into the kitchen this morning, found her in such a state of intoxication I had to dismiss her, and fall back on the convalescent men as cooks. They do pretty well, but it seems hard to make them understand the importance of cooking properly.

There are many things, if not correctly prepared, are very injurious to the sick. Even much, simple as it is, is seldom properly made. It should be boiled at least an hour, otherwise it is very unwholesome.

Cumming, A Journal of Hospital Life, p. 50



        27, Lynching and church; a day in the life a Federal soldier posted in Nashville

Monday 27th the left wing our our regiment on picket left camps at the usual time and relieved the Michigan at 8 oc [sic] last night was very cold…about 10 of our caverly [sic] run about 50 rebel caverly yesterday they found two of our cavelry [sic] hanging to a tree they were captured by the rebels a few days ago they belonged to the 1st Tennessee Cavelry [sic] it is believed they ware [sic] hung tight up when they ware taken prisener [sic] by the rebels and has [sic] remained there ever since as they ware [sic] stiff and cold hanging by the neck when our cavalry found them yesterday. I went to church last night accompanied by N. Pancher, Joseph Blackman and several others I was very much inrested [sic] in the evening service although the preachers complained of being unwell & only preached a short sermon yet the Congeration [sic] seemed to be very much interested I think the text was John 10 & 9 the house was crowded with soldiers: as usual: a report in campt of Bragg and one division of his army being captured by [sic

John Hill Fergusson Diary.



        27, The Corrupt "Colonel" Truesdail

The Fall of Rosecrans.

Startling and Scandalous Charges Brought Against him by the Washington Chronicle[1]

[From the Washington Chronicle, Oct. 24]

An octavo volume has just appeared, from the press of Lippincott & Co., of Philadelphia, which is likely to be severely criticized by those who are familiar with the events it professes to record.

That portion of the work which will probably arrest more attention than any other is the police record of the spies, smugglers and rebel emissaries-being, in fact, the narrative of the doings of the "army police' attached to Gen Rosecrans' army. This has been published, also, in a separate and cheaper form, and contains a sketch of the Chief of the Army Police, Mr. Wm. Truesdail. Upon this portion of the "annals" we propose to throw some additional light. As the work is anonymous, the authorship being simply, that of "An Officer," we may canvas it with all freedom. It is possible, and by no means improbable, that, as Mr. Truesdail, though holding no military rank, if familiarly called "Colonel" in the army, he is the "officer" who has written the book. Certainly, no "enemy: of his had "done the thing." The "chief" in his connection with the army, first attracted attention, we believe, while in the employ of General Pope. He was then sort of a sub-mail agent. After the evacuation of Corinth an important command was tendered to General Rosecrans, which included portions of General Pope's Army of Mississippi, and Mr. Truesdail thus  came under General Rosecrans' orders. He soon contrived to persuade that general to authorize him to establish an "army police," the ostensible object of which was to capture deserters, arrest rebel citizens and spies, watch the movements of federal officers, &c.. Experience showed, however, that the chief object of the distinguished chief was individual aggrandizement  and gain. Soon after his appointment, he associated with himself one Russell (who, of course, soon became  "Major" Russell, inn police and army parlance) and the power of the "army police" soon began to make itself felt, and its doings talked about; so much so, that complaints about their proceedings were formally made to General Grant; accompanied by a representation that General Rosecrans was countenancing and fostering a brigade of cotton thieves.

An inquiry was instituted, and it was shown that this class of hangers on about General Rosecrans' headquarters were habitually committing depredations on the country around, apparently with the consent of General Rosecrans, and certainly by the assistance of his soldiers. The mode of operations was adroit and cunningly devised. Truesdail would report to General Rosecrans that "Major" Russell had discovered at a certain place-generally twenty or thirty miles distant from our line of pickets-a small band of guerrillas, or a depot of provisions for the rebel army. Wagons would thereupon be sent out under a strong cavalry escort: but they generally returned laden with cotton, instead of with bacon or grain. Very rarely indeed were guerrillas brought in by these expeditions, though sometimes parties would be captured who could not have been guilty of any great crime, as they were invariably released after taking the oath of allegiance. So satisfied was General Grant that the whole affair was a gross abuse that he turned the whole of the operators out of the army.

Truesdail would probably have found  "his occupation" gone had not General Rosecrans about this time been placed in command of Buell's army. The  "chief" no sooner heard of this than he hied him to Bowling Green. He was promptly reinstated as "chief of the army police."

When the Army of the Cumberland arrived at Nashville, "Colonel" Truesdail took a house at the corner of Church  and High streets, and a quiet, and we suspect, a profitable business for a few weeks. By that time his force was fully organized and his ambitions rose accordingly. He removed his office to a house owned by Zollicoffer's daughter, while for his own headquarters he took the elegant mansion of Dr. Jennings, located at the corner of High and Cedar streets, and thenceforth the chief of the army police was second only to General Rosecrans. His detectives had found their way into many private families. The bearing of his officers, alike to loyal and disloyal citizens, was often insulting in the extreme. They would ride through the streets in a manner perilous to life and limb, and carried themselves so offensively that earnest remonstrances were addressed to Governor Johnson, who himself appealed to

General Rosecrans to have the nuisance checked. The General replied that the governor must apply directly to General Truesdail for redress; but that gentleman had long since ceased to be approachable by civilians. He had taken the ground that neither his acts nor those of his agents were to be questioned. Ere long, and without the issuing of any order, the chief demanded and seized all the Confederate money in the banks and bankers' offices at Nashville. The right of the Chief of Police to do that was questioned by Governor Johnson who addressed Mr. Truesdail upon the subject, but received no reply. Elated by his success in this mater, he next contemplated a seizure of the banks themselves and conducting under his own supervision, his "judge advocate" counseling hi thereto. Luckily, before he took the step, he mentions his purpose to the

Secretary of State, Mr. East, who gave him "a piece of his mind." Of such weighty, proportions that the discomfited "chief" abandoned that speculation. However,, he consoled himself soon afterward by inaugurating a system of confiscation, which he successfully carried on for months, He was also invested with authority to give passes, which power was withheld from all legitimate commanders. He seized goods; arrested whom he would, on a charge of treason; tried them in his own court, convicted them and sent them to prison and confiscated their property. Indeed, the power of "William Truesdail, Chief of the Police of the Army of the Cumberland" was the talk of the whole army, and a source of regret and mortification to all the general officers, who feared that both the government and the army would lose confidence in their commander when it came to be known that he tolerated such an institution, with such a head, in his army. Soon however, the chief's power was made still more conspicuous and profitable. He assumed the entire charge of the mails, letters, newspapers, &c., to and from the army, farming out this profitable monopoly to his son and a man named Scott, who both rapidly acquired wealth by it.

Again Governor Johnson remonstrated with Gen. Rosecrans about these proceedings, but the general turned a deaf ear to his appeals. It passed, in fact, into a byword that William Truesdail was commander in-chief of the Army of the Cumberland. Wearied with his fruitless efforts to obtain from General Rosecrans a remedy for this evil, and becoming anxious about the consequences if it were permitted to continue, the faithful Governor repaired to this city [Washington, D. C.] and laid out the whole thing before the government. Circumstances at the time were unfavorable for grappling with it, and Governor Johnson returned home disappointed. Truesdail was now in the meridian of his power, and he exercised it unblushingly. He began to boast that he could not be removed, and it was the common talk, especially among officers from Grant's army, who visited Louisville, that he had a hold upon General Rosecrans which would one day destroy the latter. Of course the General's reputation was seriously damaged by these things, for some officers openly charged Truesdail with dishonesty, and Rosecrans with participating in it. The "Annals" overlooks all these facts, and its anonymous author, speaking of Truesdail, says-

["]As may be readily supposed, such an extensive army organization ere long attained considerable notoriety. It marshaled the friends and its enemies in almost regimental numbers. Even in the army it has been most violently assailed, not only by the victims in the ranks, but by officers, whose evil deeds were not past finding out. If any direct charge was made, however, to General Rosecrans, it was at once and fully investigated; and in no one instance has the charge been maintained as affecting the good character of its chief or of his principal aids [sic].The breath of calumny has been even wafted to the President's ears, and the newspapers of last spring contained the announcement that a special commission had been appointed at Washington to investigate the operations of the police of the Army of the Cumberland. Many weeks elapsed, and this was not done. At the solicitation of its chief and his assistants, General Rosecrans then appointed a special inspector, Captain Temple Clark, formerly a member of his staff in Mississippi, and now chief upon the staff of Brigadier Johnson, of Kentucky, to examine into the operations of his army police and make a report.["]

One man, and he ranking only as captain to investigate charges of such magnitude and gravity! The "Annals" does not tell what its author must have known, that Capt., temple Clark was the intimate friend of Rosecrans and Truesdail, and that, on his arrival at Nashville, he so conducted himself in a place of public amusement that Captains Pratt and Garret, of General Mitchell's staff, were, for the honor of the profession, constrained to make charges against him for "conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman," and that, when his conduct was about to be officially investigated, an order from General Rosecrans put an end to the proceedings. Was it to be wondered at that Captain Temple Clark made a favorable report. The incidents in the life of a spy or detective policeman must always be interesting, and an organization of such magnitude as the police of the Arm of the Cumberland could not well help discovering many offenders. But what we complain of in "The Annals" is that favoritism and partiality are shown in the selections from the police records. It becomes our duty, as it happens to be in our power, to describe other doing of this great organization. Soon after Chief Truesdail first moved into Zollicoffer's house a negro appeared at the office Governor Johnson, representing that he had run away from his master, and had brought with him a horse valued at $1,000. The Governor ordered him to hand the horse over to the quartermaster, who would return it to the owner, if he was a loyal man. It turned out that "Major" Russell had got possession of the horse, and when the negro presented himself with the Governor's order for the horse to be transferred to the Quartermaster. Russell put him in prison. Remonstrance from Governor Johnson only brought a reply from Truesdail that he obeyed no order except from Gen. Rosecrans. Again, an Irish man, who had lost a limb in the federal service, and whose loyalty was well attested, obtained a permit to take a hundred bushels of potatoes to Nashville for sale. Truesdail seized the potatoes on the plea that the owner was disloyal, and that joint representations of the Governor, and the joint representations of the Governor, the Secretary of State, the Postmaster and the Comptroller failed to recover the poor man's property. With regard to detectives, who, in disguise, entered secession families, they were, of course, generally successful in convicting the persons of disloyal sentiments and practices, and confiscation of their property speedily followed. But not seldom innocent parties suffered by the doings of the police. One case particularly deserves attention. One of Truesdail's detectives called one day upon a lady who was loyal, but who had a son in the rebel army. He represented himself as belonging to the same regiment as her son, adding that he should return in a few days, and that if she would prepare a letter and some under clothing he would convey them to him. She informed him that, although she would not regard such an act as wrong in view of the destitution of her boy, yet, as a loyal woman, she could not send such articles without first obtaining permission from the authorities. The detective's answer was that she would be refused, and her boy would continue to suffer. The temptation was strong, and she packed up an undershirt and a pair of drawers, enclosing a letter. The next day the "army police" took every thing valuable from her home, including nearly $300, which was all she had. She laid the case before Governor Johnson, but he declined to have anything more to do with the organization. This is but one of many cases of the same nature. Mr. Truesdail superintended the pressing of negroes and horses, and too the latter work he was once caught handsomely. He was sending off two splendid animals he had pressed for the cavalry service, but instead of sending them to Murfreesboro he ticketed for St. Louis As his word was law they went safely until they arrived in the department of General Boyle, who seized them and turned them over to the proper authorities.

The "Annals" contain some stories which are true, but a great many which are mutilated, and the handsome part given to the public, as in the case of Mrs. Molly Heydein [?]  . The books in Truesdail's office will show that had certain officer declined giving passes to the handsome widow, she would have committed no harm. But our space is exhausted. Than any army police can do much good; that Mr. Truesdail's spies and detectives procured such valuable information is certain; but such an organization should be held to strict accountability, or it may do incalculable mischief.

The New York Herald, October 27, 1863.[2]



        27, Attack on steamer Belle Saint Louis at Fort Randolph

OCTOBER 27, 1864.-Attack on Steamer Belle Saint Louis at Fort Randolph, Tenn.


No. 1.-Col. James N. McArthur, Fourth U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery, commanding post of Columbus, Ky.

No. 2.-Maj. William H. Jameson, Paymaster, U. S. Army.

No. 3.-Col. Loren Kent, Twenty-ninth Illinois Infantry.

No. 1.

Report of Col. James N. McArthur, Fourth U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery, commanding post of Columbus, Ky.

HDQRS. OF THE POST, Columbus, Ky., October 28, 1864.

GEN.: The steamer Belle Saint Louis, coming up, while attempting to land at Fort Randolph at 12 o'clock last night, was attacked by 100 men under Col. Jesse Forrest. Maj. Beeler, of Illinois, and Maj. D. C. Smith, of Minnesota, were killed. Maj. Beeler killed a captain and wounded and captured another. The heroic conduct of Col. Kent, Twenty-ninth Illinois, and officers on board, and Capt. Zeigler, of the steamer, and his crew, saved the boat from capture. One paymaster's clerk was wounded, also 2 of the boat's crew. The wounded prisoner reports that Chalmers was at or near Jackson, Tenn., and that Jesse Forrest's command are flankers of the main force, and that Chalmers intends coming into Kentucky.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES N. MCARTHUR, Col. Fourth U. S. Colored Artillery (Heavy), Cmdg. Post.

Brig. Gen. MORGAN L. SMITH, Cmdg. District of Memphis, Memphis, Tenn.

No. 2.

Report of Maj. William H. Jameson, Paymaster, U. S. Army.

SAINT LOUIS, October 29, 1864.

SIR: I would respectfully report that having completed the payment of the troops in and around Memphis, in obedience to your orders, I left Memphis with the paymasters ordered to report to me, viz., Maj.'s Whiting, Dickson, Beeler, Smith, and Patrick, on the steamer Belle of [sic] Saint Louis, on the evening of the 27th instant, on our way to Saint Louis. About midnight the boat landed at Randolph, Tenn., sixty miles above Memphis, for the purpose of taking on some cotton. As soon as the staging had been run out and the deck-hands went on shore, the captain discovered a large number of armed guerrillas rushing toward the boat and immediately gave orders for the boat to be backed out from the bank, but before that could be accomplished eight or ten of the rebels succeeded in getting on board and a large number of rebels on shore commenced firing with musketry on the boat. The rebel who succeeded in getting on board immediately stationed a guard of three men over each of the two engineers who were working the engine and ordered them to immediately land the boat again, threatening them with instant death if they refused to do so. Two or three others at the same time rushed up to the cabin and in a loud tone demanded those in charge to land the boat, and commenced robbing some of the passengers of their pocket-books and money, just at this point, as the boat was again approaching the landing, and we all felt that the boat and all on board were surrendered to the tender mercies of Jesse Forrest (who was said to be in command) and his rebel force, Majs. A. Beeler and D. C. Smith, paymasters, and members of our corps, took their revolvers and boldly approached the two rebels who were at the cabin doors. As they approached one of the rebels shot Maj. Smith, mortally wounding him. Maj. Beeler immediately shot the man who fired upon Maj. Smith, and, mortally wounding him, he then turned his attention to the other rebel. They both fired simultaneously, the rebel falling dead and Maj. Beeler mortally wounded. The rebels for a moment quailed, and, just as the bow of the boat neared the shore a second time, the engineers commenced backing the boat with all the power of the engine, the rebels on board jumping overboard, and amid volleys of musketry fired upon the boat, we were soon backed out of range to a place of safety.

All on board the boat acknowledge that the gallant acts of Maj.'s Beeler and Smith were the means of saving the boat and probably the lives of all on board. We all felt that they had lost their own lives in their successful efforts to save ours, and also to preserve the Government property on board, and we shall always hold them in affectionate remembrance and mourn the loss of two such efficient and gallant officers from our corps. Mr. L. F. McGowan, clerk to Maj. Dickson, was also seriously wounded, his left arm having been broken by a musket-ball, which also passed through the fleshy part of his breast.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. H. JAMESON, Paymaster, U. S. Army.


Washington, D. C.

No. 3.

Report of Col. Loren Kent, Twenty-ninth Illinois Infantry.

CAIRO, ILL., October 29, 1864.

SIR: As the senior officer on board, under orders from headquarters District of West Tennessee, I have the honor to submit the following as a report of the trip of the steamer Belle Saint Louis, from Memphis, Tenn., to this place:

We left Memphis at or about 6 p. m. of the 27th instant with a large number of passengers, including several officers and about fifty discharged and furloughed soldiers. Of this number six were paymasters returning to Saint Louis from payment of troops in the field. They had with them, I was informed by one of the corps, about $40,000. The steamer reached Randolph, Tenn., about 12 o'clock of same night, landed, and proceeded to take on board eight bales of cotton under permit of the military authorities at Memphis, the port from which the boat was cleared. The cotton belonged to one Harris, who was the first to leave the boat. He appeared to hasten at once to the top of the bank and immediately a party of armed rebels, numbering, I should think, at least fifty, rushed toward the boat, discharging their arms, and attempted to get on. Only six of them succeeded, as Capt. Alexander Zeigler, master, as soon as they were discovered, ordered that the steamer be backed into the stream, which was done, leaving the second clerk, Mr. George Atherton, and crew ashore. The rebels on board entered the engine-room at once, ordered the engine to be reversed, and the boat run to the landing. By their knowledge of their duties and their coolness they succeeded in only complying with part of their orders, and kept the boat at a sufficient distance from the shore to prevent others from getting on board. Defeated in their effort these rebels then attempted to reach the pilot and compel him to execute the orders they had given the engineers. But this time the passengers had not only become thoroughly aroused, but most thoroughly panic-stricken. The appearance of the rebels in the cabin and their orders to surrender gave rise on the part of many to the belief that we were then past relief. The only arms on board were pistols in possession of officers, and in many cases these were either with their baggage in the party's room or in unserviceable condition. My first effort upon observing the critical condition of affairs was to see that orders were given not to land the steamer under any circumstances, knowing that under way these rebels on board could be easily disposed of by superior numbers. Maj.'s Smith and Beeler, paymasters, with their pistols, advanced to the forward part of the boat just as the men before mentioned were ascending to seize the pilot. Shots were at once exchanged and Maj. Smith severely wounded, from the effects of which he died on the evening of the succeeding day. Maj. Beeler received a severe wound in the breast, but continued to fight until he had killed one and mortally wounded another. He then was able to return to the cabin and lingered until about noon of the succeeding day. The rebels then observing their failure to capture the boat and being aware of their own danger, escaped by jumping overboard. I do not know whether they succeeded in reaching the shore or not. Mr. L. F. McGowan, paymaster's clerk, one of the engineers sick in his berth, and a negro [sic] were severely, though not fatally, wounded. Maj.'s Smith and Beeler deserve great praise for their bravery and presence of mind. Both had previously served in the line of the army with commendable distinction.

The pilots, S. A. McPheeters, Lewis Moan, and assistant Charles Zeigler stood by the wheel and never flinched, though shots were repeatedly discharged at them. John McBride, engineer, and John Dorris and George Beebe, assistants, never left their posts, even while their lives were threatened. To all the officers of the boat, and these in particular, especial credit is due for a display of coolness and bravery which saved the boat and passengers from capture. Permit me to say that no suspicion of collusion with the rebels, who were a portion of Forrest's command, rests upon Capt. Zeigler or any officers of the steamer. The permit for the boat to land was seen by the Government aide on board, Mr. Peterson, who also gave his consent to have the cotton taken on board. With the exception of Mr. Harris, who was left with the rebels, all are exonerated from blame.

The steamer arrived at Cairo on last evening without further molestation.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. KENT, Col.

OR, Ser. I. Vol. 39. pt. I, pp. 879-882.




[1] Not found.

[2] PQCW.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX