Thursday, October 10, 2013

10/10/2013 Tennessee Civil War Notes

10, Importance of work accomplished by the Southern Mothers hospital

Southern Mothers.

We understand that Dr. J. C. Neunan, the medical director for this military district, is highly pleased with the manner in which this excellent institution has been conducted. It has been in operation four months, and has increased its capacity ten-fold and done ten times more good than was generally contemplated, and though their expenses have been necessarily very heavy, they have never used a dollar of Confederate money to keep it up, with the exception of about fifty comforts and a lot of medicine, which are free to all sick soldiers of the Confederacy, whether in their charge or not, preferring to rely upon the free will offering, the voluntary contributors of its many friends in this and the adjoining States.

At the request of the medical director, the commutations for rations to which they are entitled, will be set apart for the purpose of aiding the hospitals at Columbus, Ky., and wherever else there may be need of the funds, while the managers of the Southern Mothers will rely as heretofore upon the voluntary contributions from its friends to maintain the institution.

Memphis Daily Appeal, October 10, 1861




10, Writ of habeas corpus reinstated in Confederate East Tennessee

RICHMOND, October 10, 1862.

Gen. SAMUEL JONES, Knoxville, Tenn.:

Writ of habeas corpus is no longer suspended. The act authorizing the President to declare martial law expired by limitation thirty days after meeting of present Congress.

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 930.




10, Action[1] at Blue Springs, or the "Battle of Bible"

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Itinerary of the Ninth Army Corps, August 1-October 28, 1863 relating to the October 10, 1863, skirmish at Blue Springs:

* * * *

October 10.-The First Division, with part of the Twenty-third Army Corps, engaged the enemy at Blue Springs, East Tenn.; the Second Division was held in reserve; the First Brigade, First Division, was ordered to charge on the enemy, which resulted in completely routing them, our loss being: Killed, 4; wounded, 54, missing, 1. Total, 59.

* * * *

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. II, p. 576.


JONESBOROUGH, October 21, 1863.

Below I send you copy of telegrams, from here to-day, in relation to the fight at Blue Springs:

GREENEVILLE, October 10. Gen. SAM. JONES, Jonesborough:

We have had a very hard fight to-day, beginning at 10 a. m., and ceasing at dark. The line of skirmishers was 2 miles long, which so extended my lines that the enemy at 5 o'clock, with 2,000 infantry, broke my center and attacked the batteries. They were repulsed with great slaughter. I have no complete returns, but hope my loss will not exceed 100--several valuable officers.

The enemy charged along the entire line from right to left, and only succeeded in center by the use of grape and canister. We hold our position. The enemy rests on his. The force is greater than I telegraphed on 8th.

Jno. S. WILLIAMS, Brig.-Gen.


J. S. WILLIAMS, Greeneville:

I congratulate you on to-day's fight. Have you any doubt of your ability to hold your position? Was the fight at Greeneville, or beyond that point? Has Col. Witcher joined you with his command?

SAM. JONES, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. II, p. 596.


Excerpt from the diary of Edward O. Guerrant

The anticipated advance of the Enemy upon our position was made this morning about 10 O'C [sic].

* * * *

From 10 A.M. until 5 P.M. the battle continued without any material advantage to either party, our object being only to hold our position against superior numbers & operate a diversion for Genl. Ransom, or rather now to save ourselves, now 75 miles from any base or support. About 11 A.M. Witcher (immortal Witcher) with his 34h. Batt'n. (125 in no) which came up on us this morning with their old, torn battle flag, fresh from the fields of Maryland & Pennsylvania, made a charge & drove the Enemy. Col. Carter commanded the right wing (1st. Tenn, 16h Ga. Peters Regt[2] & Witchers [sic] Battn-about 800 in number) & Col. H. L. Giltner commanded our left wing (4th Ky. 10h. Ky. & Mays Regt-about 900 in no) along the ridge we had two howitzers in one battery, two parrot guns in another and Schoolfields four little guns in another. During the day the artillery fought several duels. Sometimes shelled the woods.

Shells from the Enemys [sic] guns struck in front of our battery & ricocheted immediately over it. Other struck the trees by it. (I allude to Loyds [sic] guns where the General & staff took position.)

I have a minnie ball that struck [with]in of me-another passed between Capt [sic] Jenkins (who heard our cannon at Rheatown 18 miles [away]-&camp up about 4 P.M.) & me.

About 5 P.M. furious assault by 1000 [sic] or 1500 [sic] infantry, with artillery throwing canister was made upon Mays [sic] Regt. [sic] commanded by L't. [sic] Col. Ed. Trimble which consisted of not more than 150 or 200 men. After a most gallant resistance, in which fell several of our brave Kentucky boys, this gallant handful of men were compelled to give way, but only to fall back by the flank upon Col. Giltner Regt. [sic] about 200 yards. Mays [sic] Regt [sic] constituted our centre [sic]-being on Col. Giltner's right. They were driven from the heavily timbered woods where we had out Head Quarters a few days ago. Thus the Enemy had broken our line & separated Col. Carter & Col. Giltner. But both wings held their position, their rear being protected by a farm of open fields commanded by our artillery.

But the enemy emboldened by his success in driving back a handful of men had the temerity to attempt a flank movement upon Col. Carter by advancing through these open fields. The column consisted of some 1000 [sic] or 1500 [sic] Infantry (some of the Michiganders) and advanced from the woods in splendid style into the open fields and were opened upon by our artillery which sent them heeling it back in style neither so imposing nor splendid. They heeled it to the cover of the woods, & did not attempt another such movement. The fight continued from this until night without any other marked change in our position, the Enemy holding the timber in our centre [sic] but unable to use it to advantage. During the day they attempted a flank movement upon both of our flanks, but were checkmated.

Thus ended the Battle of Bible [sic]-(I name it from a family of Bibles in the immediate neighborhood,) fought on Saturday 10h. Oct. 1863-in Green [sic] Co [sic] Tenn. 2½ miles from Blue Springs & 7½ miles from Greenville. Federal forces, estimated at 5000 commanded by Maj. Genl. Burnside. Confederate forces 17000 commanded by Brig. Genl. Jno. S. Williams.

Diary of Edward O. Guerrant.[3]




10, Licensed prostitution established in Memphis by U. S. Army[4]

City Medical Inspection Department

Mayor's Office, Memphis, Tenn., September 30, 1864


All women of the town, in the City of Memphis and vicinity whether living in boarding-houses, singly or as kept mistresses, rare notified that they must hereafter be registered and take out weekly certificates.

Women who can show that they are living privately with a responsible citizen of good character will be exempted from the weekly medical inspection by calling weekly, between 2 and 5 o'clock P.M., and paying the regular hospital fee. No woman residing in a boarding-house will be registered as a KEPT [sic] woman.

All other than such kept women, whether practicing prostitution regularly or occasionally, are ordered to call on the City Medical Inspectors at the private office, second story over the confectionery store on corner of Main and Union streets, entrance through the stores, or at No. 21 Union street, on any afternoon between two and four o'clock before the 10th of October, and receive a medical certificate, for which two dollars and fifty cents will be charged.

Or women can receive the medical certificate at their homes by requesting the Medical Inspector to visit them, and paying one dollar extra for the visit. A note directed to lock-box 201, post-office, giving the street and number, will be attended to.

In receiving the medical certificate a ticket of registry must be called for personally at the Mayor's office, for which ten dollars will be charged.

The money received goes to the support of the private female wards in the new City Hospital, on the corner of Exchange street and Front Row, into which registered women are admitted at any time for any disease upon showing their weekly certificate, are afforded all the privacy and comfort of a home, and nursed by an experienced matron and female nurses, free from any cost or charge whatever.

"Street walking," soliciting, stopping or talking with men on the streets; buggy or horseback riding for pleasure through the City in daylight; wearing a showy, flash or immodest dress in public; any language or conduct in public which attracts attention; visiting the public squares, the New Memphis theatre, or other resort of LADIES [sic], are prohibited and forbidden.

Good conduct will ensure relief from detective or police visits, exposure or loss, and a violation of the orders will inevitably incur punishment.

Any woman of the town, public or private, found in the City or vicinity after the 10th day of October, 1864, without her certificate of registry and medical exemption certificate, will be arrested by the police and punished.

This circular is intended for the information of women only, and must not be shown or given to men.

By order of the Mayor: John B. Gray

City Medical Insp. Dep't.

The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, Vol. 1, pt. 3, p. 895.[5]






[1] This was an engagement according to Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

[2] Colonel William E. Peters's 21st Virginia Cavalry.

[3] William C. Davis and Meredith L. Swentor, eds., Bluegrass Confederate: The Headquarters Diary of Edward O. Guerrant, (Baton Rouge: Lousiana State University Press, 1999), pp.340-342. [Hereinafter cited as: Diary of Edward O. Guerrant.]

[4] The U. S. Army began its second experiment in social control and medical management as it was announced that a system of legalized prostitution would go into force, similar in scope and method as the system initiated earlier in Nashville in 1863. In fact, Lt. Colonel T.H. Harris, Assistant Adjutant General, 16th Army Corps, on duty as mayor of Memphis, sent Dr. Coxe to Nashville to make a study of the system. According to the "Private Circular" issued on September 30, 1864, that resulted from the study, all prostitutes in the Bluff City were required by the Army to "be registered and take out weekly certificates [of good health]." A $2.50 fee for medical examinations was charged, while a certificate cost $10.00. The money collected was to go to treating any prostitute who may have contracted venereal diseases. By the end of the war the system, like the one in Nashville, was deemed a success but it was not continued by civilian authorities. The Memphis plan was initiated on October 10, 1864.

[5] United States Surgeon General's Office, The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion, Vol. 1, pt. 3, ed. Charles Smartt (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1888), p. 895. See also: James Boyd Jones, Jr., "A Tale of Two Cities: The Hidden Battle Against Venereal Disease in Civil War Nashville and Memphis," Civil War History, Vol. 31, no. 3 (September 1985), pp. 270-276 and; Galveston Weekly News, April 12, 1865.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


No comments: