Monday, July 14, 2014

7.14.14 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        14, Analysis of secession vote in Tennessee
We copy the following from the Memphis Avanlanche, which is about as wild on the idea of secession as any paper south of the Potomoc-
Governor Harris has issued his proclamation announcing the first vote of separation, but why does he not order the election? Can it be possible he is conniving at the combination making in the Legislature by certain Congressional aspirants, who, afraid to submit their claims to the people, are attempting to take the election  in their own hands? Freemen of Tennessee, your representatives are betraying your dearest rights. They are attempting to robyou of the dearest franchise of a freeman-the right of representation-and usurp the power in their own hands, under the flimsy pretext that we are in the presence of an enemy, and it will not do to suffer the people to pass through the excitement of an election. Under this miserable plea, a set of ambitious politicians hope to ride roughbed over your liberties and elevate themselves to power upon their ruins, thinking the presence of an enemy will make you tamely submit till they are firmly enthroned and their heels upon your necks and then defy you. Arise, freemen of Tennessee, and rebuke them-hurl them from power; and if they should have the unblushing audacity to attempt to legislate for you, through self appointed delegates, raise the standard of revolt and crush them as you have nobly done the despotis of Lincoln.
The New York Herald, (New York, NY), July 14, 1861.[2]

        14, "Our place was attacked on Sabbath (yesterday) morning about 5 A.M. by 1200 or 1400 cavalry under Gen. Forrest." A Federal surgeon's account of Forrest's raid on Murfreesboro
Union Coll. Hospital
July 14, 1862
Dearest wife,
I know you will feel much anxiety to hear from me on account of the reports from this place and I hope to be able to send this to you soon to relieve all your fears. Our place was attacked on Sabbath (yesterday) morning about 5 A.M. by 1200 or 1400 cavalry under Gen. Forrest. They came from Chatanooga [sic] or that vicinity and must have made a very long & hasty march to get here as they did. I heard them coming early in the morning & raised up in bed to look out of the window & in a moment they came galloping down the road past the Hospital, yelling & shouting. Our whole house was alarmed & all were up & dressed that were able to get up. I had been quite down for several days & unable to sit up at all, but soon got out & dressed in my common clothes. I started out to the camp of the 9th Mich. across the lots to see the fight, but that Reg. Was only half there and it was easily overcome – with 7 killed & 30 or 40 wounded. The rest taken prisoner and marched by here early in the day – with I am sorry to say – nearly all the inmates of the Convalescent Barracks. It is said that the men fired out of the building & killed some of the cavalry & were in consequence carried off. Rob.[3] went off in company of several [Confederate] officers – well mounted [sic] & will get good fare I presume & will soon be sent back. It will give him a good chance to see a little of secesh life & mingle a little with the chivalry. I had almost forgotten my story. I staid out till I got my feet wet in the wet grass & I was very tired & faint tho' I was only about half an hour. The 9th men fought well [sic] whenever they had a chance but were overpowered. They formed as skirmishers in front of the Hospital on College street and for a while kept the cavalry at bay. The company at the Court House also fought well & killed many of the secesh, but were finally obliged to surrender. Capt Rounds with the rest. Col. Lester, [of the] Reg. 3rd Min. was next attacked & I heard the cannon begin to boom & then I thot the day is ours & went in to Mrs. Eatons[4] [sic] & went to bed. The Confed. Cavalry were repulsed in their first charge and came back on a keen run through the village past Mrs. Beard's[5] & so on I don't know how far. Soon there was another rally & charge & the cannon bellowed at frequent intervals through the forenoon. I felt perfectly safe in the thought that the Reg would hold its ground with the four [sic] pieces of cannon. Had not the slightest idea that they would be captured – and when I heard a big shout all along the streets I supposed that it meant nothing of any consequence. Soon however the rumor came that the Reg & Battery had surrendered – like dogs [sic] which alas proved too true. They were all marched by on the Woodbury pike with the 4 cannon. Little did we dream Sat. night that before another sun would set the old flag would be trailed in the dust & the gay U. S. soldiers of Murfreesboro would be marched between Confed. Troops to Dixie. Gen. Crittenden and Staff were captured in the first part of the fight & through his influence I suppose, Col Lester was induced to surrender. The 3rd had lost no men & were in good position of their own choosing, & ought to have stood against twice the number of cavalry here yesterday[.] Oh what a fall was there, my countrymen[!] The men of the 3rd Reg were very indignant at Col. Lester[.] They also took Col. Duffield & staff & Col. Lester's Lieut. Cols. & Capts., etc., without limit about 900 rank & file. The also carried off all the guns [and] ammunition, forage wagons, mules etc., etc., and all the Q.M. & Commissary stores such as clothing boots & shoes and then burned the Depo[t] & the St. Charles Hotel & several other buildings. Many of the citizens seemed to feel very happy at the sight of their own army & at the disgrace of ours, but they treated us with great courtesy. They helped to bring in our wounded & now this morning gave us a large quantity of nice articles for the sick & wounded to eat & to use for dressing their wounds. They showed themselves very kind and considerate, and I shall do what I can to repay their kindness.
We have about 49 wounded here & there are several at the Convalescent Hospital & I presume some in town at private houses. There were about 150 killed & wounded on both sides pretty much equal I judge. The Confederate soldiers who were wounded were left at different private houses – Some say as high as 60.
They took away all the private property of the officers and all the medical stores, etc., etc. I have lived one whole day & nearly two under the Stars & Bars [sic] & may have to several more but you will not get this tilll the Stars & Stripes wave over this place again. My private property is all [sic] safe & nothing about the Hospital [was] injured or carried away – although, they came here several times & repeatedly threatened to take our men away, but I think they only took one or two. The rest are too sick or are needed to take care of them. Our provisions are nearly all gone & now there is no commissary to go to. I hope to see a different state of things soon.
[Wm. M. Eames]
William Mark Eames Papers
        14, The reaction in Nashville to news of Forrest's raid on Murfreesboro
The news from Murfreesboro yesterday caused intense and universal excitement. People crowded the streets, moving restlessly from one corner to another, and using their conjectural faculties to the best advantage in the endeavor to comprehend the true "situation."  Official quarters were besieged at all times, and whenever a word was dropped, concerning the fight at Murfreesboro, the listening populace would catch it up and retail it throughout the city, each one adding his own views to make it the more plausible. A thousand and one rumors and counter-rumors gained currency, and all had their believers and elaborators. Even the ladies were carried irresistibly along by the waves of excitement; many of them appeared upon the streets to witness the state of feeling as it "really was."  Should nothing else grow out of the alarm everywhere evident yesterday, it will leave an amusing impress upon the history of Nashville. Our statement of the Murfreesboro affair is obtained from high authority, and it contains few, if any, inaccuracies.
About 2 o'clock, P. M., a chariot and band paraded the streets, with a banner bearing the inscription:  "Union Men, Rally under Brigadier General Wm. B. Campbell!"  The effect of such a display can better be imagined by our readers than described by us. At 5 o'clock, the music and a number of followers entered the Representatives Hall, at the Capitol, where Gen. Campbell was to have addressed the people. Hon. Wm. B. Stokes appeared upon the stand, and briefly addressed the crowd, telling them of the threatened attack on the city, and proposing the adjournment of the meeting until five o'clock this evening, at which time Union citizens were enjoined to report the names of all persons willing to enlist for the exigency. After this announcement the meeting dispersed.
Nashville Dispatch, July 15, 1862.

        14, "Here's Your Mule" [6]
"Here's Your Mule"
Come Soldiers, listen to my lay
Here's your mule, your long eared mule
I'll sing the warriors of the day,
Here's your mule, &c.

Old General Bragg, he leads the way,
And moves his army twice a day,
And once at night, I've heard them say
Here's your mule, your long eared mule
I'll sing the warriors of the day,
Here's your mule, &c

The Yankees thought us in a trap
While we were up at Hoover's Gap-,
But when around the fox he says
Fast through the cornfields old Bragg flees
His coat all tattered in the breeze
Here's your mule, &c.

He burns the bridges and supplies
To save his army from surprise,
He marches on with warlike skill,
Until he's safe at College Hill
Here's your mule, &c.

Here General Polk, he takes command
And rules the roost with skillful hand
This he o[rders?] and his dashing aids
Their marks on history's page have made
By daring deeds on dress parade
Here's your mule, &c.
Nashville Daily Union, July 14, 1863.
        14, Merchants in Franklin seek recompense for losses sustained during Confederate raid on Franklin
Franklin Tennessee
July 14, 1863
Gov. Andrew Johnson
Dear Sir
On the 4th of June 1863 certain persons hostile to the Government of the United States from three to five hundred in number banded together as Rebel Soldiers led by Forrest [and] Starnes &c entered the town of Franklin Tenn.-and robbed the undersigned of ten thousand and seven dollars worth of Goods, Wares and merchandise[.] That is to say they robbed Sinclair and Moss of eight thousand dollars. H.C. Sinclair being the looser of three thousand dollars individually, S.H. Bailey twelve hundred dollars and John B. Cliffe fifteen hundred dollars worth. Now as we upon honor believe that the above depredations were committed upon us for and in consideration of the fact that we were known by the leading depredators (many of whom we were acquainted with as citizens of Williamson County prior to the rebellion) to be loyal to the Government of the United States. We most respectfully present these our grievances to your Excellency with the earnest desire that you will inforce [sic] in our behalf your Excellencies Proclamation issued at Nashville May 9th 1862.
Yours truly, Also [sic] at the same time and in the same manner they took from J. B. Lilly a fine horse worth two hundred dollars. He being personally known to them to be a union man and a friend of the Government of the United States[.]
Sinclair & Moss
by A.W. Moss
John B. Cliffe
J. B. Lilly
S. H. Bailey
H. C. Sinclair
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 289-291.
        14, Brigadier-General Gideon J. Pillow proposes conscript sweeps in Middle and West Tennessee
CHATTANOOGA, July 14, 1863.
Brig. Gen. W. W. MACKALL, Chief of Staff, &c.:
If the general commanding can place at my disposal a body of cavalry to cover and protect my work, I propose to enter Tennessee-West and Middle--and organize as cavalry all the population of those divisions of the State that can be drawn into the service. I am satisfied a large body of troops can thus be gotten up who will otherwise be lost to the service for the balance of the war. My application embraces the stragglers from the Army as well as the citizen population. These stragglers in Tennessee cannot be reached and drawn out except in this way. The simple question to be decided is whether as a matter of policy we had better get these men into the service as cavalry or lose them altogether. Both Congress and the President have sanctioned the principle of recovering in new commands stragglers in the special law passed legalizing the organization of Maj.-Gen. Hindman in the Trans-Mississippi Department, in which were embraced many stragglers from the Army of Tennessee. I would not of course desire to undertake a service of this kind, except with the view of providing a command, if successful, for myself. This force kept in Tennessee would not only protect that country, but by operating upon the enemy's line of communication with his base of supplies, and harassing his rear and forcing him thus to weaken his front in order to keep up his line, would give material aid to Gen. Bragg's army in any future movement forward. If I undertake this service I should deem it essential to success to have entire control, under the commanding general of the department, of all organizations within those regions. I comprehend in my plan of operations the organization of that part of Alabama north of Tennessee River, and to be allowed the services of all supernumerary officers of that portion of the Army of Tennessee from that section of the country.
GID. J. PILLOW, Brig.-Gen., C. S. Army, &c.
OR, Ser. IV,Vol. 2, p. 637.

        14, "A Woman in Men's Apparel" in Nashville
About three o'clock on Thursday night last (14th) the police arrested a suspicious looking character, who afterwards proved to be a woman dressed in male attire. An investigation into the affair established the fact that she had but recently come to this city on a visit, and meeting a Lieutenant, a friend [sic] of her husband and family, a promenade and a disguise was suggested by the officer, which was acceded to by Mrs._____. She was returning to her boarding house when arrested, and, as might be expected, exhibited much uneasiness of mind, when being escorted to the police headquarters. The Lieutenant shortly afterwards made his appearance and deposited a sufficient sum for security, thus saving her from lodging the rest of the night in the workhouse.
Nashville Daily Press, July 16, 1864.
        14, "Turned Out;" poor whites displaced by Negroes in Nashville
There seems to be a general disposition on the part of landlords, agents, and the military, to turn out poor white tenants and put in negroes [sic]. We saw one yesterday who sent out to pay her rent, leaving the balance of her money in the house under her bed; when she returned, the house had been broken open, her furniture put on the street, her money gone, and the house occupied by a negro family. During yesterday, nine women went before Recorder Shane for protection against, or redress for, similar proceedings. A number of families were turned out of a house near Jefferson street yesterday, and other occupants placed therein. We know nothing whatever of the merits of these complaints, and therefore can neither approve or censure such proceedings, but suggest that the injured parties make their complaints to the proper authorities, in a plain and brief communication The Recorder has no control outside the corporation limits.
Nashville Dispatch, July 14, 1864.

[1] gg
[2] gg
[3] Apparently a physician colleague of Eames'.
[4] Not identified.
[5] Not identified.
[6] These particular verses satirize General Bragg during the retreat of the Army of Tennessee during the Tullahoma Campaign. It was meant to be sung to the tune of "O' Tannenbaum." It was humorously claimed to have been sung by many members of the Army of Tennessee as the Army of the Cumberland advanced. The precise meaning of the phrase "here's your mule" seems to have been lost, although it was apparently some kind of reproachful remark or insult. One source claims: "According to one Confederate veteran, Captain W.W. Carnes, the cry, 'Here's Your Mule!" originated among West Tennessee [Confederate] soldiers in a camp of instruction at Jackson, Tennessee. The men teased a camp huckster by concealing his mule inside a tent. 'Here's Your Mule!' gave rise to merriment in that camp,' wrote Carnes, "and as the different commands left the Camp of Instruction they took the with them the cry, 'Here's Your Mule!' which spread rapidly through the army until it was in general use by soldiers who had no idea of how it originated, but understood that there was a joke behind it or connected with it some way." W.W. Carnes, "Here's Your Mule," Confederate Veteran, XXXVII (October 1929), pp. 373-374, as cited in Norman D. Brown, ed., One of Cleburne's Command: The Civil War Reminiscences and Diary of Capt. Samuel T. Foster, Granbury's Texas Brigade, C. S. A., (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1980), p. 66. Another reference is found in and revolves around the action at Missionary Ridge. As Federal forces overran rebel positions General Bragg was said to have been present trying to rally his troops saying: "Here is your commander!" to which the troops responded: "Here is your mule!" See Confederate Sam R. Watkins memoirs, "Co. Aytch:" A Side Show of the Big Show (1987 reprint), p. 125. Other interpretations have it that the phrase simply meant "we've been here," or was the result of the "horse liberations" of Confederate cavalry general John Hunt Morgan or a comment upon desertion. The song was most popular in Tennessee and Kentucky. Thomas C. Smith used the phrase in his Civil War memoir Here's Yer Mule: the Diary of Thos. C. Smith, 3rd Sergeant, Co. "G," Wood's Regiment, 32nd Texas Cavalry, C. S.A., Mar. 30-1862-Dec. 31 1862. There seems to be no single meaning for the phrase, although it seems most likely it was some kind of taunt or clever expression and even obscene phrase common to both sides in the war. The lyrics to the song are:
1. A farmer came to camp one day,
With milk and eggs to sell,
Upon a mule that oft would stray
To where no one could tell.
The farmer tired of his tramp
For hours was made a fool,
By ev 'ry one he met in camp
With, "Mister, here's your mule."
Come on, come on, come on old man,
And don't be made a fool,
By ev'ry one you meet in camp
With "Mister, here's your mule"
2. His eggs and chickens all were gone,
Before the break of day;
The mule was heard of all along,
That's what the soldiers say'
And still be hunted all day long,
Alas! a witless tool,
Whilst every man would sing the song
Of "Mister, here's your mule" (Chorus)
3. The soldiers run in laughing mood,
Of mischief were intent;
They lifted muley on their back,
Around from tent to tent;
Thorough this hole and that, they pushed
His head and made a rule,
To shout with hum'rous voices all
"I say! Mister, here's your mule!" (Chorus)
4. Alas, one day the mule was missed!
Ah, who could tell his fate?
The farmer, like a man bereft,
Searched early and searched late,
And as he passed from camp to camp,
With stricken face-the fool,
Cried out to ev'ryone he met,
"Oh, mister, where's my mule?" (Chorus)
Irwin Silber, Songs of the Civil War, ed. and comp., piano and guitar arrangements by Jerry Silverman, (NY: Columbia University, 1960), pp. 179, 223-224.

James B. Jones, Jr.
Public Historian
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN  37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456
(615)-532-1549  FAX

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