NOTES FROM THE CIVIL WAR IN TENNESSEE, December 15, 1861-1864
December 15, 1861
15, "REBELS" a poem
By a Baltimorean
Rebels! 'tis a holy name!
The name our fathers bore
When battling in the cause of Right,
Against the tyrant in his might, In the dark days of yore.
Rebels! 'tis our family name!
Our father, Washington,
Was the arch-rebel in the fight,
And gave the name to us – a Right
Of father unto son.
Rebels! 'tis our given name!
Our mother, Liberty,
Received the title with her fame,
In days of grief, of fear and shame,
When at her breast were we.
Rebels! 'tis our sealed name,
A baptism of blood
The war – aye and the din of strife-
The fearful contest, life for life –
The mingled crimson flood.
Rebels! 'tis a patriotic name
In struggles it was given,
We bore it then when tyrants ravaged
And through their curses 'twas engraved,
On the dooms-day book of heaven.
Rebels! 'tis or fighting name!
For Peace rules o'er the land,
Until they speak of craven woe –
Until our Rights receive a blow,
From fore's of brother's hand.
Rebels! 'tis our dying name!
For although life is dear,
Yet freemen born and freemen bred,
We'd rather live as freemen dead,
Then to live in slavish fear.
Then call us rebels if you will –
We glory in the name;
For bending under unjust laws
And swearing faith to an unjust cause
We count a greater shame.
November 25, 1861
Memphis Appeal, December 15, 1861.
15, "OUR SICK SOLDIERS IN HOSPITAL."
We give place to the following interesting letter with a great deal of pleasure, feeling assured that its publication must do good. Mr. Hanna, it will be remembered, was the recipient of the letter from Mrs. Gen. Polk, which was inserted some days ago in our columns, urging him to interest himself in obtaining supplies for the sick wounded, and needy soldiers at the seat of war in the West. At that time the soldier's Hospital was located at Bowling Green, and it was stated that there were then a thousand of our troops standing in need of such relief.
That number is now fully trebled.-The hospital has been removed to Nashville, a step the propriety of which has been suggested by a variety of considerations, among which not the least important changed direction of the movement of the war, rending Nashville a more accessible and every way a more convenient location than Bowling Green.
Mr. Hanna's statement of what has already been done, in response to the call made upon him, and through him upon the public, will be found full of interest, as will his earnest and eloquent appeal for contributions to the cause which all true patriots should have at heart, and exert their best abilities to further.
The sick and wounded of our volunteer army must be properly cared for. The public sympathy must be enlisted in the furtherance of this great object. Here is an institution that must be sustained and made and kept efficient. Whatever is contributed to it is certain of being properly and useful appropriated, under the directions of persons most trustworthy and responsible. The battles fought in Kentucky are our battles, and, to a large extent, fought by our volunteers; and it is our sacred duty to see to it that they are duly cared for. Mrs. Shelby, the President of the Hospital Association, at Nashville, writes as follows:
"We are here nursing the sick soldiers from all the Confederate States, and our supplies are not at all equal to our need. Can you not beg some contributions for us? We ourselves supply all the delicacies; we are allowed nothing outside of soldiers' rations. This morning we received $100 from Mr. Henry Fassman-a timely gift. We hope to gladden with it many an aching head. Do all you can for us, and our soldiers will have reason to bless you."
We understand that the Board of Underwriters of our city have contributed $250, in money, to this good cause, and will do more, if necessary. But we keep our readers from the interesting letter of Mr. Hanna. It is as follows:
New Orleans, Nov. 27, 1861
Messrs. Editors: Permit me through you columns to acknowledge the receipt of the following articles donated to the Soldiers' Hospital at Nashville, Tenn., to be disposed of under the direction of an association of ladies, of which Mrs. Dr. Shelby is President, and Mrs. Gen. Polk is a working member:
From 'the permanent committee for the relief of the sick and wounded soldiers of the C. S., 2 hhds of sugar, 10 bbls molasses, 1 tierce of hospital stores and supplies, 2 bbls of rice.
Messrs. Viblett & Co., 1 bbl rice, 1 box pickles, 1 box brand cherries.
Messrs. Goodrich & Co., 1 bbl rice.
These articles, together with 1 hhd of refined sugar and 3 bbls S. H. Molasses, were shipped by the Natchez, and Republic free of charge to F. Titus, Memphis, to be forwarded to Woods, Yeatman, & Co., Nashville, for Mrs. Polk and the ladies associated with her.
Messrs. Henderson & Gaines also very generously sent 2 casks containing a very general hospital outfit.
I have also received from Mrs. Trufant, Mrs. McPherson, Mrs. Hall (of St. Louis Hotel), Mrs. Reiman (of Deter's worsted store) and other ladies whose name were not given, various packages of clothing, old linen, line, bandages, &c. From Mr. P. Piffet, a small box of buttons, thread, needles, &c. P. P. Sargent, 4 pairs slippers; Benthuysen, Lewis & Co., 1 remnant of ticking and some cotton batting; Corson & Armstrong, a package of splints and or wrapping paper; J. H. Pope, druggist, a quantity of useful articles in his line, of the value of over $40.
Messrs. Barriers Brothers, and also Mr. Reilly, have contributed liberally or shirting, sheeting and other useful articles, which has been made up into needful hospital garment, under the direction of the ladies of the Poydras Asylum, who have undertaken to make up all the clothes that may be contributed to this subject.
A small sum of money was collected, along with many of the above mentioned articles, but the patriotic ladies, Mrs. Thos. A. Adams and Mrs. Geo. Trufant, who undertook the ungracious task of begging, which will be particularly acknowledged on a future occasion, and with whatever additions may be made thereto, will be held will be held subject to the order of the Nashville Association. I will also from time to time acknowledge the receipt of all future contributions in the same manner I have done at present.
I received yesterday afternoon from Messrs. White & Trufant, sugar planters, 3 bbls of molasses. They have also undertaken to have made up 100 garments, if the material is furnished to them. Mr. Elkin has generously contributed a package of sundries, and Mr. Valcour Aime has sent 2 half bbls of lint, all of which will be forwarded this afternoon.
Everything received to yesterday's date has been forwarded, except such articles as are being made up, and they will be sent forward as soon as finished.
I will take this opportunity to repeat that the hospital of the army and Kentucky has been removed from Bowling Green to Nashville; and that on the 9th inst. (the day of Mrs. Polk's letter to me) there was then one thousand sick there and more were daily expected, and then were greatly in want of all kinds of suitable supplies, especially sugar, molasses and rice.
The Ladies of the Hospital Association return their sincerer thanks for the above donations
Nashville Daily Gazette, December 15, 1861.
15, "A Change of Sentiment in East Tennessee;" news from Bradley County
A correspondent of the Knoxville Register, writing from Bradley County under date of the 11th inst. informs that paper, that since the Message of Lincoln has reached that county, Scarcely a Union [sic] man can be found-all declare themselves for the South. One or two hundred of them have joined the Southern army in the last forty eight hours. There is a much better feeling than has ever prevailed in the community before. The people say they have been mislead [sic] by their leaders in regard to the policy of the Northern government. They cannot be sold to Abolitionism. Bradley county is going to furnish a regiment for the Confederate army. Dr. Thompson will go into the regiment, and many more prominent Union men, since reading Lincoln's Message, have declared themselves strongly for the South. Wm. Hancock, formerly a Union man, is not raising a company for the Bradley Regiment. The other companies in progress are Capt. W. H. Camp's (a Southern Rights man.) Capt. Frank Triplett's (late Union,) and Joe Perrine's (late Union).
Our correspondent's account of the good work says the Register that is going on in Bradley will carry joy to every true Southern heart in the State. May we not hope to hear similar accounts from every county in East Tennessee. God grant that we may yet be a band of brothers in defence of rights against the encroachments of Northern despotism and abolition fanaticism.
Nashville Daily Gazette, December 15, 1861.
15, "Aid to the Poor."
Mayor's Office, November [sic] 14, 1861.
A Free Market has been established by the City, and benevolent and liberal hearted farmers in the country and citizens in the city, are earnestly appealed to contribute to the same, by sending in wood, meal, flour, &c and such articles as they may deem proper, to aid in sustaining the worthy poor. The poor are always with us, and it is the dictate of humanity and a religious duty, so see that none suffer if in our power to prevent. It is a God like duty our people are called upon to perform. The aid which the city corporation can extend is comparatively limited, and the Robertson Association, which has been so useful in previous winters, having ceased to act at present, on account of so many members being in the Army, makes an appeal of this kind necessary.
An officer can be found at the Work House, to receive all articles which may be sent in, and who will see to its proper distribution. Money can be donated by those who prefer to do so.
R. B. Cheatham, Mayor
Nashville Daily Gazette, December 15, 1861.
15, Onward Nondenominational Confederate Christian Soldiers
Testament for the Soldiers.- We have seldom felt more gratification than we experienced yesterday, at receiving from the hands of Miles Owen, Esq., a copy of the new testament, of small size, matt binding, and clear type, printed in the South, but the firm of Graves, Marks, & Co. of Nashville, Tennessee, intended for soldiers, and to be placed in their hands at a charge of twelve and a half cents a copy-eight soldiers supplied with a new testament each for one dollar. This is "good tidings of great joy." One of those busy-bodies who are a pest in the church, recently charged, through one of our religious papers, that this testament would be of the new Baptist translation. Of course such is not the case. It is the "authorized translation, with the word baptize untranslated [?], and in the usual plastic condition for disputation. To the zeal and enterprise of J. L Graves is principally due the accomplishment of this good work. He traveled and toiled much in his task, and it is well accomplished. He says, in an address he has published, that in the tedium of the unemployed home of camp life, the soldiers desire the Bible. "Young men," he states, "have told me that they read more of the scripture since they have been camp than ever in all their lives before. I have had a soldier offer me his last dollar for a Bible, and borrow the money that he might make sure of one-a nice one-that might be sent back to his mother, father, stained with his blood should he fall in battle." [sic] Mr. Graves found in his research [?] one company fully supplied with the Bible, the Liberty Guard from Amite county, Mississippi; "I found," he adds, "several large companies in which only two Testaments could be found, and this was owing to the impossibility of procuring them since Lincoln's blockade, as thee was not a set of stereotype plates nor a font of type suitable to make the, in all the South." This difficulty is now at an end. Persons sending the money the Graves & Co., Nashville, can for $2.50 have a hundred of these Testaments sent to any regiment provided the location of the regiment and the name of the Colonel be given. We must find room for two more little extracts from Elder Graves' excellent address: "No one of us can easily conceive of the power to restrain from vice, (in the camp) [sic] the very sight and touch [?] even, the Bible has, though unread. It reminds the son that it is the world of his family's God and his mother's Savior. It reminds him of Sabbaths, and sermons, and prayers, and exhortations, and home. Every soldier will prize for all time the Bible or Testament he carried with him through this war for the southern revolution, and he will bequeath to his son or daughter after him as a sacred legacy. If he fall upon the field, it will be the very thing he will send home; or if he die that his associates will remove from his person and return to the family." The Testament can now be had; let it be widely distributed among our soldiers."
Memphis Daily Appeal, September 15, 1861.
15, "Their pay is not sufficient to furnish their families." A call to rich planters to furnish slave labor to help poor white soldiers stationed at Fort Donelson to bring in their crops
The Governor of Tennessee has coerced the poor whites into the army till there are not enough left to gather the crops and chop wood for the families. JOHN W. HEAD, a Gallatin lawyer, who seems to be in command at Fort Donelson, issues the following proclamation to their wealthy neighbors:
FORT DONELSON, Dec. 15, 1861.
TO THE FRIENDS OF THE SOLDIERS OF THE THIRTIETH REGIMENT TENNESSEE VOLUNTEERS: Letters are daily received by many of the brave men of my command, stating that their crops are wasting in the field, and their families unprovided for. This should not be. These soldiers are depriving themselves of the comforts of home, and enduring the hardships and privations of camp life to protect and defend a common interest. Their pay is not sufficient to furnish their families. You are sharing the fruits of their services, and it is your high and solemn duty to see that the little they have left behind is not sacrificed -- that their wives and children are supplied with the necessaries of life.
I therefore most earnestly entreat you to have their crops garnered, their families furnished with wood, and such other of the necessaries of life as they may need.
Many of you have a large negro force, whose labor should, in part, be used for the benefit of these men. By timely cooperation much can be done to aid and relieve them and their families.
Colonel Commanding Thirtieth Regiment.
New York Times, January 4, 1862.
December 15, 1862
15, Eighth Tennessee Cavalry [C. S. A.] crosses Tennessee River on flat-boats near Clifton 15, Capture of a drove of hogs by Federal cavalry near Trenton
15, Eighth Tennessee Cavalry [C. S. A.] crosses Tennessee River on flat-boats near Clifton 15, Capture of a drove of hogs by Federal cavalry near Trenton
15, Federal report relative to Jefferson Davis' attendance at John H. Morgan's wedding and speech in Murfreesborough
NASHVILLE, TENN., December 15, 1862-1.10 p. m.
Reports of last evening fully confirmed. Jeff. Davis attended John H. Morgan's wedding last night: was serenaded, and made a speech, in which he said Lincoln's proclamation put black and white on an equality. Urged them to fight until death, and to hold Middle Tennessee at all hazards, until Grant could be whipped. Bragg ordered all Kentucky and Tennessee exiles conscripted. Buckner, Breckinridge, and Hanson protested and threatened to resign. Jeff. took the matter in hand.
Things will be ripe soon.
W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 20, pt. II, p. 179.
15 Jefferson C. Davis' letter to his wife
Dec. 15, 1862
My dear Wife,
We had a pleasant trip & without an incident to related reached this place on the 11th.
The troops in Murfreesboro were in fine spirits and well supplied. The enemy keep close within their lines about Nashville, which place is too strongly fortified and garrisoned for attack by troops unprepared for regular approaches on fortifications.
Many of your acquaintances made kind inquiry for you. Especially Genl. Hardee. I saw Joe Mitchell and Willie Farish, both were well. Last night on my arrival here a telegram announced the attack made at Fredericksburg. You can imagine my anxiety.
There are indications of a strong desire for me to visit the farther West expressed in terms which render me unwilling to disappoint the expectation. Mrs. Joe Johnston is well, not quite pleased with her location. Genl. Johnston will directly to Miss. And reinforce Genl. Pemberton. I saw Mr. Clay, who gives a discouraging account of the feeling of the people about Huntsville. He says the fear of the traitors is so great lest they should in the event of a return of the Yankees bring down vengeance on the true men that our friends look around to see who is in earshot before speaking of public affairs.
It is raining this morning and unreasonably warm. I have traveled constantly since starting and feel somewhat the want to rest, but otherwise am better than before the journey. Joe was a little unwell yesterday, but seems bright today. Many of the officers inquired for Col. Preston Johnston and felt, as I did, regret at his absence.]
Kiss the children of their loving Father. They can little realize how much I miss them. Every sound is the voice of my child and every child renews them memory of a loved one's appearance, but none can equal their charms, nor can any compare with my own long-worshipped Winnie.
She is na my ain Lassie
Though fair the lassie be
For well ken I my ain lassie
By the kind love in her eye.
Jefferson Davis Private Letters, pp. 128-129.
15, Robin pot pie, new recruits, and liars; the letter of Liberty P. Warner, Co. H, 21st O.V.I. in Nashville
Camp Hamilton, Nashville
Dec 15, 1862
After a few more days at Nashville we have moved out sixty miles toward Murfreesboro, where we lie awaiting further orders. We are all glorying the enjoyment of health and only need the smiles of those at home to make us happy indeed. We have a very pleasant camp here, close to this cane brake. It affords plenty of sport for the soldiers in the line of bird hunting. About an hour before sun set clouds of robbins may be seen coming from every direction toward the cane brake, where they take up quarters for the night. As soon as it comes dark the boys slip the guard and with torch and shelalah they charge on the devoted red breast, who stare at the torch untill they are nocked of of the cane. Our mess had a pot pie of some 3 or 4 dozen of this species of songster (great dish that).
We have just received a lot of draftees, and they are in for 9 months, so they get out of the service sometime before we, the old twenty onesters, [sic] as we call ourselves. Hoorah for the new roll 21sters. [sic] With our recruits came a fine stand of colors and a banner, besides a couple of small flags, one red the other blue for line guides (all of silk). Our regiment makes a line of battle about 40 rods.
Did Reuben VanTassel ever write home that he took 5 prisoners and a stand of colors at Lavergne. The boys have the story here that he did write such things home. It may be just a report amongst the boys, but if he did write such a thing he wrote and untruth. Because you see, I was there myself and know all about it. When you write let us know. You see, Co. H was on the run all the time trying to flank the rebels [sic] and he nor anyone else had such a chance as that in Co. H. There has been some talk of compromise and armistice, but I don't believe anything untill [sic] I see it myself. If there should happen to be an armistice for 6 months or a compromise and peace declared, why I expect I might get home by some of these days, but the way things are going on seem rather to predict a year or more or in other words, I expect to serve my term out. I send herein closed receipt 20$ and more before long if the paymaster comes soon.
Love to all the friends.
Liberty P. Warner
December 15, 1863
15, Federal courier line established, Loudon to Kingston and Chattanooga
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpts from the Itinerary of the Second Brigade, Second Cavalry Division (Army of the Cumberland), Col. Eli Long commanding, relative to events in East Tennessee from December 1-28, 1863.
December 15, a line of couriers was established to Loudon and Kingston, and communication opened with Chattanooga in same manner.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, p. 435.
15, Skirmish near Livingston
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the Report of Col. John M. Hughs, Twenty-fifth Tennessee Infantry (Confederate), relative to the skirmish near Livingston, Tenn., December 15, 1863.
DALTON, Ga., April 28, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor herewith to submit the following report of my operations in Middle Tennessee.
* * * *
On the 15th December, near Livingston, Tennessee, I attacked, with a portion of my command, numbering less than 100, a detachment of the Thirteenth Kentucky Mounted Infantry [Cavalry], numbering 250 men, under Maj. Hurt, and succeeded in whipping and driving them out of the State, a distance of 18 miles, killing and wounding several and capturing 6. My loss, 2 wounded.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN M. HUGHS.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, p. 575.
15, Skirmish at Bean's Station [see December 14, 1863, Engagement Bean's Station above]
15, Affair near Pulaski
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the Report of Major-General George H. Thomas, dated January 15, 1864, covering activities from December 1 to 31, 1863, relative to the affair near Pulaski, December 15, 1863.
* * * *
December 15, a small party of rebels, under Maj. Joe Fontaine, Roddey's adjutant, was captured by Gen. Dodge near Pulaski. They had been on a reconnaissance along the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and the Nashville and Decatur Railroad. Measures were immediately taken to guard against an attack on either railroad.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. II, p. 125.
PULASKI, Tennessee, December 15, 1863.
Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT, Chattanooga:
I captured a party of rebels to-day under command of Maj. Jo. Fontaine, Gen. Roddey's adjutant. They have been on a reconnaissance along line of Chattanooga and Nashville Railroad, and along line of this [road]. They tapped the telegraph and took off a number of dispatches, and I guess got pretty well posted. Their orders were to examine thoroughly the railroad between Columbia and Nashville, and also to endeavor to capture a train loaded with prisoners from Chattanooga. They are evidently posted on weakness of force between Columbia and Nashville, and no doubt will endeavor to burn those bridges. I have a man in from Montgomery, Ala., eight days on road. All troops in Alabama picking up conscripts are ordered to Hardee. All men between sixteen and sixty are called out to replace them. Two brigades last of November went through to Bragg. This is all the force that so far has gone up. The boys met large numbers of deserters left since last fight.
G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, p. 412.
CHATTANOOGA, December 15, 1863--11.30 p. m.
Gen. Dodge captured a party of rebels to-day who have been reconnoitering the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and were then reconnoitering the Nashville and Decatur Railroad. Caution your troops to keep a bright lookout for such characters. They have tapped the telegraph and taken off messages.
WM. D. WHIPPLE, Chief of Staff.
NASHVILLE, December 15, 1863.
Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT:
The condition of affairs on the railroad from here to Bridgeport seems to me to demand an immediate and thorough inspection and I respectfully recommend that orders be given to Brig.-Gen. Dodge to make such an examination at once, and report to you the condition of the road, the energy with which repairs are pushed forward, and the urgency of repairs, as well as the administration of the road generally having in view the speed of trains, the frequent and unnecessary delays, the condition and police of the cars, and the matter of fares collected and accounted for. Very many cars have been run off the track and upset, and no attempt to have been made to get them back into service, and I think everything and everybody connected with the road need overhauling.
WM. F. SMITH, Chief Engineer, Military Division.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, p. 414.
15, Federal Medical Report relative to the Battle of Chattanooga
Report of Surg. Alonzo J. Phelps, U. S. Army, Medical Director.
HDQRS. 4TH ARMY CORPS, MEDICAL DIRECTOR'S OFFICE, Chattanooga, Tennessee, December 15, 1863.
SIR: I have the honor to make the following report of the operations of the medical department of this corps at the battle of Chattanooga:
About one week before the battle we had intimations, not official, but from a reliable source, that a battle would soon take place for the repossession of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Accordingly I began to prepare for wounded men by emptying the division hospitals of the milder cases of sickness, and fitted up such other buildings as were placed at my disposal, including the U. S. Gen. Hospital, under charge of Surgeon Salter, U. S. Volunteers.
By the time the battle came off I had good shelter for 1,200 men and beds for 650.
Having very few tents, I had to depend mainly upon buildings for shelter. The most of the regimental hospital tents were captured at Chickamauga, and had not yet been replaced.
The medical officers of each division were assigned to specific duty, and all was in readiness, so far as our limited means would permit, for the fight that opened on the 23d day of November.
The battle was opened by a reconnaissance in force, made by Gen. Wood's [Third] division. It was made at 1 p. m. in the direction of Missionary Ridge. The result of this movement was a brisk fight of half an hour, and the occupation of a low range of hills, a mile distant from our lines. In this affair Wood's division lost about 125 men in killed and wounded.
The wounded were promptly removed to the hospitals in town. Having driven the enemy from this important position, our forces were ordered to halt and make themselves secure.
On Tuesday, the 24th, there was no movement of importance from our front; but about noon Gen. Hooker, upon the right, made the attack upon Lookout Mountain. Among the troops with which he made the attack were the Second and Third Brigades of the First Division of this corps, and, although they were in front of the attacking forces, their loss in killed and wounded scarcely exceeded 100. The wounded were removed with difficulty over bad roads to Kelley's Landing.
On Wednesday, the 25th November, Gen. Sherman, on our left attacked the enemy, and fought until past midday. At about half past 3 o'clock in the afternoon the divisions of Wood and Sheridan, of this corps, were ordered to assault the rifle-pits of the enemy at the base of the ridge, which was distant about three-fourths of a mile. They moved forward steadily, carried the rifle-pits, and halted not until they had stormed and taken possession of the heights beyond. Here, in less than an hour, these two divisions lost over 2,100 men in killed and wounded. [emphasis added]
The range was short, and the fire consisted both of musketry and artillery. Not less than forty cannon poured an enfilading fire of grape and spherical case upon the troops as they ascended the ridge, and as they neared the top they were greeted with hand grenades, extemporized by igniting shells with short time-fuses, and rolling them down upon our lines.
Some bayonet wounds were received upon the crest of the ridge; a large proportion of the wounds were severe.
The wounded were promptly removed from the field, so that by 2 o'clock at night it was reported to me that all the hurt were gathered under shelter. The slightest wounded were permitted to go to their regimental quarters.
The operating surgeons, with their assistants, were distributed equally around, and attention was given first to primary amputations. Amputations was recommended in all cases where the articular extremities of the knee-joint were involved by direct impingement of the ball, or by a fracture extending from the bony structure above or below. Fractures of the thigh, as a general principle, were not amputated.
A few days after the battle, the Second and Third Divisions of corps were ordered to Knoxville, Tennessee, where they are now engaged as a reserve for Gen. Burnside's forces.
I wish to speak of the efficient aid that I received from Surg. Francis Salter, U. S. Volunteers, in charge of U. S. Gen. Hospital No. 4.
I wish also to recommend to your favor Surg. W. W. Blair, Fifty-eighth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, division surgeon, Third Division; Surg. D. J. Griffiths, Second Kentucky Volunteer Infantry, division surgeon, Second Division; Surg. A. M. McMahon, Sixty-fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry; Surg. E. B. Glick, Fortieth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and Surg. Francis W. Lytle, Thirty-sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry.
The following is a summary of the killed and wounded, the nominal lists of which accompany this report:
Command. Officers. Enlisted men.
K W K W A
First Division..... 1 5 18 80 104
Second Division.... 12 105 123 1,046 1,286
Third Division..... 14 59 136 3 92 1,001
Total........... 27 169 277 1,918 2,391
K=Killed. W=Wounded. A=Aggregate.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. J. PHELPS, Surg., U. S. Volunteers, Medical Director, Fourth Army Corps.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. II, pp. 139-141.
15, U. S. C. T. recruiting difficulties in Middle Tennessee
COLUMBIA, December 15, 1863.
Maj. Gen. G. H. THOMAS, Cmdg. Army of the Cumberland:
Permit me to make the following report: I started out last Friday, 11th instant, from Calliak's with 100 mounted men of the Eighteenth Missouri, Col. Miller's regiment, under order of Gen. Dodge, commanding Left Wing of Sixteenth Army Corps, to press able-bodied negroes [sic], horses, and mules, leaving one team to each family, the horses and mules to be turned over to Col. Miller, the negroes [sic] to be put in my regiment now forming at this place, and upon arriving here to-day after a five days' hard scout, Col. Mizner, commanding the post, without, any knowledge or consent of me, released 13 negroes [sic] and sent them back to their owners.
I ask, for information, what is to be done in this case?
THOS. J. DOWNEY, Col. Fifteenth U. S. Colored Troops.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 414-415.
15, Situation report for Calhoun, Cleveland to Chattanooga line
HDQRS. SECOND BRIGADE, SECOND DIVISION CAVALRY, Near Calhoun, Tennessee, December 15, 1863.
ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GEN., Division of the Mississippi, Chattanooga:
SIR: I have to report arrival with my command at Calhoun this p. m., receiving upon arrival orders from Maj.-Gen. Sherman to take post on the Hiwassee River, guarding the river and the railroad bridge which connects Calhoun with Charleston.
The Fifth Ohio Cavalry is attached temporarily to my brigade, and Capt. Howland's battalion, Third U. S. Cavalry, detached from it.
My orders require that I shall open by courier communication with Maj.-Gen. Grant at Chattanooga and with Brig.-Gen. Elliott, commanding First Cavalry Division, at Kingston or Loudon.
In accordance with these directions I have established with one regiment a courier-line from Calhoun to Loudon, and thence to Kingston, the officer stationed at the east end of this line to report to Gen. Elliott.
With a second regiment I have formed a line from Calhoun to Chattanooga via Cleveland and Harrison.
A third regiment is stationed at Columbus, on the Hiwassee River, to guard the crossing at that point and the fords above the town.
A fourth regiment, stationed immediately at Calhoun, guards the town and the bridge over the Hiwassee connecting with Charleston. My headquarters I have made on the Hiwassee, above and near the town of Calhoun, and have three regiments of the command encamped immediately about me.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
ELI LONG, Col., Comdg. Second Brigade, Second Cavalry Division.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 416-417.
15, Skirmish near Kingston and capture of Confederates
HDQRS., Kingston, December 15, 1863.
Company E of my old regiment that is now down at White's Creek informs me that a body of about 40 rebels made an attempt to cross the river near where they are stationed. They fired into the rebels and took about 14 of them prisoners. About 12 of them succeeded in crossing to the south bank of the Tennessee. They were armed with Colt revolvers and axes. The prisoners say that John Morgan was among those that crossed the river and made their escape.
R. K. BYRD, Col., Cmdg. Post.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 418-419.
15, Federal operations report for southern Middle Tennessee
HDQRS. LEFT WING, SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS,
Pulaski, Tennessee, December 15, 1863.
Maj. Gen. W. T. SHERMAN,
Comdg. Army of the Tennessee, Chattanooga:
By dispatch from Gen. Grant I learn you are expected at Chattanooga in a few days. I, therefore, report the operations of my command since you left.
We have nearly completed road from Duck River to Elk Mount, putting in some very large structures. I have fortified most of the important points. The command north of Duck River, not commencing repairs of that part of road as expected by you, under orders of Maj.-Gen. Grant, I have put heavy force of mechanics and laborers on that part of the work, and will soon have five large bridges finished north of Duck River, and I trust Duck River bridge will be finished by the 1st of the month. I am now moving my working parties south of Elk River, and with the exception of one bridge will complete that work in first week of January, 1864. The bridge spoken of is 700 feet long and 72 feet high, a sub-trestle, and is a very heavy job. I will put upon it all the workmen I can. Everything appertaining to the road, its running department, &c., was destroyed. I am replacing everything, water-tanks and switches, and have also large working parties getting out wood.
So far as meat, bread, and forage is concerned, I have lived entirely off the country. I have had to haul my small rations from Nashville, the demand toward Chattanooga preventing the supply of cars to me. I have mounted four regiments of infantry from stock taken in this country. I have refitted my trains and artillery and am now in fine condition. The mounted infantry have been employed watching the Tennessee River and the country toward Eastport, and have captured in several skirmishes some 300 prisoners, including 21 officers. The work upon the railroad has been immense, and the running of mills, guarding trains, &c., have kept the command very busy and very healthy.
I have examined this railroad its entire length, and the Memphis and Chattanooga Railroad, from its junction with this, opposite Decatur, to Huntsville. The bridges on that road are entirely destroyed but can be soon replaced. If the command is to hold this country as a protection to its most southerly point, Decatur should be held by our forces. This would also give us a fine point to operate from with our cavalry and mounted infantry. The enemy now have a considerable force there fortified with one full battery, and use it as a point to cross to annoy us. Over Elk and Duck Rivers I have constructed pontoon bridges which will soon be ready for use.
I desire to call your attention to the fact that there are now two separate commands of the Sixteenth Army Corps, using the same designation. At Corinth Gen. Stevenson commands Left Wing, Sixteenth Army Corps, and the troops there are known as the "Second Division, Sixteenth Army Corps." This is the original command of that name, both wing and division. The same designation by two commands is already causing trouble, delay, and the forwarding wrongly of papers, orders, mails, &c. The garrison at Eastport has reported to me until it was moved to Corinth. The One hundred and twenty-second Illinois Infantry, belonging to the Second Division, is very anxious to join the command, and I trust will be allowed to do so.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 413-414.
15, Guerrilla attack near Shelbyville
No circumstantial reports filed.
Blood and Fire, p. 44.
15, Report on the burial of dead during the battle of Knoxville
A Truce-Burial of the Dead.
And now, how sudden the transformation of man from fiend to angel! The agonizing cries of the wounded and dying called ours the better feelings of humanity, and, and on the very spot where an hour before the combatants were struggling in deadly strife, they now commingled in the offices of charity. The wounded in the trenches were first relieved by Captain Swinscox and Lieu tent Benjamin, who went to their immediate assistance with canteens of water and liquor. The trench presented a ghastly sight, with the mangled bodies and pools of blood, while the field beyond was strewn with the same terrible objects.
Colonels Howen and Babcock, of General Potter's Staff, soon after made their appearance with a formal flag of truce, and passed out upon the Kingston or Loudon road, until halted by the enemy's skirmish line. They were met, after a brief delay by Colonel Serrell, of General Longstreet's Staff, when a cessation of hostilities was agreed upon to last until five P. M., to permit the return of the dead who were lhying along our lines, and the exchange of the wounded.
The ambulances from both sides now met on the Rebel line, where they were buried by their late comrades. The officers commingled, from generals down to lieutenants, and so also did the soldiers until their officers ordered them back to their respective places. Nearly a hundred of the Rebel wounded had been carried into the city and cared for at the hospital of the Ninth Corps. By direction of Dr. Wilder, our ambulances with some of those of the Rebels, driven by Union soldiers, went back into the city, obtains such of the wounded as were not beheld as prisoners of war, and delivered them on the dividing line, when our ambulances, drivers being exchanged in turn, went within the Rebel lines and obtained our wounded. So much delay ensued in doing all this that the truce was extended beyond seven o'clock, the opposing officers still remaining together, chatting in the most agreeable manner upon every topic which suggested itself. Finally the last wounded Union soldier was obtained, the last ambulance returned within our works the officers of the contending armies who had mutually found and greeted many old friends and classmates, shook hands and with the utmost cordiality and parted. In a few minutes the firing of the muskets indicated the resumption of hostilities.
Philadelphia Inquirer, December 15, 1863.
December 15, 1864
15, Capture of railroad train near Murfreesborough
Report of Maj. Jerome B. Nulton, Sixty-first Illinois Infantry, of operations December 12-15, 1864.
HDQRS. SIXTY-FIRST ILLINOIS INFANTRY, Murfreesborough, Tenn., December 22, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to make the following report in regard to the recent expedition to Stevenson, Ala., which resulted in the capture of the entire train and a portion of the escort:
Pursuant to instructions from the general commanding, the Sixty-first Illinois Infantry, 150 strong, and about forty of the First Michigan Engineers, left Murfreesborough, Tenn., on the 12th instant, with orders to proceed to Stevenson, Ala., and return without delay with the train laden with supplies for this garrison. We arrived at Stevenson on 13th with but little difficulty, and after having procured the supplies required we started for Murfreesborough early on the morning of the 14th. The train was delayed at the Cumberland Mountains in consequence of being unable to ascend the grade, but we finally succeeded in crossing and reached Bell Buckle about dark in the evening, where we received intimation of an enemy in our front. About 2 o'clock at night [i.e., the 15th] we were fired into at or near Christiana, and upon being informed by the conductor that he could not run the train back we immediately debarked, formed a line so as to protect the train, and moved on, repairing the road as we came, but our progress was necessarily very slow, from the fact that the enemy had cut the road in various places. Here allow me to state that while in this condition we dispatched a messenger to Gen. Rousseau to notify him of our situation and asking for re-enforcement. Fighting continued by the enemy, at which time we were entirely surrounded by the enemy, with the road cut in our front and rear. Soon after daylight the enemy dismounted and charged our line, but they were handsomely repulsed, with considerable loss in killed and wounded. They then brought their artillery into action, which soon convinced us that we could not hold the train against such fearful odds. Consequently, about 8 o'clock [the 15th], the colonel, 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, and 81 enlisted men belonging to the Sixty-first were captured, together with the entire portion of the First Michigan Engineers, including the lieutenant in charge.
* * * *
J. B. NULTON, Maj. Sixty-first Illinois Infantry, Cmdg. Regt. [sic]
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 620-621.
Excerpt from the Report of Brigadier-General Lawrence S. Ross, C. S. Army, commanding Ross's division, of operations from October 21-December 27, 1864 relative to the capture of a Union supply train on December 15, 1864.
December 15, a train of cars from Stevenson, heavily laden with supplies for the garrison at Murfreesborough, was attacked about seven miles south of the City, and although guarded by a regiment of infantry 200 strong, was captured and burned. The train was loaded with sugar, coffee, hard bread, and bacon, and carried full 200,000 rations. The men guarding it fought desperately for about an hour, haying a strong position in a cut of the railroad, but were finally routed by a most gallant charge of the Sixth Texas, supported by the Third Texas, and 150 of them captured; the others escaped to a block-house near by. The next day, in consequence of the reverse to our arms at Nashville, we were withdrawn from the front at Murfreesborough, ordered across to Triune, and thence to Columbia, crossing Duck River on the evening of the 18th.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 771.
Excerpt from the Report of Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest, C. S. Army, commanding cavalry, on operations from November 16, 1864 to January 23, 1865, relative to the capture of a Union supply train on December 15, 1864
* * * *
...Brig.-Gen. Jackson, who had been previously ordered to operate south of Murfreesborough, captured, on the 13th, [i.e., 15th] a train of seventeenth cars and the Sixty-first Illinois Regt. [sic] of Infantry, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Grass. The train was loaded with supplies of 60,000 rations, sent from Stevenson to Murfreesborough, all of which were consumed by fire, after which the prisoners, about 200 in number, were sent to the rear.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 756.
15, Destruction of Confederate canoes, skiffs and artillery barges on the Cumberland River
CLARKSVILLE, TENN., December 15, 1864--6:45 a. m.
I sent two gunboats at 4 o'clock this morning, accompanied by an Army transport and twenty men furnished by Colonel Smith, which destroyed about twenty of Lyon's canoes and skiffs and brought away two artillery barges found near Cumberland and in creeks. None of burned transports interfere with channel.
S. P. LEE, Acting Rear-Admiral, etc.
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 26, p. 666.
15, "Slaughtering and Sausage Making."
Yesterday we paid a visit to the slaughter house of Jenkins & Brother, and were agreeable surprised and delighted with our visit. The establishment is under the direction of Mr. Peter Craiger, who keeps it in superb order; among his assistants are Uncle Phil. Coleman, who has been butchering here for the last forty years, and Aunt Esther, who has dressed more tripe during the past thirty five years than would be required to carpet Davidson county. The most interesting operations to be witnessed here is the manufacture of sausages. Craiger puts in the machine the requisite amount of salt, pepper, sage, etc., and about 150 pounds of meat in lumps from half a pound to a pound; he puts the machine in motion, and in six minutes the meat is ready to be forced into its enclosure. This last operation is performed by hand, and yards of sausages are thrown out in a remarkably short space of time, to the astonishment of those inexperienced in such matters. A visit to this establishment is well worthy the time required.
Nashville Dispatch, December 16, 1864.
The Military Police were yesterday called upon to look after the body of a man found dead in the bottom north of the city. From a book found upon the body, it is supposed his name is John Walsh, who enlisted in the 130th Indiana on the 15th Dec. 1864; he shot himself through the right breast about 2 o'clock yesterday afternoon, in the bottom north of the Government stables on Crawford street. After being discovered his body was taken to Hospital No. 8, from whence he will be buried. On the body was found a revolver, a pocket-book containing $10, and a prayer-book published by Dunigan & Brother, in 1854, in which the above name was written. In a blank leaf of his prayer book is inscribed, "Presented by a friend to Dennis O'Leary, of Huntington, Huntington county, Indiana." The names of Mary Cahil and of Mrs. Haly are also written in the book. If any person is acquainted with the deceased he is requested to make known the fact to this office, or to Capt. Morhiser, Chief of the Military Police.
Nashville Dispatch, December 16, 1864.
15, Confederate attack upon the steamer Piketon
The steamer Piketon went up the river for wood, about 10 o'clock yesterday morning. After going up about five or six miles, the Confederates opened on her with musketry, and succeeded in wounding one or two of her men. She passed on a few miles further, when a battery opened on her, killing Mr. Blakely, the wood clerk, and badly wounding Mr. Geo. Williamson, the mate of the boat. A six-pound shot went through the smoke-stack, and the cabin was riddled with musket balls. The Piketon returned as fast as possible, and one or two gunboats went up to shell the Confederates out of the way.
Nashville Dispatch, December 16, 1864.
15, "The Poor."
Councilman Sayers distributed food and fuel to about three hundred poor people yesterday, whose smiling countenances in a measure compensated him for the loss of his dinner.
Nashville Dispatch, December 16, 1864.
15, Confederates attack and scatter Nashville woodchoppers
It was reported yesterday that the Rebels had crossed the Cumberland at Cornelius' farm, and drove in the wood-choppers, who fled towards town.
Nashville Dispatch, December 16, 1864.
15, A Visit from a Federal Deserter. An Extract from the Diary of Eliza Rhea Anderson Fain
~ ~ ~
There was a man sitting on the porch which I took to be a soldier. He never looked up nor spoke. His jaws were bound up. I thought he was a soldier who had been wounded but I soon learned from Sarah who he was-a Yankee soldier from Grant's Army deserting said there were many leaving as he had. We talked to him for sometime. I asked him several questions but was not pleased altogether with what he said. He thought Grant would take Richmond and that the South would be subjugated. This was not palatable to us from a deserter. He was from Michigan. He had stopped hoping to get some employment so as to be able to get some clothes. He was not able to do the work G. wished to have done. George told him he thought Mr. Riley would like to get some help. He came on with me. We gave him some bread and milk. He said that when he left he was beaten by some of his comrades who left the army with him and robbed him of what he had. I fee rather suspicious of him but trust our Father in Heaven will let all things work together for our good.
~ ~ ~
15-16, Battle of Nashville
Any attempt here to more fully discuss the Battle of Nashville would fail to reach the quality and analysis of accounts previously written by excellent historians. Many excellent secondary studies of the battle exist and to present only a few of the 258 separate official accounts would prove inadequate, unnecessary and hackneyed. Nevertheless, a brief accounting is made here.
The Battle of Nashville, December 15-16, 1864.
Rather than counterattacking the Confederates and attempting to destroy Hood's superior force at Franklin. General Schofield withdrew his army from Columbia to the safety of Nashville. Schofield joined Major-General George Thomas who commanded abundant numbers of Federal troops stationed in and around Tennessee's capitol City. Nashville, occupied since February, 1862, was one of the most solidly barricaded cities in North America. Nashville was an essential Federal transportation, communications, and supply center for martial activities west of the Appalachians. Subsequent to assigning his troops only a day to care for the wounded and inter the large number of Confederate killed, Hood gathered his forces together. He then pursued Schofield and attempted to lay siege to Nashville. He hoped to draw the Federal army out of its entrenched and well-fortified positions. It was the Federal strategy to entice Hood toward Nashville where superior forces would decimate the Army of Tennessee. It was a winning scheme.
Although Thomas was urged to attack before Hood had an opportunity to fortify his troops, the elements postponed the final battle. On December 8, a stinging ice storm bashed Nashville, preventing any action by either army for an entire week. Major-General Thomas attacked Hood's positions on the hills south of Nashville on December 15 in a thick fog. The United States Colored Infantry carried out diversionary maneuvers throughout the day with great loss of life. After a day of fighting, General Hood regrouped his battered army in order to establish a shorter defensive-not offensive-front. On December 16, General Thomas launched a reinvigorated attack in the afternoon which abruptly overwhelmed the Confederate defensive positions. The Army of Tennessee was vanquished and retreated southward with Federal cavalry and infantry in pursuit. Fighting rear guard actions for ten days, Forrest's cavalry successfully held the Union forces at bay. Federal forces abandoned the pursuit and permitted the Confederates to cross the Tennessee River into Mississippi. This textbook retreat marked the end of significant Civil War activity in Tennessee.
THE FIRST VICTORY AT NASHVILLE
SKETCH OF THURSDAY'S BATTLE
Nashville, Tenn., 15th. The army commenced moving today with Stedman's corps on the left, the 4th corps next, then A. J. Smith's corps. The cavalry moved to the right, and the 23d corps was held in reserve. Reconnoitering lasted until meridian, when at 12½ o'clock the order to advance was given, and the whole column moved onward. The rebels expected Thomas would attempt to turn their left flank, and prepared works to receive our forces. To keep up the delusion, Stedman was ordered to skirmish heavily on the rebel's left. While Stedman was maneuvering the rebels were massing their right, and we concentrating the 16th and 23d corps and Wilson's cavalry on our right. The result was that when the bugles sounded the advance, our right wing advanced rapidly between the left of the rebels and the Cumberland River, completely doubling up a rebel division posted to blockade the river. A battery was taken here and sent to the rear.
The rebels by this time perceived that our attack on the right was a feint, and Hood soon attempted to atone for his mistake, but was too late. Our right had established a force on the main bank of the river and was rapidly advancing. The whole 23d corps had taken position on the extreme right, while Smith's corps, executing a half wheel movement, drove the rebels before them easily and rapidly. The hill where the rebels were posted was taken with little loss.
In an hour or so the rebels presented a strong front, and our progress for a moment was checked. It was now visible that the contest was about to commence. Another diversion on our left was made to enable our right to get into position and strengthen themselves ready for a charge. In front of the 4th corps and about one mile beyond the rebels had a strong line of works defended by a heavy line of skirmishers.
Wood ordered a charge, and with promptness and decision the men leaped over the breastworks and advanced. In less than twenty minutes our force had possession of the rebel works, and the banners of the 4th corps were planted upon them. Our men, flushed with victory, without orders pushed forward and reached the second line of rebel works by most strenuous exertions, capturing some prisoners, which with those captured previously, amounted to over one thousand.
The second line of intrenchments, now in sight, was located on the verge of a hill, a mile beyond the skirmish line. These intrenchments were built with great skill. Some time elapsed before our men got in position to advance. Our cavalry had advanced meanwhile until its right wing rested on the hills six miles beyond Nashville. Moved from the river they now maneuvered without difficulty. Instead of facing west they now faced directly south.
The corps of Schofield and Smith were in position directly parallel on the left. Our skirmishers advanced to Hillsboro' pike, sheltering themselves behind the fences on the north side, while the 4th corps formed right angles, the front division lying directly across the Hillsboro' pike, and the remainder being to the left. While these movements were going on our lines were forming and batteries being placed. The rebels could be distinctly seen moving to the left toward Hillsboro', with a view to prevent our turning their left. As far as could be ascertained the entire rebel reserve was thus thrown in front of our right and centre. In the meantime our commanders sent reinforcements equally strong to the posts menaced by the rebels.
At half-past three all was ready for the charge on the second line of the rebel works. The position was a strong one, and to reach which our forces had to ascend hills to an elevation of 15 degrees, without any protection. Our forces were massed and hurled with irresistible force against the rebel lines. At ten minutes before 5 the charge commenced. The 1st and 2d divisions of the 4th corps moved west, and the 3d division, at right angles with it, moved south. On the right of the fourth corps was the corps of A. J. Smith. The 1st and 2d divisions of the 4th corps had the hardest part of the task. They had to move in exposed positions to the rebel works in front, and these works were more formidable and stronger than elsewhere. Under a heavy fire of grape, canister and musketry, our men moved steadily forward. A few of our men were killed, but the casualties were fewer than was expected, owing to the rebels firing too high.
After advancing within one hundred and fifty yards of the works the rebel fire became very severe. Our troops never wavered, but with shouts along the line they advanced and were almost immediately upon the intrenchments. The distance yet to be passed did not exceed one hundred yards, and reinforcements were in sight coming up, yet the rebels evinced no signs of retreating, and discharged volley after volley into our ranks at a distance of twenty-five yards. A few of our men had now reached the works and were using the bayonet when some few of the rebels fled, followed by others, and soon all broke and fled in the wildest confusion. Their artillerists attempted to secure four 12-pounder Napoleon guns, but succeeded in getting only one off the field. The other three fell into our hands, together with two caissons and a large lot of small arms. We also captured in this charge about 400 prisoners. Prisoners reported that Hood told them they could hold their position against any Yankee force which could be brought against them. Our losses did not exceed 100 killed and wounded.
Smith's and Schofield's corps had in the meantime advanced half a mile to the south of Hillsboro' pike, capturing a whole battery of six guns. This makes the total of artillery captured today-five guns being taken on the extreme left by the 15th Ohio-amount to 18 guns. Several battle flags were also taken. The rebel loss in killed and wounded was not less than 600, while ours was about 300.
The rebels have taken up another line, and may defend it tomorrow if they do not retreat tonight.
The colored troops behaved splendidly, and lost severely. Col. Schaffer's colored regiment and the 17th colored regiment lost nearly all their officers.
The steamer Pike, while proceeding up the river, was fired into by the rebels when three miles from the city. One man was killed and four wounded. She turned back.
The gunboat fleet were [sic] engaged down the river, about fourteen miles from the city, shelling the rebel left. The headquarters of Chalmers was captured with fifteen wagons and all his books, papers, valuables, &c. These are now at our headquarters.
The Provost Marshall General says about 550 prisoners have reached the city up to 9 P.M. The total number of prisoners captured will not fall short of 1200.
Boston Evening Transcript, December 19, 1864. 
 Issue missing from microfilm TSL&A.
 See also: Republican Banner, December 10, 1861.
 As cited in PQCW.
 Hudson Strode, ed., Jefferson Davis Private Letters, 1823-1889, (NY: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1966).
 Center for Archival Collections Liberty Warner Papers Transcripts: April-December 1862, MS-624 mf: http://www.bgsu.edu/colleges/library/cac/transcripts. Hereinafter cited as Warner Papers.
 The irony in this article is found in the fact that the 15th was the first day of the battle of Nashville, where another kind of slaughter was taking place. Also, it seems possible that the people of Nashville had more on their minds than Hood's army, although military censorship of the press seems a more likely reason.
 See map in OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 408.
 As cited in: http://www.jimlyons.com.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Editor, The Courier
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
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