Wednesday, May 11, 2016

Notes from Civil War Tennessee, May 11, 1861-1865.

Notes from Civil War Tennessee,

May 11, 1861-1865.





          11, Report of murder committed by Negroes in the Bull's Gap environs

We learn from the Chattanooga Gazette that a horrible murder is reported to have been committed near Bull's Gap, East Tennessee, a few days since, by the negroes of a Mr. Bright.  They were five in number and killed Bright, his wife and daughter and a sister of Mrs. Bright.  It is thought the negroes were induced to commit the terrible deed by two white men passing as Methodist preachers. Four of the negroes were said to have been burned on Monday.

Louisville Daily Journal, May 11, 1861




          11, Skirmish near Pulaski

No circumstantial reports filed.

          11, Pacification measures ordered in Murfreesboro by Military Governor Andrew Johnson

Nashville May 11 [1862]

Col Parkhurst

Commanding officer,

Murfreesboro, Tenn.

I have just had consultation with E. L. Jordon,[1] G. W. Ashburn and E. D. Wheeler prominent citizens of Murfreesboro in regard to the shooting which took place last night.[2] There was some statement made to them just on starting which induced the belief that some development would be made throwing more light upon the affair. Has any thing of the kind transpired since the left. [sic] If not and no steps be taken satisfactory to you, you will at once arrest as many persons as you in your judgment may believe will have proper effect upon spirit of insubordination [which] seems to prevail in that community. Transactions of this kind must be met and dealt with as the public interest requires. Act out your judgment & you shall be sustained [.]

I omitted to send back [a] list of names for arrest leaving it to you to consult with [the] mayor.

If you desire a list of names telegraph back immediately.

Teach them a lesson they will not forget.

Andrew Johnson

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 377.

          11, Confederates propose suspension of conscription contingent upon populace taking oath of allegiance

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Office Provost-Marshal, May 11, 1862.

Hon. R. M. BARTON.

DEAR SIR: I shall issue a circular in a few days to deputy provost-marshals by order of the major-general commanding suspending the operation of the conscript bill in East Tennessee. I have an idea to order the deputy provost-marshal in every county or district to have a deputy in every civil district to administer the oath of allegiance at the coming judicial election. What do you think of it? Will not this enable us to see really who are with us and who against us?

Respectfully, your friend,

W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 2, p. 1424.

          11, "…the pleasure of killing lincon hirlands…."[3]

Beautiful Letter from a Nashville She-Rebel

The following polished and peppery letter was written by a Nashville girl, it is said, to her "spicy," "turtiledove, eet. cetery," as Artemus Ward would say, who is a prisoner at Camp Morton, Ind. It ought to be published in the [illegible]. She says:

John, I want you write and tell me about the fight, and how many lincoln devels you killed. I would like to been there to see them lincon devils keel over. It would have done my soul good to have seen them fall by thousands. John, as you are a prisoner, and cannot have the pleasure of killing lincon hirlands, I believe I will take your place, and I tell you whot I will kill live yankies, I will do more for them than Morgan has done for them. I tell you Morgan is taring up the burg for them; he is doing the work for them. John, I wish I was a man, I would come there and I would soon let you out of that lincoln hold. I would tar there hearts out, and then cook them and make them eat them; but I will do all I can for you, and when they come in Shelby I will get some of their skelps [sic] and hang them up in my room for you to look at. I will be for Jeff davise till the tenisee river freezes over, and then be for him, and scratch on the ice

Jeff davis rides a white horse,

Lincoln rides a mule,

Jeffdavis is a gentleman,

And lincoln is a fule

I wish I could send them lincon devels some pies, they would never want any more to eat in this world. May Jeff ever be with you. This is from a good southern rights girl—from your cousin.


Nashville Daily Union, May 11, 1862.

11-12, Josiah Feagle's letters home to his parents from Camp Shiloh

Camp Shiloh

May 11/1862

Dear Parents,

I have a few more moments of spare time and I will try and crowd in this one all I have to say. I expect and every one else here expects there will be a terrible battle will be fought here before the rebels will give up and even now the work of death is going on between pickets and skirmishes. The county between Corinth and savannah [sic] is very messy where ever there is any water and there is a good many swamps and the roads all need to be built. There is a regiment of engineers and mechanics and they have a good deal of work to do. There is a front to our army here of thirty miles. The report is that General Segal landed here today with 20,000 men which will make our army here over 200,000 men which is more than I ever expected to see but a man's life is not counted of but little consequence. Oh how I wish this war was at an end. Whether this battle decides our fate time alone will show but you nor me cannot tell.

Camp Shilo [sic]

May 12 /62

Dear Mother and Father and brother and sister and Minnie

Well dear Mother I received your dear letter this morning written April 27th and was glad very glad to hear you was all well. I am bullie tough as ever and our (illegible) has got most anything a man wants. Canned fruit of all kinds but they are a good price but we are in the army and what money we earn is to spend. I have drew [sic] in all $83 dollars and sent home $65 dollars. 40 by Jake and 25 by the preacher home and now Pa put it out at interest the best you can and when I come home I will have something to start on. At any rate I will have more that I ever had at one time before. Now dear folks at home I would like to have some postage stamps for I cannot get them here at any price. And when I could get them I had not the money. I will send $5 dollars in this letter and that will add a little more to my file. Get me some postage stamps. Do not send more than 10 at a time until you send me $1 dollar worth. I made $5 buying and selling a pistol and $3 dollars in tobacco. See you.

Feagle Correspondence.[4]




          11, Skirmish at La Fayette (Macon County)

Report of Brig. Gen. Edward H. Hobson, U. S. Army.

LOUISVILLE, May 12, 1863.

GEN.: The following just received from Gen. Hobson:

Maj. [F. M.] Davidson, Fourteenth Illinois Cavalry, and 100 men had a fight with 125 of Morgan's men at La Fayette, Tenn., last night. Our loss was 1 officer and 2 privates wounded, and 4 men taken prisoners. Rebel loss, 2 killed, 1 wounded left behind, and several wounded carried off. Maj. Davidson falling back to Barren River. Col. Graham has re-enforced him with 50 men. Three hundred rebels are crossing at Greenville.

E. H. HOBSON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 297.

          11, Ground rules established for detention and trial of suspected Confederate spies

OFFICE COMMISSARY-GEN. OF PRISONERS, Washington, D. C., May 11, 1863.

Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT, Cmdg. Department of the Tennessee.

GEN.: I am instructed by the Gen.-in-Chief to say that when a person is arrested charged with being a spy or the commission of any other specific offense requiring a trial an immediate investigation must be had before a military tribunal at the place where the offense was committed and where the witnesses are within reach. Many persons have been arrested as spies and sent to interior prisons and after months of detention it has been found that the charges had neither specifications nor evidence to sustain them. In cases where arrests are made on a general charge of disloyal conduct it is necessary that full details in each case with the character of the person should be given in order to a proper disposal of it. Please give the necessary instructions to insure compliance with the foregoing in your department.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. HOFFMAN, Col. Third Infantry, Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners.

(Same to Maj. Gens. S. R. Curtis, A. E. Burnside, W. S. Rosecrans, R. C. Schenck and N. P. Banks.)

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 592-593.

          11, "Sale of Condemned Horses."

HEADQUARTERS There occurred a sale of condemned horses during the past week, which afforded the citizens of the town and country opportunities to replenish their exhausted stock. The efficient A. A. Q. M., Lieut. C. Harvin, selected the eccentric Capt. Hammer as the auctioneer for the occasion, and, as the result proved, he was the right man in the right place. The total amount of sale of 250 horses – and sorry looking beasts they were – amounted to over $6000, at an average of more than $27 each, a result the Government may well feel proud of. A stand was erected at the horse-yards of Lieut. Irvin, and the animals to be sold were led out singly to be disposed of. The captain starts the sale: "Well, gentlemen, how much am I offered for this fine blooded horse, known through the army, was sired by imported Lexington stock, and damned by everybody who ever rode him – start the bid – how much? Five dollars I am offered, who'll give ten? Ten, ten, who'll give fifteen? Fifteen is offered by two of you, now twenty. Twenty-five – who'll give thirty?" Thirty is offered, and the horse disappears and another led forward. "Now, gentlemen, here is a jay-bird – observe his gait – a little foundered, but that don't hurt him, though he'd be a good deal better without it – all ready to put right before a plow and work to-morrow – start him up young man, every time he trots he increases five dollars in value" This animal ultimately sells for fifty dollars.

"Now Gentlemen, how much for this fine bay mare –sound-kind – good under saddle or in harness. Cars not afraid of her, will tie without standing. Start her gentlemen – how much? Nothing in the world aids her except the distemper – would be just as good without it – start her, how much?" Bidding runs up to $50 and the distempered mare is destined to graze in Williamson County, until she doubles in value. Men of all nationalities and occupations are present, butchers, bakers, farmers, merchants, sporting men, and officers, all desirous of investing in a broken down, good horse. One genius from Green Erin who had purchased two horses at the extravagant price of $1 each, mourned to see his property, elongated in the muddy ground with no ultimate prospect of their ever arising again, and if horses could be said to on a man's hands, the two one dollar animals perished on the palms of the unfortunate Hibernian. Many of the horses brought high prices and but few sold for less than ten dollars. Occasionally an animal would appear on whom no bid could possibly be had. This drawback on the sale was promptly remedied by the Auctioneer who would immediately call for another horse and then sell the pair. We have every reason to believe that the results of the sale meets the approbation of the authorities. Visitors to the yards were charmed with the neatness of the fences, the shops and store-houses, and the admirable arrangements for feeding and watering the large number of horses and mules under Lieut. Irvin's charge. He has, indeed, succeeded in creating a system and order, where before all was delay and confusion, and, therefore, merits the praises freely bestowed on him by both officers and citizens of being one of the most efficient Quartermasters ever in this Department.

Nashville Daily Press, May 11, 1863.

          11, An epic, poetic story of unrequited love

"Gumbo Biglip's Courtship; or The Terrified African!"


by O. K. Asional


Chapter I


Good Times for Gumbo.


On a princely farm, in Tennessee,

Dwelt the hero of our story-

Of lordly form and black was he,

And in ploughing he did glory;

But while he tilled the soil with zeal,

And sought his master's favor,

He now and then began to feel

The pang that makes a brave the braver.

The author of his painless pain,

Gumbo had ne'er made wiser;

She palled e'en Erebus[5] train-

Her name was plain Eliza

~ ~ ~

The old homestead in bounty smiled,

With garners full and fields all teeming,

The darkeys [sic], in their gladness wild,

Sang away the hours while gleaning.

The laurel and the olive, then,

Were closely intertwined,

And thro' the mountain steep and glen,

The hunter's trump, not War's, did wind.

Every breeze and every bird

Joined in gleeful measure,

To praise a reign of peace unheard-

Of guileless hope and pleasure.

No dread alarms disturbed the rest

Of Gumbo's vast plantation-

No "contrabands." the nation's pest,

Upset dark Afric's [sic] population.

O, the present truly was a feast,

Of nature's richest blessings,

The future, as at morn the East,

Glittered bright in hope's reflecting.

Here was a time for sweet content

And every fond invention-

The simple Gumbo's heart gave vent

To its unrevealed intention:

"Dat gal hav long been in my eye,

An's well nigh got my gizzard

I tink it's time dis chile should fly

An' claim de little wizzard [sic].

I feel dat she am all in all,

An' ebery day I'se gettin' older-

I lub her harder dan a maul

Kin hit a rail, and so I'll tole her."


Chapter II


Better Times for Gumbo.


When from the farm-house on the hill,

The master's tin horn sounded

It welcome call to the niggers all,

Homeward quick they bounded;

But Gumbo, mindful of his "love,"

Strolled along the shady; road,

To where his Venus, as he said,

Dropped from her high abode.

They met; and o, such a meeting!

How eloquently did they prate

Of the "tender power" to mortals given-

Their blushes did but each elate,

"Liza, de time wid me am passed,"

Thus calmly spoke our hero,

"For likin' de state ob singleness-

I gits as mad as Nero;

But when I looks at you, my lub"-

Gumbo's lips here trembled

Like an aspen, or rather more-

Twin palm-leaves they resembled!

"I feel no more dat anger,

Kase woman kin our ruffness soothe-

Won't your take Gumbo for wus or better?"

And Gumbo's tongue refused to move.

A pause, and when the modest tinge

United with their darksome cheeks,

And made them more tenebrous,

Eliza, broadly grinning, speaks:

"Gum, I like dat warm confeshun,

Ise shure dar's meanin' in it-

If here dar's what dey kall a hart,

No older "nig" [sic] but you can win it."

At this response, Gum's pliant nature

Led him into raptures foolish-

His symptoms of affection were

As soft as were "Bottoms" mulish!

Fancy's canvas, rainbow-like,

In all the gems of promise glowed:

The Rubicon of doubt is passed,

Two "nigs" in Love's elixir flowed!

"I'll drive an' sweet at massa's plow,

An' dig de taters wid my hoe,

Troo de sun, do hot he shine,

And troo de rain will merry go;

Ebery thing I'll do dat's hard,

And' sides dat its pleasant,

For when day's gone, an' work am dun,

You Liza, will be present."

His Cleopatra showed her teeth

In smiling satisfaction-

Gum cast a glance of sparkling joy,

And left his magnet of attraction.


Chapter III


Bad Times for Gumbo and Worse A-Coming.


Fondest hopes decay -- Gumbo realized

The truth; it couldn't be disguised.

Many blissful moments he had chased

With her on whom his ardent love was placed;

His rude banjo many a night had made

The welkin chime with gallant serenade;

Of had he the luscious 'possum caught,

And, noble (!) [sic] offering to his mistress brought:

Whenever at the neighboring creek they met,

Gumbo the chance for vowing did not forget.

As glides the barque on waters calm,

So these black lovers smoothely ran!

But, lo! the tempest overtook them-

War-clouds lowered, peace forsook them.

Soon the Union host of "subjugation"

Coerced Gumbo and the old plantation!

While Liza, far more ill-fated,

Went off to Dixie--they were not mated.

Gumbo pined and sought to cultivate

Patience, as a "contraband" where, till late

He'd cultivated corn, and rye, and wheat,

And various other "vegetables" to eat!

But 'twas no use-the more he tried to nurture

Forgetfulness, the less he liked its virtue;

So with his banjo, and little comfort,

He resolved to seek his Juliet, minus passport.

The gauntlet run, the land of cotton entered,

Gumbo began to hear he' rashly venture;

But fortune smiled, at last till he had found

The object of his lonely plodding round.

It was one of Cynthia's festive nights,

When every thing in earth delights,

Because of heaven's dazzling splendor,

The tribute of its love to render-

Gumbo lightly stole beneath her casement (!) [sic]

To surprise here with a dose of Grief's "effacement."

He began the strain-'twould have charmed a cynic-

'Twas filled with all a nigger's [sic] love could mimic.

Alas, alas! he hadn't posted any pickets-

"Guerrillas" listened from surrounding thickets!

And ere poor Gumbo's sang and played his lay

They nabbed and hurried him away!

Liza showed her raven head in time to hear:

"Farewell, my lub! I'se ordered to de rear!"

She gave him a shriek, another shriek, and fled

To where a cheese-knife lay, then-went to bed.

Nashville Daily Press, May 11, 1863.

          11, Nashville public health inspection reminder


Nashville, Tenn., April 26, 1863

The owners and occupants of businesses and dwelling-houses within the limits of this city, are hereby reminded of the Order published March 16th, 1863, requiring them to have the streets, alleys, and backyards adjoining their respective houses thoroughly cleaned.

A thorough inspection of the city by proper authorized persons will be had in a few days, and anyone found to have neglected to obey the Order will be severely punished.

By Order of Brig. Gen. J. D. Morgan,

Nashville Daily Press, May 11, 1863.

          11, A visit to the Stones River battlefield; an excerpt from the diary of John Hill Fergusson, 10th Illinois Volunteer Infantry

Monday 11th

N. Fancer and MySelf went out to Murfreesboro. Left Nashvill [sic] at 12 o'clock and arrived at Murfreesboro at sundown. We had an opertunity [sic] of vewing [sic] the battle field near Murfreesboro it is mostly a fine open level country the enemy had decidetly [sic] the advantage as they occupide [sic] the timber on the South side of the field where they could conceal there [sic] forces they also had the advantage of Stones river, our forces had to advance across a large space of open country exposing there [sic] intior [sic] ran to the concealed enemy the field [sic] are yet laying thick with dead horses and buirring grounds are thick on all sides both of our dead and the rebels each party is buirred seperatly [sic] our dead is fenced around whare [sic] the grave of the enemy are laying open to the curious[.] the smell of the country around that neighborhood is very offencive [sic] there is no incampments any way [sic] close as it would not be helthy [sic] or agreeable at this season of the year….

John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.

          11, Description of a Federal soldier's life at Camp Stanley, Murfreesboro: letter of George Kryder

Camp Standley, Murfreeeboro, Tenn.

May 11th, 1863.

My Dear Wife:

I now take my pen in hand to let you know how I am getting along. At present I am well and hearty and in good spirits and I hope and trust this letter may reach you the same. I rec'd. your kind letter of the 3rd today and you cannot imagine the pleasure and joy it gave me to hear from you. I waited a long time but it was with patience till at length the welcome messenger came to hand.

Since I wrote to you I have not got any news of any importance. Your letter came in four days after it was mailed on the 7th. I have been on picket only once for nearly four weeks. The reason was after I was able to ride again I had no horse, as I lent mine to go on a scout and he came back with such a sore back that I turned him over and did not get another till today I got another one.

You say you was going to have a boiled dinner, which I would like to have a share of, but since I have got well, anything tastes good, but I would like some fresh fish. It is curious about these rivers in Dixie. They do not afford fish as the streams in the north do for I have not had a mess of fish since I have been in the army. I am glad that you have such good neighbors that do so much for you, Mr. Crosby especially I think done you a great favor in keeping the cow and plowing your garden for which he has my sincere thanks.

I have not heard from father for some time, but I had a letter from Sam yesterday on an answer that I wrote to him in which I tried to bore him for sending to father for money to buy his discharge, which he denies but he owns up that he sent to father for money. And he says he is not ashamed of it either and he says that if you and I knew what situation he and his family was in when he enlisted, that we would not blame him for so doing. But do blame the shiftless man for when he has money he will buy things that he does not need, and then when he is sick he has not got it. But that does not better the case to write about and the time may come when I may need money but I know where I can send for it without sending to father for it. But I do not know but it is a good plan as that would be that much clear gain, but still I do not approve of the plan.

I had my picture taken and I gave it to Capt. Gaylord to take it to Nashville to send it to you. It cost me two dollars. They would not let me have it without the case. I wish I had waited till now for I look healthier but that was the first opportunity I had and I thought I would make use of it. I also sent $30.00 with Captain Livermore. I put it in with C. Benham's and you can get it there at Mrs.Benhams by going or sending for it. The reason I put it in with his was this. It would not cost but little more to send both in one than to send one package alone. I have sent you several newspapers and if you say so I will send you some more. We have to pay l0 cts. apiece for them but we are bound to have the news and the news are pretty good. The today's paper says the Union Flag floats over Richmond the Rebe1 Capital and Gen. Grant's army is doing good work in Mississippi and we do not know what day we will get orders to march against Gen. Bragg in south east Tenn. For the Rebs. are getting pretty bold.

I hardly know what to say about that land in Henry C. but it is not best to be too much in a hurry for I may some time get a chance to come and see it.

You say you are glad to get such a big letter and I am too. Yours today was a good one. I will try and give you all the news and that is all you can ask. I hardly know what to write any more only that we have very beautiful weather with cool nights and very warm in the middle of the day. The woods are most beautiful. If I could only sit in its green shades with you once again, but hope the time is coming fast, for our men are getting into the heart of the rebellion and they have arrested that vile Traitor C. L. Vallandingham who done so much mischief in Ohio. I must stop and go and feed and curry my horse.

My horse is fed and supper is over and I am going to write a little more and I hardly know what, but I will tell you that we turned over our Sibley tents and now we have shelter tents just large enough for two men and we carry them with us on our horses and the way we put up is, we cut two stakes or crotches about four feet long and lay a pole on top of the stakes. (But I have to tell you how our tents are made.) They are two breadths and a quarter of heavy factory cloth about two yards in length with buttons and button holes on three sides of them (two are to go together) and when the two are together the four corners are fastened with stakes and it looks like a house roof set on the ground with the gable ends open. We have (four of us) buttoned our tents together and have raised it about two feet up, and closed the bottom and end with grain sacks and when it is warm we have just the pleasantest shelters you could imagine. We have a floor in it about six inches so we do not have to lay on the damp ground.

Henry is well. I must come to a close for want of room but I have not written to Lillie yet and I do not know what to write, but I suppose she can soon get dinner when Ma can't get time to get it. No more this evening. This from your true and devoted Husband,

George Kryder

George Kryder Papers




          11--12, Morale on the home front; East Tennessee support for the Confederacy

11, A sad, gloomy and cloudy day. It is disagreeably cold this eve. They have been fighting ever since Saturday. It is still undecided. Oh! Our poor soldiers, how many are suffering. Give us the victory, our Father, if it is Thy will. Capt. Hending and his clerk dined here. Capt took breakfast and remained all night last night. We heard this eve that yesterday [10th] the Federals drove our forces back a great deal from them and Gen Johnston drove their left wing back four miles. But with our suffering soldiers, and raise up your friends and relatives to alleviate their pains and administer to their wants. If I could only be there to wait on them. I feel unusually sad this eve, and you, old journal, are the friend that I will confide in.

12, Rather cold this morn. The woods are green and beautiful; or roses are in bloom. I feel so sad when I think probably they will fade and none of our Confederates see them. I would be so happy if I could only see them or if I even thought I would have the pleasure of presenting my sweetheart with a bouquet. Julia, Jeanette Grant and Mag Shadden were here this eve. Report says that a raid of our Confederates is coming. Welcome brave heroes, to the land of your nativity! Thrice welcome stalwart sons of freedom! [sic]

Diary of Mary Adelaide Inman.




11, Rumor of Forrest's death

PULASKI, May 11, 1865.

Brig. Gen. WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, Chief of Staff:

Various persons coming from south of river report that Forrest recently had a man shot for desertion, and the brother of the murdered man shot and killed Forrest.

R. W. JOHNSON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 722.

          11-26, Counter-insurgency expedition to Florence, Tennessee environs


I. Lieut.-Col. Buck, Eighth Michigan Cavalry, will proceed with a detachment of his brigade, to be furnished him, about 125 strong, to Florence, Tenn., and there take post to remain for fifteen days, unless otherwise ordered, for the purpose of hunting down the outlaws who infest that neighborhood, restoring order, and assisting the inhabitants in re-establishing the authority of civil government. He will be furnished with six wagons, with which he will transport the necessary rations for his command for the period he is expected to stay, three or four days' forage if practicable, and the camp and garrison equipage which is absolutely necessary. Forage will be procured in that country by impressment, receipts being given in all cases to loyal owners. Special effort will be put forth by all officers of the detachment to prevent indiscriminate foraging of the men, which is certain to result in pillage. The necessary preparations for the expedition will be made to-morrow, and the march will be taken up at an early hour on the day following. Lieut.-Col. Buck before starting will report in person or send an officer to these headquarters to receive dispatches which he will see forwarded to the headquarters of the Cavalry Corps at Eastport, Miss.

* * * *

By order of Brig. Gen. R. W. Johnson:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 723.


[1] Edward L. Jordan (1817-1899), was a Murfreesboro banker and merchant, a "nonparticipant, but strongly maintained his positioning in favor of...the Union." As cited in Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 377, fn. 2, from Deane Porch, comp., Tombstone Inscriptions of Evergreen Cemetery (Murfreesboro, Tenn., 1965), p. 98.

[2] On May 10, near 10 p. m., as Provost Marshal Captain O. C. Rounds and Colonel J. G. Parkhurst returned from the court house to their camp, a shot was apparently fired at them from behind a fence. A similar incident occurred in the same neighborhood on May 11. Parkhurst, having no clues as to the would be assassin, requested from Military Governor Andrew Johnson a list of "persons to be arrested." The colonel also reported that a search operation in Murfreesboro had discovered over two hundred weapons, all "heavily loaded." Johnson quickly supplied Parkhurst with a list of twelve men to be held hostage to insure the tranquility of Murfreesboro. See, Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 377, fn. 3.

[3] All spelling and punctuation original.

[4] As cited in [Hereinafter cited as Feagle Correspondence.]

[5] Erebus is defined as darkness; Erubus and Nyx (night) were born Hemera, "Day" and Aether, "Sky," according to the ancient Greek poet Hesiod. Later poets identified Erebus with Hades, or hell, a meaning it retains in the 21st century.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Editor, The Courier

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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