Wednesday, June 10, 2015

6.10.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes






          10, Skirmish at Winchesters

No circumstantial reports filed.

          10, Skirmish at Wilson's Gap

Report of J. F. Belton, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen., C. S. Army.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., June 11, 1862.

Allston has just reported that enemy fired on his pickets at Wilson's Gap yesterday morning. Sent a company up to support, and heard at 2 o'clock they had some fighting and been driven back. Ashby then went up with parts of three companies to ascertain the state of affairs, but had not reported at 9 p. m., when courier left.

J. F. BELTON, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.


Chattanooga, Tenn.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p.78.

          10, Two skirmishes at Rogers' Gap

HDQRS. SEVENTH DIVISION, ARMY OF THE OHIO, At Parrott's, East Tenn., June 10, 1862.

Maj.-Gen. BUELL:

GEN.: I had the honor to receive your telegram. It was too late to change my plans. I have advanced upon a road so narrow that two wagons cannot pass each other. The guns had to be drawn over several hills by block and tackle. I need say nothing of the difficulties of such an advance. A retrograde movement would be next to impossible. My troops are confident and in good spirits. To fall back would demoralize them. Will you pardon me, general, for asking where it is possible to re-enforce Gen. Negley so as to retain Smith at Chattanooga? My advance guard occupies Roger's Gap, and will probably descend into the valley to-morrow. To-day our pickets had two skirmishes with those of the enemy, in which he sustained some loss in killed and wounded. On our side there were no casualties. I will try and destroy railroad bridges on either side of Knoxville, and throughout will act upon a bold, determined policy, as it is the only prudent one in my position. The present fate of East Tennessee depends upon Kirby Smith being all occupied at Chattanooga. Copy of this sent to Secretary of War.

Most respectfully,

GEORGE W. MORGAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 53.

          10, Federal occupation of Pikeville reported

KNOXVILLE, TENN., June 10, 1862.

Maj.-Gen. E. KIRBY SMITH, Chattanooga, Tenn.:

Col. McLin, at Kingston, reports that scouts down the Tennessee Valley state from reliable sources that 5,000 Federals occupied Pikeville, in Sequatchie Valley, at 2 p. m. on the 7th instant-1,500 cavalry, the rest infantry. Glenn's men left this morning for Chattanooga; Dr. Smith and Walworth yesterday.

J. F. BELTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 605.

          10, Federal railroad repair party near Pocahontas, scout from Tuscumbia, Alabama, to Pocahontas

ORDERS, No. 37. HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Chewalla, June 10, 1862.

I. Gen. Morgan L. Smith will mover his entire command early tomorrow morning on the State Line road to Pocahontas and beyond, so as to have a strong working party employed repairing the bridge across Muddy [Creek?].

II. Col. McDowell will march his whole brigade about 2 p. m. tomorrow to Pocahontas and then bivouac. He will follow the State Line road.

III. Col. Dickey, Fourth Illinois Cavalry, will cross the Tuscumbia at Capt. Young's, make a circuit to the south and west an reach Pocahontas by night. His trains will follow McDowell's brigade and train.

IV. Commanders of brigades and detachments will hereafter see that in making their encampments they leave the roads entirely clear. Wagons must be parked in the woods and fields, and horses and mules placed so as not to interfere with any trains or column on the march.

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 4.

          10, Major-General Sherman orders reduction of baggage for Fifth Division

ORDERS, No. 36. HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Chewalla, June 10, 1862.

Commanders of brigades and detachments will at once reduce the baggage of their commands to the minimum.

All officers' trunks, all surplus tents, and extra baggage of every kind, will immediately be deposited in the depot at Chewalla and from there will be sent to Pittsburg Landing and by boat to Cairo, there to await orders.

Hereafter 40 rounds of ammunition must be carried in the cartridge box, two papers on the person of each soldier, and one box in each company wagon; also the ammunition wagon of each regiment to be full. The remainder on hand, together with surplus arms, will be deposited at the depot for conveyance to Corinth.

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 3.

          10, On the Depopulation of Memphis

Who Lives in Memphis?

From the Memphis Avalanche.]

The question which forms the caption of our article were more easily answered if it were in the negative--who does not live in Memphis?

Many of the strongest advocates of the Confederacy have left us, where their circumstances were such as to permit their leaving. Hundreds have left Memphis for more southern locations in advance of the approach of the Federal fleet; among these were many who though indifferent to political revolutions, feared the coming power, and among these were many of the best and most useful citizens of Memphis.

All soldiers or attaches of the Confederate armies have left Memphis.

All the banking institutions, with presidents, tellers, cashiers and accountants, have left Memphis, with very few exceptions.

Our late ruler, the commander of the post, Colonel Rosner, than whom there is no more affable gentlemanly, kindly, able or kind hearted officer, has left Memphis. Col. McKisick, our late provost marshal, who discharged the onerous and often unpleasant duties imposed upon him with so ardent a desire "to do right," as to have earned for himself the hearty commendations of those ever having "to do" with him, has left Memphis.

The telegraph operators, with their popular chief, Col. Coleman, have all left Memphis.

Many of the best physicians of the city, of its most able, most admired men and women, have left Memphis.

Then "Who lives in Memphis?" Its civilians. We use the word in contradistinction to politician as to soldier. The men with whom the duties and inclinations of domesticity have rendered business, home, and pursuits of literature or art, paramount to the more boisterous attractions of military distinction--men, civilians in taste and in occupation, form now the population of Memphis.

Not only is Memphis extra civilian in its population now, but also in its possessions. All arms, all munitions of war, the very sinews of war, (the banks) all down to the last pound of commissary bacon, and the last pound of commissary flour, have been removed, and the leavings in civilian possessions themselves are also of the eagerest [sic].

Memphis Appeal [Grenada, Ms], June 10, 1862.[1]

          10, Secret Confederate correspondence from Nashville

Letter from Nashville to the Confederate Organ in London—Who is the Writer?

The N. Y. Post has received a copy of the Index, a newspaper recently started in London by the Secession interest. It contains a letter from this city, which we give as a good specimen of rebel vulgarity, mendacity and snobbishness. Who is the polished author?

The Yankee Postoffices.

"Nashville, April 13, 1862.

"I do not trust the postoffice for we have now a federal postoffice located in our midst. I do not trust it; first, because it is known to be an outrageous contrivance of espionage, such as no despotism ever dreamed of, or no community with a particle of self-respect could endure for a moment, unless it were trodden into the ground by a foreign conqueror. And I do not use the accursed thing, because all of us here would rather send a special messenger, even when the case is urgent, or the distance great, than disfigure our letters with a Yankee postage stamp. However, we have little use for mail bags; all business but the petty retail trade is at a total end. It was with some difficulty, and not until after the municipal authorities and invited them by proclamation, that the country people could be induced, in any considerable numbers, to supply the markets with our daily wants."

"Mudsill" Rulers.

"A deep, heavy gloom rests over our city. Most of its business offices and larger stores are shut up. The most respectable citizens seldom, if ever, get out of doors, and our ladies are never seen in the streets. The Yankees, upon a whole, behave very well and even make a show of decent behavior and discipline. But the sight of them is hateful, and their very presence is an insult we can never forgive. They insult us more by professing to be 'forbearing.' The d____d vulgarians in command can't even conceal the sneer and triumph which lurks in the corner of their mouths. If a French or English army had occupied our town we might, at least, respect the officers and treat them as gentlemen; but when some fellow whom you knew years ago as a pettifogging low-lived attorney struts through the streets as a colonel, or even a brigadier, and your landlord while you were last at the North with your family or your fashionable New York tailor, turns up as an adjutant, or a captain, or a major, the stomach sickens. _______, who made _____'s boots going on ten years, was officer of the patrol a few nights since, and arrested one of my negroes for being out after hours, and sent him back to me with a very polite note of apology."

Nashville's Humiliation.

"Other towns have heard the tramp of foreign soldiery; other towns have obeyed the stern behests of hated conquerors; other towns have had their life-blood drained from them by bloodsuckers at their vitals; but was there ever a town so cruelly humiliated as ours? These fellows, whom we have known all our lives as a lying set of tradesmen, by whom we allowed ourselves to be robbed, from very indolence and love of ease—these fellows that cajoled us and courted us in our happier days; who smirkingly asked our custom, and whom we used to treat with that politeness that well-bred men extend, from instinct, to inferiors—this set of bag men, money-lenders, hotel keepers, shoemakers, and tailors, to come here to lord it over us, to parade our streets in showy uniforms, with sash and sword, and monkey like mock gravity and attitude of command! And to feel that these men really rule us, that it is not a grotesque show to be laughed at, but a daily, hourly, incessant reminder of our disgrace and shame! Parade the streets, I said; why there is not one of these hounds that has the grace to take sword and sash off when they enter a church. Coming always after the service has commenced, they disturb the peaceful congregation with the clinking of their swords in the last refuge that is left to our women, for the men are too desperate to pray. Why should we? Our religion commands us to forgive our enemies as we would ourselves be forgiven. May God forgive me, but I cannot keep this commandment."

The writer further on maintains that Tennessee is still loyal to the Confederacy—that pictures of Davis, Beauregard and Johnston, (the latter draped in mourning), are on every mantel-piece, and that Mrs. _____, of Nashville, has a Confederate flag under a piano cover ready to display on the return of the Confederate troops to that city.

Nashville Daily Union, June 10, 1862.

10, War News from Middle Tennessee

Late from Nashville.

From the Louisville Journal, November 10th.

The city for the past twenty-four hours has been full of battles fought at Nashville, but from the best sources of information we set down as exaggerations. Up to Friday evening [7th] there had been nothing heard of the Rebel Generals Polk and Breckinridge, nor had there been any assault upon the city. About three o'clock on Wednesday night [5th] the Rebel pickets appeared on the Murfreesboro, McMinnville and Franklin pikes, and commenced skirmishing with our outposts. The Rebels were a portion of Stearn's cavalry, with two infantry regiments and four pieces of artillery of small caliber. This force operated on the south side of the Cumberland river, and was shifted from pike to pike, apparently feeling our position, ascertaining the location of the batteries, and the extent of our lines of defence.

Our pickets retired on the Murfreesboro road, but held their ground before the other advances of the Rebels, who opened fire with a six pounder about five o'clock, when General Negley came upon the field with a battery of two six-pounders and four Wiard guns, and the Sixty ninth-Oho and the Seventy-eighth Pennsylvania infantry, on the Franklin Pike. Here the heaviest skirmishing took place. Division Inspector Von Shrader, of Negley's Staff, with Colonel Stokes' Cavalry, eight hundred strong, charged upon Stearns' Cavalry and drove them to within five mile of Franklin, where they scattered in every direction.

While this affair was going on a Rebel force of some two thousand cavalry, and two pieced of artillery, supposed to be under Morgan, made a dash on the new railroad bridge, with the intention of destroying it, but they were promptly met and repulsed. In the various skirmishes we lost one killed and thirteen wounded, with three missing men, and captured about thirty prisoners, among them two captains of artillery.

The advance of General McCook's corps arrived at Nashville at, P. M. on the 6th [Thursday]. The General went into the city at 7 o'clock the next morning, and his entire force reached the river the same day and encamped at Edgefield, On Friday [7th] a train of five hundred wagons, under charge of Col. Morgan, left Nashville to go to our Mitchellsville for stores, which point they reached in the evening without molestation.

Lieutenant Adams, of the Twelfth Indiana Battery left Nashville on Thursday morning [5th], and informs the New Albany Ledger that the report was current at Nashville and credited by General Negley, that the Rebels had evacuated Murfreesboro' and McMinnville, and had gone to Chattanooga. General Negley had ordered a reconnaissance to be made to Murefreesboro', which it was understood would be commenced on Friday. We attach some credence to this rumor, as the movement of Stearns may have been intended [sic] to divert attention from the actions of the main Rebel army. A report was also current at Nashville that General Joseph E. Johnson [sic] had arrived at Chattanooga, and had assumed the command of the Department of Tennessee and North Alabama. Breckinridge's command was also reported at Chattanooga. The military authorities at Nashville credited these reports.

The Ledger is also informed that deserters from the Rebel army, who came into our lines last week, report that Bragg had been superseded in his command on account of his failure in Kentucky, and had been ordered to Richmond under arrest. They aver that Bragg was compelled to destroy most of the property captured by him in Kentucky during his retreat, to prevent it from falling in the hands of General Buell.

Philadelphia Inquirer, November 14, 1862.

          10, Gloating at the Fall of Memphis in the Nashville Daily Union

Memphis Surrendered.

Memphis was taken on the 7th instant by our gunboats. She yielded as quietly as a kitten, as placidly as a dove, as softly as a dying zephyr, as quietly as a lamb, as noiselessly as an exhausted trout, as passively as a played-out rabbit, as unresistingly as a buxom damsel who falls back panting into the arms of her pursuing lover after a run of five hundred yards. Thermopylae Memphis, Gibralter Memphis, she whose igniverous [sic][2] chivalry were to shed the ultimate sanguinary current of their veins in the last ditch has bowed her head to the peerless Stars and Stripes. Huzza for redeemed Memphis! Nine cheers and a tiger for the disenthralled Bluff City! Now will her star roll upward and onward through the national sky.

Nashville Daily Union, June 10, 1862.

          10, Satire on the plight of erstwhile Confederate Nashvillians

"Oh where tell me where,

Have our Nashville laddies[3] [sic] gone?"

When the rebels "skedaddled" from this city, a good many of our Upper Tenbloods left with them in disgust, declaring that they would not, could not live in a city so cowardly as not to defend itself against the Yankees. "Why," said they, "don't the people lay it in ashes, rather than yield? Burn down the d----d city!" They fled indignantly to-----Memphis! We want to hear now from our valiant and unconquerable refugees!

Nashville Daily Union, June 10, 1862.

          10-15, Operations in East Tennessee

Report of Brig. Gen. James G. Spears, U. S. Army, commanding

Twenty-fifth Brigade, Army of the Ohio, of operations June 10-15.


CAPT.: In obedience to instructions of June 10, 1862, I proceeded with my command (then composed of Third, Fifth, and Sixth Regt. [sic]'s of Tennessee Volunteers, commanded respectively by Col.'s Houk, Shelley, and Cooper) by way of Big Creek Gap, in order to join Brig.-Gen. Morgan at Speedwell. The advance of my command, after having opened and removed a heavy blockade through Pine and Cumberland Mountains, entered the Gap on the evening of the 11th, at which point my pickets were fired on by the pickets of the enemy, which resulted in a pretty heavy skirmish. As we advanced through the Gap the enemy's pickets, lying in ambush, contested our advance, and fired upon us from rocks and other places of concealment. They had prepared to defend that place, but the enemy was repulsed and driven from ambuscade and from the Gap with the loss of 2 killed and several reported wounded. On that evening we advanced through the Gap, and it being dusk, my men lay upon their arms and rested until next morning. On the next morning the opening of the blockade was resumed, and the work continued until 12 o'clock that day, during which time the enemy's cavalry pickets and my advance pickets kept up a heavy skirmish, which resulted in the capture of 3 rebel cavalrymen, their horses and equipments, and 2 or 3 rebel citizens, who were aiding the rebel enemy in the picket skirmishes.

At 12 o'clock, the blockade being opened and the rear of my train having arrived, the whole command and transportation were ordered to renew the march to join Gen. Morgan at Speedwell. After having passed through the Gap and turned up the valley the advance train was ordered to halt and the rear ordered to close up. While said order was being executed the advance of the trains was charged upon by a considerable force of the enemy's cavalry, but they were gallantly repulsed by the Fifth Regt. [sic], commanded by Col. Shelley, and made to retreat in confusion. They were pursued by Capt. Clingan with his company, Fifth Regt. [sic], a brave and gallant officer, a considerable distance. Capt. Clingan and his men succeeded in killing 1 of the enemy and wounding several others. Capt. Clingan returned with his whole command, having captured the enemy's flag and divers articles of clothing and other articles. After which we continued the line of march, and had proceeded about 4 miles up the valley, Col. Houk commanding the front and Col. Cooper protecting the rear of my transportation, at which place I was overtaken by a courier, bearing a dispatch which directed me to return to Big Creek Gap, as it was important that our entire forces be concentrated at once at Williamsburg; on the reception of which I immediately changed direction and marched in same order back to Big Creek Gap, and reoccupied my former position that night. On next morning I threw my men out in ambush on each side of the road opposite Big Creek Ford, and ordered the transportation to be removed to the top of the Cumberland Mountains, under a sufficient guard to protect it, and learning that the enemy's cavalry was in considerable force advancing in my rear, I kept my men there in ambush and on the mountain during that day and ensuing night.

In the early part of the night I threw a heavy picket out in the valley, to see if possible where the enemy was and in what force, with instructions that if attacked they should fall back into the Gap, where I had my main force to cover their retreat, in which condition we lay that night.

On the morning of the 15th my pickets were attacked, but they were unable to draw the enemy after them, and seeing that I could not draw them into the ambuscade, and knowing that my trains were out of their reach, I ordered Col. Houk, Col. Cooper, and Col. Shelley to proceed into the valley and advance across the same and attack the enemy on the ridge, at which place they seemed to be assembled in force. They did so, and succeeded in routing them, driving them across Clinch River and alarming them so much they filled boats with rails, set them on fire, and turned them loose down the river, and retreated toward Knoxville. On that day we captured some prisoners, some 60 tents, burned and destroyed 57, brought 3 on horseback into camp, and destroyed divers articles of camp equipage to the amount of some $800 in value. We also captured several rebel flags, drums, swords, &c., and in the evening, on our return to the valley, I received a dispatch informing me that the order to march to Williamsburg was countermanded, and that I was ordered to join Gen. Morgan at Speedwell at the earliest practicable moment, in order that our forces on this side might be concentrated for the purpose of attacking Cumberland Gap. It then being dark, or about it, I threw out picket-guards and remained at the Gap during that night.

On the following morning, having been joined by the Twenty-fourth Brigade, commanded by Gen. Carter, in obedience to said order, at 4 o'clock I took up the line of march, and on same evening arrived at Rogers' Gap. No particular incident worthy of note occurred during the march. As we passed along we were frequently greeted by groups of citizens along the road, both ladies and gentleman, who had heretofore acted with the secession party, who expressed their great joy and satisfaction on the arrival of our army, and who stated that they had been deceived, but that they were glad our army had come to relieve them from the oppression and thralldom which had borne them down, and invited the officers to visit their houses and families and partake of such refreshments as they had, which, judging from all that I could see, was generously given and thankfully received. On the way, however, having learned from reliable sources that two citizens-William D. Sharp and James Cooper-were uncompromising secessionists, and had been and were the endeavoring to excite the people to rebellion, I had them arrested and carried them to Rogers' Gap, where on the next morning I transferred them, together with the prisoners and property taken at Big Creek Gap, over to Gen. Morgan's disposal on the 15th, where, after resting one day, having received orders from Gen. Morgan, I, with my command, together with commands of Gen.'s De Courcy, Baird, and Carter, took up the line of march at 1 o'clock for the purpose of attacking the enemy, who was then said to be encamped in force at or near one Thomas'. The place assigned me in the order of march was forty-five minutes in rear of Gen. Carter's brigade, which marched up what is called the New Valley road. But before arriving at said place it was ascertained that the enemy had abandoned it under great confusion, and made their way, some said, toward Cumberland Gap, some toward Knoxville, and others toward Morristown.

After resting a while at said place we were ordered to take up the line of march toward Cumberland Gap, in order to attack the enemy there, but before arriving at that point it was ascertained that the enemy had abandoned it and fled toward the railroad in utter confusion, after having first burned and destroyed all their commissary and provision stores, tents, camp equipage, &c. They left some artillery and other small-arms. Gen. De Courcy having first arrived with his brigade on that evening, after having marched some twenty miles, proceeded to the top of the mountain, raised the glorious old flag of our country, and fired a salute from Capt. Foster's battery in honor of the brilliant success achieved by the valor, energy, and patriotism of our officers and soldiers.

It would be unjust to close this report without according to Adjt. D. A. carpenter, of Second Regt. [sic] Tennessee Volunteers, James Edwards, and William Cook, who volunteered their services, great praise for the gallant and efficient services rendered me in all my movements and marches. Their valor, patriotism, and untiring zeal and energy are worthy of note and thanks. The officers and men and all under my command with promptness, energy, and zeal executed at all times every order and command given to them by me, and my warmest thanks are accorded to them, one and all.

I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Brig. Gen., Comdg. Twenty-fifth Brigade, Army of the Ohio.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 69-72.

          10-October 27, 1862, Operations in East Tennessee


June 10, 1862--.Skirmish at Winchester, Tenn.

          10, 1862--.Skirmish near Wilson's and Rogers' Gaps, Tenn.

          16, 1862.-Skirmish at Winchester, Tenn.

          18, 1862.-Skirmish at Wilson's Gap and occupation of Cumberland Gap by Union forces.

          21, 1862.-Skirmish at Rankin's Ferry, near Jasper, Tenn.

          21, 1862.-Skirmish at Battle Creek, Tenn.

          28, 1862.-Skirmish at Sparta, Tenn.

          30, 1862.-Affair at Powell River, Tenn.

July 5, 1862. -.Skirmish at Battle Creek, Tenn.

          7-11, 1862.-Operations about Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

          13, 1862.-Action at and surrender of Murfreesborough, Tenn.

          15, 1862.-Skirmish at Wallace's Cross-Roads, Tenn.

          17, 1862--Skirmish between Mount Pleasant and Columbia, Tenn.

          21, 1862.-Skirmishes around Nashville, Tenn.

          25, 1862. -.Skirmish at Clinton Ferry, Tenn.

          26, 1862. -. Skirmish at Tazewell, Tenn.

Aug. 2-6, 1862. -Operations at Cumberland Gap and skirmish (August 6) near Tazewell, Tenn.

          5, 1862.-Skirmish at Sparta, Tenn.

          11, 1862.-Affair near Kinderhook, Tenn.

          11, 1862.-Skirmish near Williamsport, Tenn.

12-13, Capture of Gallatin, Tennessee, and destruction of bridges in that vicinity (12th), and skirmish (13th).

          13, Skirmish at Huntsville, Scott County, Tennessee

          14, 1862.-Skirmish near Mount Pleasant, Tenn.

16, 1862.-The Army of Kentucky (Confederate), under Maj. Gen. E. Kirby Smith, crosses the Cumberland Mountains into Kentucky.

16-22, 1862.-Operations about Cumberland Gap, Tenn., including action at Pine Mountain, Tenn. (August 17.)

          18, 1862.-Surrender of Clarksville, Tenn. to Confederate forces

19-21, 1862.-Raid on Louisville and Nashville Railroad, skirmishes at Pilot Knob, Drake's Creek, and Manscoe Creek, near Edgefield Junction (August 20), and action (August 21) on the Hartsville Road, near Gallatin, Tenn.

          20, 1862.-Skirmish at Pilot Knob, Tenn.

          26, 1862.-Skirmish at Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

          27, 1862.-Skirmish at Round Mountain, near Woodbury, Tenn.

          27, 1862.-Attack on Fort McCook, Battle Creek, Tenn.

          27, 1862.-Skirmish near Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

          27, 1862.-Skirmish near Murfreesborough, Tenn.

          27, 1862.-Skirmish on Richland Creek, near Pulaski, Tenn.

          27-Oct. 22, 1862.-Operations of Wheeler's Cavalry in Tennessee and Kentucky.

29-30, 1862.-Skirmishes at Short Mountain Cross-Roads (August 29), and Little Pond (August 30, near McMinnville, Tenn. [N.B. Forrest defeated by inferior force of Federals]

          31, 1862.-Skirmish at Rogers' Gap, Tenn.

Sept. 2, 1862.-Skirmish near Nashville, Tenn.

5-10, 1862.-Expedition from Fort Donelson to Clarksville, Tenn., and skirmishes (September 6) at New Providence and (September 7) at Riggin's Hill.

          7, 1862.-Skirmish at Pine Mountain Gap, Tenn.

          7, 1862.-Skirmish near Murfreesborough, Tenn.

          9, 1862.-Skirmish at Columbia, Tenn.

          10, 1862.-Operations at Rogers' and Big Creek Gaps, Tenn.

          10, 1862.-Skirmish at Columbia, Tenn.

17, Oct. 3, 1862.-Evacuation of Cumberland Gap, Tenn., and march of its garrison to Greenupsburg, Ky

          19-20, 1862.-Skirmishes at Brentwood, Tenn.

          30, 1862.-Skirmish at Goodlettsville, Tenn.

Oct. 1, 1862.-Skirmish near Nashville, Tenn.

          1, 1862.-Skirmish at Davis' Bridge, Tenn.

          5, 1862.-Skirmish at Neely's Bend, Cumberland River, Tenn.

          5, 1862.-Skirmish at Fort Riley, near Nashville, Tenn.

          7, 1862.-Skirmish near La Vergne, Tenn.

          13, 1862.-Skirmish on the Lebanon Road, near Nashville, Tenn.

          15, 1862.-Skirmish at Neely's Bend, Cumberland River, Tenn.

          20, 1862.-Skirmish on the Gallatin Pike, near Nashville, Tenn.

          20, 1862.-Skirmish at Hermitage Ford, Tenn.

          23, 1862.-Skirmishes near Waverly and Richland Creek, Tenn.

          27, 1862.-Skirmish near Waverly, Tenn.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. I, pp. 1-4.

          10, Observations on Memphis soon after Federal occupation


Memphis, Tuesday, June 10 [1862]

Quiet pervades the entire city. The ready submission of the inhabitants to the National rule is not only surprising, but gratifying. The civil authorities continue to exercise their functions as heretofore. The Provost Marshal's office is thronged with applicants for permits to proceed North. All persons are requested to take the oath of allegiance before the permission is granted.

Jackson's rebel cavalry, which have been hovering around the city since the National occupation of it, are said to have gone to Holly Springs As most of them are largely incarcerated in this city, it is improbable that they will make an attempt to burn it.

The City Recorder was yesterday arrested by the Provost Marshal, for causing the arrest of a citizen for conversing in the streets with a Union soldier.

Rebel cavalry are scouring the country around Grand Junction, destroying all the cotton that can be found.

Applications to ship 6000 bales of cotton have already been made.

The Memphis Argus is still outspoken in its secession sympathy.

The Avalanche is much more guarded, and inclined to submit quietly.

Both advise peaceable submission to the National rule. Many stores have been opened, and have resumed business. Some traders refuse Confederate money, but receive Tennessee bank notes.

The markets are rather sparsely supplied with meats and vegetables.

Two rebel steamers were captured yesterday above the city.

Memphis June 9.

Intelligence was received this morning that as soon as the news of the defeat of the rebel fleet here, and the surrender of the city, reached St. Francis River, Arkansas, a steamer acting under Gen Hindman's orders, went up and down that stream and destroyed several thousand and bales of cotton. Some four hundred bales were burned at Madison, Arkansas, about forty miles west of here.

Throughout yesterday and last night the city was as quiet as any Northern city. To day some of the stores are open, and Confederate scrip is being pretty generally refused. There has been no movement either in the fleet or land forces since Friday [6th]. It is said as many as 30,000 bales of cotton have been burned here. Not much business is being done, and currently is left to regulate itself.

From the Memphis Avalanche, June 15 [1862]:

The oath was administered yesterday to seventy-five officer and soldiers of the Confederate army.

The Eclipse wharf boat is now used by the military authorities as a commissary depot-for, which purpose it admirably adapted.

Memphis and Charleston Railroad.-We understand that the Memphis and Charleston Railroad is being repaired, and will, in all probability, be ready for the resumption of travel in a week or ten days.

Cheek's Camp.- We learn through the testimony of Capt. Cheek's case has been completed, he has yet to be tried by a regular court martial. In the meantime he has been arrested and permitted to at large.

Arrest of a supposed Spy.-A woman, dressed in man's apparel, was arrested in the city yesterday, supposed to be acting as a spy. She represented herself as having been with Gen. Polk in the Confederate service. She has been sent to the flagship.

Runaways.-There are quite a number of runaways still at large in this city and vicinity. The police, aided by the military authorities, are still engaged in arresting this worthless class, and scarcely a day passed that there are not from ten to a dozen runaways arrested.

A Flag of Truce.- We understand that Capt. Edmonson came up from Mississippi yesterday, under a flag of truce, to make certain inquiries about wounded soldiers left here, and certain funds said to have been left in the Overton Hospital. We also understand that the military authorities here regarded the inquiries as of a trivial character, and intimated that if any more flags of truce of a similar character came up, they would arrest the officer who came with it.

The City.- The weather was clean and warm. Business seemed to be looking up. There was some activity about the levees, and a perceptible improvement in retail trade. This, however, may be peculiar to Saturday. Large quantities of Western groceries were arriving, and in a few days there will be [an] abundance of goods but a paucity of current funds. The town take was the orders of Col. Slack. Persons who live near the city and come to town every day to make their purchases and obtain newspapers, were at a loss to determine whether they were required to take the oath. We understand the authorities construed it to apply to all except women and children. The order for the suppression of confederate money took every one by surprise, and was considered very hard by the great mass of our people, who have nothing else. Many who went to bed rich on Friday night awoke to find themselves "poor in deed" the next morning. The measure is a hard one, and will work most ruinously on some.

Daily Delta [New Orleans], July 1, 1862,






          10, Scout[4] on Middleton Pike

JUNE 10, 1863.-Scout on Middleton and Eagleville Pikes, Tenn.


No. 1.-Brig. Gen. John B. Turchin, U. S. Army.

No. 2.-Col. Robert H. G. Minty, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, commanding brigade.

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. John B. Turchin, U. S. Army.


SIR: I respectfully report that, in accordance with written instructions from Maj.-Gen. Stanely, received at these headquarters at 2 a. m. this day, the First Brigade, Col. R. H. G. Minty commanding, moved to Salem, arriving there soon after daylight. Col. Minty detached the Third Indiana and Fourth Michigan Cavalry, under command of Lieut.-Col. Klein, to scout the Middleton road, and proceeded with the remainder of the brigade on the Versailles road. Col. Klein move to within 3 ½ miles of Middleton, driving in the enemy's pickets, and learning that there was no considerable rebel force on or near that road. Col. Minty moved 2½ miles beyond Versailles, driving in the enemy's pickets, about 200 strong. He ascertained that there were two rebel cavalry regiments at Rover, and no other force in the vicinity of Eagleville. Lieut.-Col. Sipes, commanding the advance guard, reports 2 rebels severely wounded. Col. Minty returned with his entire command to camp at 12.30 p. m. this day, bringing 1 prisoner, a Mr. Frank Jackson, enrolling and conscription officer, from near Versailles.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. B. TURCHIN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

No. 2.

Report of Col. Robert H. G. Minty, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, commanding brigade.

HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, SECTION CAVALRY DIVISION, Camp near Murfreesborough, June 10, 1863--1 p. m.

SIR: I have the honor to report, for the information of the general commanding, that, in obedience to verbal orders received from him at 3 o'clock this a. m., I had reveille sounded, and notified the regiments of this command to hold themselves in readiness for an immediate move.

At 3.30 a. m., I received orders to proceed to Salem, and from there to scout the country toward Middleton and Eagleville, and, if possible, to be at the bridge on the Salem pike by 5 a. m. A few moments later I received an order to report, by courier, from the bridge on Salem pike, from Salem, and again when I should commence my return march to Murfreesborough.

I reported from the bridge at 4.45 a. m., and from Salem at 5.30 a. m., and from here I detached Lieut.-Col. Klein, Third Indiana, with his own battalion and the Fourth Michigan, to scout the Middleton road, and directed him to push forward until he could ascertain if there was a body of troops moving on that road.

With the Seventh Pennsylvania and Fourth Cavalry I pushed forward to within half a mile of Versailles, where my advance (Seventh Pennsylvania) encountered the enemy's pickets, and drove them for about 2 miles, when, learning that there was no force at Eagleville and but two regiments of cavalry at Rover, I directed Lieut.-Col. Sipes, Seventh Pennsylvania, to take three squadrons of his regiment and drive the enemy, who now numbered about 200, 1 mile farther, and there rejoin the column, which he did, reporting to me that he had severely wounded 2 rebels.

I marched for Murfreesborough at 9 a. m., reporting the same to you and Lieut.-Col. Goddard. At Salem I found Lieut.-Col. Klain, with his command, waiting for me. He went within 3½ miles of Middleton, driving in the enemy's pickets, and learned that there was no force moving in that direction.

I arrived in camp at 12.30 p. m. I brought in, as prisoner, Mr. Frank Jackson, enrolling and conscript officer, from near Versailles.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBT. H. G. MINTY, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 373-374.

          10, Scout on Eagleville Pike [see June 10, 1863, Scout on Middleton Pike above]

          10, Letters to Lieutenant A. J. Lacy, Eighth Tennessee Cavalry, (C.S.A.) from his wife and parents in Jackson County

State of Tennessee Jackson Co [sic]

Jun [sic] the 10th 1863

Mi Der [sic] and Most afectiona [sic] husban [sic]

It is no small degree of sadfaction [sic] that I tak [sic] mi [sic] pen in hand to let you know that I am well at this time and I hoop [sic] when theses [sic] few lines come to hand that it will find you well.

I want to now [sic] how you makeout [sic] for clous [sic] What dou you do for shirts and drawers and sox [sic]. If you want any thing right [sic] to me. If I must make you any pants I would be glad to see you but I fear that I never [sic] will you again. [sic] I wish that you was here [sic] to go to pap's [sic] with me to eat [illegible] Father is well but mother ant [sic] well. I have ben worken [sic] out sprouting and planting corn father cant [sic] hier [sic] no body to help him. The baby can crawl all over the house[.] I wish you cood [sic] get to see him and see how purty [sic] he is and how smart your little sun [sic] is. Suzy Maryic was here to day and [illegible] went and got us a good [illegible] of [illegible] and I wish that you had som too[.] Today is the 7th of June [?]

We hant [sic] got [sic] a letter from you sence [sic] the 21 of Aprile [sic]. I want you to wright [sic] evry cance [sic] you get. It dos me so mush [sic] good to get a letter from you as anything [illegible] I get your letters and likeness evry [sic], Sunda [sic] and read them and cry for I think that is all the sadfaction [sic] that I evry [sic] have for I feare [sic] that I nevr [sic] see you again in life. I just heard from you and hard [sic] that you was sick and has got about and [illegible] I was so sary [sic] to her [sic] from you and here [sic] that you had been sick. We nevr [sic] heard that you was sick, tell [sic] Mr [sic] More got home. None of the boyes [sic] roat [sic] that you was [sic] sick. Right how long you was sick and what did ald [sic] you sei [sic] tru [sic] lov [sic] I must clse [sic] for the present. I still [sic] your best frend [sic] now and fo [sic] evry [sic]

M E. Lacy to Mr. A J Lacy

State of Ten [sic] Jackson Cty [sic], June the 10th 1863

My dear Son,

It is with pleasure that I seate [sic] myself this morning to wright [sic] to you a fiew [sic] lines to let you know that we are all well but your mother she is in bad health and has been for some time but she can set up a part of the time. She craves to see you mitley [sic] but we all do that I assure you. I went las [sic] Sunday to Mr. Mores [sic] to see him to try to hear from you as we have not had a letter from you since the 21st of April and Mr [sic] More said he di [sic] not see you for you was left at Florence Ala [sic] but just as he was starting him and Dr [sic] Pindergrass you came up with you [sic] command do [sic] try to get your officers to let you come home to recruite [sic] up you health. My paper is full. Fairwell [sic] for the present

To A. J. Lacy  Wm & Kezia Lacy

Lacy Correspondence.

          10, A Wisconsin soldier's opinion of the Emancipation Proclamation and copperheads

Murfreesboro Tenn.

June 10, 1863

Dear friend,

You ask if I think the Emancipation Proclamation will serve to bring the war to a more speedy close. I answer candidly that I don't believe it will yet I am heartily in favor of the measure, because I am convinced that its tendency will be to give us a more permanent peace in the end. I have no sympathy with those people of the north, that would favor peace upon dishonorable terms. Every soldier in the field knows that there can be no peace until our armed foes are conquered. I think that the opposition given by so many in the north to every war measure, has tendency to encourage our foe and prolong the war. And this leads me to say that the most despicable man in our land today is the northern copperhead. The man in arms against us is wrong, decidedly wrong, but he is honest, and he has the courage to fight for his convictions. The people of the south are building their hopes upon a divided north, and you can be assured that anything which seems to strengthen this hope is looked upon with dread by our soldiers in the field.

J. M. Randall

The James M. Randall Diary

          10, A Federal cavalryman's Impressions of Nashville

….About noon it cleared up and there were some gleams of sunshine as we passed through Nashville. Nashville is a very pleasantly situated town in the midst of a beautiful country adorned with a large number of fine residences surrounded by pleasant lawns, in which are a number of noble old forest trees. It was truly a fine sight for soldiers to see that had been so long used to the barren hills around Fort Donelson and who had begun to wonder where the pleasant part of Tennessee was.

From the last ridge north of the Cumberland the road runs sloping gently for about a mile to the river, perfectly straight and here the city burst at once upon our view. The Capitol building standing on a hill nearly one hundred feet higher than the ground about it. It is the Ionic order of Architecture [sic] – rectangular – about twice as long as it is wide, of whitish stone, or marble, with four fine porticos and presents an imposing appearance. All of the finest buildings in the city are used for military hospitals, streets are barricaded and the hills around are crowned with fortifications and more building. I would have like to have had time and liberty to see the city but there was none. Marched today 12 miles.

Alley Diary

          10, The Charleston Mercury anticipates the Middle Tennessee campaign


Correspondence of the Charleston Mercury, June 10 [sic].

A courier came into Wartrace on the morning of the 3d [of June], and reports that twenty-two regiments of Rosecrans' army have left for Vicksburg. The impression prevails that the Federals are retreating toward Nashville. At all events, we have positive information that our troops are advancing from Wartrace to Shelbyville. From the signs of active preparation, a forward movement in earnest is about commencing. On the other hand, rumors are currently circulated that Rosecrans is advancing himself, instead of falling back upon his earthworks around Nashville. Besides the strongly fortified gaps of the Normandy Hills, we have a line of rifle-pits from Shelbyville to Wartrace, nearly nine miles in length [sic]. We also have an army in good health and spirits, and burning to emulate the glorious actions of Chancellorsville, Charleston, Vicksburgh [sic] and Port Hudson. Once more Tennessee is likely to be shaken by the tread of advancing hosts.

A correspondent of the Huntsville Confederate, writing from Wartrace, Tenn., says the organization of a new division of the army will be the probably result of some recent changes in the Army of Tennessee, and arrival of troops there. Gens. Pillow and Stuart are spoken of as likely to command it.

New York Times, June 22, 1863.

          10, Concern in Bolivar and Jackson regarding the withdrawal of Federal forces

LAGRANGE, TENN., June 10, 1863.

Maj.-Gen. HURLBUT, Cmdg. Tenth Army Corps, Memphis:


* * * *

….The people of Jackson and Bolivar appear to be distressed at our leaving them to the mercy of guerrillas and conscription….

* * * *

R. J. OGLESBY, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 400.

          10, "Complying With the Order." [see May 26, 1863, "General Orders No. 65 issued in Memphis: expulsion of Confederate sympathizers," above]

The reading public are already familiar with the provisions and requirements of Order No. 65, from the headquarters of the Sixteenth Army Corps, commanded by General S. A. Hurlbut. In obedience to that order no less than three thousand three hundred and ten persons had complied with the order up to ten o'clock yesterday morning. All these had registered themselves as loyal citizens of the United States. Besides these there were some hundred who had registered themselves as subjects of "foreign friendly powers." Very few persons have the courage to register themselves as enemies; although many of the citizens openly avow sympathy with the rebellion, yet they have not the manly courage to make their sympathy a matter of public record. Perhaps we might say in this connection that the arrangement for the administration of the oath is altogether inadequate to accommodate the multitudes who throng the office. The average number per day is about five hundred.

Memphis Bulletin, June 10, 1863.

          10, Co. H, 21st O.V.I. camp life in Murfreesboro

Murfreesboro, Tenn

June 10, 1863

Dear friends at home,

As I have nothing else to do, I will just write a few lines by way of keeping up conversation. I pass the time the best and easiest way possible, sometimes I read a while, then stroll about a while, then take a lazy sleep of a couple of hours. Probably by that time I may suddenly be brought to my senses by the cook yelling dinner or the drums beating drills or dress parade as the case may be. The monotany [sic] was broken a few days ago by breaking a fellows neck on the scaffold. Such things are getting common, a couple have to rid the earth of themselves today and two more on Friday go through the same performance. Part are soldiers and part citizens. I don't care anything about the citizens, but I hate to see a soldier stretch hemp or be shot. The more citizens are killed, the less sneaks and gorillos  [sic] we will be bothered with later. [added emphasis]

Today is rainy and sunshine by spells. We drilled this forenoon on skirmishing a while. An Irishman named Joe Todd was brought here handcuffed a few days ago. He was one of the men taken prisioner [sic] the same time George was, and when exchanged and started for the Regiment, he sliped [sic] out and came back to Tontogany.[5] He says passed by our house several times and saw Pa and Elliott to work in the field. Probly [sic] Elliott remembers the fellow that treated Henderson and myself to the bar one night when we were beating those drums in Tontogany. His appearance is about as proposing at present as it was then, one eye black, his back covered with an old ragged citizens coat. The only thing I begrudge him is the sight.

We have the orders to keep 3 days rations in our haversacks ready to march at any time. That time is very uncertain. It has been a standing order some time. If Bragg sends part of his force toward Vicksburg, he may look out for a few of us, as we may visit him. If you could see me laying on my bunk with this paper on an old novel, you would say, lazy fellow. Soldier life is hard and lazy both. Duty is duty and lay on the bunk is just the opposite thing. Well, I will have to go to work and get the dirt and rust of my gun. These take lots of cleaning.

~ ~ ~

L.P. Warner

Warner Papers.






          10, Organizing a regiment of Veteran Volunteer Engineers for the Army of the Cumberland

Headquarters Department of the Cumberland

Office of the Chief Engineer, Chattanooga, Tenn.

June 10, 1864

To present and former members of the Pioneer Brigade, Army of the Cumberland:

The undersigned has been authorized by the Major General Commanding to raise an Engineer regiment from the Pioneer Brigade in accordance with the following acts of Congress, approved May 20, 1864:

AN ACT to organize a regiment of Veteran Volunteer Engineers.

Be it resolved by the State and House of the House of Representatives of the United States of American Congress assembled,

That the Secretary of War be, and he is hereby, authorized to enlist out of any volunteer forces in the Army of the Cumberland that have served, or are now serving as pioneers, pioneers or engineers, to serve wherever required for three years, or during the war, to consist of ten companies and to have the same organization, pay and emoluments as are allowed to engineer soldiers under the provisions of the fourth section of an act entitled "AN act providing for the better organization of the military establishment," approved August third, eighteen hundred and sixty-one; Sec. 2, And be it further enacted, That the officers of the engineers authorized to be raised under the provisions of the foregoing section shall be appointed and commissioned by the President of the United States on the recommendation of the commander of the army of the Cumberland, and shall receive the same pay and allowances as engineer officers of similar grade in the regular army.

* * * *

All present and former members of the Pioneer Brigade of the Army of the Cumberland are invited to enter the engineer service in this regiment.

The war Department has decided to transfer veterans and men who have served less than two years, for their unexpired terms. Men who have less than one year to serve, must re-enlist as veterans, in order to enter the Regiment. Ex-Pioneers desiring transfer or re-enlistment, who are with the army at the front will send their names to Lieut. H. C. Wharton, Engineer's Headquarters, Depart of the Cumberland.

W. E. Merrill, Capt. U. S. Engineers, Chief Engineer Army Cumberland

Nashville Daily Times and True Union, July 28, 1864.

          10, "SPECIAL ORDERS, NO. 111;" The Provost Marshal and Vagrancy in Memphis

Special Orders, No. 111

Office Provost Marshal,

Memphis, June 10, 1864

There is a class of persons in this city, usually seen from day to day in saloons, billiard rooms, and on the streets, unemployed, and having no apparent mode of obtaining an honest livelihood, and most of the deprecations and atrocities occurring in or about the city may be traced to that class. It is ordered that after the 15th day of June, 1864, the Provost Guard and Detective forces of the city of Memphis will arrest all vagrants and other persons whose mode of living is of a suspicious character, or who cannot produce satisfactory evidence that they follow some honest calling.

Such persons when found, will be employed on the fortifications at Fort Pickering or expelled from the District, as the nature of the case may require. It will also be the duty of the Provost Guard to arrest and bring to this office all persons in gambling houses, and any householder letting, or subletting, their premises for such purposes, will, when found, be arrested and all property found in such places confiscated.

Jas. L. Geddas,

Col 8th Iowa Infantry

Approved, by order of C. C. Washburn, Commanding

Memphis Bulletin, July 9, 1864.

          10, Excerpt from Col. George M. Brent's report relative to desertions in Forrest's command and its effect upon enforcing the Confederate conscription law

RICHMOND, June 10, 1864.

Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen.,

Richmond, Va.:

* * * *

….Desertions from infantry commands to the cavalry had become a crime of a serious nature. My instructions directed me to ascertain and return all such. An inspection of the muster-rolls, camped with a list of deserters from the Army of Tennessee, showed that 654 deserters were borne on the rolls of Gen. Forrest's command. About 200 of this number were reported as deserters, also, from Forrest's command. An order was at once given to Gen. Forrest for their arrest, who issued orders immediately to this end, and over 300 were arrested and sent back under proper guard to their command. All officers who had received them knowingly were arrested and charges preferred against them. Gen. Forrest gave every facility in his power to accomplish the object of my mission. The liberal manner in which authority has been conferred to raise cavalry commands has contributed very largely to increase desertions from the infantry, and to impede the efficient execution of the conscript law.

* * * *

GEORGE WM. BRENT, Col. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen. [C. S. A.]






          10, Report on Federal fortifications from Huntsville and Decatur, and the railroad line thence to Nashville, including also Gallatin and Dalton, relative to Pulaski, Columbia, Franklin and Gallatin



Cmdg. Mil. Div. of the Miss. West of the Alleghany [sic] Mountains:

I have the honor to submit the following inspection report upon the defenses of Huntsville and Decatur, and the railroad line thence to Nashville, including also Gallatin and Dalton:

* * * *


Is seventy-nine miles from Nashville. There are lines thrown up by the army around this large town and something approaching an inclosed work on a distant hill, but there are no forts, properly so called, at this place. Pulaski will doubtless be garrisoned for a year at least. Perhaps a stockade inclosing barracks would be as good a defense as a fort. At any rate, I do not think it necessary now to commence building a redoubt at Pulaski.


Is forty-five miles from Nashville, on the Decatur road. Its defenses are very imperfect. The fort on the high hill overlooking the city, were it finished, would have a good effect, and, properly garrisoned, would be sufficient for the reduced establishment of the department. Its design is a five-sided polygon, with three small bastions, each large enough when finished to contain a single gun. The work being built on a rocky hill, has no ditch. A dry stone scarp wall supports the parapet, and is an obstacle under the flank fire of the bastions to an attacking party. This wall is finished on four sides, and one bastion. The other bastions are raised simply to the height of the platforms. The fifth side is mostly open. The parapet is but partly formed, and the work is unserviceable in its present condition. The garrison does not appear to have given any attention to it. The interior is in bad condition, and has no magazine. There is no necessity for a work at this point, so long as the garrison of the city is large. Possibly there may never be any need of such defense; yet it would be good policy to hold a strong work overlooking so large a place as Columbia. I therefore think the garrison at the station should inclose the fort and put the battery of six guns in position within it, building at the same time a magazine large enough for the ammunition required for a field battery.


Is eighteen miles from Nashville. The main work, Fort Granger, on the north bank of the Harpeth, is about 700 feet long, but narrow. It consists essentially of two bastion fronts looking northward, and connecting with the gorge line along the hill crest of the river bank, which is slightly re-entering. There is no ditch on the gorge which looks toward Franklin. The other faces have good ditches, though the scarps are somewhat crumbled down. The work was well built with breast-height gabionade revetments, and embrasures formed with facines. A long traverse extends nearly the whole length of this work. The sides of the traverse are supported by hurdle-work. All this kind of construction upon the fort is somewhat rotten and is therefore broken in many places. The bomb-proof, which leaks badly, consists of two apartments, one of which was probably used as a magazine. Fort Granger stands on an elevation about 100 feet above the river. It is now in reality dismantled, both guns and gun platforms having been removed; yet there is a small detachment living in tents within the fort. If a single company is deemed sufficient for the garrison, it should occupy Fort Granger and keep it in order. There is a small redoubt on a hill about one mile and a quarter distant from Fort Granger, which looks into this work. It has a little keep within it. Its occupation was important on account of its position. Other batteries were constructed on prominence to the north of Franklin, but they have long since been abandoned. The sketch accompanying this report shows the forms of the forts and their positions.


Is twenty-eight miles from Nashville, on the Louisville road. Near the depot stands Fort Thomas, a star redoubt, with six salients built upon a slight elevation. But a short distance beyond is a higher crest, from which the fort is not defiladed. An interior bomb-proof block-house would have made this work quite strong. It is now capable of good defense. Its parapet, however, between five and six feet thick, is rather too slight as against artillery. The ditch is deep and a good obstacle; the scarp and counterscarp are reverted with sods, and the parapet is preserved in the same manner; logs and rails form the breast-height revetment. In each salient is a platform and three embrasures to allow the guns to fire in three directions. These embrasures are not deep, made of logs, and are entirely too open at the throat. The command of the fort is high and the terre-plein is from eight to nine feet below the interior crest. The inclosed space is about equivalent to a square of 200 feet sides. Within the fort is a magazine in fair condition and covered with earth from three to four feet thick. There are also two water-tanks. At the entrance way is a draw bridge which is covered by a redan-shaped traverse. The fort is kept in very good order by the First Ohio Battery, who garrison it. Their barracks are near, between the work and the railroad. Fort Thomas will doubtless be held and there will be no expenditures of any amount connected with its preservation.

* * * *


The road between Nashville and Gallatin and beyond, to the State line, is well defended by block-houses and stockades. Since December last two additional have been commenced, the material being now ready for setting up the structures. The block-houses that existed along the railroad from Stevenson to Decatur and thence to Nashville, for the protection of the bridges, with few exceptions were destroyed by the enemy at the time of Hood's invasion. On the retreat of the rebel army their reconstruction was commenced under the direction of Maj.'s Willett and O'Connell, of Col. Merrill's regiment. Those between Nashville and Columbia are mostly set up, but are not yet finished. Beyond Columbia, toward Pulaski, the material for these constructions is prepared. Little has been done between Pulaski and Decatur....As the positions selected for most of these block-houses in the river bottoms are unhealthy, and as a large portion of the country on the railroad line from Stevenson by Decatur to Pulaski is swampy, it does not seem advisable to build block-houses at every railroad trestle. It would be better to place these structures at or near the principal bridges and stations, the sites being selected with some view to health, avoiding low swampy positions and river bottoms. One-half the number designed will be sufficient between Pulaski and Stevenson....

In concluding this series of reports upon the defenses of the Department of the Cumberland, it gives me pleasure to bear testimony to the great amount of labor expended upon them, both at the principal depots and upon the long lines of communication. These lines have been well protected against guerrilla bands and large raiding detachments. Many of the less important works have been executed under commanding officers of posts, of limited experience, and it could not be expected that they would be scientifically planned and thoroughly finished, with all the interior structures essential to convenience, protection, and strength. That would have required the constant superintendence of skilled engineers, whereas few were available, and a greater amount of labor than could be obtained, especially from small commands far back on the lines of communication and free from the pressure of an enemy's presence. The application of the double-cased block-house to the protection of the railroad bridges is very creditable to Col. Merrill and his assistant, Maj. Willett, who for the past year has superintended railroad defenses in this department. Capt. Barlow, of the Corps of Engineers, has had charge of the defenses of Nashville since November last, and has performed his trust ably and faithfully. Gen. Morton while with the Army of the Cumberland was chief engineer and directed the earlier works of the Department. He was assisted at times by Lieut. Burroughs and Lieut. Willett. As the principal works of the department will be held for a year, perhaps permanently, it is proper that their garrisons should gradually improve, strengthen and finish them. The interior keep is essential to the strength of field redoubts of weak profile and without flanking arrangements. I doubt if any other military department has been more thoroughly defended during the war by block-houses and redoubts than the Department of the Cumberland. Sketches of Dalton, Huntsville, Decatur, Athens, Columbia, Franklin, and Gallatin accompanying this report.[6]

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Z. B. TOWER, Brig. Gen. and Insp. Gen. of Fortifications, Mil. Div. of the Miss.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 977-981.

          10, "I furnished the timber but Hollins refused to pay me." The complaint of ex-slave James Hodges of Bedford County to the United States Provost Marshal

I have been at work for Middleton Hollins a citizen of Bedford Co Tenn [sic] since the laws of Aug 1864. I commenced by cooking for him, which I did for a month for this he was to pay me $1.50 per day. The next month I was engaged in hewing cross ties for which I was to receive $2.00 per day. Another month at hewing trestle timbers Hollins agreeing to pay me $2.50 per day. The next three months he engaged me to hew ties and trestle timber, for ties $2.00 per day I worked about half the time hewing trestle timbers and half hewing ties. My boy worked for Hollins four months for which he agreed to pay him one dollar per day. I making this statement I have not reckoned in a month which we both lost. On a settlement with Hollins he paid me but $63.00 he said I had drawn $100.00 worth of rations which covered the whole amount. This was not true as I had drawn $10.00 worth. In another bargain he hired me to furnish him with 20 sticks of timber 21 ft long 8 by 10 inches sq for which he agreed to pay me $50.00. I furnished the timber but Hollins refused to pay me. I then furnished him with twenty-five sticks of timber 16 ft long & 8 by 10 inches square for which he agreed to pay me $16.00 but failed to do so. I then furnished him with five sticks of timber 25 ft long 8 by 10 inches square another five sticks twenty one ft long 10 inches sq. 1 stick twenty seven ft long 10 in sq. There was to have been five sticks of the last but the timber ran out. Hollins owed him Hodge twenty four dollars Mary Hodge $16.00 for cooking. Hollins hired another of his boys at $1.00 per week his work amounting to $10.00 Hollins owed me $2.00 more for bottoming chairs and $2.00 for making a rack besides $10.00 in money which I lent him. William Jolly was my boss during the time I worked for Hodge owed me $8.50

Blood and Fire, pp. 183-184.


[1] As cited in:

[2] Most likely a misspelling of "igniferous," to produce fire.

[3] Most likely the plural of "laddy," or "boys," and not a misspelling of 'ladies."

[4] Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee calls this an action.

[5] A village in Ohio.

[6] See Plate CXV, maps 3-9 of the Atlas.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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