Saturday, June 20, 2015

6.20.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes


          20, East Tennessee Unionist resolutions to secede from Tennessee and remain in the Union

KNOXVILLE, TENN., June 20, 1861.


The undersigned memorialists, in behalf of the people of East Tennessee, beg leave respectfully to show that at a convention of delegates holden [sic] at Greeneville on the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th days of June instant, in which was represented every county of East Tennessee, except the county of Rhea, it was.

Resolved, First. "That we do earnestly desire the restoration of peace to our whole country, and most especially that our own section of the State of Tennessee shall not be involved in civil war."

Second. "That the action of the State Legislature in passing the so called 'declaration of independence' and in forming the 'military league' with the Confederate States and in adopting other acts looking to a separation of Tennessee from the Government of the United States, is unconstitutional and illegal, and therefore not binding upon us as loyal citizens."

Third. And it was further resolved, "That in order to avert a conflict with our brethren in other parts of the State and desiring that every constitutional means shall be resorted to for the preservation of peace, we do therefore constitute and appoint O. P. Temple, of Knox; John Netherland, of Hawkins, and James P. McDowell, of Greene, commissioners, whose duty it shall be to prepare a memorial and cause the same to be presented to the Gen. Assembly of Tennessee, now in session, asking its consent that the counties composing East Tennessee and such other counties in Middle Tennessee as desire to co-operate with them, may form and erect a separate State."

The idea of a separate political existence is not a recent one, but it is not deemed necessary here to re-state the geographical, social, economical, and industrial reasons which have often been urged in support of it. The reason which operated upon the convention and seemed to them conclusive was the action of the two sections respectively at the election held on the 8th instant to determine the future national relations of the State. In that election the people of East Tennessee, by a majority of nearly 20,000 votes, decided to adhere to the Federal Union, established prior to the American Revolution, and to which Tennessee was admitted in the year 1796; while the rest of the State is reported to have decided by a majority approaching even more nearly to unanimity to leave the Federal Union and to join the body politic recently formed under name of the Confederate States of America. The same diversity of sentiment was exhibited, but less distinctly, at the election on the 9th of February last, when the people of East Tennessee decided by a heavy majority against holding a convention to discuss and determine our Federal relations, overcoming by nearly 14,000 the majority in the rest of the State in favor of such a convention. This hopeless and irreconcilable difference of opinion and purpose leaves no alternative but a separation of the two sections of the State, for it is not to be presumed that either would for a moment think of subjugating the other, or of coercing it into a political condition repugnant alike to its interest and to its honor. Certainly the people of East Tennessee entertain no such purpose toward the rest of the State; and the avowals of their western brethren in connection with their recent political action have been too numerous and explicit to leave us in any doubt as to their views. It remains, therefore, that measures be adopted to effect a separation amicably, honorably, and magnanimously, by a settlement of boundaries so as to divide East Tennessee and any contiguous counties or districts which may desire to adhere to her from the rest of the State, and by a fair, just, and equitable division of the public property and the common liabilities. It has occurred to the undersigned as the best method of accomplishing this most desirable end that your body should take immediate action in the premises by giving a formal assent to the proposed separation, pursuant to the provisions of Section 3, Article 4, of the Constitution of the United States, and by convoking a convention representing the sovereign power of the people of the respective divisions of Tennessee, with plenary authority to so amend the constitution of the State as to carry into effect the change contemplated. With a view to such action, or to action leading to the same result, the undersigned ask permission to confer with your body, either in general session or through a committee appointed for this purpose, so as to consider and determine the details more satisfactorily than could otherwise be done.

Awaiting a response to this memorial, the undersigned beg to add assurances of every endeavor on their part not only to preserve the peaceful relations heretofore subsisting between the people in the two portions of the State, but to remove as far as possible all causes of disturbance in the future, so that each may be left free to follow its chosen path of prosperity and honor, unembarrassed by any collision with the other.




OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. I, pp. 178-179.

          20, Excerpt from a letter written at Camp Trousdale; Dr. U. G. Owen, 20th Tennessee, to his wife, Laura

Camp Trousdale, June 20th [18]61

Mrs. U.G. Owen

My Dearly beloved & Sweet Wife [sic]

* * * *

I hope you are well satisfied. Live well & enjoy yourself at your father's. Laura a camp life is hard, bread & meat to eat, no milk nor butter, although we get a good deal of eatables [sic] from the country, every day some of the boys getting boxes from home. Several [of] our company have been home. Several have been sick. We have plenty of fine cold water, best spring in the state. I was beaten for Asst. Surgeon by one vote the officers only voted. Prof A Win, Maj Duffy, [sic] & Capt Rucker [sic] left for me & went home but my opponents took that advantage and would not let their votes be put in-that beat me-there is a good deal [of] excitement about it in the Regiment. Some want the Election contested because it was thought wrong. The Regiment [all officers] say that justly I am the choice. Colonel Battle says I must have some position in the Army as a Surgeon if the war goes on. I have had an offer of a position in the Hospital. [sic] I don't know whether I will take it or not yet.

We have about six thousand men in Camp Trousdale. Several big dances every night, great excitement all the time, amusement of every kind on earth you could think of. Great many ladies [sic] visit us from the country dance &c. There is [sic] about 1500 tents stretched here it looks like a city-it is quite beautiful to see it.

We have quite a bad place to write letters-some write on drum [sic] heads some on their laps on boxes &c. We had quite a fine dinner today. Capt. Rucker brought some boxes with him. Laura [sic] the boys are worse than children about something to eat. Sometimes we get molasses, we get coffee & sugar, biscuits [sic] without lard or soda. [sic] We soldiers make very rough biscuits. No knives & forks. We have a tin pan plate a tin cup, a tin canteen and a leather strap across our shoulder to carry water in to drink when far from water.

My dear Laura I tell you that the world has no charms for me when separated from my dear sweet little wife. [sic] God bless you...I will try to get home by July or before. Some are very anxious to go home, but all seem to enjoy themselves very well. Some have deserted. We have some prisoners under guard now who deserted but were caught and will be tried as deserters. Dear I will try to discharge my duty as a soldier. I will not do anything to disgrace you nor myself. [sic] I will die in the field of battle Rather [sic] than Return [sic] disgracefull [sic]. [sic]

Our sleeping is rather bad. I did not get but one blanket-nothing but a common blanket. My throat has been a little sore. With this exception I have enjoyed fine health. I lost my pin cushion & needles &c. I want you to make me another one....

Dear I Don't [sic] know how long we will remain at Camp Trousdale. We may be ordered from here soon. I may fall in battle in less than two months. If I do I will be a little ahead of all the rest of mankind on the road we all must travel. I hope to see you once more on earth but if I do not I want you to try [to] live honest & upright during [the] time of your widowhood & be ready at all times to die for a better world than this & finally get to heaven [sic] where parting is no more....

... your unworthy servant,

Dr. U. G. Owen

Dr. U.G. Owen to Laura Owen, June 20, 1861.[1]

          20, Major-General Gideon J. Pillow's situation report for military measures taken in West Tennessee, including plans to stretch a chain across the Mississippi River to blockade Federal gunboats, etc.


Memphis, June 20, 1861


Secretary of War, C. S. A.

I have now in the field all the force we can possibly arm. You have here 2,000 flint-lock muskets, which I ask your permission to use. We are in the Confederate States Government, as you know, by a large majority of the popular vote-say 70,000-and our army is a part of the forces of the Confederate States, subject to your orders. I suppose we have 300,000 men in the State who have tendered their services more than we have the means of arming. Can you permit me to issue these arms? I telegraphed you sometime since. In reply you said the President had written to Governor Harris. Governor Harris informs that he has not received any letter from the President. I have my defensive works here nearly completed, and we have on hand in the State about 15,000 armed men, and this force would be materially strengthened if the Arkansas and Tennessee troops were under the same officer, so that the forces of both States could be concentrated upon a threatened approach of the enemy. With these forces united we could advance in a short time to the relief of Missouri. I have applied to the Governor of the State for permission to assume the offensive just as soon as I can be assured of my position here. I am preparing to effectually blockade the river at Randolph by a ship-cable chain, supported by buoys, anchors, &c. This barricade will arrest any fleet of boats that may attempt a descent on the river under my batteries, so that my guns will sink and burn them up with hot shot. I have six batteries, mounting about thirty heavy guns, completed. All my defensive works will be completed this week, and I can be prepared to advance to the assistance of Missouri in a few days. I can dislodge the Cairo forces, and will do it if authority is given for that purpose and I am allowed to use the Arkansas forces. Before assuming the offensive I deem it prudent to strengthen the forces at Union City, as I shall require a portion of that force to go forward. Please answer as promptly as your other engagements will permit, and say if I can be allowed to issue the flint-lock muskets, and if I can advance into Missouri, turning Kentucky, and if the forces at Corinth and Arkansas can be placed under my orders for a forward movement. I send this dispatch by Major [?] Martin, who will apply to you for authority to raise a regiment for the service of the Confederate States. He is a talented and highly accomplished officer and gentleman, and I warmly recommend him as fitted to command a regiment, and hope you will commission him.

* * * *

GID. J. PILLOW, Maj. Gen, Commanding army of Tennessee

P.S. If the President has not yet ordered the [steamer] McRae up, let it be done as promptly as possible. They have an armed steam-tug at Cairo that is sweeping the river above my batteries, seizing all the steamboats, completely controlling everything out of reach of my batteries. They tonight seized the steamer Kentucky, belonging to this city. We cannot approach the Missouri shore, and yet my Government has just approved of my purpose to forward to the relief of Missouri. I must have the support of the Corinth forces and the Arkansas troops. Give me power and I will advance to the relief of Missouri.

* * * *

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 112- 113.

          20, A visit to the Southern Mothers' Hospital in Memphis

The Southern Mother's Association

We yesterday visited the hospital of this association on Second street. We wish we had the power possessed by the demon in Le Diable Boiteaux, who shoed to Don Cleophas what was passing in the interior of every house in Madrid, that we might lay open to the gaze of every one of our readers the work of kindness and mercy we witnessed in operation yesterday at the Mother's Home. More than forty soldiers, principally from Arkansas companies, lay stretched on their beds, and flitting among them with cheering smiles and eyes beaming with compassion, were the ladies who were taking their turn for the day at the duty of nursing. Laying aside every fastidiousness unsuited to the occasion, with gentle hands and sweet words, they tendered their services to the sick, with the devotion of self to the welfare of others, with a surrender of personal convenience that reminded us of the descriptions we have read of Florence Nightingale at Scutari. It was an exemplification, and no mean one, of the spirit of the master whose example they follow, as manifested by him when he restored the sick to health, and when his sympathy for human distress exhibited itself in the tears shed beside the grave of Lazarus. Unobtrusively, and with no idea of display in the eyes of the world, these true Samaritans, these genuine women—for that term comprehends all of purity and goodness that is in our nature—they administered the healing draught, fanned the sunken cheek, and softly soothed the restlessness of pain. God bless them, "of such is the kingdom of heaven;" "I was sick and ye visited me;" "inasmuch as ye did it unto one of the least of these, ye did it unto me."

We must not forget to include as a sharer in the labor of love, the valuable services of Dr. Curry, who is devoting his services, without fee or reward, to the patients at the Mothers' Home. This institution has got into active operation almost without public knowledge, but all who wish well to the soldier, all who have brothers, sons or husbands, among their country's defenders, who may in some distant spot require the kind aid of woman when sickness comas, or when the fate of battle brings suffering, should be ready to give active assistance, if called upon, in this holy work. W. B. Greenlaw, Esq., has generously furnished the building in which the establishment is located, and the gas company, with thoughtful kindness, have put up fittings and are supplying gas gratuitously, as we learn from Dr. Curry, for they have themselves made no parade of the fact. We hope the southern Mothers' Home will have a kindly thought in every breast, and that every matron in Memphis will hold herself ready to contribute attendance, or aid by any means in her power, if wanted. The managers of the Home are resolved to reject no applicants, but to afford to every sick soldier who may be placed in their care, all that his necessities and his sufferings may require, and in doing this they rely confidently upon the sympathy and participation of the ladies and citizens of Memphis, which we are certain will be freely extended when called for.

Memphis Daily Appeal, June 21, 1861.

          20, Newspaper report on some Secessionists activities in Tennessee

The Memphis Appeal of the 18th [Tuesday] has a letter from Union City saying that the citizens there make the soldiers pay double prices for all they buy. The writer detests people who impose upon poor soldiers who left home with but little money for the defence of their country's rights. He adds that there are 10,000 volunteers here and more coming.


There were not many troops in the city of Memphis, the main body being four miles back.

The heaviest battery in the South is at Randolph, and it would be utterly impossible for any force, however large, to pass within range. The number of men stationed there are variously estimated at from 1500 to 6000.

At Union City there is trouble among the men-the Tennessee troops wishing to rally around Memphis, while the Mississippians express a desire to march on Columbus, fortify the town, and provoke Gen. Prentiss into hostilities. The guns at Union City are of small caliber, but they have some thirty-two pounders, while the approaches to Columbus are of such a nature as to anger a battery of such a character as they would make by no means formidable.


Philadelphia Inquirer June 20, 1861.

          20, News Items from Tennessee

The Memphis Appeal of the 18th[?], says that one hundred head of Texas cattle were received there; also large lots of powder and lead.

The Lawrenceburg, Tenn., Flag, of the 15th says that during the progress of a Union meeting, near Knoxville, on the Wednesday previous to the election, a train bearing Confederate troops was fired into by Union men. All railroad bridges in the vicinity are guarded by secessionists.

The Jonesboro express [sic] for a meeting of East Tennessee Convention, and expresses the hope that the convention would submit to the decision of the State.

~ ~ ~

Daily Cleveland Herald, June 20, 1861. [2]


          20, Confederate Grand Review and other news from Spring Hill

From Spring Hill

Special Correspondence of the Daily Rebel.

Headquarters, 2d Brigade

Near Spring Hill, Tenn., June 23, 1862

We had a grand review on the 20th [of June] by Brig. General Frank Armstrong, which passed off with great éclat. A great many fair faces cheered us with their presence. Gen. Forrest was present though not quite able to ride on horseback.[3] After the review we adjourned to Gen. Forrest's quarters to partake of a sumptuous repast prepared by the courteous gentlemen of his staff and their lady friends. Our gallant General has so far recovered from his wound as to be able to take the field again. The enemy have been very quiet during the week, they however drove in our pickets on Sunday evening last on the Carter's creek road, near Hillsboro' Tenn., but went back faster than they came after receiving the fire of our reserves-we lost one man killed.

Today we are preparing three days rations preparatory to a move in some direction unknown to me.

The wheat and corn crops through here are indeed magnificent, the harvest of the former almost ended.

Old Rosy seems to be very busily engaged in massing troops in the vicinity of Triune; a vigilant watch is kept upon the "lager beer" General by our watchful commander and when he moves from or against us, he will find us prepared.

Our command is in fine health and spirits.

More anon.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, July 2, 1862.

          20, SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 5, requiring Memphis city police to report to Provost Marshal and take the oath of allegiance

The officers of the Police of the city of Memphis are hereby required, within three days, to come before the Provost Marshal and take the oath of allegiance as prescribed by said Marshal for those asking passes.

All police officers refusing to comply with this order will be arrested and detained for trial.

James R. Slack, Provost Marshal

Memphis Daily Union Appeal, July 7, 1862[4]

          20, GENERAL ORDERS No. 8, relative to city officials taking the oath of allegiance

Headquarters, U. S. Force, Memphis, June 20, 1862

Members of the Board of Aldermen, the Mayor, City Recorders, and all other persons discharging any official duty within the city of Memphis, and under the charter thereof, are required to take the oath of allegiance or in default thereof will be regarded as sympathizing, aiding and abetting rebellion and will be treated as only traitors deserve.

Memphis Union Appeal, July 7, 1862[5]

          20, Proclamation to the people of Memphis

The city of Memphis now being in possession of Federal forces, the rights of persons and property under the constitution and laws of the United States, having been restored to the citizens of a common country, and persons living in the city and vicinity are invited to resume their usual avocations, and restore that confidence which is so necessary to the peace, happiness, and future prosperity of a people, who have so long been accustomed to the blessings of the best Government ever vouchsafed to mankind. In view of these facts, the people are invited to come to the city and purchase supplies for their necessary wants, assuring them that in so doing the power of the Federal Government will extend any protection in the legitimate pursuits their interests may demand.

JAMES R. SLACK, Colonel Commanding

Memphis Union Appeal, July 7, 1862.

          20, Report relative to Confederate depredations in Cumberland Gap environs

CUMBERLAND GAP, June 20, 1862.

Col. FRY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

I have great need of two regiments of cavalry, and hope that they will be sent me immediately.

The rebel cavalry are committing atrocious outrages, and I have not the means to protect the people. With one regiment much could be done, and with two I could give immediate security to the people of this portion of the State.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 43.

          20, Major-General William T. Sherman reports on progress of repair of the Memphis to Charleston Railroad


Gen. HALLECK, Corinth, Miss.:

I am afraid of being caught on the question of rations. My orders were for twenty days' from Chewalla. This may prove a little short, but must last till the 30th. I have, say, 14,000 men, including Hurlbut, who eat near 20 wagon loads a day. It is 50 miles to Memphis direct and 65 around by Somerville, the only safe way for a small escort. It will take seven days at the best for a wagon train to make the round trip. I think I can get the track through in all next week, but it is a blind chance, too uncertain to risk, as my facilities for work and progress are of the commonest kind. If you would send me a telegraphic order to the commanding officer at Memphis to work out of meet us our progress would be double. I can send such an order through by courier.

Might it not be well for me to move the bulk of my division half way in, then establish our system of supplies, and return to this neighborhood?

* * * *

Am I to understand your telegram of to-day that I hold the bulk of my division in front of the Junction, or merely take it as one of the points under my protection?

The bridges here, and I suppose at Moscow, are done, and my working parties must push west, and the want of provisions may also compel me to move the bulk of the forces eastward within reach of supplies. I could leave one regiment at the Junction, one at Moscow, and halt the main army, say 10 miles west of Moscow, whence it would be comparatively safe to dispatch wagons. Would this meet your approval?

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 18-19.

          20, Letter to Military Governor Andrew Johnson from a Captain of Volunteer Illinois Cavalry to curtail the activities of the Seventh Kansas Cavalry in West Tennessee

Trenton Tenn., June 20, 1862

Hon Andrew Johnson


I consider it my duty as an officer in the United States Volunteer Army sworn to support the laws and constitution of my Country and also as a former citizen of this State; to inform your how matter are conducted by a portion of this Army, and urgently call on you to exercise the power invested in yourself to put a stop to the theiveing [sic] propensities of a portion of this command. I have more particular reference to some Kansas Troops, truthfully called "Kansas" Jahywakers" [sic] which you well known is the Military name for "Theif "[sic][.] I have seen some of their wagons with negro [sic] women and children loaded on them. the [sic] impression that one such Regt will give to our would be friends through this country will more than counteract the good effects of half a dozen good unions Regts [sic]. I do not wish to lay all the blame at the door of these "jayhawkers[.]" other of our troops are slightly innoculated [sic] with the same disease or distemper as you may call it. I am satisfied that the general sentiment of the people her is Union if they were assured of there [sic] rights and property being protected. as [sic] things are going here at present they have no such [sic] assurances and feel as though all the falsehoods which have been told them of our coming here to rob and devastate their property was coming true. therefore [sic] I beseech Your Excellency to make some enquiry [sic] in this matter and as far as your authority permits throw the shadow of your protecting wing over of now troubled and bewildered fellow citizens. I hold myself personally responsible for any statement I have made her. I do it from a sense of duty to myself an of respect to the high and responsible [sic] office which your hold[.]

I have the Honor to be Your Obt Servt

Samuel P. Tipton

Capt. Co. E., 2nd Regt. [sic] Ill. Cav

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 492.

          20, Sickness, gunshot wounds, death and boils; excerpts from the letter of Federal Surgeon W. M. Eames, stationed in Murfreesboro, to his wife in Ohio

Union Coll. Hospital

June 20, 1862

Dearest wife,

I sit down to write after a hard day's work, to let you know that I am quite well & that every thing is about as usual around the Hospital. We have more [sic] men around us now than ever before since the Division left. In Ward C there is not less than 7 very [sic] men of whom 5 will die I think & they have all come in within the past 5 days except one. One man died last night who came in 6 hours before. He was taken sick on the march to McMinnville & hauled in an ambulance over the hills & back & died the next day. Several others were nearly as bad. One man with a gunshot wound similar to that of Whitney's came in yesterday & I presume we'll have to have his hand amputated. My boil is better. I opened it this morning & got out the core & hope to sleep tonight. I has been the worst affliction I have had for many days.

*  *  *  *

….We have sent away not less than 60 men this week from this establishment….There are at least 20 men in the house dangerously sick, most of whom will not see next week at this time. There are 172 in the house tonight….

William Mark. Eames Papers

          20, Loyalty and ice in Memphis


The Herald of the 20th of June contains three columns of revelations upon the encouraging developments of "Loyalty" to Lincoln in Memphis, and states that citizens are rebel soldiers are coming to "take the oath"  at the rate of 350 per day. What is strange, however, unlike Lincoln, Seward, and Gen. Scott, they do not take it with ice. Notwithstanding there is a great abundance of ice in Memphis. All these columns of brags are wound up with the following extract from the Memphis Argus:

The Demand For Ice.-Never since Memphis attained the dimension of a city has as little demand existed for ice at present. Some of our dealers in the article have full warehouses, and their daily  sales amount to comparatively nothing. One dealer informs us that although at this time last year his sales amounted daily to between and twenty tons, now the scarcely reach a ton. Ice is receiving the cold shoulder this season.

Think of that! With a Federal army in Memphis to aid the consumption. Is it not too plain to be misunderstood, that such is the popular detestation of the Lincolnites in Memphis that the people drink warm river water, rather than cool it with ice brought Northern invaders!

Macon Daily Telegraph, July 1, 1862


20, Skirmish at Knoxville [see June 14-24, 1863, Sanders' Raid in East Tennessee above]

KNOXVILLE, June 20, 1863. The enemy attacked us with five regiments mounted infantry and two pieces of rifle artillery last night. This morning we drove him back, and he will try to escape via Rogersville through Big Creek, Moccasin or Mulberry Gap, attempting to destroy bridges at Strawberry Plains before leaving. Your Fifty-first [Fifty-fourth] Virginia has been ordered to that point. Gen. Buckner left for Clinton yesterday.

V. SHELIHA, Chief of Staff.


Report of Lieut. Col. Milton A. Haynes, C. S. Artillery.

DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, June 21, 1863.

SIR: At the request of Col. [R. C.] Trigg, temporarily in command of the troops at Knoxville in the absence of Maj.-Gen. Buckner, I have the honor to report the following particulars in regard to the battle of yesterday:

On the 18th instant I returned to this City from Sevier [County], where I had been in command of an expedition against a party of bushwhackers. On my arrival, I learned that Maj.-Gen. Buckner had marched toward Big Creek Gap with all the artillery and all the other disposable force at this post, except Col. Trigg's Fifty-first [Fifty-fourth] Virginia Regt. [sic] and Col. [J. J.] Finley's Seventh [Sixth] Florida Regt. [sic]; effective force about 1,000 men.

On the morning of the 19th, I was informed by Maj. Van Sheliha, acting chief of staff, that the enemy in large force had passed by Loudon, and were at Lenoir Station, 24 miles from Knoxville, and he requested me to take charge of the artillery defense of the City, and to organize my force from the convalescents in the hospitals and from citizens to man my guns then in the City. At the same time he gave the following order:


Maj. [S. H.] Reynolds, chief of ordnance, will issue to Lieut.-Col. Haynes' corps artillery, C. S. Army, as many field pieces as can possibly but in condition with a few hours. He will also furnish Lieut.-Col. Haynes with all the necessary equipments, and with 100 rounds of ammunition.

By order of Maj.-Gen. Buckner:

VON SHELIHA, Chief of Staff.

In obedience to this order (given to me in absence of Gen. Buckner), I went to the ordnance department and found eight pieces of field artillery there, but no harness. Maj. Reynolds promptly said that in one hour he would have the ammunition-chests filled, and that they would then be subject to my orders. I then went to Maj. [J.] Glover, chief quartermaster of East Tennessee, and requested him to send to the ordnance department 70 horses or mules, with harness and drivers for every two.

In the mean time the citizens of Knoxville had been ordered to report to me or to Col. [E. D.] Blake for duty the defense of the City Finding myself too much engaged to obey this order in person, I appointed Maj. H. Baker (formerly of the artillery of Tennessee) to receive and assign them to duty as they reported. At 3 [o'clock] in the afternoon of that day [19th] it was known that the enemy was within 5 miles of the City, and their advance were skirmishing with 37 of our cavalrymen (all we had at Knoxville) at Mrs. Lomis' house. At this hour Maj. Glover had already sent the requisite number of horses, mules, and drivers for the eight pieces of artillery at the ordnance department. I immediately posted them in sections at College Hill, under Maj. Baker (the exposed point); second, on McGee's Hill, under Capt. Hugh L. W. McClung, and, third, under Lieut. Patterson and Lieut. J. J. Burroughs, at Summit Hill, in front of the ordnance department. This last battery had been fortified during the afternoon, under the superintendence of Capt. [W. F.] Foster, of the Engineers (by my order), with a cotton-bale revetment, the cotton bales having been promptly sent from all quarters by Maj. Glover, chief quartermaster. During that evening, the enemy failing to advance, Col. Trigg (temporarily in command at Knoxville), without consulting, me removed Maj. Baker's battery from College Hill to a point near the asylum hospital. In the evening, upon hearing the reports of my officers, I ascertained that about 200 persons, citizens, and convalescent soldiers from hospitals, had reported for duty, and that each of my batteries was fully manned, although in the morning of the same day there was no artillery force whatever in the City.

During the night [19th] I made a reconnaissance, passing the enemy's lines as a farmer, giving all the information they desired in regard to the state of the defenses, telling them that they could march into Knoxville without the loss of a man. I told them that I saw Col. Haynes about sunset, moving some cannon toward the depot-I thought about four in all-drawn by mules. Having passed to a point at which it was necessary for me to turn off, and having all the information I could obtain, I returned to Knoxville at midnight. [19th] I visited all my batteries, and advised them that early in the morning the enemy would attack, and directed Capt. McClung and Maj. Baker to consider themselves as reserves, to be moved wherever needed.

During the night [19th-20th] the pickets of the enemy advanced upon the City, but our pickets, thrown out by Col. Trigg, after an hour's skirmish, drove them back at about 2 o'clock in the morning. [20th]

At 7 o'clock on the 20th four pieces of artillery, detached by Gen. Buckner from his command, reached the ordnance depot (where I then was), and I immediately conducted them to the rear as a reserve. I then went to Summit Hill battery, where I found Col. Trigg and his chief of staff (Maj. Sheliha) near the hospital. While in consultation with them, we saw the enemy marching at double-quick time on our right beyond the work-shops, where we had neither battery nor soldiers to oppose them. Col. Trigg soon afterward ordered Col. Finley's Seventh [Sixth] Regt. [sic] Florida Volunteers and two pieces of [B. F.] Wyly's battery to take possession of Temperance Hill; but before this order was given I had taken a section of Wyly's battery and moved them at a gallop to a point immediately in front of the advancing column, and opened fire upon them with spherical case. The enemy took shelter behind houses and fences, and threw forward sharpshooters within 200 yards of our battery, we being entirely unsupported by infantry and 400 yards from any support. At the same time a battery of 3-inch rifled guns belonging to the enemy opened upon us at 800 yards, and during the first two or three shots killed and wounded some of our men and several horses. I then advanced the battery, and ordered them not to fire at the artillery, but at the infantry. The enemy at this moment forming column, advanced rapidly, and for a moment I supposed the day was lost. At this moment the chief of the 12th howitzer said to me, "Col., I can't hit them fellows; please get down and try it yourself." I dismounted, took my post as a gunner of the left, ordered canister, and sighted the piece myself, and after two rounds the enemy was in full retreat and the day was won. During the same time the battery under Lieut. J. J. Burroughs and Lieut. Patterson, on Summit Hill, were also engaged and kept up a continual fire during which Capt. McClung and Lieut. Fellows were killed. The section under Lieut. Whelon having reached Temperance Hill, opened fire upon the retreating enemy, which, with the fire from Wyly's battery, Burroughs' battery, and Maj. Baker's, completed the victory.

During this fight, although sharpshooters were sent out against us, none were sent out to sustain us, although 1,000 men were immediately behind us.

The enemy had one battery of artillery and about 2,600 men opposed to about 1,000 men, part of whom were citizens and convalescent soldiers. That they were fully beaten may appear from the fact that the commanding officer of the army sent to me a message by Lieut. Lutrell, of the C. S. Army, a prisoner, paroled by him, to the effect:

I send you my compliments, and say that but for the admirable manner with which you managed your artillery I would have taken Knoxville to-day.

It is not out of place for me to say that Col. E. D. Blake, chief of conscripts and for the day commander of all volunteer infantry, contributed by his zeal and well-known courage to the honorable result.

Among many citizens who reported to me that day for duty, I must not forget to mention Hon. Landon C. Haynes, Hon William H. Sneed, Hon. John H. Crozier, Rev. James H. Martin, and Rev. Mr. Woolfolk, and many others who do not desire me to mention their names. With such compatriots and such fellow-soldiers a man might willingly at any time meet the foe.

Our loss was 2 officers and 2 enlisted men killed, and 4 enlisted men wounded. Loss of enemy, 45.

I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant,

MILTON A. HAYNES, Lieut. Col., Provisional Army Confederate States, Cmdg. Arty.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 391-392.

          20, Skirmish at Strawberry Plains [see June 14-24, 1863, Sanders' Raid in East Tennessee above]

          20, Skirmish at Rogers' Gap [see June 14-24, 1863, Sanders' Raid in East Tennessee above]

No circumstantial reports filed.

          20, Skirmish at Dixon Springs

No circumstantial reports filed.

          20, Skirmish at Jack's Creek

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

          20, Federal forces burn bridge over Holston River [see also June 14, 1863-June 24, 1863-Sanders' Raid in East Tennessee, above]

No circumstantial reports filed.

MORRISTOWN, June 21, 1863.

Maj.-Gen. JONES:

The enemy burned the bridge over the Holston, 16 miles east of Knoxville, last evening. They advanced to within 14 miles of this place this morning and burned a bridge and depot. No troops here except my regiment, Brig.-Gen. Jackson in command.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 882.

          20, "City Morals."

For the week ending yesterday the number of cases tried before Recorder Shane in Police Court, was one hundred and twenty-six (126) [sic]; consigned to the workhouse, twenty (20) [sic]; and sixteen (16) [sic] discharged. The chief misdemeanors were tippling without a license, using hydrant water without authority, and disorderly conduct. The revenue netted was over $627.50. Amount to be paid in labor to the corporation, about $225.

Nashville Daily Press, June 20, 1863.

          20, A wealthy planter's son eschews being drafted in the Confederate army

My son Thomas L. Porter (a conscript) procured a substitute (Near $5,000) [sic] & got a certificate of discharge from the army.

Diary of Nimrod Porter, June 20, 1863.

          20, "Schools and Scholars;" some results of the 1862-1863 public school year in Civil War Memphis

During the past week there were several schools examined by the superintendent of the city public schools. These examinations fully attest the efficiency of the present system of public education. The schools situated on the corner of Main and Overton streets, taught by Miss Brown and Miss Hampton, proved very interesting and fully confirmed our previously formed opinion with regard to public schools. The honors of these schools were conferred upon the following named young gentlemen: Of school No. 3, Peter Tighe, Willie Byland, Frank Humphrey, Matt Carter, Walter F. Prescott and James Dennison. The following are the names of the aspiring youths who bore off the honors at school No. 9: Willie Morning, Mike Ducahart, Willie Littering, Pat Fox, Mike Grady, and Tommy Conway. The school No. 11, taught by Miss Mattie Prewitt, showed the most flattering results. The honors of the school were conferred upon the following young ladies for punctuality, scholarship, and deportment: Miss Emma Mallory, Miss Pennie Sannoner, Miss Lizzie Gibbs, Miss Mattie Sannoner, and Miss Cynthia Hill. Miss Yancey's school, No. 1 was examined with the most gratifying results. The following named pupils were the recipients of the honors of the school for their punctuality, scholarship, and deportment: Charles Burdic, Joseph McIlvaine, Charles Rochell, Ross Duncan, James Burk, and Frank Coppel. We have received reports from to other schools, but by some means they have been mislaid. We will publish them, however, as soon as we can have time to look them up.

Memphis Bulletin, June 20, 1863.

          20, "I think it was too bad to shoot the poor fellow. The mistake was made in enlisting him in the first place." A Wisconsin soldier witnesses an execution in Murfreesboro

Murfreesboro Tenn.

June 20th

Dear friend,

Our Division was called upon today to participate in the execution, by shooting, of a soldier for desertion. He belonging to the 4th Ind. battery of our brigade and deserted to the enemy while we were out on a scout a few weeks ago. He was recaptured within twenty-four hours, dressed in a confederate uniform, claiming to belong to John Morgan's command. He was tried by Court-Martial and sentenced to be shot today. The entire division was formed into two lines, each facing the other about ten paces apart. The prisoner, under a strong guard, was made to walk the length of these lines. Four men marched behind him carrying his coffin. Upon arriving at the prepared grave the coffin was set down, he was made to kneel beside it, his sentence was read to him, a cap was drawn over his face, the order was given to "Fire" and the full penalty for desertion had been paid in his case. I knew this boy-only about seventeen years of age-he was physically weak, and regarded as a rather weak-minded, and this was evident by the fact that he enlisted with the enemy so near to our lines. He appeared to be incapable of realizing that he had done anything wrong. I think it was too bad to shoot the poor fellow. The mistake was made in enlisting him in the first place.

J. M. Randall

James M. Randall Diary

          20, Camp routine in the 5th Iowa Cavalry near Murfreesboro

Today we commenced doing the regular rounds of duty in camp. Reveille blows at daylight. Then stable call, sick call at ½ past 5. Breakfast 6. Boots and saddles for drill, 6:45. To horse 7. Fatigue 7:15. Recall from drill 9. Water call 9:45 and then pasture horses until 11. Dinner roll call 12:30. Guard mounting 1:30. Water and stable call 4. Retreat roll call and dress parade 6. Tattoo Roll call 8. Taps 8:30….

Alley Diary

          20, Rev. Reuben Burrow's escape from the Irving Block prison in Memphis


We learn that Captain R. Burrow, who has been confined in the Irving Block for the last three or four months, made his escape last night. Captain Reuben Burrow, was formally well known as a minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church; more recently, however, he was connected with Richardson's band, where he commanded a company.

Memphis Bulletin, June 21, 1863.

          20, Call for a Union State convention in occupied Nashville


As the time approaches for our Biennial State election, it is proper that the friends of the Government should confer together in relation to it. We therefore respectfully suggest to those of our fellow citizens who desire to maintain the State Government in connection with the Federal Union as it stood prior to the rebellion and the war to meet in convention by their delegates at the Capitol in Nashville, on Wednesday, the 1st day of July next. We trust that a full representation will be present from every county in the State, as the business to be considered is of vital importance to the future welfare.















Nashville, June 20, 1863

Nashville Daily Press, June 30, 1862.

          20, Federal cavalry surprised and taken prisoner near Memphis [see June 21, 1863 – "Today a man drove up to the picket with an old horse and wagon with two quite pretty women in, and wanted to go through…." Fran M. Guernsehy's letter to Fannie, below]

          ca. 20-23, Scout from Jackson to Paris to Fort Heiman, Ky

COLUMBUS, KY., June 23, 1863.

H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief:

Lieut.-Col. Henry telegraphs from Fort Heiman: Scouts just in from Paris, Tenn. No rebels there, but reported between there and Jackson [Tenn.]. Also, that gunboats had arrived from Hamburg [just south of Pittsburg Landing] reporting large rebel force crossing the west side of Tennessee between Saltillo and Duck River, mostly cavalry, but some artillery. Fired at gunboat Robb, killing 1 man and wounding 2. One rebel captain killed and 7 soldiers wounded. One hundred and fifty refugees came down on gunboat. The cavalry scouts...returning from Jackson, report that an hour before their arrival at Jackson a cavalry force from Gen. Dodge passed through that place from Tennessee River southward on Purdy road, destroying bridges up to Thursday morning [18th]. The rebel Col. [J. F.] Newsom was there with 42 men, and other officers from the rebel army with small commands were moving through Henderson, Madison, and McNairy Counties, recruiting, conscripting, and organizing, but disappeared on the approach of our troops.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, pp. 433-434.


          20, Skirmish at White's Station

No circumstantial reports filed.[6]

          20, The story of Ms. Mary Ann Pitman (a.k.a. Lieutenant Rawley, Mary Hayes, "Mollie"), Lieutenant in Freeman's Infantry and Forrest's cavalry, and a Confederate spy and arms smuggler

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Examination of Mary Ann Pitman by Col. J. P. Sanderson, provost-marshal-general Department of the Missouri.

SAINT LOUIS, June 20, 1864.

I resided near Chestnut Bluff, Tenn.[7], and went into the Confederate service on the breaking out of the rebellion. Myself and Lieut. Craig went around and got together enough volunteers to make up a company, which we took into Freeman's regiment. I was second lieutenant in the infantry. After the battle of Shiloh I commanded the company. I took my company then and joined Forrest's command, as first lieutenant, and acted as such under the name of Lieut. Rawley. While with Forrest's command I was, a large portion of the time, occupied on special service, much of which was of a secret character and in the performance of which I passed in the character of a female. Whilst so employed I was detailed to procure ordnance and ammunition, and came to Saint Louis as Mary Hays.

The first time I came here, which was during the winter of 1864, I stopped at the Everett House. I had been told that the house of Beauvais would supply ammunition for the Confederates. I went there and met John Beauvais. By means of secret signs, known to those in the secret, I made myself known to him and he recognized me. I told him I desired to see him at the Everett House on business, and he called. When he called I told him what my business was and what I wanted, which was caps. I told him that I wanted arms and ammunition, but at that time clothing but caps. He said he would supply me with anything I wanted and brought me $80 worth, which I took down the river on a boat, the name of which I cannot remember. I landed at Randolph and passed through the Federal lines to Forrest. The second time I came up on the City of Alton to Columbus, and from Columbus to Saint Louis on the Von Phul. I went to the Everett House again, but it was crowded, and then I called at Beauvais' office, after which I went to Barnum's and John Beauvais came up to Barnum's to see me. I again told him what the object of my visit was, and he brought about the same number of caps, two pair of Smith & Wesson pistols, and, I think, six boxes of cartridges. I believe that was all I got at that time. I went down on the Von Phul again to Randolph and passed through the lines to Forrest. I came a third time; came up from Randolph on the Hillman, and again stopped at Barnum's. I again sent for Beauvais, and when he came told him what I wanted, all of which he brought to me. He brought $80 worth of caps and pair or two of fine Colt pistols, officer's belt and scabbard, arms and cartridges for--I have forgotten what pistol. There were three boxes. The second time I came I got a silver pencil and a gold pen, and I got a watch mended--that was the second time--I was thinking it was the last time. I got the last time $80 worth of caps and a pair of Colt revolvers, officer's scabbard and belt, gun, cloak, and leggings.

At these different interviews I made known to Mr. Beauvais that these things were for Forrest's command. The first time he said to me that they were talking of conscripting, and he told me that if they did he was going South; if they I did not, he would not go, for he could be of more service to the Confederacy here than in the South; but if they conscripted he was going, for he never would fight for the Federal Government; that he was a Southern man in principle and always had been. He told me he would do anything in the world for the South, and that his father was as good a Southern man as he was, and would do anything for the South. He asked me about how the times were at the South.

The second time I came up I told him about Forrest and Sherman having that fight, and he was glad to hear it, and rejoiced that Forrest gave him a thrashing. He told me if I came there at any time and he was away on business all I had to do was just to make known to his father who I was, and what my business was, and he would let me have anything I wanted, and if he could not supply it himself he would get if for me. His father would to anything I asked in favor of the South. He also told me that his father belonged to this secret order. I never have seen him but twice. The last time I was at his store after he had been arrested.

On these trips which I made I had no interviews with the landlord of the Everett House, nor did I make known to him my business or character. I had an interview with Barnum and his head clerk, Mr. Morrison, and I think also the second time I made known my character to Barnum, that I was detailed by Gen. Forrest. I knew him because he belonged to the same order as I did. The clerk I just told my business. I discovered in my interview with Barnum that he was in the same secrets as myself. His clerks were not, or, if they were, they would not receive any recognition or give any. Yet they said they were Southern men, and would do all they could for the South. The second clerk had been in the Confederate Army, where he was wounded and then discharged. In going down the river these different trips, I made the porter on the Von Phul acquainted with the secret and he hid some things for me. So did the porter on the Hillman and the clerk on the Hillman. Neither of these men belonged to the same secret order. The clerks on the Hillman and Von Phul to, though, but the latter did not conceal anything from me because the porter did what I wanted, and I did not have to call upon him. He told me I could go up and down on the boat whenever I wanted to, and it would not cost me a cent.

After my capture I had an interview with John Beauvais at his store. When I went in he was in the private office back of the store. I went back and spoke to him, and he got up and went back to the back part of the store. His father was selling some jewelry to a lady. He spoke to me and asked me how I came on, and about how times were in the South, and asked me if I was up on the same business, and I said I was. He said, I am sorry, Mollie[8], that I cannot supply you this time, for, he said, they know just what I have got and my father and I and the clerks are under bonds, and I am not allowed to touch or sell anything in that line, but, he said, if you will go on to Cincinnati you can get what you want there, and as soon as this thing is over you shall have anything you want. I had his picture with me when I was captured. I denied to him that I was at Fort Pillow and that I burned his picture. I did not want to let him know I was captured. The picture I actually burned.

I went to this store the last time under the advice of a Memphis detective with a view to see if he would continue the sale after he was arrested. I landed, on the last trip, at Randolph. When I got there I was not going to Forrest; I was going to send him those things, which I did, by one of his officers, Capt. Wright, and was not going. I was going back to Saint Louis. I had sent him a letter stating that I had procured a large quantity of caps, powder, ammunition, &c.; that I had employed Mr. Williams to bring them down. I was waiting for an order from Forrest to say where he wanted them sent to. There was a large quantity, quite a wagonload. I was not going to Forrest myself at all, but when I got there, the next day after I had sent them as many as Capt. Wright and his brother and a negro boy, which he owned, could carry, I sent word to Forrest I intended to go right back to Saint Louis as soon as I could arrange the business there. I received a dispatch from Forrest ordering me to report at his headquarters, about ten miles from Fort Pillow. He wanted me to take my position in the field, as he said he would rather detail ten of his best officers for this business than lose my services at that time. So I started on a mule and was captured. Somebody told on me. They had something in the papers about my being captured--taking an officer's horse away and threatening to shoot him--which was all false. I was taken from the place where I was captured to Fort Pillow. I was captured about five or six miles from Fort Pillow at the house of Mr. Green, a Southern man. I was there, I think, three days; two or three, I am not certain which.

While I was at Fort Pillow I was standing one day some distance from headquarters, and there was a gentleman came up behind me, slapping me on the shoulder and asked if he had the honor of meeting Lieut. Rawley. I said yes. He said that Forrest was coming here with 4,000 men to take the place and he was going to take it if it took every man he had, and he would learn them how to arrest women--he would teach them a lesson. I did not know the man, though his face looked familiar. He turned right away and I went right into the office at headquarters; a short time afterward he came in. He wanted a pass to go out, and a Tennessee soldier who came with him into the office vouched for his loyalty. As Col. Booth was making out a pass for him, I slapped him on the shoulder, when he turned around and said: "Must I grant this pass, Mollie, or must I not?" I said, "Use your own judgment, colonel; you know your own business best." He issued the pass and the man went out. After the man was gone I told Col. Booth what I had heard; that Forrest was coming in a few days with 4,000 men, and he would undoubtedly take the place if he made the attempt. My advice was to evacuate the fort or re-enforce it at once, for if Forrest did get possession the Federal forces, and especially the officers, would be badly used. He told me, "Mollie, now make your preparation to go to Memphis this evening, for I be damned if he shall have you." He then told the captain of Gun-boat No. 7 to stop the first boat that came down, or sink her. I went to Memphis and the fort was taken the next day or day after--I think the day after.

Before my capture my mind and feeling had undergone a very material change from what they were when I started out in the war as to the character of the Northern people and soldiers and the merits of the controversy involved. I started out with the most intense feelings of prejudice against the Northern people. I regarded all I had heard as to their views, character, and purposes to be true, but my intercourse with such as came into our possession during my service in the Confederate Army, and especially my trip to Saint Louis, convinced me of my error in this respect. I found the Union officers and soldiers not to be the desperadoes which I had been taught to believe them to be. At Saint Louis I found business flourishing, people thriving, and everything so entirely different from the condition of things in the South and from what I had supposed to be that my observations could not help but make an impression upon my mind. While it had not for a moment the effect of inducing even a thought in me to desert the Confederate service, and thus be guilty of a dishonorable act, it had, nevertheless, the effect, as I have already stated, of materially changing my views and feelings. This was the condition of my mind when I was captured, and I accordingly immediately resolved to perform an honorable part and do nothing to discredit or disgrace my name. While satisfied that I had been performing services which placed my life at the mercy and disposal of the Federal Government, I felt it to be my duty to tell the truth and do what I could to atone for the past, and resolved to throw myself upon the Government. I resolved, be the result with me personally what it might, never to return to the Confederate service and continue my former career. I accordingly, immediately on my arrival at Fort Pillow, gave such information as I could to vindicate my personal integrity and show the authorities my determination to act in good faith. Acting under this determination, I at once disclosed such information as I believed to be of important use to the Federal authorities. I informed them, without reserve, of all I had done myself, and also stated to Col. Booth that if he would send me with an officer and adequate force I would be able to place him in possession of Gen. Forrest as a prisoner in a short time. I knew him to be that night within ten miles of the fort, and would have had no difficulty in enabling Col. Booth, by adopting my advice, to have taken Forrest, for I knew him to be away from his command at a place designated, where he was to meet me on my return. He was to have met me there for the purpose of bringing my uniform and horse, which he could not trust to another, so that I might change my female apparel and reassume the character of Lieut. Rawley. Col. Booth seemed to believe me, and was anxious to carry my proposition out; yet he feared and hesitated, and after a considerable consultation with other officers, finally resolved not to venture on it.

After my arrival at Memphis I made known to the officers what I had already disclosed to Col. Booth. Among the rest, I gave them an account of my visits to Saint Louis and the purposes for which I went there, which led them to send me here.

* * * *

Question. Do you know of Treasury notes being furnished to the Confederate Government through the means which this order furnishes for communication between the North and South?

Answer. I have no personal knowledge, but I know that the Confederate Government has usually an abundant supply of greenbacks to furnish for raids and other purposes in which it is necessary to use that kind of money. I know this, because on one occasion it became necessary for me to have some, and I called the attention of Gen. Forrest to it. He told me that in a few days he would have an abundance. A few days afterward I called to see him and he furnished me what I needed. At the same time he showed me a letter, which I read. It was dated at Washington and purported to be signed by one Chase and addressed to Gen. Forrest, in which the latter was informed that $20,000 had been forwarded to President Davis at Richmond for $900 in gold. The letter went on to say that Chase had advised President Davis that he would furnish him with as many greenbacks as he wished at the rate of $4 for $1 in gold. When I read this letter--it being signed by Chase--I was under the impression that it was Chase, the Secretary of the Treasury, but it was only an impression and nothing that Forrest had said about the person. There was an officer waiting at the time to see Forrest, and he told me that at some other time, when more at leisure, he would tell me all about this man Chase; that he was an important man--one of our head and leading men at Washington, and a member of the order. I knew he was a member of the order, for the signs of it were in the letter.

* * * *

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 7, pp. 345-350.




[1] Enoch L. Mitchell, ed., "Letters of a Confederate Surgeon in the Army of Tennessee to His Wife," Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. IV, no. 4 (December 1945), pp. 341-343; continued Vol. V, no. 1 (March 1946), pp. 60-81 and Vol. V, no. 2 (June, 1946), pp. 142-181. [Hereinafter cited as: Dr. U. G. Owen to Laura].

[2] As cited in PQCW.

[3] Forrest was wounded in the hip on April 8, 1862, near Michie, McNairy County, in a rear guard action fought as the Confederate army retreated from the Battle of Shiloh. Forrest recuperated in Memphis, joined his command on April 29, but his wound festered and opened again. After surgery and more rest he was back in the saddle by late June 1862, and to conduct his famous raid into Middle Tennessee in July of that year. See: John A Wyeth, Life of General Nathan Bedford Forrest, (np, 1899; rpt. Dayton, OH: Press of Morningside Bookshop, 1975), pp. 78-83.

[4] GENERAL ORDERS, No. 5 is not to be found in the OR.

[5] GENERAL ORDERS, No. 8 is not to be found in the OR.

[6] According to Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee this was an action.

[7] In West Crockett County.

[8] According to Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, (G.& C. Merriam Company; Springfield Mass, 1981), "Mollie," a nickname for Mary, is also defined as a prostitute, a doll, or a gangster's girl friend. It is difficult to say if the use of Mollie was merely out of familiarity or because of her actually bestowing sexual favors on Major Booth and/or General Forrest. Pitman's story seems to be a cross between Helen of Troy and Mata Hari.

Following his investigation into the secret societies Colonel Sanderson had the following to say concerning Mary Ann Pitman:

"This woman was attached to the command of the rebel Forrest, as an officer under the name of Lieut. Rawley; but because her sex afforded her unusual facilities for crossing our lines she was often employed in the execution of important commissions within our territory, and, as a member of the order, was made extensively acquainted with other members, both of the Northern and Southern sections. Her testimony is thus peculiarly valuable, and being a person of unusual intelligence and force of character, her statements are sufficient, pointed, and emphatic... "

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 7, pp. 951-952.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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