Monday, April 18, 2016

Notes from Civil War Tennessee, April 18, 1861-1865.

Notes from Civil War Tennessee,

April 18, 1861-1865.






          18, Reply to Connecticut-Tennessean's offer of support for the Confederacy


THOMAS YEATMAN, Esq., New Haven, Conn.:

SIR: Your communication to the President of the Confederate States has been submitted to this Department, and I am instructed by the Secretary of War to express his warm appreciation of your loyalty and patriotism, as evinced by your proposition. Events indicate even a very short time it will become proper to receive into the forces of this Confederacy troops like those you propose to raise. Confident as we are of our ability to repel all aggression, this Government is disposed to welcome among the defenders of our institutions all such as are willing to assist in the re-establishment of sound principles on this continent. I am further instructed to say that while the Government is not at this moment prepared to accept absolutely your offer it trusts as this Department shall be able to do so, at which time notice of the point within the Confederate States at which you will be received will immediately be forwarded to you. The Secretary offers you the expression of his high esteem.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. J. HOOPER, Private Secretary.

OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 1, p. 225.

          18, Parental influence stifles potential union sentiment in Cleveland

A pleasant day. Perry Gaut and Dr. Carson here this morning to get us to assist making a Union Flag. Mother would not let us....

Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman, p. 91.

18, "The women of Greece took part in their wars, as also the early Saxons and Britons." Woman's role in war

Editors Appeal: While the military pride and spirit of the whole South seems to speak in one common voice for the onward march of men against the uprising and subtle spirit of treachery and anarchy, shall not woman, too, lay their best offerings upon the shrine of her country's honor?

I, for one, tender to my country that which shall not be called by the foolish name of sacrifice, but the sacramental offerings of my best services to either, as a Joan, Catherine, Helena, Nightingale, or an humble Sister of Charity, in any division of the southern army that the commander-in-chief or other officers shall appoint to me. Nay, more: if the fates of war shall choose to crush my brethren beneath the iron heel of their oppressors, in adverse proportions to their might, I will proudly stand in the footsteps of some fallen soldier, and prove to this age that the female virtue which was flanked about with chivalry, has not become extinct with the women of Boetia.[1]

Let the ladies of Memphis and every town in the South organize themselves in  associations for nurses and attendants of those regiments formed in their respective communities, and hold themselves in readiness to join those regiments which shall suffer most in the impending engagements.

For this end, they should provide the associations with such hospital stores and refreshments for the sick and wounded as may be raised by subscription or contributions, thereby giving strength and life to a large proportion of men that must be disabled by the fevers of our climate or the casualties of war.

"This custom, which was invented by the Hungarian and Polish women in their great struggle against superior forces," says a Berlin paper, "was one of the greatest incentives in their success." And be it remembered, that it was not the serf and slave who composed these associations, but the very best classes of ladies in the kingdom. They all accompanied the army in their tedious marches, and bivouacked with the soldiers in their tented cities. In each soldier they recognized a brother, and required no other protection than the emblazoned shield of which nature and religion had made of womanly virtue, for this clashing hour.

The women of Greece took part in their wars, as also the early Saxons and Britons. Such actions have come down to us in the myth of romance from a barbarous age, and are accompanied with the immortality of chivalric female pride. But it is to the women of Poland and Hungary that we are indebted for the best means of displaying such chivalric sentiments in the more advanced and refined ages, and successfully imitated by Florence Nightengale in the Crimean war. Let the women of the South remember that we, who have never seen a revolution, must learn to act from the best models that other countries have set up to us in this age, and the fame of Florence Nightengale has been made known to us only through the medium of our common language. The same is due to the legions of women who served in the Hungarian and Polish wars, and shall be to every southern woman, who shall choose to write her name in good deeds upon the shining scroll of this great epoch of American chivalric history.


V. E. W.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 18, 1861.

          18, School vandalism

Juvenile Misconduct.—There was a repetition to some extent, we learn, yesterday morning, of the misconduct lately perpetrated at the school on Second street, near Monroe, some disorderly boys again giving trouble there. The police were called, but the young rowdies made good their escape.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 18, 1861.

          18, Secessionist activity Memphis

Southern Flags.—Messrs. Whitmore & Bro., of the Appeal job office, have issued a beautiful flag of the Confederate States, about three feet long and in graceful proportions, printed on muslin, which they will furnish in any quantity at $1.50 singly, or at a reduction if taken in large numbers.

A Methodist Military Company.—The Argus says that they are informed by the Rev. Mr. Harris, that a military company is being formed among the members of his church; it is to be called "Gideon's Band."

Maynard Rifle Company.—Forty-five men joined this company on Tuesday night. Their weapon is a tremendous one, and if an opportunity ever offers, they will be found murderously efficient.

Rifled Cannon.—Major Wright received yesterday a splendid brass rifled cannon—a nine pounder. It was placed in the armory of the Steuben artillery.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 18, 1861.

          18, East Tennesseans' Resistance to Secessionists

Hard Fare of East Tennessee Secessionists.

East Tennessee is evidently no place for Secessionists, whether the following letter from Knoxville to the Montgomery (Ala.) Advertiser is to be believed or not:

["]Here we have had the very devil to fight. We had to fight him in every form and in every conceivable attitude.

Many of our number have been burnt and hung, and kicked in effigy. We have been branded and treated as traitors-in some instances our orators forbidden to speak, and not unfrequently pelted with rotten eggs! In one locality in this region, women, mounted on an ox wagon, and driving the team themselves, carried the effigy of one of our most talented lawyers, and hung him up to the limb of a tree in the woods! At the same time and place they hung another clever gentleman, cut him down, then kicked him higher than a kite.["]

The Ripley Bee (Ripley, Ohio), April 18, 1861. [2]





          18, "The Conscript Act"

We are indebted to Governor Harris for the following synopsis of the Conscript Act of the Confederate Congress, telegraphed to him by the Secretary of War:


As act has passed both Houses of Congress, placing in the military service of the Confederate States for three years, or the war, all persons between eighteen and thirty-five years of age, who are not legally exempt from military service.

All twelve month volunteers between these ages to serve two years from the term of their enlistment, and all of them under eighteen and over thirty-five to remain ninety days, unless their places are sooner supplied by recruits. The twelve months men who have not yet received bounty or furloughs are to have them-the furloughs to be granted in such numbers and at suited times, as the Secretary of War may deem compatible with the public service.

Re-enlistments, for the purpose of changing from one regiment, battalion or company to another, unless already perfected by actual transfer, are in effect canceled; and all authorities to raise new corps are vacated, unless within thirty days from the passage of the act the organization is complete and has the requisite number of recruited from persons not now in the service. Companies of infantry are to have one hundred and twenty-five, field artillery one hundred and fifty, cavalry eighty.

All corps of twelve months volunteers shall have the right, within forty days, on a day to be fixed by the commander of the brigade, to elect all their officers which they had a right heretofore to elect -- such officers to be commissioned by the President.

All white males between eighteen and thirty five subject to military duty and not now in service, are to be enrolled and mustered in and sent to the old regiments.

All discharges from expiration of term of service and transfers of re-enlisting to new corps will be immediately stopped.

G. W. RANDOLPH, Sec'y of War.

Memphis Appeal, April 18, 1862.

          18, Instructions to attack and disperse Unionists leaving East Tennessee


Col. JOHN C. VAUGHN, Cmdg., &c., Kingston, Tenn.:

COL.: The major-general commanding directs me to inform you that large numbers of Union men are leaving this and adjoining counties, intending to go through the passes of the Cumberland into Kentucky. He directs that all the disposable cavalry of your command be sent with the utmost dispatch to operate between Clinton and the north valley of Powell's River and intercept them in their attempt. Few of them are armed.

You will give the officer commanding the cavalry instructions to attack and disperse these men wherever they may be found.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 429.

          18, "Has Memphis Done Its Duty?"

It is a common thing for strangers, on arriving in this city, to express surprise at the large numbers of men, out of uniform, they meet with in the streets. [emphasis added] They have just arrived from a little town, or village, that has patriotically put forth its strength, and sent out its sons to the war. The place for weeks before they left was in a blaze of enthusiasm, and excitement was at a fever height. They arrive at Memphis, and see hundreds of persons daily thronging the streets, who bear about them no mark of connection with military affairs; they also hear the topics of the day discussed with dispassionate calmness, and to their eye – just dazzled with the brilliant and certainly honorable display of the patriotism of the spot they have left – the people with whom they come in contact in Memphis appeal cold and indifferent. Strangers reaching this city, under these circumstances, not uncommonly complain that Memphis is apathetic and that it is behind in the discharge of its duty. Volunteers arriving here – full of the zeal that rises when the uniform is first put on, and the musket first handled – have been heard to exclaim: "We came to fight for Memphis, but she does not fight for herself?" [emphasis added]

This complaint is made sometimes in sorrow, sometimes in anger, but as it is often made with a conviction of its accuracy, it is desirable that the real state of the case should be known. It is true that the fiery enthusiasm which exists in a town, or village, on the departure of a large number of its citizens for the scene of war, is not to be found effervescing daily in our streets. When our first companies were raised and left the city, we were not deficient in our display of this quality. Our men shouted as loud and our lady patriots waved their handkerchiefs as eagerly, as can be done anywhere. Enthusiasm is an effervescence, that among a people bent on carrying out a grave purpose, settles down to a feeling of calm, but intense and earnest determination; Memphis has arrived at that point. Enthusiasm is like the dazzling rocket that flies sparkling through the air; the stern resolve of an intelligent people resembles the cannon ball, which presents little that is taking to the eye, but accomplishes its purpose with deadly energy. It is also to be remembered that the military display that so attracts the notice of the stranger, and so profoundly moves him, is a daily spectacle in our streets, and has ceased to be novel. So much for what has been mistaken for cold feeling. We have next to notice the charge that while people have their homes to fight for Memphis, Memphis does not fight for itself.

The stranger entering our city and promenading the streets is not naturally surprised to find so many persons walking about, lingering at the street corners, in the hotel parlors, and about public places, having apparently little or no occupation, yet being, for anything the spectator can discover, unconnected with the army. We first call the stranger's attention to the fact, that he is necessarily unable to tell, whether her crowds he meets in the streets are principally citizens of the place, or whether they are mostly strangers; he generally supposes that, with small exception, they are Memphis people. This supposition is erroneous. Our city has for some time been in the neighborhood of live operations; this has caused an influx of all sorts of persons having business with the camps or on a visit to friends in the army. It is also the report of refugees from Kentucky, Missouri, Nashville, and all that part of Tennessee now invaded by the enemy. Here ordnance stores, clothing, artillery, provisions, etc., have been obtained, forwarded, or made for the army. Here transportation, quartermasters, ordnance, and other government offices are located and ma[jor offic]es for recruiting have been opened. Here the Legislature has met, and here state and county business, and business connected with the Confederate States, has been transacted. Here also persons on travel arrive in large numbers by river and railroad and the interruption of the ordinary regularity of transit, frequently detains people here for days, who, in ordinary times, would remain but for a few hours, or simply pass on them without stopping.

Let the reader class in his mind clerks, mechanics, shipbuilders, laborers, and the many "hangers-on" that are always near an army, passing backward and forward, and he can easily imagine that we must necessarily at this time – with active operations at Fort Pillow on one side of us, and at Corinth on the other, beside our connection with what has been up the White and Arkansas rivers – we have an unusual influx of strangers not only arriving and departing, but remaining in our midst. A large portion of these, although in government service and connected with the army, wear no uniforms, and are taken for civilians. We may also remark that when members of the army, belonging in the city, are here on furlough or on business, it is usual for them, when not directly on service, to put aside the attire of the camp, and appear in public in their ordinary dress.

We think the stranger, disposed to censure the people of Memphis, who reads this, will acknowledge that the matter now appears under a different aspect. For the correctness of our statement, we would, in the first place, refer the reader to the hotel registers. He will find that, throughout the winter, the arrivals have been immense, much larger than when the city was open to travel to and from the whole United States. By inquiry of the hotel clerks, he will find that frequently the Gayoso, Worsham, and other hotels, have been compelled to send away all who arrived after nine o'clock in the evening. In the second place, we could ask the censorious, especially if they have visited Memphis before, to look in at our banks, office stores, and counting-rooms, and observe how few clerks and assistants are at work, compared with what is usual. Even the entire stranger cannot help being struck when his attention is called to this; to those who knew this city before the late changes, the difference will be startlingly perceptible. We might mention other matters, but the above will amply suffice to convince the candid mind, that the number of Memphis people now in Memphis is very much less than is usual, while the number of strangers present in Memphis is much more than usual.

We had thought of speaking of the vast proportion of our male population who have forsaken their usual occupations for the field; and of telling of the enormous contributions that have been and are now made here for the war, for the comfort of soldiers in the camp for fitting out companies, for aiding sick and wounded soldiers, for the support of the families of soldiers, and for other objects, in which the property of our citizens has been unstintedly lavished in behalf of the patriotic object which the united South is fighting. Such an enumeration of our efforts...though intended to relieve our city, from a mistaken and undeserved imputation might be mistaken for a vain parade of what we have done-not for the purposes of making a display and winning praise, but for our fair country's cause. We, therefore, rest our case on the explanation given and fear not that the candid and conscientious reader, when asked "Has Memphis done its duty?" will unhesitatingly reply in the affirmative.

Memphis Appeal, April 18, 1862.

          18, Federal order to terminate the transport of dead Confederates to Kentucky


April 18th, 1862

Head Quarters 7th Brigade


April 18th, 1862

Capt. Green-

Direct guards to stop the Transfer [sic] of deceased Rebels to Kentucky or Elsewhere [sic] north.

By Command of Brig. Gen. Negley, Comdg. Post

Records of Adjutant General's Office

          18, Federal scout in the Trezevant environs, and railroad bridge burned over the north fork of the Obion river burned by Confederates


The Federals appear to be moving beyond Humboldt and some consternation has been excited by their proceedings. Sixty-four cavalry soldiers, some infantry, and a battery are reported to be quartered ten or eleven miles beyond Trezevant, on the McLemore and Paris road. They made search on Friday [18th] in the house of a gentleman in that neighborhood for the proprietor, who has been a government agent furnishing provisions. He escaped their hands and escaped to this city. A general threat has been made that if any of the LINCOLN pickets are killed, the inhabitants will be held responsible.

On Friday a report, we are informed, was prevalent that the enemy were coming down in full forces; for this or some other reason, it is stated, Capt. CLAIBORNE, who is in command of our cavalry in that direction, gave orders to have the bridge over the north fork of the Obion destroyed. The bridge was burned and a considerable portion of trestle work with it. The bridge was one hundred and thirty feet span, and one of the best on the Memphis and Ohio railroad. It was situated between the Trezevant and McKenzie stations. There is no rolling stock beyond the burned bridge.[3]

Memphis Appeal, April 20, 1862

          18, Military Governor Andrew Johnson and a Nashville housing problem

Amusing Dialogue.

A very entertaining dialogue occurred some days ago in the Governor's office, between Governor Johnson and two rebel ladies of this city, who had come to complain of the occupation of a residence belong to the rebel husband of one of the ladies, by a Federal officer. The conversation was substantially as follows:

Lady. I think it is too dreadful for a woman in my lonesome condition to have her property exposed to injury and destruction.

Governor. Well, Madam, I will inquire into the matter, and if any injustice has been done, will try to have it corrected. But your husband, you admit, has gone off with the rebels, and you abandoned your dwelling.

Lady. My husband went off South because it was to his interest to do so. You musn't [sic] find fault with anybody for taking care of himself these times. You know, Governor, that all things are justifiable in war.

Governor. Well, Madam, it appears to me that this broad rate of yours will justify taking possession of your house. According to your maxim, I don't see any reason for helping you out of your difficulty.

Lady. Oh! but I didn't mean it that way.

Governor. No, Madam, I suppose not. I will try to be more generous to you than your own rule would make me. I do not believe in your rule that "all things are justifiable in time of war." But that it is just what you rebels insist upon. It is perfectly right and proper for you to violate the laws, to destroy this Government, but it is all wrong for us to execute the laws to maintain the Government.

The rebel ladies looked around in various directions, and seemed to think that they had opened a knotty argument on a dangerous subject, with a very hard adversary. Heaving a long sigh, they retired, to become, we earnestly hope, "wiser and better men."

Nashville Daily Union, April 18, 1862.

          18, "Why, it has turned out like the other promises of rich rebels to the victims whom they have trapped in their damnable net."

Rebel Liberality to the Poor.

Some "Old Treasures"—The Poor Used as Catspaws by Rich Rebels.

In the Nashville Union and American of April 22d, 1861, the bloody-minded Secession organ which called for confiscation, banishment, imprisonment and hanging for all who remained loyal to the Union, we find this exceedingly magnanimous and stirring offer from one of our citizens. The editor of the Union calls it—

The Voice of a Venerable Patriot.—R. C. Foster, Sr., sends to the Patriot the following patriotic proposition, which we gladly publish:

["]Nashville, April 22, 1861.

To the Editors of the Patriot: From age and infirmity I am unable to do service on the battle-field for the rights of the South; but I am a volunteer with any number of Tennesseans under like disability, to pay annually to the Governor of Tennessee two hundred dollars for the comfort and support of the wives and children of the citizens soldiers of Tennessee, whilst serving in defence of the constitutional rights of the South.

R. C. Foster, Sr.["]

Noble, warm and generous proposition! It does credit to humanity. The promise held out is splendid. We have no doubt that many a poor mechanic, many a needy laborer as he embraced and kissed his wife and children before going into the rebel army pointed his family to this generous card, and consoled them in their bitter bereavement by exhibiting it all-comprehensive philanthropy. What about the fulfillment of the promise? Has it ever happened? Who has heard of it being done? What has become of this fostering care so kindly pledged to the poor? Why, it has turned out like the other promises of rich rebels to the victims whom they have trapped in their damnable net. We published the other day a list of cards from wealthy Nashville rebels, similar to the one which we have given above, in the magnificence of their promises and the nothingness of their fulfillment. Yes, confiding and misguided men have been seduced from their country's flag, and their dependent families, and are now wandering utterly deserted, friendless and penniless, in distant States, abandoned by the very tempters whose poisoned tongues and hollow professions corrupted, misled and ruined them. The Secretary of the Sanitary Commission at St. Louis wrote to Gov. Johnson on the 19th of March, that citizens of Tennessee formerly belonging to the rebel army were "wandering through the streets of that city without the means of living or returning to their homes." Gov. Johnson called upon the men of this place who had made so grandiloquent promises for aid, but not one dollar has been given! There is the real spirit of the Secession leaders. They are eager to use the poor as tools to do their work, and then cast them contemptuously away when they have got into power. The rebel organ itself, the Nashville Union and American, could not refrain from rebuking the extortion practiced by the wealthy upon the poor, and denounced it in its issue of September 18, 1861, in these terms:

["]We have an army of women in our midst, with an average of three children each, whose husbands are fighting our battles. These mothers earn about thirty cents a day, when they can get the work to do. Their helpless offspring are clad in the thin and worn garments of last spring, shoeless and stockingless. They are to be shod and clothed for the winter, and fed, even if it be upon cheap bread alone. Yesterday reminded us that they must have fires to protect them from "winter's chilly blasts." There is within the limits of the city a sufficiency of coal. If economically used, to last until spring. This coal cost only peace prices to mine and deliver it here, and twenty days ago, as we are informed, it could have been bought at twenty cents per bushel, and a handsome bonus would have been paid to the person who would have found a purchaser, because it would have been a good speculation on the part of holders to have sold out at that rate. Yesterday thirty five and forty cents per bushel were demanded, with an intimation that to day the price may be fifty cents.

In the name of humanity, shall this army of women and helpless children, the wives and children of the brave men who are paying their lives that we may have peace and independence—freeze, because the exorbitant prices demanded by holders had placed coal out of the reach of their limited means? A more gloomy prospect for winter certainly never has hung over the poor of this city and especially in cases where the heads of families have gone to drive the invaders from Southern soil. Almost every necessity of life has gone up to worse even than famine prices. It really seems as if sharpers had combined to monopolize the trade, and to fatten upon the necessities of those who are fighting the battles of their country. We hear one universal complaint that the prices of almost every comfort as well as necessity, are exorbitantly high. The people, who [illegible] now by their labor than they did before the war commenced, cannot [illegible] stand or appreciate this [illegible] advance and they naturally conclude that speculators are at the [illegible] We are at a loss to how the poor of Nashville are to be cared for the coming winter, under the circumstances that surround us.

The course pursued by tradesmen generally in the South has produced a great deal of discontent, and not without apparent reason.["]

Here we have a picture of wretchedness and suffering in the families of those who had gone off after these enemies of their race, Harris, Bishop, Polk, Cheatham, and others, which is enough to chill one's blood. And this is precisely the goal of suffering to which this hellish rebellion is hurrying the masses with the swiftness of Niagara's rapid. The rich rebels and those belonging to the "first families," (which usually means those who manage to live without working or paying their debts,) get good offices, or else amass fortunes by speculating off the necessities and miseries of the poor.

Nashville Daily Union, April 18, 1862.

          18, Newspaper editorial condemning cruelty to animals

Cowper wrote—

"I would not enter on my list of friends

(Though graced with polished manners and fine sense,

Yet wanting in sensibility,) the man

Who needlessly sets foot on a worm.

This sentiment was forcibly brought to mind the other day as we were passing along the street, by observing a fellow belaboring a horse most unmercifully for some fancied obstinacy in the animal, which, after all, was the result of the manner in which he had been trained, harnessed and driven. It seemed impossible for the horse to understand or comply with the wishes of the man who drove him, and flying into a towering passion, John fell upon and beat him in a most cruel manner. This, however, did not make the horse do as he desired him, and he was forced to treat him kindly before he could get him to budge in the direction he was trying to force him.

Cruelty to animals is one of the most common evils of the day, and exhibitions of it are to be seen on almost every street. It is no uncommon thing to see a horse or mule forced to pull a dray with almost double the weight upon that a prudent man would be willing his horse or mule should pull, and if he falters or exhibits weariness, the driver pounds him soundly for it. It is no wonder horses and mules driven in drays wear out so soon. The hard usage to which they are usually subjected is not only cruel, but calculated to render them worthless in a very short time. We believe that more of this evil is seen in the cities and towns than in the country. In the latter, men are more careful with their horses, and the consequence is they last longer, and are not only more valuable, but more serviceable. The opinion has been advanced, and we believe it to be a correct one, too, that he will unnecessarily give pain to the most insignificant of animals, has not the disposition to make an agreeable companion or a fast friend. It is generally the case that he who is in the habit of wantonly torturing animals, and especially those that are so serviceable as the horse, is destitute of those finer sensibilities which adorn the human character, and wants but the power and opportunity to give pain to beings like himself.

There is a law of our State which makes cruelty to domestic animals a misdemeanor. In sections 1668 to 1672 of the code of Tennessee, it is provided that "if any person cruelly beat, torture, or use any horse, ox, dog, or other animal in which individuals may have a property, whether his own or a third person's, he shall forfeit fifty dollars for each offence, to any person who will sue therefor; that "any person who in any way disfigures such an animal not his own, so as not to fall within the provisions," just cited, "shall forfeit twenty-five dollars for each offence," and "it is the duty of justices of the peace, sheriffs and constables to see that the foregoing provisions of law for the protection of animals are carried out; and in such cases, the officer bringing the offender to justice, is entitled, besides his legal costs, to one-half the penalty, the other half to go to the treasury of the county." These provisions "do not affect the right of the owner of an injured animal to suit for damages, nor do away with the penalties of the criminal code in such cases." "If either of the offences mentioned in this article is committed by a slave, he may be punished by not less than ten nor more than thirty-nine stripes, under the order of any justice of the peace before whom he is brought and convicted."

The corporation law of this city is not so severe, but sufficiently so to prevent the evil to which we refer. It provides that any person who shall be guilty of cruelty to any beast of burthen by violent and unusual treatment, by beating or otherwise, within the limits of this corporation, shall be subject to a penalty of not less than one nor more than ten dollars for each offence.

The law, both State and city, is very explicit on this point, and there are numberless cases in which it would be a righteous act to enforce it.

Nashville Dispatch, April 18, 1862.

          18, Confederate General Orders No. 23[4] for East Tennessee, prohibiting free speech, aid and comfort to the enemy, desertion from the Confederate Army and spying

Headquarters Department East Tennessee. Knoxville, April 18, 1862

General Orders No. 23

I. Col. W. M. Churchwell is appointed to Provost Marshal, and charged, under the direction of the Major General commanding, with the due execution of the foregoing proclamation in this department. By command of Major Genera E. Kirby Smith: H. L. Clay, A. A. G.

Headquarters Department East Tennessee. Office Provost Marshal, Knoxville, April 18, 1862.

Martial law having been declared in this department, the people of East Tennessee are notified that, whilst the criminal courts of the land continue in the exercise of their functions, they (the people) are amenable for offences committed under the "Articles of War," and they can be tried, under the orders of the department commander, by military courts. The following extractors from the Rules of Articles of War are published for their information and guidance:

"Art. 5. Any officer or private who shall use contemptuous or disrespectful works against the President of the Confederate States, against the Vice President thereof, against the Congress of the Confederate States in which he may be quartered, if a commissioned officer, shall be cashiered, or otherwise punished, as a court martial may decide; if a non-commissioned officer or soldier, he shall suffer such punishment as may be inflicted by the sentence of a court martial."

"Art. 28, Any officer or  soldier who shall be convicted of having advised or persuades any other officer or soldier to desert the service of the Confederate States shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be inflicted upon him by the sentence of a court martial."

"Art. 35. Whosoever belonging to the armies of the Confederate States in foreign parts shall force a safeguard shall suffer death."

"Art. 55. Whosoever shall relieve the enemy with money, victuals, or ammunition or shall knowingly harbor or protect an enemy shall suffer death, or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court martial."

"Art. 57. Whosoever shall be convicted of holding correspondence with or giving intelligence to the enemy, either directly or indirectly, shall suffer death or such other punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court martial."

"Wm M. Churchwell, Colonel and Provost Marshal."

Daily National Intelligencer, May 5, 1862.





          18, Skirmish at Hartsville[5]

APRIL 18, 1863.-Skirmish at Hartsville, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. Eleazer A. Paine, U. S. Army.

HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Gallatin, Tenn., April 18, 1863.

GEN.: To-day at 10 a. m. 50 head of beef-cattle and 20 mounted men, of Stokes' cavalry, were captured by a rebel regiment of infantry and 50 cavalry at or near Hartsville. The cattle were on their way to Gen. Crook's command. The rebels had wagons, and said that they were going into Kentucky.

One of my scouts, who is a good detective, engaged two or three tons of bacon this week for the Southern army, the bacon to be delivered at certain points near the river. He is to pay 30 cents in Confederate money. I shall send him back with some of that money, to make small payments, and have the bacon delivered at certain points, where I intend to seize it. The sellers are violent rebels; defy our Government, and threaten every Union man and every man who takes the oath.

I send you copy of letter to Gen. Crook and his reply.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Gallatin, Tenn., April 13, 1863.

Brig.-Gen. CROOK, Cmdg. Carthage, Tenn.:

GEN.: I am compelled again to send an additional escort with your mail. The last time I sent there were about 40 rebels watching your party, but did not attack, on account of the increased guard. I cannot spare my men. I have only 8 cavalry soldiers. The balance of mounted men are infantry. I have only five regiments, averaging about 400 men; no artillery, except what is in the fort, and no cavalry, except my orderlies. I have 30 miles of railroad and 60 of river and a number of public roads to guard. My forces cannot perform one-half of the duty as it ought to be done. Last night 70 rebels were crossed over the river to this side by swimming their horses. Their intention is to capture your mail. I send 60 additional guard, with orders not to surrender under any circumstances; but, general, I cannot send again. You must send a larger force. Gen. Rosecrans is extremely anxious to ascertain the condition of things at Lebanon. Any information you can send him on that subject will enable him to arrive at a correct understanding of affairs along the river.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

Carthage, TENN., April 15, 1863.

Gen. E. A. PAINE, Cmdg. Gallatin, Tenn.:

SIR: I send mail this morning. I cannot possibly spare more than the number of men I have been sending with the mail. I shall, however, endeavor to make them safe by keeping expeditions on the river between here and you. The rebels had left Lebanon, and were at New Middleton last night. Part of my command had a skirmish with them there yesterday. I am under many obligations for the escort you sent with mail. I hope in future there will be no necessity.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 261-262.

          18, General Hurlbut justifies expulsion of Memphis citizens in fight against guerrillas


Lieut. Col. JOHN A. RAWLINS:

COL.: In January last, while I commanded the District of Memphis, I received a letter from Gen. Grant on the subject of the Charleston and Memphis Railroad, with instructions to give notice to all persons of the result of interference with the road. This notice was given in General Orders, No. 10, of the District of Memphis, and fully published in the papers.

An attack was made by a party of guerrillas living north of the road, of the most gross and cowardly nature. This band of 20 or 25 are not even part of Richardson's command, but simply plunders, who, when caught, claim organization, but are not enrolled or subject to any military authority. I proceeded to carry out the notice are taken almost word for word from Gen. Grant's letter, for I do not believe it is wise to threaten and not perform.

The families sent out are eight in number, and are prominent secessionists. This memorial[6] is now presented. There is no name to it of any man of acknowledged loyalty, and nearly every man on the list ought to be sent south. I forward it, as in duty bound, for the consideration of the major-general commanding, with this remark only, that I believe the banishment has done good, not harm. I have long been of the opinion that no sympathizer should be allowed within our lines.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 206.

          18, Andrew Johnson's orders for occupation of Tennessee from the U. S. War Department[7]

War Department, Washington City,

April 18th, 1863.


First: You will establish your headquarters as Military Governor of the State of Tennessee at the City of Nashville, and as such officer, you will take possession of all the public buildings belonging to the State of Tennessee, holding them in your charge and under your control for the public purposes for which they were designed, and in which you have occasion to employ them.

Second: You will appropriate such of the buildings for the civil officers, executive, legislative and judicial, as may be required for the performance of their respective functions, and you will employ such force of the military or civil police as you may deem necessary for the security and proper care of such buildings, and all other public property in the City of Nashville.

Third: All the public commons and public property in the City of Nashville, and elsewhere in the State, will be in your charge as Military Governor, and so far as possible you will exercise control over them, your authority and jurisdiction over all such public property being as exclusive and absolute as was exercised by the State of Tennessee, subject only to such military occupation and use, as may in the course of the war, be authorized and directed by the General commanding the Department.

Fourth: You will also take possession of, and occupy, all vacant and abandoned buildings and property within the City of Nashville possessed or owned by persons engaged in the rebellion, and will apply them to such uses as you may deem appropriate. You will exercise, also, the same powers throughout the State of Tennessee.

Fifth: You will also take possession of all abandoned lands and plantations that may come within your poser, and lease them for occupation and cultivation, upon such terms as you deem proper, keeping an account of the products, and registering the name of the former proprietor and of the person and terms upon which they were leased, reporting the same to this Department.

Sixth: You will also take in charge all abandoned slaves, or colored persons, who have been held in bondage, and whose masters have been, or are now engaged in rebellion, and provide for their useful employment and subsistence in such manner as may be best adapted to their necessities, and the circumstances in which you find them, having reference to the Acts of Congress relating to this class of persons, and be governed by their provisions.

Seventh: You will cause all such persons to be enrolled upon a descriptive roll, setting forth their names, their age, their sex, with any other remarks that may be useful in defining their capacity for usefulness, or as descriptive of their persons, and transmit a copy of it to this Department. Such of them as are able bodied, and can be usefully employed, upon the fortifications, or other public works, you will so employ, securing and causing to be paid to them reasonable wages for their labor; also taking measures to secure employment and reasonable compensation for the labor of all others of whatever age or sex, making from time to time report to this Department.

Eighth: Such as may be sick, or otherwise helpless from age or infirmity, you will have provided with suitable hospital care and attendance.

Ninth: You will also furnish from the Quartermasters and Commissary stores, such clothing and subsistence as may be necessary for the decent clothing and support of those who are poor or destitute, keeping a distinct account of all such appropriations.

Tenth: As a general instruction to guide your administration you are authorized to exercise such powers as may be necessary and proper to carry into full and fair effect the 4th Section of the 4th Article of the Constitution of the United States which declares "the United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a republican form of Government and shall protect each of them against invasion and domestic violence"; and whatever power may be necessary in restoration the people or Tennessee their civil and political rights under the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of Tennessee and the laws made in pursuance thereof.

Very respectfully, Your Obedient Servant

Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War

Brigadier General Andrew Johnson, Military Governor of Tennessee

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 212-213.

          18, Confederate conscription notice for Sevier county


To All Persons Between the ages of 18 and 40, in the county of Sevier, State of Tennessee: You are hereby notified to attend on Monday, the 27th inst., at Sevierville, for examination. All persons in the county between the ages of 18 and 40 years, whether residents of any other portions of the State, or other States, are required to report themselves at the above specified rendezvous, to the Examining Board and enrolling officer. This notice includes every person between the ages specified-those who have heretofore been examined and discharged either by State or Confederate surgeons-those who have at any time been discharged from the army, those who have furnished substitutes, and any and all persons who may  obtain exemptions upon any ground whatever. No person's exemption, discharge or detail from any source whatever will excuse attendance at the place appointed.[emphasis added]

2. All the laws and regulations applicable to deserters shall be applied to such Conscripts as fail to repair to the place of rendezvous for enrollment, or who shall desert after enrollment.

3. All the agencies employed for the apprehension and confinement  of deserters and their transportation to the commands of their respective commanders, shall be applicable to persons liable to duty as Conscripts who shall fail to repair to the place of rendezvous after the publication of the call.

Conscripts will come provided with at least three days' rations.

The Medical Board for the District will be present, one day specified, to examine all who are present.

No one will be excused from attendance, but will be apprehended if not present, and punished to the extent of the law.

By order of

E. D. Blake, Lt. Col., C. S. A., Commandant of Conscripts

J. M. Driver, Chief Surg. Conscripts.

Knoxville Daily Register, April 18, 1863.





          18, Libation poetry from Nashville

Whiskey is not, by official sanction, said to civilians and officers only, ad lib. On the strength of this fact, our muse, awaking with our body this morning to the reality of a genuine Bourbon cocktail, inspires us with the following:


Liquid Lyric


by Uno Hoo.


Time was when ailing topers could

But to their ails add ale;

A combination most extreme

And always sure to fail.


But now, ambrosia's once more loose,

And Whiskey being free

(Though quite restricted in its use)

It ends are plain to see.


This prescience is no witches gift;

"Extremes will often meet;"

Thus saith the ancient proverb, and

Old proverbs can't be beat.


Thus, once the whiskey market bound,

Showed up the wond'rous sight

Of all men loose and aleing hard:

'Tis now reversed-they're tight.


Thus is it, by the inverse rule,

In men both black and white,

When whiskey's tight, mankind is loose;

But when 'tis loose, they're tight.

Nashville Daily Press, April 18, 1864.

          18, Mr. Harvey's day in Nashville Recorder's Court

Recorders. Court.

*  *  *  *

Mr. Harvey appeared as witness against a female, and disappeared as counsel for himself. He said he had been in Nashville twelve years – was a citizen here, and by permission of the court would plead his own cause, and does it straight up. He acknowledged that he was not a saint, or an angel, nor was he perfect any more than most men; "but that man [pointing to witness for the prosecution] is a victories to sell whisky as any man, and I ken prove it. I am a ruined man, I am, and voted for – for –I voted for everyman now in this court" – sealing the assertion by a powerful blow with his fist upon the table. He was just rising to the highest pitch of eloquence, when the court requested him to be seated; but it required the united exertions of two of three Marshals to induce him to close his argument so abruptly. He considered himself snubbed – decidedly. Fine and costs, $45.

*  *  *  *

Nashville Dispatch, April 19, 1864.

          18, The Hughs-Stokes Correspondence[8]

It seems that the announcement of the surrender of the rebel guerilla Col. Hughes to Col. Stokes, on the 23d ult., was premature. The following correspondence has since passed between the parties:

Headquarters C. S. Forces,

Livingston, Tenn., March 30, 1864.

Col. Stokes, Commanding at Sparta:

Dear Sir: Yours of the 29th inst. Is just received, 4 o'clock, P. M., and give but little time to consult even myself much less my officers and men. I have seen but few of them in the last week. I also with to see and consult Major Bledsoe. He and his command have been under my command. And, Colonel, I must insist on your letting me have ample time to see these men. I will be able to give you satisfaction by Saturday or Sunday, and will be sure to give you a positive answer. I think it would be ungenerous and unfair in me to decide so important a matter as this for these men; for the reason that there are a quantity of officers for the number of men, say five (5) Captains, and the same number of Lieutenants. And, Colonel, I will pledge myself that I will allow none of my men to make any hostile movements until I give you full satisfaction; and, in fact, it is not my intention to do further soldiering in these part, &c.. Colonel I would have come myself but for ill health. I have sore eyes and am quite poorly to-day. I deem it proper in me to say to you, that there are a quantity of men in the country claiming to belong to my command that do not, and most of them are engaged in robbing and stealing, and one Captain Bilberry has absented himself from my command, nor will I be responsible for his conduct. He is not off, as I am informed, will you be so kind as to indulge me the time asked for, and let me know by the bearer of this. I am, Colonel, very respectfully, Your enemy,


Col. [2]5th Tenn. Reg., C. S. A.

P. S. Colonel I prefer bringing all my command at once; I think that would be best.




Sparta, Tenn., April 1, 1864

John M. Hughes [sic] , Col 25th Regt. Tenn. Vols., C. S. A.

Sir: Yours of the 30th ultimo has just been handed me by Mr. Harp, in which you ask for time to decide what your will do. This, I must confess, somewhat surprised me, as I understood from your first not that all you wanted was to know whether you and you command would be allowed to take the oath or be paroled. I stated to you in reply that your and your men would be required to take the oath, or be sent around for exchange; meaning thereby that all, or could take the oath, and the remainder be sent around for exchange. You inform me that your would have to come to see me, but for the reason of ill health. I order that this matter may be speedily adjusted, I send Lieutenant-Colonel Corbin and Major Clift, with an escort, to deliver this communication, and to hear whatever you may have to propose. Time is precious and forage is scarce; I therefore demand an immediate answer, or all correspondence will cease and hostilities against be resumes.]


Colonel 5th Tenn. Cav., Comd'g.

The Nashville Union learns that Colonel Stokes is doing excellent work, and will have the last guerrilla a prisoner or a corpse. We trust, however, that he will not allow Hughes [sic] to gain time[9] or opportunity by asking time for consideration.

Louisville Daily Journal, April 18, 1864





          18, The last Civil War skirmish in Tennessee, near Germantown[10] "The enemy were concealed behind some houses, and waited until the patrol got to within 100 yards of them, when they charged."

APRIL 18, 1865.-Skirmish near Germantown, Tenn.

Report of Capt. George W. Smith, Eleventh New York Cavalry.


CAPT.: I have the honor to report that yesterday as the patrol was marching from Germantown to Collierville it was attacked by a force of the enemy about six miles from Germantown. The force of the enemy is variously estimated from 60 to 100 strong, while the patrol was but eighteen strong, under Lieut. John H. Mills, D Company, this regiment. The enemy were concealed behind some houses, and waited until the patrol got to within 100 yards of them, when they charged. Lieut. Mills drew his men in line, but, after delivering a volley with their carbines, found he would be overpowered be a far superior force, and ordered his men to fall back to the camp at Germantown. He was closely pursued by a well-mounted portion of the enemy to within about two miles of this place (Germantown). The attacking party are supposed to be a part of Ford's command. Those of our men who fell from their horses, or were poorly mounted, were shot. Those who were killed or wounded were robbed of everything, they (the rebels) even taking the boots from some of the dead....I have just received a telegraph from Maj. Morgan, in which he, by order of Gen. Washburn, directs that no patrols will be sent less than fifty men. I have but 190 men available for duty. Out of that my picket, thirty-two men daily; my scouting parties, thirty men daily, and all the camp duties, have to be taken, leaving me no force at all with which to operate to any advantage. I know of fifty men who are mounted on horses which are serviceable, that are in the camp at the headquarters of the regiment at Memphis. If I can have those men and 100 dismounted men for camp duties, I can operate against these guerrillas to advantage, as I have reliable information concerning their haunts.

Hoping that my request for a few more men may meet your approbation and that it may be complied with at your earliest practicable convenience, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. W. SMITH, Capt., Cmdg. Detachment Eleventh New York Cavalry. [Indorsement.]


Respectfully forwarded for the information of the major-general commanding District of West Tennessee. The additional mounted men asked for have been ordered. I must ask that the detail of fifty men for each patrolling party be countermanded, as we have not a sufficient number if men in the command--mounted--to obey the order.

E. D. OSBAND, Brevet Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, pp. 512-513.

          18, A convert to Roman Catholicism in Bolivar

....Irene McNeal told me that Clara Peters was very anxious and intended joining the Roman Catholic Church. I believe I never was more hurt and surprised in my life before. We warned her before she started...Told her of the facinating [sic] service, the hypocrisy but apparently love they would manifest toward her until she became one of them. I am astonished at Clara. I understand she wrote her father a letter in which she said, if not a Roman Catholic, she would be an infidel and believed that was the only true and apostolic church.

Diary of Sally Wendel Fentress.

          18, Military observance of the Funeral of Abraham Lincoln in the 6th Division, Cavalry Corps


In pursuance of instructions from the War Department, to-morrow, being the day appointed for the funeral of the late President, will be a day of rest throughout this command. All drills and other unnecessary labors will be suspended. A salute of twenty-one minute guns will be fired at meridian.

By order of Brig. Gen. R. W. Johnson:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 395.

          18, Reaction to News of Lincoln's death and educating former slaves in Memphis


When the terrible tidings reached us, early Sabbath morning, that President Lincoln and Secretary Seward were both assassinated, consternation was depicted on nearly every face….


Very early, buildings, public and private, were draped in mourning. Before noon Main street was absolutely gloomy.Gloom was everywhere except, alas! in the face of a very few fiends.

"Have you heard the news?" said a loyal man to one of these demons of secession

"Yes! And I am glad Old Abe is dead!"

"Repeat that, sir, and I'll shoot you!"

"I mean, I am sorry we had a sectional president."

"He was not a sectional president. Take that back or you are a dead man," (drawing a revolver).

He retracted. Two, however, were shot during the day, for uttering such sentiments, and eight or ten arrested and lodged in the military prison, to await trial by military court martial.


Will you believe it, in a few months a thousand negroes have learned to read. Scores of them take and read a daily paper – a loyal paper….


The negro now is easily influenced; but he has wonderful capabilities. A child has learned to read in ten days who did not know a letter before. In one hour another had learned the Lord's Prayer perfectly.  Memory is remarkable in them. Teach them, then! Teach them letters and the principles of our government, and they will be all but a literal "standing army."

Last month, 1949 colored children were in school in Memphis and vicinity. In six months the negroes here have paid $3720 for school purposes; and all this cheerfully.


April 18, 1865.

The Congregationalist, (Boston, MA), May 5, 1865


[1] A province in ancient Greece whose women were noted for their beauty and civic mindedness.

[2] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[3] Neither the bridge burning nor the Federal scout are indexed in the OR nor referenced in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

[4] This order is not found in the OR.

[5] Foraging was carried on by both sides, as was cattle stealing. There is also evidence of artifice in these reports.

[6] Not found in the OR.

[7] Johnson had earlier spent some time visiting in Washington and requested these specific orders, even though he had been operating without them for over a year.

[8] John M. Hughs, 25th Tenn. Inf. [C. S.] and William B. Stokes, 5th Tenn. Cav. [U. S.] had been adversaries in the Cumberland Plateau since January 1864. Their relationship was one of guerrillas vs. anti-guerrilla.

[9] This was exactly what Hughs was seeking. Ten days after this story was printed Hushs was in Dalton, Georgia, submitting his report on his activities from August 1863 to March 1864. The fate of his command is not known, nor is its size known. Some may have continued bushwhacking, like Captain Bilberry.

[10] The skirmish near Germantown was fought nine days after Lee had surrendered.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Editor, The Courier

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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