Friday, April 8, 2016

Notes from Civil War Tennessee, April 7-8, 1862-1865.

Notes from Civil War Tennessee,

April 7-8, 1862-1865.





          7, Proclamation by Military Governor Andrew Johnson relative removal of the City Council and Mayor of Nashville for failure to take the oath of allegiance to the U. S.

WHEREAS, At an election held in the city of Nashville on the last Saturday of September, 1861, for the purpose of electing a Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council for said city, the following officers were elected to the respective offices, to-wit:

Richard B. Cheatham, Mayor.

For Alderman of the First Ward--Jno. E. Newman.

For Councilman of the First Ward--John Coltart and John Hooper.

For Alderman of the Second Ward--James T. Bell.

For Councilmen of the Second Ward--Geo. S. Kinnie and Charles S. Thomas.

For Alderman of the Third Ward--Peyton S. Woodward.

For Councilmen of the Third Ward--L. F. Beech and Wm. Shane.

For Alderman of the Fourth Ward--James M. Hinton.

For Councilman of the Fourth Ward--Wm. S. Cheatham.

For Councilmen of the Fifth Ward-Jordan P. Coleman and W. H. Clemons.

For Alderman of the Sixth Ward--B.S. Rhea.

For Councilmen of the Sixth Ward--John J. McCann and James Haynie.

For Alderman of the Seventh Ward--A.H. Hurley.

For Councilmen of the Seventh Ward--Isaac Paul and F. O. Hurt.

For Alderman of the Eighth Ward--C. K. Winston.

For Councilmen of the Eighth Ward--John E. Hatcher, and C. A. Brodie.

And, Whereas, The following persons of the afore-named, to wit: R. B. Cheatham, Mayor, James T. Bell, P.S. Woodward, James M. Hinton, B.S. Rhea, A.H. Hurley, C. K. Winston, John Coltart, John Hooper, Geo. S. Kinney, Chas. S. Thomas, L. F. Beech, Chas. E. H. Martin, William R. Demonbreun, Jordan P. Coleman, W. H. Clemens, John J. McCann, James Haynie, Isaac Paul, F. O. Hurt, John E. Hatcher and C. A. Brodie have heretofore failed, and not refuse to come forward and be qualified according to law, by taking the oath prescribed in the 10th Article, Section 1st, of the Constitution of the State of Tennessee, and therein have manifested such disloyalty and enmity to the Government of the United States, as renders it unsafe for the public good [emphasis added] that they should exercise the functions of the offices aforesaid. Now, therefore, I, Andrew Johnson, Governor of the State of Tennessee, by virtue of the power and authority in me vested, do declare the aforesaid offices vacant, and said persons above mentioned are hereby enjoined from exercising the functions of said offices, or performing any of the duties thereof, or receiving the emoluments of the same, from this day.

And the following named persons are hereby appointed and commissioned, after being duly qualified, to perform the duties of said offices, as required by law, and receive the profits and emoluments thereof until their successors are elected, respectively as follows, to-wit:

Councilman for the First Wars--Wm. Roberts.

Alderman for Second Ward--John Hu. Smith.

Councilman for the Second Ward--Chas. Walker.

Alderman for Third Ward--G. A. J Mayfield

Councilman for Third Ward--K. J. Morris.

Alderman for Fourth Ward-- M. M. Monahan.

Councilmen for Fourth Ward--Lewis Hough and M. Burns.

Councilmen for Fifth Ward--Joseph B. Knowles and W. P. Jones

Alderman for Sixth Ward--M. M. Brian.

Councilmen for Sixth Ward--T. J. Yarbrough and Wm. Driver.[1]

Alderman for Seventh Ward--M. G. L. Claiborne.

Councilman for Seventh Ward--Wm. Stewart.

Alderman for Eighth Ward--Jos. C. Smith.

Councilman for Eight Ward--James Cavert.

By order of Governor,

Andrew Johnson

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 278-279.

          7, Surrender of Island No. 10 to Flag Officer A. H. Foote, U. S. N.

Steamer Benton,

Off Island No. 10, April 7, 1862.

Two [Confederate] officers have this instant boarded us from Island No. 10, stating that by order of their commanding officer they are ordered to surrender Island No. 10 to the commodore commanding the gunboats....With General Pope now advancing from New Madrid in strong force to attack in [General W.W. Mackall's] rear, I am, with the gun and mortar boats, ready to attack in front, while General Buford here is ready to cooperate with the land forces; but it seems as if the place is to be surrendered without further defense.

A. H. Foote

Flag Officer, Comdg. Naval Forces, Western Waters

Navy OR Ser. I, Vol. 22, p. 720.

          7, Confederate situation report for West Tennessee

HEADQUARTERS, Trezevant, Tenn., April 7, 1862.

Col. THOMAS JORDAN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

SIR: I have the honor to report that I arrived here and relieved Maj. King on Saturday, 5th instant, having visited and conferred with Col. Jackson at Trenton. He could not move under several days forward of that place. I found headquarters here with a company thrown forward at Hico,[2] on picket to its right and left, and Capt. Pell had just returned from Paris with the flag the enemy had left hoisted on the court-house there, with no news of importance of the enemy. I hear to-day through citizens that they sent to-day a large force there--perhaps 1,000 men. My scouts and pickets bring me no news of the enemy. The bridge on Trenton and Dresden road, over the Obion, called Shade's Bridge, was reported by a scout as burned last Friday; by whom not known. I learn all the cavalry that we had in Henderson, at Lexington, has gone to Purdy, but not officially. It is of importance that I be kept advised of such movements, as it leaves my right very much exposed. I shall start a scout of a lieutenant and thirty men to Huntingdon to-morrow at sunrise. I threw forward Capt. Guthrie's company to occupy my left front, with orders to send scout to Rogers' Mill. a short distance from Dresden. I have ordered all the companies of the regiment here. Capt. Wicks' arrived this evening. I cannot learn where Hubbard's and Houston companies are. I learn they are very small and very worthless. I beg that two other new and well-armed companies be substituted in their places, and respectfully urge it. I am not satisfied with the muskets in the hands of a majority of King's late battalion. A great deal has to be done in the way of equipment to make these men efficient. Gray's company had no bridles. I have sent him of to procure them at Memphis. I am laboring to get all the reports necessary to know the condition of each company.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

TH. CLAIBORNE, Col., [Sixth Confederate] Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 297-298.

          8, Reconnaissance from Shiloh battlefield

APRIL 8, 1862.-Reconnaissance from Shiloh Battle-field.

Report of Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman, U. S. Army.

HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Tuesday, April 8, 1862.

SIR: With the cavalry placed at my command and two brigades of my fatigue troops I went this morning out on the Corinth road. One after another of the abandoned camps of the enemy lined the roads, with hospital flags for their protection. At all we found more or less wounded and dead.

At the forks of the road I found the head of Gen. Wood's division. At that point I ordered cavalry to examine both roads, and found the enemy's cavalry. Col. Dickey, of the Illinois cavalry, asking for re-enforcements, I ordered Gen. Wood to advance the head of his column cautiously on the left-hand road, whilst I conducted the head of the Third Brigade of the Fifth Division up the right-hand road.

About half a mile from the forks was a clear field, through which the road passed, and immediately beyond a space of some 200 yards of fallen timber, and beyond an extensive camp. The enemy's cavalry could be seen in this camp, and after a reconnaissance I ordered the two advance companies of the Seventy-seventh Ohio, colonel Hildebrand, to deploy forward as skirmishers, and the regiment itself forward into line, with an interval of 100 yards. In this order I advanced cautiously until the skirmishers were engaged. Taking it for granted this disposition would clean the camp, I held Col. Dickey's Fourth Illinois Cavalry ready for the charge. The enemy's cavalry came down boldly to the charge, breaking through the line of skirmishers, when the regiment of infantry, without cause, broke, threw away their muskets, and fled. The ground was admirably adapted to a defense of infantry against cavalry, it being miry and covered with fallen timber.

As the regiment of infantry broke, Dickey's cavalry began to discharge their carbines and fell into disorder. I instantly sent orders to the rear for the brigade to form line of battle, which was promptly executed. The broken infantry and cavalry rallied on this line, and as the enemy's cavalry came to it our cavalry in turn charged and drove them from the field.

I advanced the entire brigade upon the same ground, and sent Col. Dickey's cavalry a mile farther on the road. On examining the ground which had been occupied by the Seventy-seventh Ohio we found 15 dead and about 25 wounded. I sent for wagons, and had all the wounded sent back to camp and the dead buried; also the whole camp to be destroyed. Here we found much ammunition for field pieces, which was destroyed; also two caissons, and a general hospital, with about 280 Confederate wounded and about 50 of our own. Not having the means of bringing these off, Col. Dickey, by my orders, took a surrender, signed by Medical Director Lyle and all the attending surgeons, and a pledge to report themselves to you as prisoners of war; also a pledge that our wounded would be carefully attended and surrendered to us tomorrow as soon as ambulances could go out.

I inclose the written document, and a request that you will cause to be sent out wagons or ambulances for the wounded of ours tomorrow; also that wagons be sent out to bring in the many tents belonging to us, which are pitched all along the road for 4 miles. I did not destroy these, because I know the enemy cannot remove them. The roads are very bad, and the road is strewn with abandoned wagons, ambulances, and limber-boxes. The enemy has succeeded in carrying off the guns, but has crippled his batteries by abandoning the hind limber-boxes of at least twenty guns.

I am satisfied the enemy's infantry and artillery passed Lick Creek this morning, traveling all last night, and that he left behind all his cavalry, which has protected his retreat, but the signs of confusion and disorder mark the whole road.

The check sustained by us at the fallen timbers delayed our advance, so that night came upon us before the wounded were provided for and dead buried, and our troops being fagged out by three days' hard fighting, exposure, and privation, I ordered them back to camp, where all now are.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

W. T. SHERMAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Division.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 639-640.


APRIL 8, 1862.--Reconnaissance from Shiloh Battle-Field.

Report of Thomas Harrison, Texas Rangers [unattached].

CAMP, NEAR CORINTH, April 11, 1862.

[COL.:] I have to report that, being left by you in command of the Texas Rangers, 220 strong, on the morning of Tuesday last, I remained in the rear of our retiring army until the evening of that day, when information was brought me by a member of Col. Forrest's cavalry that a small body of the enemy's cavalry had appeared on our right flank.

I immediately proceeded with my command, accompanied by a company [about 40 men] of Col. Forrest's cavalry, to the point occupied by the enemy, and finding him apparently in considerable force, and having formed my command in line of battle to his front, I made a personal reconnaissance of his lines. This revealed his cavalry, about 300 strong, with a line of infantry in its rear, the extent of which I could not determine, owing to a dense brush-wood in which the latter was placed. I discovered too, as I thought and still think, artillery almost entirely concealed by the thick undergrowth of timber.[3] I could not ascertain the strength of this battery.

Deeming it unadvisable to attack a force so strong and advantageously situated-their position and the nature of the ground rendering a charge by cavalry extremely hazardous-I retired to a more favorable position, and learning here that the enemy was attempting to pass my flank in force I commenced to retire again to a point beyond that which it was supposed they would reach my rear. At this time I met Capt. [Isaac F.] Harrison, of Col. Wirt Adams' cavalry, commanding about 40 men of that regiment. He informed me that his regiment was so situated as to prevent the flank movement attempted by the enemy.

Being joined by him I returned to my position near the hospital, where I found Col. Forrest commanding in person the company of his cavalry above named. On consultation with him it was determined to charge the enemy then formed for battle to our front. The charge was immediately executed. The front line of the enemy's infantry and his cavalry in its rear was put to flight; a portion of the latter only after a hand-to-hand engagement with the Rangers had attested their superior skill in the use and management of pistol and horse. My command not having sabers and our shots being exhausted I ordered a retreat on the appearance of a strong line of infantry still to our front, which was well executed by the Rangers. I rallied and reformed them on the ground where the charge was begun, but the enemy did not advance. Shortly afterward I was ordered by Gen. Breckinridge to the rear of his infantry and artillery.

I suppose 40 or 50 of the enemy were killed on the ground and doubtless many more were wounded. We captured 43 prisoners. My loss was 2 killed [Champion and Earnest] and 7 wounded, among them Capt. [G.] Cook, Lieut.'s [H. E.] Storey and Gordon; none mortally. Private Ash is missing.

I cannot state the loss of the companies co-operating with me. Col. Forrest I learn, was slightly wounded.

The Rangers acted throughout the affair with admirable coolness and courage. I cannot say more than that they fully sustained the ancient fame of the name they bear; they could not do more. I cannot discriminate between them, because each one displayed a heroism worthy of the cause we are engaged for.

Very respectfully,

THOS. HARRISON, Maj., Cmdg. Texas Rangers.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 923-924.


We have to record another brilliant victory for the Confederate arms, [emphasis added] which occurred on Tuesday [8th] last, and was achieved by a small force of our cavalry, composed of a detachment of Col. FORREST'S regiment and a party of Texas Rangers under Maj. THOS. HARRISON. The whole force was about nine hundred, and was under command of Col. FORREST.

When our army commenced retiring from Shiloah [sic] on Monday [7th] evening, Gen. BRECKINRIDGE'S brigade, with the cavalry, was ordered to bring up the rear, and prevent the enemy from cutting off an of our trains. On Tuesday afternoon the cavalry mentioned were attacked by a Federal force of two regiments of infantry and one of cavalry, the latter being in the advance. After receiving the enemy's fire, which killed and wounded ten, Col. FORREST, in a few spirited words, called upon his men to advance upon the enemy, which they did in the most gallant style.

At the first fire the cavalry of the enemy turned and fled, actually breaking the ranks of their own infantry in endeavoring to escape the missiles of the Confederates. The result of this dashing affair was – Federal loss, killed and wounded, two hundred and fifty, and forty-eight prisoners; Confederates, ten killed and wounded.

In this affair Col. FORREST received a painful, though not dangerous wound. Just as he had brought down the colonel of the Federal cavalry, one of the enemy fired at him with effect. The next instant a bullet from the colonel's pistol revenged the personal injury have had received. The colonel will be with his command in a few days.

Memphis Appeal, April 11, 1862.






          8, Martial law declared in Confederate East Tennessee

GEN. ORDERS, No. 21. WAR DEPARTMENT, A. AND I. G. O., Richmond, April 8, 1862.

I. The following proclamation is published for the information of all concerned:


By virtue of the power vested in me by law to declare the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, I, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, do proclaim that martial law is hereby extended over the Department of East Tennessee, under the command of Maj.-Gen. E. K. Smith; and I do proclaim the suspension of all civil jurisdiction (with the exception of that enabling the courts to take cognizance of the probate of wills, the administration of the estates of deceased persons, the qualification of guardians to enter decrees and orders for the partition and sale of property, to make orders concerning roads and bridges, to assess county levies, and to order the payment of county dues), and the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus in the department aforesaid.

In faith whereof I have hereunto signed my name and set my seal this eighth day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 403.



Adjutant and Inspector General's Office,

Richmond, April 8, 1862.

I. The following Proclamation is published for the information of all concerned:




By virtue of the power vested in me, by law, to declare the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus:

I, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, do proclaim that martial law is hereby extended over the Department of East Tennessee, under the command of Major General E. K. Smith, and I do proclaim the suspension of all civil jurisdiction, (with the exception of that  enabling the courts to take cognizance of the probate of wills, the administration of the estates of deceased persons, the qualification of guardians, to enter decrees and order for the participation and sale of property, to make orders concerning roads and bridges, to assess county levies, and to order the payment of county dues, and the write of habeas corpus aforesaid.

In witness where of, I have hereunto signed my name and set my seal, this, the 8th day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty two.

Jefferson Davis.

II. Major General E. K. Smith, commanding the Department of East Tennessee, is charged with the due execution of the foregoing proclamation. He will fortheith establish an efficient military police, and will enforce the following orders:

The distillation of spirituous liquors is positively prohibited, and the distilleries will fortheith be closed. The sale of spirituous liquors of any kind is also prohibited, and establishments for the sale thereof will be closed

III. All such persons infringing the above prohibition will suffer such punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court martial. Provided, that no sentence to hard labor for more than one month shall be inflicted by the sentence of a regimental court martial, as directed by the 67th Article of War.

By command of the Secretary of War,

S. Cooper, Adj't and Insp'r General

Daily National Intelligencer, May 5, 1862.


Affairs in East Tennessee



Martial Law Declared in East Tennessee

Martial law has been declared in East Tennessee, and Col. Wm. M. Churchwell has been appointed Provost Marshal. The following documents relating to the subject are published:


Adjutant and Inspector General's Office,

Richmond, April 8, 1862.

I The following Proclamation is published for the information of all concerned:




By virtue of the power vested in me, by law, to declare the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus:

I, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, do proclaim that martial law is hereby extended over the Department of East Tennessee, under the command of Major General E. K. Smith, and I do proclaim the suspension of all civil jurisdiction, (with the exception of that enabling the courts to take cognizance of the probate of wills, the administration of the estates of deceased persons, the qualification of guardians, to enter decrees and order for the participation and sale of property, to make orders concerning roads and bridges, to assess county levies, and to order the payment of county dues, and the write of habeas corpus aforesaid.

In witness where of, I have hereunto signed my name and set my seal, this, the 8th day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty two.

Jefferson Davis.

II. Major General E. K. Smith, commanding the Department of East Tennessee, is charged with the due execution of the foregoing proclamation. He will fortheith establish an efficient military police, and will enforce the following orders:

The distillation of spirituous liquors is positively prohibited, and the distilleries will fortheith be closed. The sale of spirituous liquors of any kind is also prohibited, and establishments for the sale thereof will be closed

III. All such persons infringing the above prohibition will suffer such punishment as shall be ordered by the sentence of a court martial. Provided, that no sentence to hard labor for more than one month shall be inflicted by the sentence of a regimental court martial, as directed by the 67th Article of War.

By command of the Secretary of War,

S. Cooper, Adj't and Insp'r General

Daily National Intelligencer, May 5, 1862.

          8, Assistant Secretary of War, Thomas A. Scott, to Secretary of War, E. M. Stanton relative to the fall of Island No. 10


NEW MADRID, April 8, 1862.

Just returned from Tennessee. General Pope's movement has been a glorious success. Captured the rebel general, and nearly all his forces are prisoners. They will number about 5,000. Over 100 pieces of heavy artillery at Island No. 10, and along the river shore a large amount of arms and property of every description. The rebels sunk six steamers. Will endeavor to have five of them raised. If transportation arrives to-morrow or next day we shall have Memphis within ten days, and General Pope can cooperate with General Grant at Corinth in wiping out secession. Captain Walke, of the gunboat Carondelet, is entitled to great credit for his efficient cooperation with General Pope to effect the crossing of the river.

THOMAS A. SCOTT, Assistant Secretary of War.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War.

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 22, p. 722.

          8, An Iowa soldier's observations on the mass burial of Confederate soldiers at Shiloh battlefield

* * * *

Where the retreat commenced on Monday afternoon are hundreds and thousands of wounded rebels. They had fallen in heaps and the woods had taken fire and burned all the clothing off them and the naked and blackened corpses are still lying there unburried[.] On the hillside near a deep hollow our men wer [sic] hauling them down and throwing them into the deep gulley [sic][.] One hundred and eighty [sic] had been thrown in when I was there. Men were in on top of the dead [sic] straightening out their legs and arms and tramping [sic] them down so as to make the hole contain as many as possible[.] [added emphasis] Other man on the hillside had ropes with a noose on one end and they would attach this to a mans [sic] foot or his head and haul him down to the hollow and roll him in[.] Where the ground was level it was so full of water that the excavation filled up as fast as dug and the corpse was just rolled in and the earth just thrown over it and left.

War is hell [sic] broke loose [sic] and benumbs all the tender feeling of men and makes them brutes [sic] [.] I do not want to see any more such scenes and yet I would not have missed this day for any consideration[.]

Boyd Diary, April 8, 1862

          8, Mrs. J. B. Gray's modest suggestion

A Gunboat Proposal.

Editors Appeal: I wish to make a proposition through your columns to the ladies of Tennessee. That proposition is, that we purchase an iron-clad steamer, to aid in the formation of the Navy of the Confederate States. Having already given what is more precious than money, or any earthly treasure—some of us our beloved husbands, and most of us our noble sons, let us unite our efforts to strengthen their hands and cheer their hearts by the purchase of such a vessel, which, with the blessing of God, may prove as formidable to our enemies as the Virginia. I propose to give to the Secretary of the Navy or his order one hundred dollars to the attainment of this object. An equal sum from each patriotic lady of the State will accomplish it. Messrs. Editors, please speak for me and my sisters. Ask them to respond to this appeal, and say that you will become the agents for our noble purpose. The money will be paid whenever it is called for, through you. I mention ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS, in order that more of us may share in the honor.

Mrs. J. B. Gray

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 8, 1862.

          8,Strong Union sentiment reported in Franklin, Tennessee

Franklin, April 8, 1862.

The Union sentiment is stronger than in the more Southern part of the State. It is in the agricultural regions where slaves are largely employed in tilling the soil that the secession fun is now the strongest. Gen. Johnson is industriously bringing his state back into the Federal Union.

The Federal letter writers are to be believed, the amount of Union sentiment in that part of Tennessee now in their possession, is not enough to encourage any hope soon getting the State back in the Federal Union.

Houston Telegraph, June 2, 1862.





          7, Longstreet ordered to begin retreat from East Tennessee to Virginia

RICHMOND, VA., April 7, 1864. Gen. J. LONGSTREET, Bristol, Tenn.:

GEN.: The President directs that you move with that part of your corps proper now in the Department of East Tennessee (that is, McLaw's and Field's divisions, and one battalion of artillery, that lately commanded by Col. Alexander) to Charlottesville, Va. Arrived there, you will report to Gen. R. E. Lee. The infantry should first move by rail. If the means of transportation will permit, the artillery, its carriages, harness, &c., will go in the same manner; otherwise, it will march. Should the artillery go by rail, the artillery horses will be sent on the dirt road. Only such field transportation will be taken as is allowed for a campaign in the Army of Northern Virginia. Please see Gen. Lee's special orders, indorsed. The excess in the Department of East Tennessee above that amount will be promptly put in motion for the gap in the Piedmont Railroad, between Danville, Va., and Greensborough, N. C., to assist in providing necessary subsistence supplies for both your own corps and the troops who remain with Gen. Buckner in the Department of East Tennessee.

Very respectfully, general, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 756.

          7, Entry in Alice Williamson's Diary, Sumner County

Another (rebel) soldier was shot yesterday. The Yankees went to jail and brought him while a citizen was standing near. He said the soldier was very poorly clad but his countenance was that of a gentleman. When the guard brought his horse to him (a broken down one from the camp) he asked what they were going to do with them. On being told to "Mount that horse and say no more..." he did so remarking that he supposed they were going to shoot him. They took him to the river to shoot him but finding some gentlemen there-Mr. H. & M. they said they had gone in a hornet's nest to shoot and went somewhere else. When they carry them out to shoot them they given [sic] a worn out horse and tell them if they can escape they may; they say "have fine fun chasing the boy with fresh horses" I am sorry I did not commence my journal when old Payne first came; he was worse then than now.

Williamson Diary

          7, "A Warning to Thieving Soldiers"

A case has just been investigated by courts martial, in which Peter Cunningham, bugler of Co. D, 14th U. S. cavalry was tried on the charge of robbery, found guilty, and sentenced to drummed through the camp of the 2d cavalry division with a placard attached to his back, with the word "Robber" written thereon, with a ball and chain attached to his left leg, for the period of six months, and forfeit all pay and allowances now due him from the United States until the expiration of the term of his sentence.

Nashville Dispatch, April 7, 1864.

          7, "The Police and Sanitary Regulation of the City;" the fight for public health in Nashville

The citizens of Nashville are thoroughly puzzled to understand their duties with regard to the sanitary regulation of the city. On the 22d ult., an order was issued by Gen. Granger, from which we extract as follows:

Capt. W. D. Chamberlain, 29th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, is announced as Chief of the Police of this city.

He will rigidly enforce all police and sanitary regulations issued or to be issued.

He is authorized, in the discharge of his duties, to search all premises, alleys, outhouses, or yards, and to give any orders or directions concerning the cleaning or keeping of the same; and any orders or directions so given, will be considered as coming from these Headquarters.

Citizens and occupants of Government buildings will be held responsible that all obstructions are removed from and the pavements in front of their houses swept clean by 9 a. m.

No merchandise, boxes, coal, wood or obstruction of any kind will be allowed to remain on the pavements, but will be taken in immediately on delivery.

No dirt or rubbish of any kind will be deposited in he alleys or aback yards. The sweepings, slops, and refuse will be collected in barrels, and the barrels placed in the street [sic] at such stated times as shall be hereinafter designated for each street, to be taken away by the Government wagons. [sic]

As soon as the streets are thoroughly scraped, they will be sprinkled daily by Government water-carts.

As citizens are not taxed to support this-undoubtedly for the cleanliness and health of the city-it is expected that they will perform their share of the work promptly and thoroughly.

Any violation of this order or of any orders or directions given by Captain Chamberlain, will be punished with a fine of five dollars, to be collected fortheith by the City Provost Marshal on the report of the Chief of Police.

On the 28th ult. Chief of Police Chamberlain issued an order from which we quote as follows:

In accordance with Special Order No. 76 [sic], dated March 22d, it is hereby ordered:

I. That occupants of stores, restaurants and dwelling houses, will be required to clean their yards and cellars, and have the offal removed, within forty-eight hours from the date of this order. No garbage or dirt of any kind will be allowed to accumulate on any premises within the city limits.

II. All dirt to be removed in barrels and boxes from the backs yards and alleys by the persons occupying the same. No rubbish will be allowed to remain more than twenty-four hours without being removed.

III. Offal, the accumulation or restaurants, must be removed by the occupants each day (Sundays excepted) before 10 A.M. All ashes and rubbish will be set in barrels on the sidewalks before 10 A. M., each day. [sic]

Everybody seems to have construed these orders to require them to place the rubbish and ashes from their cellars, back yards and alleys in barrels and boxes on the streets in front of their premises, from whence they would be removed in Government wagons. They have complied with what they understood the orders to require of them, and now the municipal authorities quietly tell them that if they do not remove this rubbish the will be indicted for creating a nuisance. The law is plan and explicit upon this point, and the citizens must remove the rubbish in from of their premises fortheith or take the consequences.

For permitting merchandise, boxes, coal, wood, or obstructions of any kind to remain on the pavements, the military police will collect a fine of five dollars from the offender. The same offenses are punishable by the city authorities as follows:

"That hereafter no person or persons shall hand or suspend any sign, show-bill, or show-board, or set or place any goods, wares or merchandise, or any other obstruction, in front of any house, store or other building upon the Public Square, or any street, lane or alley in this city, under a penalty of not less than ten nor more than forty-five dollars for each and every offense, and the further sum of five dollars for each day the said sign, show-bill, show-board, or goods, wares, and merchandise, or other obstruction, remain in violation of this act.["]

As it now stands, both penalties may be enforced, and so many double penalties be imposed in a number of cases.

An order was issued from the military headquarters and a short time since, and is still in force, we believe, requiring the citizens to scrape up the mud and dust into piles or heaps to the middle of streets in front of their premises, when the same would be removed by Government, are taxed for this purpose.

It strikes us that these conflicts might be avoided by having one set of authorities to enforce police and sanitary regulations in the city. The policy adopted by Gen. Hurlbut in Memphis is the right one. In a speech to the City Council of that city on the 17th ult., he gave them to understand that if they did not clean the city and take measures to improve its sanitary condition, he would stop their collection of taxes and do the work himself.

Nashville Dispatch, April 7, 1864.

          8, Flanking movement and/or scout initiated, from Memphis, skirting the Coldwater and thence by LaGrange to Bolivar

HDQRS. SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Memphis, Tenn., April 7, 1864.

Brig. Gen. B. H. GRIERSON, Cmdg. Cavalry Division, Sixteenth Corps:

GEN.: Under orders from Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman, you will proceed with your entire available cavalry force skirting the Coldwater and thence by LaGrange to Bolivar.

You have seen Gen. Sherman's orders. The line from here to Hatchie via Bolivar is to be held by your cavalry. You will move all disposable cavalry before daylight, sweeping round by LaGrange to Bolivar. Let go of Memphis, and give yourself no concern about it. Operate on the flanks and rear of the enemy and open communication with Veatch at and west of Purdy. Rally on them, or here if too strong for you, and press the matter home.


S. A. HURLBUT, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 284-285.

          8, Destruction of Confederate bridge over the Wolf River five miles from Memphis

MEMPHIS, TENN., April 9, 1864.

Maj. Gen. W. T. SHERMAN, Cmdg. Mil. Div. of the Mississippi, Nashville, Tenn.:

On yesterday I destroyed a bridge erected by the rebels to cross Wolf 5 miles from town. They have abandoned the idea of coming in here. Forrest's train and artillery are reported moving up via Saulsbury. He means to cross Tennessee in force and should be looked for about Big Sandy.

Cairo should have a full regiment and another for Columbus. S. D. Lee is reported to have chief command of expedition in your rear.

S. A. HURLBUT, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 310.

          8, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 7 relative to relations between officers and men in Federal Army in Middle Tennessee

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 7. HDQRS. SECOND DIV., 16TH ARMY CORPS, Pulaski, Tenn., April 8, 1864.

The general commanding regrets that the state of discipline in this command has become so loose as to compel him to publish a general order on the subject. No officer having the good of the service at heart can fail to see the pernicious effect of a too free social intercourse between officers and men. All officers are therefore strictly forbidden to associate on terms of equality with enlisted men. This applies especially to officers messing, playing at games of any description, or visiting with their men, as also permitting them to visit their quarters except upon business, which is to be done in the proper manner. In a general sense this order will make it the duty of officers to require respectful and courteous treatment from enlisted men on all occasions. Whenever company officers or officers connected with regiments or batteries are guilty of violating this order it shall be the duty of regimental commanders to place such officer or officers in arrest, and prefer the proper charges against the same without delay, and any regimental commander neglecting to do this will be placed in arrest by his brigade commander and the charge of neglect of duty preferred against him.

This order applies to staff officers who may have enlisted men directly under their charge, and any violation of this order will subject them to the same penalty as above prescribed, the general commanding division and commanders of brigades being the proper officers to execute the same.

Officers of the inspector-general's department are charged with the responsibility of seeing this order properly executed, and will report without favor any officer who violates its requirements.

This order will be read to each regiment and battery composing this command at the evening parade following its receipt.

By order of Brig. Gen. T. W. Sweeny, commanding:

LOUIS H. EVERTS, Capt. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 304-305.

          8, Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest unveils his strategy for his West Tennessee raid


Jackson, Tenn., April 8, 1864.

Col. J. J. NEELY, Cmdg. Brigade, near Whitesville, Tenn.:

COL.: The brigadier-general commanding directs that you move on Sunday morning next with your entire brigade (excepting the Seventh Tennessee Cavalry) and Crews' battalion to the vicinity of Raleigh, and make every preparation as if to build a bridge across Wolf River at that place. You will also send a portion of your command on the Big Creek and Moscow road as if intending to cross the river at those places, the object being to impress the enemy with the belief that Gen. Forrest is moving to attack Memphis. You will make no secret of you movement and pretended object. After maneuvering for two or three days you fall back in the direction of Brownsville. Your command will move with five days' cooked rations.

Your movement is intended to co-operate with one to be made by Gen. Forrest on Fort Pillow, and he desires that it should be made promptly and that the demonstration should be as heavy as possible. When you retire you will (if you are not followed by the enemy) deploy your command in every direction, with orders to arrest, and bring to you at Brownsville all men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, and all officers and soldiers absent from their commands without proper authority. You will also send out proper offices to impress horses to mount your dismounted men, in accordance with the inclosed instructions[4] from Gen. Forrest. A strong rear guard will be held together to protect you scattered men. If the enemy press you in force, you will keep together enough men to elude them.

Col. Duckworth will be ordered to move to Randolph via Covington, and will return and meet you in Brownsville.

The brigadier-general commanding will go to Brownsville to-morrow; he will accompany the movement on Fort Pillow.

The contents of this letter, so far as it relates to the movements of Gen. Forrest, are strictly confidential.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. A. GOODMAN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 758-759.

          8, Comparison of Confederate and Federal occupation of Robert H. Cartmell's farm

....a portion of Forrest's regiment is encamped in [the] woods lot since 12 (o'clock ) today. Some of the officers [are] occupying our vacant room. I have so much soldiers [sic] I would like to get a quit claim [sic]. True[,] Rebels do not act as the Yankees, but there are bad men in all armies & they kill hogs & the like.

Robert H. Cartmell Diary.

          8, A Plea for Charitable Aid for the Refugee Asylum in Civil War Nashville

"Distress and Destitution;"

In one of his sermons on Charity, "Father Jones"[5] laid it down as a rule, and demonstrated it as a fixed fact, the Charity knows no distinction of persons; no question of nativity or creed; no question of politics or even of morality will deter the humane man from bestowing his charity upon the needy, no matter who or what the person is, where he came from, or what caused his poverty. We are expressly commanded to love our enemies, and to do good to them that hate us; how much more, then, should we love those whom Providence has placed among us, destitute of home and friends. These remarks are prompted by a visit yesterday, to the Shelby Medical College, now occupied as an asylum for destitute refugees. When we say destitute [sic] we mean all that can be conveyed by that word, in its broadest sense; for here we found mothers of large families destitute of all earthly goods, except a scanty covering of their nakedness; destitute of relatives and friends, except their helpless children and a few sympathizing ladies and gentlemen who aid in administering to their immediate necessities. No man, possessed of human feeling, could pass through the numerous apartments of that building, without feeling a deep compassion for the poor unfortunates, and gladly contributing [to]ward to their relief.

We have no idea of the number of inmates of this asylum, but we judge no less than one hundred and fifty, of whom not less than one half are sick, and many will never leave their beds alive. One poor woman arrived there four weeks ago with six children, of whom three are now in their graves, two others are dangerously sick, and the other is just able to move about. Another has lost four out of six, another two out of four, and scarcely a family there whose members may be called health. [sic] One beautiful blue-eye boy, with hectic cough, and blush on his sunken cheek, is rapidly sinking, while his brother, sad and suffering, is reclining on a pillow on the same bed. A little girl has just been "laid out," and the stretcher is brought in the room, on which to carry her to the dead house preparatory to being buried. What was once a stalwart young East Tennessee boy, perhaps nineteen years old, is not stretched upon his bed, wasted to a skeleton, unable to articulate, or even by sign, except in the expression of his languid eye, to make known his wants to his fond mother, who still hopes to save one child from the general wreck. Much more did we see, dear reader, to melt the human heart, but we have not the time to write it down.

The inmates are not confined to East Tennesseeans [sic], as many suppose; there are among them many families from Georgia, Alabama, and North Carolina, and some from Middle Tennessee, who have lost all their earthly possessions in this war. Some of their husbands and sons have been killed in the Federal and some in the Confederate service. But this is not matter of consequence now; we desire to impress upon the minds of our citizens, as well as the military authorities, the fact that we have among us a large number of destitute fellow being, who need food and raiment, and suitable accommodations, especially for the sick. Their numbers are increasing daily, while the means are diminishing. Although the building they at present occupy might answer for a transient shelter for families in health, it is in no way suited for a hospital. Of this fact, those having it in charge are well aware, and are exerting themselves to provide other accommodations.

We now ask the public to lend a generous aid in this charity; bestow freely of what you have, remembering that where much is given, much is required; and if you have but little, of that which you have give freely, and Almighty God will reward your charity.

Contributions may be sent to Jos. S. Fowler, Esq., at the Controller's office in the capitol, who will cheerfully impart to visitors any information concerning the institution.

Nashville Dispatch, April 8, 1864.

          8, Foraging, Confederate Citizens Prefer Coffee to Money in making Exchanges for breads and pies

April 8th 1864

It is raining this morning and there will be no drill…tho it isn't very pleasant to have the water running through the sent on your paper and besides two lively Yanks in the same bunk jostling and talking. I often wonder how I can write at all but it's nothing after you get used to it…

One of the boys started out foraging in the evening and came back with a bucket full of fresh milk, some corn meal and butter. We mixed up some cakes and baked them in our pans, made milk gravy and coffee, enough for a dozen at home but the 3 of us made short work of it. Next morning we got some nice biscuits, the best I've seen since I left home. So you see, we ain't in a starving condition yet…The rebels took everything they could lay hands on while they were here but some of the citizens were too sharp for them and hid part of their meat and grain. They are very anxious to exchange bread and pies for coffee at any price but don't want to sell for money. Some of them haven't seen coffee before for two years. The rebels being principled against using it – only when they capture it from the Yankees…One lady, a rank rebel – at Morris Town said she was very fond of coffee but wouldn't take a grain of "Lincoln Coffee" as she called it. I expect I will be regular old Grammy for tea & coffee, yet one thing certain – if I had nothing of the kind on a march I should have played out often. Some stimulus is absolutely necessary in some cases and I take coffee in preference to whiskey which many consider essential in camp.

Bentley Letters.





6, 7, 12, Reaction, Denial and Despondency in Knoxville. Confederate Lizzie Welcker's reaction to the sudden end of the war

April 6, 1865, The "niggers" are all – men, women and children – out today with the 'star spangled banner' celebrating their freedom….When – when – when [sic] will we be delivered?

April 7, 1865. The "news" today is that Gen. Lee has surrendered! L-a-u-g-h!!! I feel certain (although we can't know where Gen L is) that he is in the right [sic] place and that he and his gallant soldiers will "act well their parts" – God bless! God revere them all!

April 12, 1865….Altho [sic] I feel dreadfully – my brain seems paralysed – I can but hope that "things are not what they seem."

Lizzie Welcker Diary.[6]

          7, Report of Provost Marshal Major A. W. Billings on organization of home guard companies in Middle Tennessee


Maj.-Gen. MILROY, Cmdg. First Sub-District of Middle Tennessee:

GEN.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the organization and operations of the home-guard companies in the counties embraced in your command: In nearly each district of the counties of Coffee, Lincoln, Bedford, Franklin, Marshall, Grundy, Warren, and Cannon, there are from one to two, sometimes three, companies formed. Their workings, as shown by reports and by the great decrease of marauders, guerrillas, and the many small parties of robbers who formerly infested these counties, is most admirable. In the counties of Bedford, Coffee, Lincoln, and that portion of Franklin where they are organized, those terrors and pests of the country have entirely dispersed. The home guards have through their company courts settled fairly, justly, and amicably many claims which have been brought to me as provost-marshal and referred to said courts for adjuration. The workings of the court I find generally restores to a great extent that good feeling and amity so essential to the welfare of a united people. Aside from this the people or home guards have rallied to the assistance of some of our troops, and aided and assisted in driving and killing the guerrillas, by whom our troops were at times repulsed. They have also had encounters with the guerrillas or horse thieves by themselves, in which they acted nobly, capturing [or] killing several guerrillas, one a noted captain, losing several of their own men in the encounter, capturing some seven horses in one instance and several in others. All the horses and other property captured have been returned to their original owners on proof of property adduced before the home-guard company court. They have arrested and brought to justice four Federal soldiers, two of them deserters from the Nineteenth Regulars, who had exchanged clothing with citizens and were endeavoring to escape. The two other had gone about the country exchanging horses with whom they pleased, and doing about as they pleased. These men otherwise would in all probability [have] escaped. In no instance can I learn of a single outrage or theft committed by members such organization. They have so rid the country, where organized, as to render it comparatively safe for Federal soldiers to pass through by themselves. You are aware that the officers have been selected with an eye single to their loyalty, competency, and reliability.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. W. BILLINGS, Maj. and Provost-Marshal.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 292-293.

          7, Report of Surg. George E. Cooper, U. S. Army, Medical Director, Department of the Cumberland relative to Hood's Campaign in Tennessee


SIR: My report of the medical department of the Army of the Cumberland from the time of the invasion of Northern Alabama and Tennessee by the rebel army under Gen. Hood till the defeat of the same by the Government forces in front of Nashville, and the pursuit thereof to beyond the Tennessee river, must be a meager and unsatisfactory one in consequence of my having been separated from the army, and not having myself been in active campaign with it until after the battle of Franklin, Tenn., when it presented itself in the defenses of Nashville. The proceedings of the medical corps are, however, exceedingly well pointed out in the accompanying report of Surg. J. Theo. Heard, medical director Fourth Army Corps, who in person accompanied that corps-all that was left as an organized force of the old Army of the Cumberland, the Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps having been taken by Maj.-Gen. Sherman to form a portion of the army with which he made the great raid through Georgia.

At the time of evacuating Atlanta the corps hospitals of the Army of the Cumberland were, as they had been in the summer campaign, fully organized and equipped, and were ready to move at a moment's notice. The general field hospital, under the charge of Surg. M. C. Woodworth, was in fine condition and of sufficient capacity to receive all the sick and wounded of the army, who, on the breaking up of the division hospitals, might require medical treatment. Supplies of all kinds had been called for and procured by the field medical purveyor, and the army corps were amply and liberally supplied. The ambulances, which had been greatly used during the summer campaign, were repaired and put in as serviceable condition as the time and material on hand would admit of. When the rebel army feel upon the line of railroad at our rear the inconvenience suffered therefrom was, as far as the medical department was concerned, in reality nothing. The only article which ran short was whisky, and this was procured in ample quantities from the subsistence department. The quality, though not equal to that furnished by the medical department, was good enough for all practicable purposes.

The Fourth and Fourteenth Army Corps, having been detailed to follow Hood's army to the rear, the sick from their division hospitals were transferred to the general field hospital, where they were cared for as well as could be wished for, and the troops left Atlanta entirely disencumbered with sick or wounded men. What occurred from that time till the last days of November, 1864, is known to me by hearsay only and from reading the reports furnished these headquarters. For this information I refer to the excellent report of Surgeon Heard, medical director, Fourth Army Corps, who, having been one of that little band who held the whole rebel army in check from Decatur, Ala., to Nashville, Tenn., is far more competent to make the report than I. Synchronous with my arrival at Nashville from Atlanta and Chattanooga came reports of the falling back of our army from Pulaski, Tenn., and of heavy and continuous skirmishing with Hood's advance. On the 30th of November came the news that a severe action had taken place near Franklin, Tenn., and that our losses in both killed and wounded had been heavy. The medical director of the Fourth Army Corps was immediately telegraphed to and asked if he required a hospital train, and early next morning hospital train No. 2., was sent to Brentwood, between Nashville and Franklin. On the night of November 30 two freight trains loaded with wounded from skirmishes beyond Franklin, and which had been brought to that place in ambulances, arrived here. The wounded were transferred to the general hospitals here, and were promptly and skillfully cared for by the medical officers there on duty.

On the following day the troops arrived from Franklin, bringing with them quite a number of wounded, but having, unfortunately, been compelled to leave by far the greater portion in the hands of the enemy. Almost at the same time came the troops commanded by Maj. Gen. A. J. Smith. These troops were deficient in almost everything belonging to the hospital department; they had no organized ambulance corps or trains; there was no division or brigade organization of hospitals, but were as they had been from the beginning of the war, and seemed to have learned nothing from experience or the example of others, and opposed every improvement as an innovation. They had but few medical supplies, and were wanting in almost everything which would aid them in alleviating the sufferings of the sick and wounded of their commands. It became necessary to fit them out with all possible dispatch, which was done; and thanks are due to Surg. Robert Fletcher, U. S. Volunteers, medical purveyor, for his energy, efficiency, and promptness in this emergency. No one could have performed the duties of purveyor in a manner more creditable to himself or with greater benefit to the Government.

As soon as the troops arrived in front of Nashville they were placed in the lines and were compelled to throw up intrenchments. They were much prostrated by their constant harassing night and day marches from the Tennessee River to Nashville; but, notwithstanding this, in a short time, by constant and severe labor, works were thrown up which rendered Nashville impregnable. As the army was short of men, it became necessary to call to the aid of the beleaguered city all the troops within call. Consequently, the different detachments of the army which left Atlanta with Gen. Sherman, and had remained behind, in hospitals and otherwise, were organized into a temporary corps under the command of Maj.-Gen. Steedman. This extemporized corps was without any organization whatever, and to it was attached the regiments of colored troops. It is impossible for me to learn if these troops consider themselves a part and parcel of the Army of the Cumberland, or a separate command made for Col. Mussey. I should judge them to be out of the department did I take the attention they pay to the existence of this office as a criterion. They are more irregular in forwarding their reports than any regiments in the Army of the Cumberland.

The weather, which, previous to the arrival of the troops, had been moderate, became, shortly after their arrival at Nashville, excessively cold for this latitude. The result of this was much suffering on the part of the troops and the comparative cessation of all offensive measures on the part of either army. At this time the result of the fatigue undergone by the troops in the retreat from Decatur and the subsequent labor in the trenches began to show themselves in the greatly increased number of men who presented themselves for medical treatment. Many, too, who had without detriment to their health undergone all the hardships of the summer and fall campaign, now yielded to the effects of the bitter cold, and diseases of the pulmonary viscera became numerous. Rheumatic affections, too, became quite prevalent. The advent of the rebel army in front of Nashville, and the fact of entrenching itself, rendered the necessity of a general action a moral certainty. To prepare for the sick and wounded of the Government forces demanded a much larger amount of hospital accommodation than was at that time at the disposal of the hospital department. Anticipating a large influx of wounded, the efficient superintendent and director of U. S. general hospitals at Nashville took possession of every building that could be made use of for hospital purposes and had them fitted up with all possible dispatch. Consequently, some 4,000 vacant beds were at the disposal of the medical department. The Assistant Surgeon-Gen., too, anticipating the necessity, ordered to Nashville a large number of medical officers, of whom many arrived proper to the actions and all in sufficient time to be of the greatest service to the wounded in the battles in front of Nashville. The medical officers of the Fourth Army Corps, being emphatically experts in the care of the wounded after battle, had everything prepared of prompt and efficient action. They had supplied themselves with all the necessaries, and, in addition, had procured all the delicacies within their reach. The result was that after the actions of 15th and 16th of December the men belonging to the Fourth Army Corps, and all who were brought to the field hospitals of that corps, were promptly and skillfully treated and most carefully provided for. Too much praise cannot be awarded to the medical staff of the Fourth Army Corps for their untiring attention and skillful manner of treating the wounded in their division hospitals. Were it not invidious to designate and particularize by name certain officers when all are worthy, I would give a list of the medical officers who so faithfully performed their duty. This I will not do, but justice to themselves demands that I should mention and particularize Surgs. M. G. Sherman, Ninth Indiana Volunteers; Stephen J. Young, Seventy-ninth Illinois Volunteers; E. B. Glick, Fortieth Indiana Volunteers, and C. N. Ellinwood, Seventy-fourth Illinois Volunteers, as men deserving of more than ordinary notice. Previous to the battles instructions had been given to the surgeons in charge to establish division field hospitals as near to the field as practicable, and strict orders were issued directing the surgeons to operate on the field upon all requiring it, previous to transferring the men to the general hospitals in the city.

The weather, which had entirely stopped all offensive military operations, having moderated considerably, the army on the morning of December 15 marched out beyond the fortifications for the purpose of assaulting the enemy's lines. The medical department of the Army of the Cumberland proper were prepared to attend to any number of wounded brought in to them from the field, and established their hospitals as near the front as the safety of the wounded and the configuration of the country would admit of. Water being quite plenty, position only had to be sought for. The extemporized corps, commanded by Maj.-Gen. Steedman, had no organized medical staff. This was composed of all the surgeons who could be found unattached, in consequence of being on leave of observe or having been separated from their regiments which had marched from Atlanta with Maj.-Gen. Sherman. To these were added the medical officers of the U. S. Colored Troops. This portion of the medical staff was under the charge of Surg. Josiah D. Cotton, Ninety-second Ohio Volunteers, who acted as medical director. Though hastily brought together and lacking in all the appurtenances for field hospitals, the medical officers of this command did all in their power to assist and relieve the wounded under their charge. The only great drawback to prompt action in this portion of the army was the entire absence of an ambulance corps. The blockade of the Cumberland River by the rebel batteries had prevented the quartermaster's department from bringing a sufficient number to Nashville. To avoid the want of ambulances as much as possible, every one that could be found in Nashville, no matter in what capacity used, was taken possession of and sent into the field, to be used as circumstances might demand. This, in a meander, served in the place of an ambulance corps, but the want of system and organization was most apparent. The soldiery wounded in the action of the 15th of December were, on the same night, brought into the city and placed in the U. S. general hospitals, where every necessary attention was paid them. Such as had not been operated upon were then examined, and such measures were taken as their cases demanded. The wounded in the action of the 16th of December, 1864, were also brought in and placed in the general hospitals. Some were brought in by ambulances of the corps and some by vehicles, which had been impressed for that purpose. Surg. O. Q. Herrick, Thirty-fourth Illinois Volunteers, superintendent of transportation of sick and wounded, made use of all available means to remove from the field each and every wounded man found there. This was a matter of no little labor, for the scene covered several miles, and wounded men were in every portion of it, and the cavalry wounded even farther distant; yet, by midday of the 17th of December all our wounded were in comfortable hospitals, the recipients of every attention that skill and science could furnish. The pursuit of the enemy entailed, as a necessary consequence, much more labor in the care of the wounded. The railroads were destroyed, and all the wounded had to be transferred by means of ambulances to the hospitals at Franklin, Columbia, and Pulaski. This was done under the supervision of Surg. O. Q. Herrick; and too much praise cannot be given him from his untiring energy and labor in collecting and bringing in from the houses in the vicinity of the line of march the wounded of our own and the rebel army. The cavalry in advance paid but little attention to their wounded, but left them in houses by the roadside, to be cared for by the surgeons of the infantry troops who were following. The Fourth Army Corps carried with them the sick and wounded in ambulances until they arrived where proper hospital accommodations could be furnished. The Sixteenth and Twenty-third Army Corps, not being in the advance, had no wounded to care for.

In Franklin, Columbia, and Pulaski a large number of rebel wounded were found who had been left by their army. A sufficient number of medical officers had been left with them to give them proper attention. These wounded were, as soon as practicable, transferred in hospital cars to Nashville, where they were placed in one large hospital. The medical officer in charge was directed to furnish them all necessaries and such luxuries as the condition of their wounds required. This was done until the arrival of the Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners, who directed that the wounded rebels should be confined to prison hospital rations. I do not think that it is the intention of the Government to deprive wounded men, rebels though they be, of everything needful for their treatment. Prison hospitals being at a distance from the front, it was not expected that wounded me would be brought there till sufficiently well to travel, when died would be but a matter of minor import. No surgeon can give good results if he be not allowed to use every article called for by sinking nature and to treat disease untrammeled by orders from non-professional men.

The wounded of our armies who were left at Franklin, Columbia, and Pulaski had medical officers detailed to remain with them until the railroad should have been repaired, when those who could bear transportation were to be removed to Nashville. The necessary supplies were left with the sick and wounded as far as was practicable, but not in such abundance as would have been furnished had the railroad been intact.

The weather during the pursuit was of the most disagreeable character. Rain fell for four successive days, and when this ceased the weather grew severely cold. This was followed by rain, rain, rain, and as a sequence mud. Probably in no part of the war have the men suffered more from inclement weather than in the month of December, 1864, when following Hood's retreating army from Nashville to the Tennessee River. The result of this weather and the hard marching was, as might have been looked for, severe affections of the pulmonary viscera, fevers, rheumatism, and diarrheas, which served to fill the hospitals in this vicinity to their utmost capacity.

The number of men wounded in the actions in front of Nashville will never be correctly furnished, in consequence of the character of some of the troops engaged and their having no organized medical department. The records of this office, as far as furnished, show for the actions from Decatur to Nashville, 402 wounded; in front of Nashville and during the pursuit of the rebels, 1,717 wounded. The wounds were caused by musketry, throwing conoidal projectiles, and by artillery of the latest and most approved character. The wounds were received at all distances, from contact with the muzzle of the piece to the extreme range of artillery and musketry. The character of many of the wounds were of the most severe kind, having been received at short range, consequent upon the peculiarity of the battle, which was a series of charges upon heavily fortified lines held by strong forces of the enemy.

The medical officers of the Army of the Cumberland did in this campaign all that men could do to alleviate the sufferings of the wounded soldiery, and have only added to the envious reputation gained by them on many a former battle-field. They are skillful, zealous, untiring, and faithful, knowing their whole duty and doing it most conscientiously. The medical officers of Sixteenth Corps did their duty well and faithfully, but want of systematic organization crippled their movements most perceptibly.

I will transmit the nominal list of wounded as soon as it can be made out; it will be defective in the Cavalry Corps and in those troops commanded by Maj.-Gen. Steedman.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. E. COOPER, Surg., U. S. Army, Medical Director, Dept. of the Cumberland.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 107-112.

          8, A new hat for a Bolivar school girl

....I'm going to get a new hat this month, for the first time in three years. That is a Summer [sic] had, got a winter hat last Winter [sic] and I am really ashamed to think of the cost, however it was $15.00, about one of the cheapest. Received a letter from Brother Jimmie a day or two ago. He is again in bad health, unfit for field service....

Diary of Sally Wendel Fentress.



[1]The first flag raised by the Union forces over the State House at Nashville was the property of Capt. William Driver, an old Salem shipmaster, but for some time a resident of Tennessee. During the dark days, the Captain kept the flag hidden, quilted into the covering of his bed; but when the gun boats came up, "Old Glory" was brought out, and the Captain had the honor of raising it over the Capitol. He writes to his daughter: "I carried my flag, "Old Glory," as we have been used to call it, to the Capitol, presented it to the Ohio Sixth, and hoisted it with my own hands on the Capitol, over this proud city, amidst the heaven-shaking cheers of thousands—over this proud city, where, for the last eight months, I have been treated with scorn, and shunned as one infected with the leprous spot."

Leavenworth [KS] Daily Times, March 25, 1862.

[2] Located southeast of McKenzie, im Carroll county, Tennessee.

[3] This is also known as the "Battle of Fallen Timbers," or skirmish, or engagement, or affair in some secondary sources. It is treated by many neo-Confederate enthusiasts as a stellar moment for Confederate arms, and the fight in which Nathan Bedford Forrest was wounded, near Michie.

[4] Not found.

[5] The nom de plume found under numerous moralizing editorials printed in the Nashville Dispatch in 1864.

[6] As cited in William A. Strasser, Jr., '"Our Women Played Well Their Parts": Confederate Women in Civil War East Tennessee,' Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. LIX, Summer 2000, Number 2, p.100, as cited from the Lizzie Welcker Diary, McClung Collection, Knoxville Tennessee.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Editor, The Courier

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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