Tuesday, April 19, 2011

Tennessee Historical Notes for April 18

18, "The women of Greece took part in their wars, as also the early Saxons and Britons." Woman's role in war

Editors Appeal: While the military pride and spirit of the whole South seems to speak in one common voice for the onward march of men against the uprising and subtle spirit of treachery and anarchy, shall not woman, too, lay their best offerings upon the shrine of her country's honor?

I, for one, tender to my country that which shall not be called by the foolish name of sacrifice, but the sacramental offerings of my best services to either, as a Joan, Catherine, Helena, Nightingale, or an humble Sister of Charity, in any division of the southern army that the commander-in-chief or other officers shall appoint to me. Nay, more: if the fates of war shall choose to crush my brethren beneath the iron heel of their oppressors, in adverse proportions to their might, I will proudly stand in the footsteps of some fallen soldier, and prove to this age that the female virtue which was flanked about with chivalry, has not become extinct with the women of Boetia.[1]

Let the ladies of Memphis and every town in the South organize themselves in  associations for nurses and attendants of those regiments formed in their respective communities, and hold themselves in readiness to join those regiments which shall suffer most in the impending engagements.

For this end, they should provide the associations with such hospital stores and refreshments for the sick and wounded as may be raised by subscription or contributions, thereby giving strength and life to a large proportion of men that must be disabled by the fevers of our climate or the casualties of war.

"This custom, which was invented by the Hungarian and Polish women in their great struggle against superior forces," says a Berlin paper, "was one of the greatest incentives in their success." And be it remembered, that it was not the serf and slave who composed these associations, but the very best classes of ladies in the kingdom. They all accompanied the army in their tedious marches, and bivouacked with the soldiers in their tented cities. In each soldier they recognized a brother, and required no other protection than the emblazoned shield of which nature and religion had made of womanly virtue, for this clashing hour.

The women of Greece took part in their wars, as also the early Saxons and Britons. Such actions have come down to us in the myth of romance from a barbarous age, and are accompanied with the immortality of chivalric female pride. But it is to the women of Poland and Hungary that we are indebted for the best means of displaying such chivalric sentiments in the more advanced and refined ages, and successfully imitated by Florence Nightengale in the Crimean war. Let the women of the South remember that we, who have never seen a revolution, must learn to act from the best models that other countries have set up to us in this age, and the fame of Florence Nightengale has been made known to us only through the medium of our common language. The same is due to the legions of women who served in the Hungarian and Polish wars, and shall be to every southern woman, who shall choose to write her name in good deeds upon the shining scroll of this great epoch of American chivalric history.


V. E. W.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 18, 1861.


            18, Instructions to attack and disperse Unionists leaving East Tennessee


Col. JOHN C. VAUGHN, Cmdg., &c., Kingston, Tenn.:

COL.: The major-general commanding directs me to inform you that large numbers of Union men are leaving this and adjoining counties, intending to go through the passes of the Cumberland into Kentucky. He directs that all the disposable cavalry of your command be sent with the utmost dispatch to operate between Clinton and the north valley of Powell's River and intercept them in their attempt. Few of them are armed.

You will give the officer commanding the cavalry instructions to attack and disperse these men wherever they may be found.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. II, p. 429.


            18, Skirmish at Hartsville[2]

APRIL 18, 1863.-Skirmish at Hartsville, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. Eleazer A. Paine, U. S. Army.

HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Gallatin, Tenn., April 18, 1863.

GEN.: To-day at 10 a. m. 50 head of beef-cattle and 20 mounted men, of Stokes' cavalry, were captured by a rebel regiment of infantry and 50 cavalry at or near Hartsville. The cattle were on their way to Gen. Crook's command. The rebels had wagons, and said that they were going into Kentucky.

One of my scouts, who is a good detective, engaged two or three tons of bacon this week for the Southern army, the bacon to be delivered at certain points near the river. He is to pay 30 cents in Confederate money. I shall send him back with some of that money, to make small payments, and have the bacon delivered at certain points, where I intend to seize it. The sellers are violent rebels; defy our Government, and threaten every Union man and every man who takes the oath.

I send you copy of letter to Gen. Crook and his reply.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Gallatin, Tenn., April 13, 1863.

Brig.-Gen. CROOK, Cmdg. Carthage, Tenn.:

GEN.: I am compelled again to send an additional escort with your mail. The last time I sent there were about 40 rebels watching your party, but did not attack, on account of the increased guard. I cannot spare my men. I have only 8 cavalry soldiers. The balance of mounted men are infantry. I have only five regiments, averaging about 400 men; no artillery, except what is in the fort, and no cavalry, except my orderlies. I have 30 miles of railroad and 60 of river and a number of public roads to guard. My forces cannot perform one-half of the duty as it ought to be done. Last night 70 rebels were crossed over the river to this side by swimming their horses. Their intention is to capture your mail. I send 60 additional guard, with orders not to surrender under any circumstances; but, general, I cannot send again. You must send a larger force. Gen. Rosecrans is extremely anxious to ascertain the condition of things at Lebanon. Any information you can send him on that subject will enable him to arrive at a correct understanding of affairs along the river.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

[Inclosure No. 2.]

Carthage, TENN., April 15, 1863.

Gen. E. A. PAINE, Cmdg. Gallatin, Tenn.:

SIR: I send mail this morning. I cannot possibly spare more than the number of men I have been sending with the mail. I shall, however, endeavor to make them safe by keeping expeditions on the river between here and you. The rebels had left Lebanon, and were at New Middleton last night. Part of my command had a skirmish with them there yesterday. I am under many obligations for the escort you sent with mail. I hope in future there will be no necessity.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 261-262.


            18, Libation poetry from Nashville

Whiskey is not, by official sanction, said to civilians and officers only, ad lib. On the strength of this fact, our muse, awaking with our body this morning to the reality of a genuine Bourbon cocktail, inspires us with the following:


Liquid Lyric


by Uno Hoo.


Time was when ailing topers could

But to their ails add ale;

A combination most extreme

And always sure to fail.


But now, ambrosia's once more loose,

And Whiskey being free

(Though quite restricted in its use)

It ends are plain to see.


This prescience is no witches gift;

"Extremes will often meet;"

Thus saith the ancient proverb, and

Old proverbs can't be beat.


Thus, once the whiskey market bound,

Showed up the wond'rous sight

Of all men loose and aleing hard:

'Tis now reversed-they're tight.


Thus is it, by the inverse rule,

In men both black and white,

When whiskey's tight, mankind is loose;

But when 'tis loose, they're tight.

Nashville Daily Press, April 18, 1864.

            18, "The enemy were concealed behind some houses, and waited until the patrol got to within 100 yards of them, when they charged." The last Civil War skirmish in Tennessee, near Germantown[3]

APRIL 18, 1865.-Skirmish near Germantown, Tenn.

Report of Capt. George W. Smith, Eleventh New York Cavalry.


CAPT.: I have the honor to report that yesterday as the patrol was marching from Germantown to Collierville it was attacked by a force of the enemy about six miles from Germantown. The force of the enemy is variously estimated from 60 to 100 strong, while the patrol was but eighteen strong, under Lieut. John H. Mills, D Company, this regiment. The enemy were concealed behind some houses, and waited until the patrol got to within 100 yards of them, when they charged. Lieut. Mills drew his men in line, but, after delivering a volley with their carbines, found he would be overpowered be a far superior force, and ordered his men to fall back to the camp at Germantown. He was closely pursued by a well-mounted portion of the enemy to within about two miles of this place (Germantown). The attacking party are supposed to be a part of Ford's command. Those of our men who fell from their horses, or were poorly mounted, were shot. Those who were killed or wounded were robbed of everything, they (the rebels) even taking the boots from some of the dead....I have just received a telegraph from Maj. Morgan, in which he, by order of Gen. Washburn, directs that no patrols will be sent less than fifty men. I have but 190 men available for duty. Out of that my picket, thirty-two men daily; my scouting parties, thirty men daily, and all the camp duties, have to be taken, leaving me no force at all with which to operate to any advantage. I know of fifty men who are mounted on horses which are serviceable, that are in the camp at the headquarters of the regiment at Memphis. If I can have those men and 100 dismounted men for camp duties, I can operate against these guerrillas to advantage, as I have reliable information concerning their haunts.

Hoping that my request for a few more men may meet your approbation and that it may be complied with at your earliest practicable convenience, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. W. SMITH, Capt., Cmdg. Detachment Eleventh New York Cavalry. [Indorsement.]


Respectfully forwarded for the information of the major-general commanding District of West Tennessee. The additional mounted men asked for have been ordered. I must ask that the detail of fifty men for each patrolling party be countermanded, as we have not a sufficient number if men in the command--mounted--to obey the order.

E. D. OSBAND, Brevet Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, pp. 512-513.

[1] A province in ancient Greece whose women were noted for their beauty and civic mindedness.

[2] Foraging was carried on by both sides, as was cattle stealing. There is also evidence of artifice in these reports.

[3] The skirmish near Germantown was fought nine days after Lee had surrendered.

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