Sunday, February 22, 2015

2.21 & 22. 2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        21, Brownlow's entreaty for the Union

REV. W.G. BROWNLOW'S PRAYER- Parson Brownlow, the erratic editor of the Knoxville (Tenn.) Whig, publishes the following "form of prayer," which he affectionately recommends to the local preachers of the Methodist church in Tennessee:

ALMIGHTY GOD, our Heavenly Father, in whose hands are the hearts of men, and the issues of events, not mixed up with Locofocoism[1], or rendered offensive in They sight by being identified with men of corrupt minds, evil designs, and damnable purposes, such as seeking to upturn the best form of government on earth. Thou hast graciously promised to hear the prayer of those who in an humble spirit, and with true faith such as no Secessionist can bring into exercise call upon Thee.[sic] Bless the Union men of this Commonwealth. Possess their minds with the spirit of true patriotism, enlightened wisdom, and of persevering hostility towards those traitors, political gamblers and selfish demagogues, who are seeking to build up a miserable Southern Confederacy, and under it to inaugurate a new reading of the Ten Commandments, as to teach that the Chief End of Man is Nigger! In these days of trouble and perplexity, give the common people grace to perceive the right path, which Thou knowest leads from the camps of Southern mad-caps and Northern fanatics, and enable them steadfastly to walk therein! So strengthen the common masses, O! Lord, and so direct them, that they, being hindered neither by the fear of the fire-eaters, nor by bribery, nor by an over-charge of mean whiskey, nor by any other Democratic passion, may in counsel, word and deed, aim supremely at the fulfillment of their duty, which is to talk, vote and pray against the wicked leaders of Abolitionism, and the equally ungodly advocates of Secessionism. And grant that the fire-eaters may soon run their race, that the course of this world may be so peaceably ordered, by Thy superintendence, that Thy Church, and Thy whole people, irrespective of sects, may joyfully serve Thee, in all Godly quietness, through Jesus Christ our Lord-Amen!

New Hampshire Sentinel, February 21, 1861.

        21, U. S. forces go up the Cumberland River.


Trip of the Conestoga to Clarksville.

U. S. Gunboat (Flagship) Conestoga,

Clarksville, Feb., 21, 1862.

Correspondent of the New York Times.

Yesterday morning, Com. Foote proceeded up the Cumberland in this boat; accompanied by the gunboat Cairo, carrying fifteen heavy pieces. At 10 A.M., we passed the Cumberland Iron Works, owned in part by Hon. John Bell. His two partners went down as prisoners on Tuesday [18th] on the St. Louis. The contracts for supplying guns and iron sheathing were found, the mills set on fire; and as we came up, nothing remained by the chimneys and machinery amid the dying embers. These fine works cost a quarter of a million dollars.

At 3 P. M. to-day, we reached "Linwood Landing," about two miles below the city of Clarksville, and as we rounded the point, we discovered a white flag flying on Fort Severe, located on top of a high hill, at the junction of Red River with the Cumberland. Our men were ordered to the guns, and we proceeded slowly up to Red River landing. As we rounded the bend in the river under the fort, no flag appearing on the on the fort on the opposite side of Red River, one of the officers waved his handkerchief, and in less than ten seconds, one nearly covered with mud went up, having blown down in the storm. We now discovered smoke rolling up from the railroad bridges over the Cumberland and Red Rivers, which had been set on fire by the rebels as soon as we came in sight. A force of marines were taken to the fore, the Stars and Stripes run up, and the place left in charge of Sergeant Chas. Wright, while the boats proceeded to Clarksville landing.

White flags were flying all through the town, and the boat was literally beset with people as soon as we reached the shore. As the Commodore's flag was wet with rain, it looked dark colored, and one of the frightened people exclaimed: "See there-they have got the black flag [sic] up;" another, pointing to the Cairo, asked what that thing was; on being told it was a gunboat he said "he'd be dog-on-ed if they weren't the very devil." [emphasis added] One man thought if they had their artillery there, they would clean out our craft in about five minutes. On being told that the flagship was the Conestoga, they said they had heard of the "Pirate" before, when she carried of their Government stores from Florence. Coffee is worth $1 a pound, and salt $15 a sack. Full two-thirds of the people had deserted the place. They have no money but Jeff Davis notes and shinplasters. The Bank of Tennessee is issuing notes of denominations of 5 cents upwards. They wanted to see a Treasury Note, and I passed out a $10 bill to them, which was examined with a great deal of curiosity. They inquired who the portrait was designed for, and on being told it was Mr. Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, the curiosity went up to fever heat, and one man who had seen him said it was the most correct likeness he had seen, and more than all, that it was a better job of engraving and printing than the Confederates had got, and finally offered to exchange with me for one of the Confederate bills, which favor I most respectfully declined. Fort Severe is a fine fortification, admirably located, but it is not finished, having but two 12-pound guns in position, and a 42-pounder ready to go to its place.

Fort Clarke is a low affair, mounting two 24-pounders and one 32, they are all smooth bores; the old fashioned guns from the Norfolk Navy-Yard. The powder we found was so poor that the commander said it would not pay to bring it away, so he ordered it pitched into the river. At noon we again headed down, probably for Fort Donelson, to get a force of mortar-boats and additional gunboats, and before this reaches you we shall be in possession of Nashville.


The following is an extract from a private letter from an officer in Gen. Grant's Army, to his father in St. Louis, it is dated: Fort Donelson, February 21, 1862

* * * *

I was up to Clarksville yesterday with the General. There are two little forts there which the enemy abandoned, leaving the guns, five in number, unhurt; also, a considerable amount of stores. Clarksville is a very pretty place, of about 6,000 inhabitants, when they are at home; but much less than one-half of the population had deserted the place. All the business houses and shops are closed. The people are in great fear that our army will plunder and destroy their property, although we have given them all assurances they would not be injured. The citizens themselves destroyed all the liquor of every kind they could find, fearing that our troops would get it, and, in consequence, become uncontrollable. We are very glad, of course, that they did; but some of them also destroyed considerable amounts of other property, preferring that to letting it fall into our hands, supposing that we would take it. Had they preserved it, it would not have been touched.

We could have speedily reduced the forts, but the citizens compelled the forces there (if they needed any compulsion) to evacuate them, and leave the public stores, knowing that if a battle was fought there the town would be greatly damaged, if not almost destroyed; besides the loss of large amounts of property by the [Confederate] troops, which they will avert by the course taken. We have had a gunboat lying in town for three days, and to-day sent up some regiments of troops. Gen. Grant and staff will remove therein a day or two. The citizens are all secesh. It was evident that they all smothered their real feelings; it could not have been expected that it would be otherwise, as that town raised a regiment for the war, which was taken by us at this place, and everybody had relations and friends among our prisoners.

New York Times, March 4, 1862.

Observations along the Cumberland River from Fort Donelson to beyond Clarksville according to the New York Times.

Nashville, Tenn., Thursday, February 27, 1862.

Tuesday, the gunboat Conestoga was ordered to proceed from Cairo to this place, for the purpose of conveying orders to such of the gunboat fleet, as might be up the Cumberland River. The substance of the order was, I suppose, that all the boats which could be spared, should, together with the mortar-boats, report immediately at Cairo, with a view to operations down the Mississippi River.

*  *  *  *

Fort Donelson, as we passed it, seemed more formidable than ever; its peculiar characteristics are such that, like a master-piece in painting, or an extended view of some grand mountain scenery, it cannot be appreciated at one view, but becomes huger and more formidable in proportion as one examines it. Why such a piston was ever surrendered to less than one hundred thousand, and before it had been besieged six months, is a mystery for the most impenetrable character. With ten thousand Yankees behind the works, and an ample supply of food and munitions, all the rebels this side of Hades cannot take the Fort within the next decade. There was one pleasing difference between the Fort as we saw it this time, and on the Thursday which preceded its capture; the Stars and Stripes were floating gaily from the loftiest bastion of the works; companies in blue were manoevring [sic] about the grounds; brass band enlivened the air with everything but "Dixie;" clean white tents, and fine-looking soldiers covered the surroundings of Dover, and, in short, everything appeared as though determination, enterprise and a go-ahead-ativeness [sic] had got possession of the place.

All the way up to Clarksville we found evidences of loyalty among the scattered residences along the banks of the river. Beyond this, however, there seemed to be a decided change. The people were just as plenty, and expressed just as much curiosity to see us, but instead of waving hats and handkerchiefs, they stated at us in sullen silence. They seemed benumbed, stupefied at the change, as though they hardly yet appreciated the fact that it was the Stars and Stripes, instead of the stars and bars, that hung from our flagstaff.

Even the Negroes, usually so demonstrative, stood like ebony statues of astonishment and stupidly and watch gave their supposed deliverers never a cheer. One old fellow did indeed get up a little enthusiasm, he was, however, a long distance from any house, and only ventured to shake his battered hat from behind the protection of an oat-stack.

The only other case, in which a sign of welcome was vouchsafed, was that of a pretty Miss, of some seventeen or thereabouts, who leaned over the balcony of an aristocratic house below Nashville, and shook a delicate white mouchoir [sic] and her pretty curls at us as long as we remained in sight. Whether she did from patriotism, for fun, or because her romantic nature was impressed with the quantities of gold lace that so plentifully bedecked our gallant officers, is more than I can tell. Probably it was simply one of those impulses, to which "gushing" girlhood is liable, and hence cannot logically be constructed as an evidence of public sentiment in that neighborhood.

It was more than probable that in a week or so, there will be a marked difference. They have so long been lied to, and deceived by the political, religious and editorial scoundrels of the South that they dread our coming as they would the advent of a pestilence. The following is a specimen of the pabulum upon which the masses of the South are fed. It was taken from the Nashville Banner of Peace published by the Reverend (Lying) W. E. Ward[2]:

"We have felt too secure, we have been to blind to the consequences of Federal success. If they succeed, we shall see plunder, insult to old and young, male and female, murder of innocents, release of slaves, and causing them to drive and insult their masters and mistresses in the most menial services, the hand laid waste, houses burned, banks and private coffers robbed, cotton and every valuable taken away before our eyes, and a brutal, drunken soldiery turned loose upon us. Who wants to see this? If you do not believe, you will see it; look at Missouri."

As soon as our troops have occupied the country for a few weeks, and by their action given the lie to such assertions as the above, the latent Union sentiment, in this portion of the State, will develop itself to an extent that will overwhelm the traitors beyond redemption. Another week will witness a change of the greatest magnitude.

Rebellion Record, Vol. 4, pp. 206-207.

        21, "I come with an appeal from my bleeding country to lay it at the feet of the young men of my disgraced city." An exhortation to convince young men to join the Confederate army

An Appeal from a Lady.

Editors Appeal: I hope you will not think me bold—boldness I deprecate above all other things in women, but the want of it in man I deplore.

I come with an appeal from my bleeding country to lay it at the feet of the young men of my disgraced city. In the name of my God, in the name of scores I have seen die in those hospitals without hearing a murmur drop from their pallid lips; in the name of those, the thought of whose hideous, ghastly wounds still sicken the souls of delicate women who attended upon them; in the name of those whose smoking blood, made the sun lurid for three long days at Donelson, and the scent of which birds of prey and the wild animals still snuff from afar; in the name of pride of manhood and honor hereafter, what are young men doing in Memphis at such a time as this?; What!; do they intend to let band after band of gallant men from their neighbor States, yes, and band after band from the far frontiers of Texas, toil and travel worn, file through these streets on their onward march to drive back a foe, whom they must have made up minds to receive and acknowledge as masters or they would not be here?; And are you really willing, my countrymen, to be slapped in the face, snubbed, pricked with bayonets, hustled from the sidewalks and insulted by every epithet that a gloating, jubilant Yankee can manufacture, and justly heap upon the head of cowardice?; And this, too, day after day, and perhaps months and years before the very jaws of bright and lovely ones whose smiles you have so often sought. think of those lovely ones gulping down the indignation they dare not utter as the rude slur and offensive words of hatred, and abhorred hirelings meet them at every turn—their watchword, beauty and booty!; Young men, come out from behind the counters. Get from behind molasses and sugar casks. Take the pen from behind your ears. Wash the ink from your finger tips. Stave the ledger across the counting-room. Grasp your musket, or what is better, your cold steel, and be off. The very sight of a broad-clothed, frangitanni [sic] perfumed, macassar-haired, rigorous, tall young man behind a counter, is a blasting mildew to the eye-balls of patriotism! [emphasis added] I have ever been an admirer of perfect manhood when I could think what a noble spirit must actuate such a form, but now I am ashamed to look you straight in the face as you measure my tape, for fear you will divine my thoughts and blush. I am afraid to mention the names of our brave soldier boys for fear it will give you offense. Young men, from behind those orange stalls, their cigar stands, at their desks, in their bar-rooms and restaurants, in their buggies and on their fine horses, for the love of heaven come out!; The sight of your bright, happy faces makes my heart sick. Heads of firms!; there are plenty of young women who in this emergency, could make excellent clerks and need your money. Take them to sell your dry goods and cease making counter-hoppers of your young men when you could make soldiers of them. Every young relation I have on earth is in the field. Had I one to hold back I should weep over his disgrace and forget the ties that bound him to me. Married men may have some excuse for not going off—wives and young children are clogs upon their efforts. But if there be any here, who from fear, or the doubly accursed love of gold, would not lay the city in ruins, and fight over its ashy altars ere the polluting footstep of the foe should deface it, let them be accursed—may their wives and children turn in loathing from them, and let history say for them molasses and sugar, sacks of coffee and salt, dry goods, rent-rolls and lawyer's fees push their souls out of their bodies, so deep into the unfathomable depths of oblivion that the light of honor has never been able to decipher their records. Young men!; infamy lingers in the atmosphere of Memphis. Glory and honor beckon from afar. Women and children are wandering homeless through the land. Widow's wails are rising to heaven. Mangled men are writhing under the knife of the surgeon. A voice is heard!; Streaming eyes and bloodstained are appealing to you—'tis the voice of your country! 'Tis the streaming eyes and bloody hand of your native land that beckon. Will you linger?


Memphis Daily Appeal, February 21, 1862.

        21, Relief fund for soldiers' families established by Memphis city council

Soldiers' Families.—The subscribers to the fund of the association for the relief of the needy families of soldiers in the army, held a meeting yesterday at the Merchants' Exchange, T. A. Nelson in the chair, and W. O. Lofland, Esq., secretary. The chairman announced that $30,000 was already subscribed toward the fund. The following resolutions, offered by Mr. Nelson, were adopted:

Resolved, That the subscribers to the fund in aid of the needy families of soldiers, in the service now, form themselves into an association to be called the "Association for the Relief of Needy Families of Soldiers in the Service."

Resolved, That a committee of twelve be appointed whose duty it shall be to solicit subscriptions from the citizens of Memphis, and of Shelby county, for the purpose of carrying out the object of the association.

Resolved, That it is with pleasure that we now announce to the soldiers who have families entitled to aid from this society, that the subscriptions already amount to more than $30,000, and it is confidently believed that the patriotic and liberal citizens of the county will as soon as called on, increase the amount to $100,000.

Resolved, That we feel warranted in assuring our brave men who may enlist in the army, or those who may re-enlist, that their families shall be cared for, and not permitted to suffer while they are absent.

Resolved, That the affairs of the association shall be managed by a board of five directors, who shall adopt such rules for their government and for carrying out the objects of the association as they may think best. And that they be authorized to employ such assistants as may be necessary, and to call on the subscribers to the association for installments, from time to time, as necessity may require.

Resolved, That the election of directors be held between the hours of 11 o'clock A. M. and 2 P. M. at the Chamber of Commerce on Friday, 21st inst., under the supervision of the secretary of the Chamber, and that each subscriber be entitled to one vote for every one hundred dollars subscribed, and that each subscriber, if less than $100, be entitled to one vote.

Resolved, That the city papers be requested to publish, from time to time, a list of those who have so generously contributed to the association.

Resolved, That in the event of the disability or resignation of any of the directors, the remaining directors shall fill the vacancy.

Resolved, That the five directors of the association shall be chosen only from the subscribers to the fund.

Memphis Daily Appeal, February 21, 1862.

        22, U. S. martial law proclaimed in West Tennessee

GEN. ORDERS, No. 8. HDQRS. DIST. OF WEST TENNESSEE, Fort Donelson, February 22, 1862.

* * * *

Tennessee, by her rebellion, having ignored all laws of the United States, no courts will be allowed to sit under State authorities, but all cases coming within reach of the military arm will be adjudicated by the authorities the Government has established within the State.

Martial law is therefore declared to extend over West Tennessee.

Whenever a sufficient number of the citizens of the State return to their allegiance to maintain law and order over this territory the military restriction here indicated will be removed.

By order of Brig.-Gen. Grant:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, p. 655.

        22, Opinion of one Warren County woman on Fort Donelson, an excerpt from the War Journal of Lucy Virginia French

I cannot remember that I have ever experienced a more gloomy week than that which is just past. On Sunday evening last [16th] when we were all confident of victory at Fort Donelson, the news came that at last we were completely overpowered-that hundreds were killed and thousands made prisoners-that Nashville had surrendered unconditionally-the Federals have taken possession and that our Bowling Green army had fallen back to Murfreesboro! [sic] A deeper shock I never felt,-I gave up the Confederacy as lost. All this week we have been in a state of the utmost anxiety and suspense-not a mail has reached us from any point, and we are dependent altogether on rumors,-of which there are a thousand and all conflicting. Today it seems that we met with disastrous defeat in the end at Donelson by the enemy's overpowering numbers surrounding our men, who fought bravely and well. Gens. Floyd and Pillow escaped with some of the troops,- but Buckner is a prisoner. It is now contradicted that Nashville surrendered, and sent a boat of truce with a flag on it down the Cumberland to meet the enemy and give up the city (!) [sic] as it was at first reported-but it is certain that our troops from Bowling Green have fallen back to Murfreesboro, and they have burnt the bridges, steamboats, etc. at Nashville and not a Yankee near them! Oh! it is disgraceful! Gov. Harris who rode around town alarming the city by saying "Every man must take care of himself; I am going to take care of myself"-Flee-but seeing his mistake has now it is said returned,- saying he is going '"to fight to the death" and that he only ran off to carry away the archives of the State. Well, any excuse I suppose is better than none-but, the fact is that he and Gen. A. L. Johnson [sic] have disgraced themselves and Tennessee by their inefficiency and cowardice. A rumor has been heard that our army would fall back to Chattanooga! I think they had better if Johnson [sic] is to command them, fall down into Mexico at once, and be done with it.-To add to our gloomy feelings the weather has been raw and rain is pouring continually. I never have seen our little river so high and turbid. Today has been a continuous pour of sheets of rain, with high boisterous winds-not a gleam of sunshine except as the sun sank for a few minutes he left a parting light upon the hills. This is the anniversary of the birth of our Great Washington and set apart for the inauguration of Jefferson Davis whom some style the "second Washington." Will he prove himself such? That remains to be seen. If this day is to be ominous of our political future, it will be gloomy indeed. I have been sick all day with one of my dreadful headaches which added to other dark clouds around me to make me desponding; Still, I confess I have much to be thankful for, my children are well-my husband is still with us-may God preserve us thus in peace at home.

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French[3]

        22, "Anarchy, confusion and terror reign supreme, in the community whose boasted chivalry is known throughout the land."

Amid the excitement, confusion, and chaos of rumors which have fill [sic] the country during the week, it is impossible to determine what is truth and what is falsehood. It is a well established fact, however, we suppose, that Gens. Pillow and Floyd escaped from Fort Donelson before the surrender of that post. What became of Gen Buckner – whether he was killed or taken prisoner – we do not know. Cols. Head's and Bailey's regiments were supposed to be mostly prisoners. Col. Head himself escaped. Lt. Col. Alfred Robb, of Bailey's regiment, was mortally wounded on Saturday and died at his home at Clarksville on Sunday. The number of killed and wounded is variously estimated, and was very great, the Federal loss being much the largest. We hope to be able, before long, to give our readers a full account of this great battle, with the particulars in detail.

It is needless to try to conceal the fact that a panic, such perhaps the antecedent history does not record, has seized the civil authorities of this State and the citizens of Nashville and Clarksville, since the surrender of Fort Donelson, if the accounts which reach us are true. We are told that the Governor left on Sunday for a more southerly locality, followed by the Legislature, while thousands of citizens are imitating their example. Government stores and public property to the value of millions of dollars have been abandoned and left to the mercy of the excited crowds of the stricken city. Anarchy, confusion and terror reign spurred, in the community whose boasted chivalry is known throughout the land. If the army in the vicinity has not been infected, it is a miracle of wonder. Could any material benefit in our judgment accrue from a suppression of these facts, they could not have appeared in our columns, but as they are common gossip upon the streets and in the highways and byways, we can see no impropriety in their publication.

The country has been full of strange rumors during the week, many of which have proved to be true. Had a prophet fore told [sic], one week since the events that have transpired, he would have been set down as a crazy loon or a demented fanatic, and fit only for a straight jacket or a halter. Truly we have fallen upon strange times and no one can tell what a day may bring forth. Let us, however endeavor to submit cheerfully in whatever fate the dispensations of Providence may consign us, and still continue to pray and hope for the return of peace and the happy days we once enjoyed.

Springfield Speculator, February 22, 1862.[4]

        22, John Hill Fergusson explains the Honor Roll Battalion in the Army of the Cumberland [see February 14, 1863, "Honor Roll Battalion, Army of the Cumberland, established" above]

Saturday 22 cold and freezing all day, an order came out from Gen rosecrans [sic] for 5 privets [sic] to be elected from each company throught [sic] the armey [sic] we held an election and electer Fancher, Loyd & Chapin these three is to go right away on the perole [sic] of honner [sic] they are to be mounted and armed in the best possable [sic] manner and considered the elight [sic] of the armey [sic] they are to be fremoted [sic] according to the manner in which they distinguish themselves by there [sic] bravery and daring adventures they are to be considered the best m en in the company there is to be a corporal and a sergeant selected from each company by the regimentle [sic] officers I believe Wm Hartman will go as Sergeant from our compay and Corp McDaniel there will be 2 days to elector or rather appointed [sic] by the regimentle [sic] officers to go right away all the others are to lay on resere [sic] to go when called for: there will be 3 corporals go right away [sic] from the regt they will be appointed in the same way of the Sergts and all the others will remain in there [sic] companys [sic] until called for: David Canney and Donaldson are the other 2 privets [sic] they are to be left on reserves [sic] this reserve is to fill up the place after that drops out [sic]

John Hill Fergusson Diary.

        21, "I proceeded on the Columbia road about 2 miles, and till within 1¼ miles of Butler's Station, when my advance guard surprised and captured Surgeon _____ of Colonel Wheeler's cavalry, just as he was in the act of taking a parting kiss from a most beautiful girl, who had by her surpassing charms inveigled him from the safety of his camp." Reconnaissance, Franklin, Lewisburg, Columbia & Carter Creek Roads

FEBRUARY 21, 1863.-Reconnaissance from Franklin, on the Lewisburg, Columbia, and Carter Creek Roads, Tenn.

Report of Col. Thomas J. Jordan, Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry.

HDQRS. NINTH PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY, Franklin, Tenn., February 21, 1863.

SIR: At the suggestion of Col. [Emerson] Opdycke, I made a reconnaissance at daybreak this morning on the roads leading from Franklin to Lewisburg, Columbia, and Carter Creek.

I divided my force into three parts: The first, under Maj. Griffith Jones, with 65 men, I assigned to the Lewisburg road; the second, under Capt. [M.] O'Reilly, with 62 men, I assigned to the Carter Creek road, and the other, with 73 men, I kept under my own command upon the direct road to Columbia.

I instructed Maj. Jones and Capt. O'Reilly to proceed upon their respective roads for 6 or 7 miles, and then to scout through the country toward the Columbia turnpike, and join me at or near the brick church, some 7 miles from Franklin.

The distance to be marched by the columns on the Lewisburg and Carter Creek roads being some 4 miles longer than that on the Columbia road, I marched very slowly, so as to give them time to execute the movement, and, if possible, to get into the rear of the strong cavalry picket that usually occupies that position.

Slowly as I marched, I reached that point (the church) about half an hour before Maj. Jones, and after waiting about half an hour longer on Capt. O'Reilly, and hearing nothing of him, I determined to move on slowly in the direction of Columbia, hoping that the captain would come after and overtake me.

I proceeded on the Columbia road about 2 miles, and till within 1¼ miles of Butler's Station, when my advance guard surprised and captured Surgeon _____ of Colonel Wheeler's cavalry, just as he was in the act of taking a parting kiss from a most beautiful girl, who had by her surpassing charms inveigled him from the safety of his camp.[5] [emphasis added]

I then countermarched and retraced my route to Franklin. During this time I heard nothing of Capt. O'Reilly, but as I marched to the town a messenger caught me with the intelligence that the captain was missing and was supposed to be captured, though the remainder of his command was safe.

On the road leading from the Little Harpeth Creek (about 9 miles from Franklin) to the church on the Columbia road, and when about 2 miles from the church, Capt. O'Reilly's command captured 2 Confederate soldiers, one of whom was sick in bed in a house by the roadside. Capt. O'Reilly's ordered the column to proceed while he entered the house for the purpose of paroling the sick prisoner. This was the last that was seen of him, as, very soon after, a column of the enemy, supposed by Lieut. [G.] Smith, who examined it carefully with his glass, to be about 500 men, came in sight, moving down on the road leading directly from Butler's Station to the house where the captain had dismounted, and immediately afterward his horse, with the bridle-reins hanging about his feet, joined the column.

Lieut. Smith, who succeeded to the command, did not deem it prudent with so small a force to attack the enemy, and in about an hour afterward brought his column safely into camp.

The loss of Capt. O'Reilly will be very much felt in the regiment, as he was a most efficient and gallant officer. I believe he was captured by the connivance of the family who occupy the house, and would most respectfully ask permission to capture all the male members of sufficient age and hold them as hostages for the captain.

Respectfully submitted.

THOS. J. JORDAN, Col. Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 59-60.

        21, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 10, prohibiting the seizure of cotton and its conveyance in U. S. Army wagons


I. The transportation of cotton in Government wagons, or its seizure, under any circumstances, as a military necessity or otherwise, is strictly prohibited, in the Fourteenth Army Corps, from this date. Cotton found secreted may be reported, through the proper channels, to department headquarters; but under no circumstances will it be removed, used, or transported in Government wagons, without the consent of the department or corps commander.

Cmdg. officers of divisions, regiments, and detached corps will see that this order is strictly complied with, and will promptly arrest any officer or private found violating this order in any particular.

* * * *

By command of Maj.-Gen. Thomas:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 80.

        21, Excerpt from the diary of Myra Adelaide Inman

A very rainy morn. Got up this morn, made up my bed, dressed, ate breakfast, worked on Sister's chemise band, ate dinner, posted my journal, helped with supper, ate supper, washed and went to bed. This is the manner in which I usually spend my Saturdays. Wonder if I will live to see the war ended and if it will be over this time next year. Wonder where______ is today, they are expecting a battle there soon.

Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman, p. 178.

        21, Thomas' Legion

The Indian Legion.—Major Thomas, commanding the Legion of Cherokee Indians, who have rendered much service to the Confederate cause in East Tennessee, was in our city yesterday. The Major is now with his aboriginal allies in the mountains on the border between this State and North Carolina, where he is in reality conciliating the tories. Let us mention a fact or two communicated to us by Major Thomas, to the credit of these dusky warriors. They excel any troops in either the Northern or Southern armies for subordination—an Indian always executes an order with religious fidelity. They scrupulously respect private property—there are no reports of depredations where they are encamped. They are the best scouts in the world, and hence the good that they have accomplished among the mountain tories and bush-whackers. A notice that Maj. Thomas' Indians are in a section of country brings in the dodgers at once, for they know that hiding out will not avail against the Cherokees. By their aid the Major has enlisted without bloodshed, a great many men in his corps of sappers and miners, who have thus been converted from mischievous tories and bush-whackers into useful employees of the Confederate Government. The Major, if the war lasts, will yet be of infinite service to the Government.—Knoxville Register, [February] 21st.

Weekly Columbus [Georgia] Enquirer, March 3, 1863.[6]

        21, "I have often thought of you since I left you that Saturday morning when I left you with tears in your eyes weeping about me having to part a way from you." Lt. A. J. Lacy's letter to his wife in Jackson County.

Maury Co Tenn Feb The [sic] 21th [sic] 1863

Dear Miss,

I seat myself to write you. I have nothing strange to write to you. We are camped 5 mi [sic] from Columbia down the river. I would be glad to see you all. I dont [sic] expect to see you shortly. There is no talk of us getting to go up the country now.

I am a going to vacinated [sic] this morning. The small pox is in 5 mi of us at this time. [emphasis added]

I have bought me a pare [sic] of grey [illegible] pants at $16.00.

I would be verry [sic] glad to see my true love once more. I hear a lonesome dove hollowing mournful as if it has lost its mate. Its mournful noise makes me think of my love to the day I parted a way [sic] from you in grief, trouble [sic] and sorrow to [sic] I have often thought of you since I left you that Saturday morning when I left you with tears in your eyes weeping about me having to part a way from you.

I have sien [sic] many hardships since I left home as well as hear[ing] the whistle of the bullets. No man can form any ideel [sic] of what a scene it is to go in a battle [sic]. I want you all to remember me for I must close. Write evry [sic] chance you can. Father write to me. Tell Mother I want her to remember me.

So no more. A. J. Lacy

To Miss M. E. Lacy

Lacy Correspondence.

        21, A Celebrated Woman Confederate Spy in Knoxville

Letters from "J. T. G."

Knoxville, Feb. 21st, 1863.

Editor Enquirer: Since the departure of the important personages that have enlivened "all" Knoxville for the past ten days, the denizens have lapsed into their usual ways. However, the attractive, "dashing" Belle Boyd, once an inmate of Fortress Monroe upon the charge of being a Confederate spy, perambulates Gay Street in all her glory….


Weekly Columbus [Georgia] Enquirer, March 3, 1863.[7]

        21, Confederate pipe dreams from Winchester

From the Winchester (Tenn.) Bulletin 21st)

From Middle Tennessee

We learn from a lady who left Nashville five days since the position of affairs in that vicinity. She was refused a passport, and watched her opportunity and came out by Lebanon, Alexandria and Liberty and thence by a road between Woodbury and McMinnville avoiding the enemy pickets the whole route.

The people of Nashville are not suffering now for the necessities of life, but are very desponding and gloomy – subdued – subjugated.

Flour is selling at Nashville for three dollars per hundred, sugar ten cents, and coffee fifty cents per pound.

Rosecranz's [sic] army has plenty of supplies brought down by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which was completed within three weeks after its destruction.

The enemy have [sic] been heavily reinforced, and the main army is in advance of Nashville, there being but few troops in and about the city.

This being the situation of affairs in front, we look for an early advance now and a great battle during the next two weeks.

There was a number of pontoon bridges lying outside the enemy's lines near Nashville, for some time which, were not guarded, and it is a great pity our cavalry did not learn the facts in time to have destroyed them. However, it is too late now, as the abolitionists have removed them to Murfreesboro' under an escort of 5,000 men, which is further proof of an intended advance on their part.

We insist upon it, we must be up and doing. We know Gen. Bragg has a fine army, well disciplined, and his troops are in fine spirits, and ready for the coming contest; but we repeat the fact that we ought to have twenty thousand more men, and we call upon the Secretary of War to hear the voice of Middle Tennessee through our humble columns, and send us the requisite number of reinforcements at once.

We are confident now in the strength of the enemy, with its overwhelming numbers, and we feel it our duty to appeal to those in authority to reinforce our army immediately – now is the accepted time. Let there be no more delays; no time wasted in debating the necessity of it.

If ever there were an occasion for pressing on the ground of military necessity, this is the one. If we lose the confidence of the Northwest, whom a late Cincinnati (Commercial) paper informs us, is determined to unite with us, or form a Northwestern Confederacy. The paper says they are determined to have one or the other or peace. But, if a battle is forced upon us before they can act – and one is imminent – we should be overpowered and compelled to fall back, they will begin to despond and despair of rendering that aid which is so necessary to bring about a peace.

We are informed by the Confederate Judge, who brought the news in relation to the Acts of the Kentucky Legislature, which we published in yesterday's issue, that Indiana, Illinois, and, perhaps Ohio are determined to pursue this course, and call their troops home; but we must remember that their public journals , as well as acts, are kept from the soldiers, and they are not permitted to know what is going on in their native land – hence the necessity for an early battle on their part, until the news may accidentally reach their troops and demoralize there army.

Daily Morning News, (Savannah, GA), February 26, 1863.[8]

        21-23, Federal expeditions in Liberty environs in search of Morgan

MURFREESBOROUGH, February 23, 1863.

Brig.-Gen. CROOK, Nashville:

Your dispatch received. The report as to Morgan's forces must certainly be incorrect. Gen. Stanley, with a force of cavalry, returned from beyond Liberty night before last, and left nothing there. There is also an expedition of 1,000 picked men in that neighborhood.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 83.

        22, Testimony to the hospitality of citizens extended to Confederate soldiers in Chattanooga environs

I have had occasion to travel a good deal lately over the granary and meat-house of the South, Middle Tennessee, and I can attest that never [sic] have people shown more by their actions and daily gifts and sacrifices their entire devotion to a cause as the Middle Tennesseeans [sic] do now. A soldier generally travels free [sic] in Middle Tennessee, no matter where he stops whether at the small cabin in the hills, or at the stately mansion on the plantation, he finds everywhere the same warm welcome. He and his horse are bountifully supplied on the best that can be had, he sleeps in the best of beds and when he leaves and asks for the bill, the worthy host rapidly and earnestly [?] informs him that he is not in the habit of charging soldier for anything. Let it ever be remembered by the soldiers of the South how they enjoyed the hospitality of the Tennesseans. [sic] I could fill ten pages on the subject, but my space and time is short, and many a soldier in the army will bear witness to it, without any farther [sic] remarks. This is of course not the case in the immediate neighborhood of a large body of troops. How different was the treatment of the army when in Mississippi last summer! Every one who was there will also remember it, and must now be struck with the great difference. Everything was sold there and at a most outrageous price, even the water. [sic] But such a subject ought merely to be mentioned and not enlarged upon. My object here is merely to add my slight tribute of honor and praise to the Tennesseans who, after giving up all [sic] their surplus to the Southern army, are daily feeding and clothing the soldiers of the South for no remuneration except the glorious knowledge of having done their utmost for the country and the cause. And the women, the noble women of Tennessee, who will forget their work in the good cause in the Hospitals and everywhere else.

But I fear that I have started a dangerous subject, dangerous especially for my friend Happy, who has, I perceive, of late been unusually devoted to the fair sex, who must be very sensitive upon that subject, to judge from his amorous and sentimental effusions in the Grapevine. I was glad to see that the noble warrior, together with his friend the Hon. Kwort Keg, are about again, to don their armour bright, and to take the field as bold cavalrymen, where both can testify their devotion to the fair country and country women by deeds of valor and heroism. The soldiers live [sic], in the cavalry especially, is exceedingly comfortable, in fact luxurious is the winter season. A hasty mouthful of bacon and brad once and a while, that is to say about every 48 hours, or a cud of beef, which reminds you of Major Joe Bagstock's (honest, plain old Joe in Dicken's Dombey and Son." "Tough, sir, tough," is the undoubtedly a good faire to ensure a man against dyspepsia for the rest of his life: sleeping arrangement and "things generally" being in proportion

I would, however, advise the worth pair to apply for special duty. [sic] I understand that Distilleries are now carried on under the supervision of the army, and advise them to apply for the position of Inspectors of Distilleries, for which position the Hon. Kwort Keg seems remarkably fitted.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, February 22, 1863.

        22, Press warning regarding conscription officer in the Chattanooga environs

The Conscript officer is abroad in the land seeking whom he may devour. Unfortunate delinquents tremble at his approach and try to modify his fierceness by sundry drinks and other polite offers. His heart is however, hard as adamant, and on all the roads and byways you meet slick youths in new homespun clothes going to the army. How many of these poor fellows will never return! how many of them have received the last mother's kiss and blessing? When will the great Yankee Moloch be pacified. How any more victims does he want? But through the dark, dreary night we believe to see a dim brightness ahead, as if the day was breaking. If the old men still shake their heads and still talk about a long war, the youth, the men of hope, begin to see into a brighter future. We begin to think of peace and talk of peace, sometimes, as if really it would seem, that it is to come at last.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, February 22, 1863

        22, Confederate editorial opinion regarding the fight at Fort Donelson [see February 3, 1863, Attack on Fort Donelson above]

The second battle of Donelson has been fought, and although not to be compared with the first, it was not an unimportant affair. For the second time in this war the classic ground of Donelson and the rough hills and hollows about Dover have been watered by the blood of Southern martyrs. As the news reaches up imperfectly, we cannot yet judge imperatively in regard to the action which has taken place there between Wheeler's Cavalry and the enemy strongly entrenched at Dover, but we cannot but express our astonishment at the attack, and cannot but believe that it was entirely unnecessary and to no purpose. What did General Wheeler expect to do after he had taken the Fort? He could certainly not have held it against gunboats with his cavalry force. What was the attack made for? Merely to fight to be fighting, and to be able to brag about the courage of our dismounted cavaliers, who stormed the Dover heights on foot as well as any infantry could have done it? Many men, some say 200 and odd, were killed and wounded on our side in this encounter. We drove the enemy from the place at a fearful sacrifice of life but as it was well known that an attack would be made on that day, the Yankees had wisely sent three gunboats down the river, and they appeared in sight about the time we were entering victoriously into Dover; they shell us furiously and soon drove the whole Southern force off into the hills of Dixon. I am glad to hear that General Forest [sic] emphatically stated that he wanted it distinctly understood, that this was not his [sic] fight, and the he considered the attack injudicious. Our troops fought well, as they generally do, but what is all this carnage for? Why do we dismount our cavalry to charge breastworks? I understand that the breastworks were actually also charged by mounted men. Our troops were commanded by a Major General, the enemy by a Colonel General Wheeler was made a Major General upon the strength of his first raid to the Cumberland river, where he did well; he was I presume promoted especially upon the strength of being a West Pointer [sic] and a pet of Gen. Bragg; and Generals Forrest and Morgan were entirely overlooked and ignored. Now that the young Major General, the youngest in the service, has won his laurels, let him see to them carefully, and try to keep them [sic]; one more blunder like this foolish Donelson affair, and they are lost to him as far as the opinion of the public is concerned.

Morgan and Forest [sic] have made the cavalry in the West what it is. They have used it to the right purpose [sic] by striking at the enemy rapid blows at vulnerable points [sic], at a great distance from each other, by rapid movements. If our western light and irregular [sic] cavalry, the 'Bedouins' of America, which Is now our boast, is to be fought in the way it was fought lately at Donelson, it will soon loose [sic] all its efficiency, at the very time [sic] when it is worst needed. I understand the plan of the Tennessee campaign this winter to be, to allow the enemy to advance to the line of the Duck river, for the purpose of giving our cavalry more scope to harass his rear, to disturb his communications with Nashville, and to operate on the Cumberland river by destroying transports [sic] and not [sic] by charging breastworks in sight of gunboats. Such a thing would be entirely unheard of and considered absurd in the army of Virginia, but I presume the army of Tennessee must keep up its well earned reputation of fighting to no purpose [sic].

If General Morgan would command our cavalry in the west, a position he is eminently qualified for, such things would not happen, as he has proved himself again to be a thorough cavalry officer, born probably for the purpose, and possessing the proper genius [sic] for just such a kind of service in the western campaign, a genius which a hundred years spent at West Point could not give to another man.

I cannot help seeing the difference between the inhabitants in different States of the South. Tennesseeans [sic] have been charged with being lukewarm, undecided and disunited in this war, and the charge was made that 'they do not fight.' This charge was undoubtedly been set at rest by the admirable fighting done at Perryville and Murfreesboro, and will never be made again. That indomitable hero 'John Happy' [?] is a witness that on the memorable field of Fishing Creek [where Felix K. Zollicoffer was killed] some [sic] Tennesseeans [sic] did not fight, and allowed the 'old twentieth,' and the 'bloody fifteenth' to be cut to pieces. There it was, where Mississippians started the saying that "Tennesseeans [sic] won't fight;" but I have no doubt that they always excepted some Middle Tennessee Regiments from the sweeping charge.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, February 22, 1863.

        22, Skirmish on Manchester Pike

FEBRUARY 22, 1863.-Skirmish on the Manchester Pike, Tenn.


No. 1.-Brig. Gen. David S. Stanley, U. S. Army, commanding cavalry, Department of the Cumberland.

No. 2.-Col. Robert H. G. Minty, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Brigade.

No. 3.-Capt. Robert E. Cain, First Middle Tennessee Cavalry (Union).

No. 4.-Lieut. David R. Snelling, First Middle Tennessee Cavalry (Union).

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. David S. Stanley, U. S. Army, commanding cavalry, Department of the Cumberland.

HDQRS. CAVALRY, DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Near Murfreesborough, February 22, 1863.

COL.: I have the honor to inform you that the picket on the Manchester pike was attacked this morning by about 400 rebel cavalry. The reliefs for the roads picketed by Col. Minty's brigade, consisting of about 90 men, arrived at the reserve of the picket on this pike at the moment they were attacked, and repulsed them. They (the enemy) captured 2 of our vedettes, belonging to the First Middle Tennessee. Our cavalry pursued them 2 miles beyond our outpost, and citizens reported 1 lieutenant and 4 men wounded.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. S. STANLEY, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Cavalry.

No. 2.

Report of Col. Robert H. G. Minty, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Brigade.


SIR: Having investigated the circumstances attending the attack on the pickets on the Manchester road, on the morning of the 22d instant, I have to report as follows: A picket of 30 men of the First [Middle] Tennessee Cavalry, under command of First Lieut. [D. R.] Snelling, of same regiment, had just been relieved by 30 men of the Fourth Michigan, under Second Lieut. [J. P.] Rexford, of that regiment. Both pickets were in line, and in a position where they could see the road for fully a quarter of a mile to their front. At this moment a few shots were fired, and the vedettes galloped in, closely followed by the enemy. Lieut. Snelling directed Lieut. Rexford to fall a short distance to the rear and dismount his men, while he would form the First [Middle] Tennessee across the road a little farther to the front. As the Fourth Michigan were moving across the road, the First [Middle] Tennessee, with Lieutenant Snelling, broke and dashed through them, when all galloped to the rear in confusion. Corporal Ketchum, of Company A, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, called to the men to follow Him. He was followed by 4 men of His own regiment and 2 of the First [Middle] Tennessee. These men checked and finally drove the enemy off the ground, following them up to beyond the position occupied by the advanced vedettes. Before the attack was made, Lieut. Snelling rode to the front once, fired his pistol, and galloped back, calling to the men in the rear to advance. Capt. Cain does not appear to have been on the ground until after the retreat of the rebels. He was going out to relieve the picket on the Wartrace road, when, hearing the firing to his front, he went out to inquire the cause of it. I have ordered that Corporal Ketchum be promoted to the first vacancy in his company, and I have called for the names and companies of the 6 men who supported him so nobly.

Inclosed I hand you reports of Capt. Cain and Lieut.'s Snelling and Rexford.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBT. H. G. MINTY, Col., Cmdg. First Cavalry Brigade.

No. 3.

Report of Capt. Robert E. Cain, First Middle Tennessee Cavalry (Union).

FEBRUARY 25, 1863.

COL.: Being ordered, on the morning of the 22d of February, to relieve the pickets on the Wartrace road, I started for that post, intending to go to the reserve on the Manchester pike, and then through the woods, having been informed that it was the best route. When I had arrived near the reserve, I saw the guard advancing toward me in considerable disorder, being driven in by the enemy, Lieut. [D. R.] Snelling and another officer (name not known by me) [were] trying to rally the men. I attempted to throw my squad into line, but could not, owing to the former pickets breaking though the line and causing disorder. Lieut. Snelling and the unknown officer in the mean time had rallied some few men, and turned on the advance of the enemy, driving them back. I came to his support as quickly as possible with a few men. Having driven the advance in, we could plainly see that the enemy was in too great force, when we fell back some little distance, and formed a line of battle, intending to fight them as best we could. We remained in this position for a short time, when we were informed by our advance skirmishers that the enemy had retreated. We then moved up and occupied the ground where the reserve was usually posted, where we remained until we received re-enforcements from the Fourth Michigan. I then drew my men off, and went to my post. I understand that one of our men was captured. I also heard through negro sources that the enemy had 1 captain and 2 privates wounded, who have since died. I give the latter information for what it is worth.

Yours, respectfully,

ROBERT E. CAIN, Capt., Cmdg. Company G, First Middle Tennessee Cavalry.

No. 4.

Report of Lieut. David R. Snelling, First Middle Tennessee Cavalry (Union).

FEBRUARY 17-21, 1863.

Road picketed, Manchester. Strength of picket, 30 men. Distance from infantry picket, 2 miles. Where posted: On right and left of Manchester pike, 5 miles from Murfreesborough. On the 19th, the vedettes on the pike were attacked by 12 rebels (all wearing our uniform), but they fled when fired upon. Fourteen refugees came in on the same day. On the 22d, just as the relief arrived, we were attacked by a force of rebel cavalry, supposed to be about 200 strong (many of them wearing the Federal uniform). The pickets were driven in to the reserve. The enemy pursued and captured 1 man. I am sorry to state that out of a force of 75 or 80 men, there being 30 under my command on duty at the post, and 30 under the command of a lieutenant of the Fourth Michigan, and 25 or 30 under the command of Capt. Cain, of the First Middle Tennessee, on the ground, only 15 or 20 made any resistance; the remaining 70 or 75 escaped out of danger, and the officers commanding did not act bravely.

DAVID R. SNELLING, First Lieut. Company D, First Middle Tennessee Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 61-63.

        22, U. S. N. gunboat reconnaissance up Tennessee River

Excerpt from the Report of Major-General W.S. Rosecrans, February 22, 1863, relative to U. S. N. gunboat reconnaissance up Tennessee River, February 22, 1863.

MURFREESBOROUGH, TENN., February 22, 1863--8.30 p. m.

Maj.-Gen. HALLECK:

Pardon my having failed to telegraph you for the last few days. No material change since my last. Rebels--McCown, Cheatham, and Withers--at or near Shelbyville, behind Duck River....Have sent four gunboats up the Tennessee after Van Dorn's boats, to reconnoiter.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 81.

        22, Combined naval and cavalry expedition, Nashville to Jamestown, Fentress County, along Cumberland River

MURFREESBOROUGH, February 22, 1863.

Brig.-Gen. CROOK, Nashville, Tenn.:

Proceed up the river, and you will meet the two gunboats already there. Will give gunboat instructions through you. Think it would be expedient to go to Celina, and, taking ample provisions, operate by way of Livingston, Jamestown, Fentress County, and Monticello to Norman's Landing. You will have to watch the river that it does not get too low, and use your best judgment as to your course.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.

MURFREESBOROUGH, February 22, 1863.

Senior Officer of Gunboat, (care of Gen. Crook: )

Direct the operations of your two gunboats so as to protect and assist Gen. Crook in his expedition up the Cumberland River. It is desirable that your movements be governed by his plans.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 82.


Two thousand dollars each, will be paid for five, steady, able bodied men, of forty-six, to fifty-eight years of age. Apply in person or by letter.

J.M. Willy, Chattanooga, Tenn.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, February 22, 1863.

        22, Encouraging patriotism at the Washington Birthday memorial in Nashville

Washington's Birthday.

The Birthday of the Immortal Washington was ushered in by the booming of cannon and the ringing of bells, which aroused our citizens from their slumbers and awakened them to the fact that the day was set apart for one of enjoyment—intellectual, musical, and patriotic. The business houses generally were closed, and large numbers of flags, of various sizes and qualities, were displayed from public and private buildings throughout the city.

At half-past nine o'clock, a part of the Eighth Kansas Regiment, preceded by a brass band, marched to the City Hall, where they were shortly afterward joined by the Union Club and the members of the Common Council, and followed by citizens; the procession thus formed marched to the Capitol, which it reached at 11 o'clock..

The hall was densely crowded, and the view from the desk was magnificent. In front, on either side the main aisle, the seats were occupied by ladies, every seat being occupied, and either side of the hall flanked by a dense mass of masculines—citizens and soldiers; while the galleries were literally packed, the majority being soldiers.

The Hall was tastefully decorated with flags, etc. Behind the Speaker's chair was a beautiful colored engraving of Washington and his Generals. On either side of the hall were mottoes, etc., between the doors of the anterooms. To the left was the following, from Isaiah, chap. 1, vs. 19-20—"If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land. But if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword, for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it."

"Liberty and Union—One and Inseparable, now and forever."

To the right—

"Washington, the Father of his Country—First in War, first in Peace, and first in the Hearts of his Countrymen."

"The Federal Union—It must and shall be preserved."

An enclosure was formed in front of the desk by sofas; in this enclosure were seated the young ladies who were to sing the Patriotic Song, the members of the Glee Club (officers and privates of the 79th Pennsylvania volunteers), and a number of lovely ladies, whose bright eyes dazzled and lent much to the charm of the scene.

The Band of the Eighth Kansas regiment occupied a position to the left of the Speaker's Chair, and the Union Club, the members of the Common Council, and invited guests, filled up the spaces inside the bar, while outside a mass of people were crowded together, and extended far outside into the hall, until the staircase itself became obstructed by the crowds of citizens, soldiers, and ladies, until loud calls were made for speakers outside; what success these calls met with we are unable to say, as by this time it was as impossible to obtain egress as ingress.

At length, at half-past 11, Mayor Smith requested the Band to open the ceremonies by playing "Hail Columbia," which was well executed, and was followed by "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean," by the Glee Club, loudly and deservedly applauded.

A Prayer by Rev. J. Huntington followed and was scarcely finished when calls were again made for speakers, or for some person to read "Washington's Farewell Address," to the outsiders.

Mayor Smith's patriotism here broke forth in the remark—"It has been told to the soldiers that we have no Union men in Nashville. Does any one now believe the assertion?"  [Cries of "no" from all parts of the hall.] He felt so full of patriotism at the grand sight before him that he could scarcely restrain himself. He would not make a speech, but would call upon the audience to allow him to relieve himself by giving three cheers for the Union and the Constitution, which was answered by cheers loud and hearty from sturdy throats, that made the very walls tremble. Cheers were then given for the Union Club, Mayor Smith, and for Gen. Rosecrans.

"The Battle Cry of Freedom" was artistically executed and loudly applauded by the audience, and was followed by "Hail to the Chief," by the Band.

Mayor Smith then introduced Lieut. W. A. Sheridan, who read, with good effect, Washington's Farewell Address.

Mr. Bent stated that the "Glory Hallelujah" which was about to be sung, was composed by three Tennessee Union ladies, and was entitled "The Rallying Song of the 79th."  The song was well sung, and drew forth loud applause.

"Banner of the Free," by the Band.

"Song of the 79th" repeated by general demand. Music by the Band.

Mr. Wm. Nevin, drum major of the 19th Illinois, by request, gave an imitation, on the drum, of the battle of Murfreesboro'. We can not speak of the correctness of the imitation, but think it must have been good, as it filled our brain with confusion, just as we suppose a lover of quiet like ourself might be affected by a battle.

Horace H. Harrison, Esq., Secretary of the Union Club, then read letters from Gen. W. S. Rosecrans, [three cheers for Gen. Rosecrans, and three for Governor Johnson,] Daniel S. Dickinson, Attorney General of the State of New York; Gen. Negley (applause); Hon. Edward Everett, of Massachusetts; R. J. Meigs; Gen. R. B. Mitchell; others were in the hands of the Secretary, but he did not desire to trespass upon the time of the audience to read them.

Mayor Smith then introduced Gov. Crawford of Kansas, who addressed the meeting in a short speech.

Loud calls were made for Governor Johnson, who was absent from town, having gone to Indianapolis. Jordan Stokes was then called for, and addressed the meeting in a brief but energetic speech, which he closed by introducing to the audience General Smith, of Kentucky, who apologized to the audience, and thanked them for their kindness, making a few remarks, and retiring in 20 minutes.

A National Song by the Glee Club was the next thing in order, "Columbia, the Gem of the wide, wide World," which was well executed; having finished which, Mayor Smith requested the Club to sing "Kingdom Come," a humorous negro song, which created great merriment.

"American Boy," by the Band.

Thirteen young ladies then took their place upon the platform, and sung "Red, White, and Blue."

The "Flag of the Union" was next sung by Mr. Bent in his usual artistic style, and was loudly applauded.

The grand celebration was concluded by the Glee Club singing "The Star-Spangled Banner," the audience joining in the chorus with a perfect vim.

Music by the Band followed, and "The Sword of Bunker Hill," by the Glee Club, was thrown in for good measure.

Mayor Smith then stated that he had been requested to offer a motion that the thanks of the meeting be tendered to Lieutenant Sheridan for his admirable reading of the Address, to the Young Ladies, to the Glee Club, and to the Military Band, for their kind services on the occasion. The motion was seconded and unanimously adopted, after which the immense assemblage began to disperse, at 3 o'clock.

Much credit is due to Abram Myers, Col. Martin, C. H. W. Bent, Capt. Austin, Lieut. Irwin, and indeed all the members of the different Committees, for their extraordinary exertions in carrying out the programme and making every thing as pleasant as possible.

The Northern press was well represented, but some of the correspondents arrived too late to occupy the seats provided for them. Among those around us were the correspondents of the New York Herald, Philadelphia Press, New York World, Chicago Times, Cincinnati Times, etc. Others occupied a modest corner where they might see and note without attracting observation.

Nashville Dispatch, February 24, 1863.

        22, John Hill Fergusson explains the Honor Roll Battalion in the Army of the Cumberland

Saturday 22 cold and freezing all day, an order came out from Gen rosecrans [sic] for 5 privets [sic] to be elected from each company throught [sic] the armey [sic] we held an election and electer Fancher, Loyd & Chapin these three is to go right away on the perole [sic] of honner [sic] they are to be mounted and armed in the best possable [sic] manner and considered the elight [sic] of the armey [sic] they are to be fremoted [sic] according to the manner in which they distinguish themselves by there [sic] bravery and daring adventures they are to be considered the best m en in the company there is to be a corporal and a sergeant selected from each company by the regimentle [sic] officers I believe Wm Hartman will go as Sergeant from our compay and Corp McDaniel there will be 2 days to elector or rather appointed [sic] by the regimentle [sic] officers to go right away  all the others are to lay on resere [sic] to go when called for: there will be 3 corporals go right away [sic] from the regt they will be appointed in the same way of the Sergts and all the others will remain in there [sic] companys [sic] until called for: David Canney and Donaldson are the other 2 privets [sic] they are to be left on reserves [sic] this reserve is to fill up the place after that drops out [sic]

John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3[9].

        22, Celebrating George Washington's birthday in Federally occupied Nashville

February 23[10], Nashville

Today was the birth day of the great George Washington was [sic] celebrated with emence [sic] enthusiasm by the Soldiers and Cittizens [sic]  of Nashville: at Sun [sic] rise a national salute of thirty four ghuns were fiared [sic] from the State Capitol  and all the church bells mingled there [sic] silver live peals with the sound of the roaring cannon the military head quarters and many of [the] businesses and dwellings ware [sic] alive with the fluttering folds of the Star Spangled Banner at 11 o'clock [a] large processon [sic] of soldiers cittizens & refugees could be seen winding there [sic] way to the capital [sic] whare [sic] the celebration was to come off.

The large speakers [sic] hall crowds to overflowing and thousands ware [sic] and thousands weare compelled to remain outside the Service of the day ware [sic] opened  by music from the splendid brass band of the 8th Kansas Regt: then the glee club beautifully rendered the patriotic song of the red white  & blue which was received with rapturous applause & then followed a fervent prayr [sic] by the Rev. Dr. Huntington: Mayor Smith made a few eloquent remarks to a large assemblage of Ladies and Gentlemen present to prove that a large union element still existed in Nashville the declaration of independence [sic] was then read with good delivery by Lieutenant Sheriden of the Signal coprs then speeches interspersed [sic] with such strong [sic] fratrinite [sic] made ware [sic] delivivered by Parson Brownlow, Governor Crawford of Cansas [sic] & General Smith of Kentucky & Gordon Stokckes [sic] of Tennessee the speeches were frequently interrupted and shouts of tremendous applause [sic] Francer and myself was [sic] [there] about an hour [the] way trying to  the vast crowd up the winding [sic] stair the great hall [illegible] was [illegible]

John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.

        22, David R.P. Shoemaker' Co. "E" 11th Reg. O.V.I. to Henry A. Bitner, February 22, 1863.

Camp near Nashville, Tenn. Feb. 22 '63

Dear Henry:

Yours of the 18th ult. is at hand, having been forwarded from Somersville, Va ; and I will have to answer it in brief to-night, as we are under marching orders for tomorrow morning at 3.30, and I do not know when I shall have an opportunity of writing again. Our destination is unknown to your humble servant. I do not know of any regiment in the service which has been moved about quite as much as the "Gipsies," as Gen  Wise used to call us.-- I am glad to hear that you are having good times in old Southampton. Do not imagine that the toils and privations of a soldier's life have made such a misanthrope of me that hearing of those good things you describe would cause "hard thoughts." As far as wishing myself out of the army is concerned I have wished it long ago, but shall only get out honorably--either an honorable discharge or death.

Give my "Best" to all the friends and especially remember me to "Katie darling." How I wish that instead of lying down tonight with my cold and bony masculine bedfellow, and being bothered by those parasites which even poor soldiers have, I could have the pleasure of folding -a-- what in the D--l was I going to say? The tattoo has just commenced to beat, and I must close as taps will beat in 15 minutes for "lights out".

Your old friend

D.R.P. Shoemaker

~ ~ ~

Valley of the Shadow[11]

        21, Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest's situation report for West Tennessee

HDQRS. FORREST'S CAVALRY, Jackson, Tenn., March 21, 1864.

Col. THOMAS M. JACK, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of Ala., Miss., and East La.:

COL.: I forward, for the information of the lieutenant-general commanding the inclosed statement of outrages committed by the commands of Col. Fielding Hurst and others of the Federal Army.

I desire, if meets with the approval of the lieutenant-general commanding, that this reports may be sent to some newspaper for publication. Such conduct should be made known to the world.

Very respectfully, colonel, your obedient servant,

N. B. FORREST, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

HDQRS. CAV. DEPT. OF WEST TENN. AND NORTH MISS., Jackson, March 21, 1864.

Lieut. Col. T. M. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

COL.: I have the honor to report the arrival of my advance at this place on yesterday morning at 11 o'clock, and deem it proper to give to lieutenant-general commanding a report of the condition of the country through which I have passed, also the state of affairs as they exist, with such suggestions as would naturally arise from observation made and a personal knowledge of facts as they exist. From Tupelo to Purdy the country has been laid waste, and unless some effort is made either by the Mobile and Ohio Railroad Company or the Government the people are bound to suffer for food. They have been by the enemy, and by roving bands of deserters and tories stripped of everything; have neither negroes [sic] nor stock with which to raise a crop or make a support. What provision they had have been consumed or taken from them, and the major of families are bound to suffer. They are now hauling corn in ox wagons and by hand-cars from Okolona and below to Corinth, and as far north as Purdy, also east west of Corinth, on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, but their limited means of transportation will not enable them to submit their families, and my opinion is that the railroad can be easily and speedily repaired, and that any deficiency in iron from Meridian north can be supplied front the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, and that a brigade of cavalry with a regiment or two of infantry placed at Corinth would afford protection to that section, and would be the means of driving out of the country or placing in our army the deserters and tories infesting that region, whose lawless appropriation of provisions, horses, and other property is starving out the defenseless and unprotected citizens of a large scope of country. Repairing and running the railroad would enable the inhabitants to procure provisions from the prairies and would prove an invaluable acquisition in the transportation of supplies and troops from this section. But little can be done in returning of supplies and troops from this section. But little can be done in returning the deserters from our army now in West Tennessee, and collecting and seeding out all person subject to military duty, unless the railroad is rebuilt or repaired, at they will have to be marched through a country already, for want of labor and supplies, insufficient for the subsistence of its own inhabitants. With a conscript post or an established military post at Corinth and the railroad from thence south they could be rapidly forwarded to the army. The wires can also be extended and a telegraph office established. The whole of West Tennessee is overrun by banks and squads of robbers, horse thieves, and deserters, whose depredations and unlawful appropriations of private property are rapidly and effectually depleting the country. The Federal forces at Paducah, Columbus, and Union City are small. There is also a small force at Fort Heiman, on the Tennessee, and Fort Pillow, on the Mississippi River. About 2,000 men of Smith's forces, composed of parts of many regiments, have crossed the Tennessee River at Clifton and Fort Heiman, and returned to Nashville; four regiments of Illinois cavalry have re-enlisted and have gone home on furlough. The cavalry force at Memphis is therefore small.

Numerous reports having reached me of the wagon destruction of property by Col. Fielding Hurst and his regiment of renegade Tennessee, I order Lieut. Col. W. M. Reed to investigate and report upon the same, and herewith transmit you a copy of his report. Have through it both just and proper to bring these transitions to the notice of the Federal commander at Memphis, and by flag of truce will demand of him the restitution of the money taken from the citizens of Jackson, under a threat from Hurst to burn the town unless the money was forthcoming at an appointed time. Have also demanded that the murderers be believe up to Confederate authority for punishment, and reply from that officer as to the demand, &c., will be forwarded you as soon as received. Should the Federal commander refuse to accede to the just demands made, I have instructed the officer in charge of the flag to believe the notice inclosed[12] outlawing Hurst and his command.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

N. B. FORREST, Maj.-Gen.

HDQRS. FORREST'S CAVALRY DEPARTMENT, Jackson, Tenn., March 20, 1864.

Col. R. McCulloch, Cmdg. Division, Oxford, Miss.:

COL.: I am directed by the major-general commanding to say that he will move on Union City and Paducah, and has forwarded you orders to send Richardson's brigade to Brownsville. He directs also that you move the remaining brigade of your division up as near to Germantown as possible, keeping on hand five days' ration ready it be cooked at a movement's notice. The general commanding thinks you can move over to Waterford; at any rate, move as far over as you can subsist your command, and be ready for a forward movement should the enemy move after me from Memphis, or further orders be sent you. Should it become necessary, or you be ordered to move, you will leave one regiment to guard the country and your wagon train, and bring with you only such wagons as may be necessary to carry your extra ammunition and as few cooking utensils as will do your command. He directs me also to say that the force of the enemy at Paducah, Columbus, and Union City is reported as small, and that he will move on Union City at once.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHAS. W. ANDERSON, Aide-de-Camp to Maj.-Gen. Forrest.

HDQRS. DEPT. OF WEST TENN. AND NORTH MISS., Jackson, Tenn., March 21, 1864.

Col. ROBERT McCULLOCH, Cmdg. Division:

COL.: You will order Richardson's brigade to move via Hudsonville and LaGrange or Moscow, direct to Brownsville. They will move five days' cooked rations, and 60 rounds of ammunition to the man, if possible to get it; not less than 40 rounds in cartridge-boxes, bringing no more wagons than will be necessary to bring the extra ammunition, if any. The commanding officer of the brigade will dispatch of courier to these headquarters at Jackson, stating the time, &c., that the command will reach Brownsville, starting the courier as soon as the command passes LaGrange or Moscow.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Forrest:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 663-665.

21, Major General J. G. Foster's report on operations of the Army of the Ohio in East Tennessee, January 7 – February 9, 1864.


February 21, 1864.

GEN.: I have the honor, in obedience to your direction, to make the following report of the operations of the Army of the Ohio while I was in command, and of the general condition of affairs in East Tennessee:[13]

Gen. Grant visited Knoxville on the 30th of December, 1863. Seeing the suffering of the troops, he decided to have me await the arrival of supplies and the completion of the Strawberry Plains bridge before advancing. He left on the 7th of January to return by the way of Cumberland Gap. The cavalry, under Gen. Sturgis, was almost constantly engaged with the enemy's cavalry in the direction of Dandridge and Mossy Creek after crossing the Holston. These fight culminated in a general cavalry engagement near Mossy Creek on the 29th [of December], in which the enemy were driven from the field toward Morristown. Gen. Elliott's division of cavalry, from the Army of the Cumberland, particularly distinguished itself for gallantry.

On the 13th January, the main body of our cavalry having entirely exhausted the supplies in the country around Mossy Creek, were forced to move to Dandridge, where some little forage was to be found. The draft animals of the infantry and artillery, being by this time almost entirely without forage of any kind, were dying by the hundred daily. It became a matter of the first importance to move to a position where forage, if not corn for the men, could be obtained at once. I therefore ordered the Fourth and Twenty-third Corps to move across the Strawberry Plains bridge (which was passable on the 15th January), to march to Dandridge, cross the French Broad River near that place on a bridge to be built of wagons and any boats that could be obtained, and then to occupy the country south of that river as far toward the Nola Chucky as possible. It was represented that a considerable quantity of corn was to be found in this section. Besides this, the movement would tend to disturb Longstreet concerning his left flank and communications to the rear, especially toward North Carolina. The Ninth Corps was ordered to hold Strawberry Carolina. The Ninth Corps was ordered to hold Strawberry Plains, to be ready to support the movement while in progress, and afterward cover Knoxville.

The troops started on the 15th and reached Dandridge on the 17th, when the bridge was immediately commenced. It was completed to what was supposed to be the opposite bank of the river, and a brigade crossed over. It was soon found, however, to be upon an island, and that another channel of the river remained to be bridged. In the mean time the cavalry which had skirmished heavily with the enemy on the previous day (the 16th) near Kimbrough's Cross-Roads, 5 miles from Dandridge toward Morristown, had been forced back by the determined advance of the enemy almost to the town. Gen. Parke satisfied himself that Gen. Longstreet was in his front with his whole force, having advanced from his front with his whole force, having advanced from his cantonments to meet our supposed advance in force. This fact, added to the delay in completing the bridge, the difficulty in crossing in presence of an active enemy, the want of rations, and the commencing rain, which would soon make it impossible to get up supplies from the rear over the then almost impassable roads, induced Gen. Parke to decide to retire at once on Strawberry Plains, which he did without loss. I immediately ordered the whole force to move to Knoxville, cross the Holston on the pontoon bridge at that place (just completed), and ascend the south side of the French Broad to reach the foraging ground that it had failed to reach through Dandridge. As the cavalry passed through the town most of their horses had not been fed for forty-eight hours, and some of the artillery horses were without food for four days and nights. The cavalry reached and occupied the country south of the French Broad as far up as Fair Garden, 10 miles beyond Sevierville and scouted through the entire country as far up as the Nola Chucky. The Fourth Corps in following was 4 miles out from Knoxville, when I received Gen. Sturgis' report that the reports of the supplies in that section of the country were very much exaggerated, inasmuch as they would only suffice his cavalry for three weeks, and that the roads were impracticable for wagons and artillery. Disappointed in this, no other course remained but that of distributing the bulk of the force to obtain forage and supplies wherever it could be found. I accordingly sent the Fourth Corps to Morrisville, Lenoir's Station, and Loudon, with orders to gather their supplies from the surrounding counties. The Ninth Corps occupied the railroad, within supporting distance of Knoxville. The Twenty-third Corps encamped around the town. All the draft animals were sent to the rear on the Tennessee River, to forage. Those that were entirely broken down were sent back to Kentucky. The cavalry occupied the country south of the French Broad until the supplies were nearly exhausted, when the enemy, feeling the necessity of driving it away, made the effort with his cavalry on the 27th January. Gen. Sturgis met the enemy's cavalry at Fair Garden and completely defeated it, with a loss of 150 killed and wounded, 75 prisoners, 2 rifled field pieces, and some wagons and horses. The enemy's cavalry was then re-enforced by several brigades of infantry which had succeeded in fording the river, and Gen. Sturgis was in his turn forced to fall back toward Morristown. Previous to this Col. Palmer with his regiment, the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, had captured Gen. Vance with his staff and 150 prisoners. Subsequently he sent an expedition against Col. Thomas and his gang of whites and Indians at Quallatown, which succeeded in entirely breaking up the gang. All were killed or wounded except 50 that escaped into the mountains and 22 that were brought in as prisoners. The Governor of Kentucky having become anxious for the safety of the State from raids by the enemy, and having called on the Legislature to raise regiments for the defense of the State, I sent a division of dismounted cavalry to Mount Sterling, Ky., to be reorganized, remounted, and re-equipped for service, either against raids or in making them upon the flanks of the enemy's communication with Virginia. The remainder of the cavalry was ordered to the Little Tennessee River to forage.

Such was the military situation at the time I was relieved by Gen. Schofield, on the 9th February, 1864. In Kentucky the detachments guarding railroads and posts had been reduced to the minimum. Cumberland Gap and the adjacent districts of the Clinch were under the command of Brig.-Gen. Garrard, who had an infantry and cavalry brigade under his command. In my opinion no offensive movement can be undertaken before the 1st of April, in East Tennessee, without running great risks of a disaster which may cause the loss of that section of the country. The reasons are, that the men and animals are worn down and need rest and recuperation; the country between the two armies is entirely exhausted of forage and all kinds of supplies, which it is impossible to haul from the rear in consequence of the bad roads of the winter and spring, and also of the lack of forage even at the rear. For lack of horses, caused by the want of forage, very little artillery can be taken on a march at this time. The green grass, with the green corn, wheat, &c., will by the 1st of April subsist the animals of an army on the march. The men will be recruited in strength, and the veteran regiments returned to their brigades, with, probably, filled ranks. The same reasons will keep Gen. Longstreet inactive, unless forced to move. If, however, he should advance with his present force to attack Knoxville, the chances amount to almost certainty that he will meet with a great disaster. Knoxville, if properly defended, cannot be taken. It is naturally very strong, and I increased the strength of the defenses raised by Gen. Burnside, and armed them with seventy pieces of artillery. As for supplies for a siege, they are ample. I had salted down over 500,000 rations of pork and collected 500 barrels of flour. If Longstreet attempts to march past Knoxville, for the purpose of destroying the communications with Chattanooga, resistance can be successfully made at the Little Tennessee or the Holston, as a line of defense, while re-enforcements are marching from Chattanooga. At the same time his communications will be open to flank attacks from Knoxville. If he should attempt to make a raid into Kentucky through Pound Gap, Pendleton's Gap, or Crank Gap (Cumberland Gap being held by us), a column formed of the disposable force at Knoxville, marching rapidly on his heels, can easily close the gaps in his rear, and perhaps capture his trains; while a force may be thrown around by rail from Chattanooga sufficient, with that in Kentucky, to destroy him. No large force will be thrown into East Tennessee by the rebels, unless we force them to do so by increasing our force and taking the offensive. It is in their power to increase Longstreet's force between this and the 1st of April by detaching from Gen. Lee's army, but after that time they will not dare to diminish Gen. Lee's force. If by great sacrifices Gen. Longstreet be now driven from East Tennessee, he will re-enforce other rebel armies where his presence may be productive of more harm than in East Tennessee. While he is in his present position he can neither do damage in Virginia, North Carolina, nor assist Gen. Johnston to resist our armies in Alabama and Georgia. The best policy seems to be to let him remain until the objects of the movements farther south are attained, and until the offensive can be taken with advantage; even then it is questionable whether the engagements with him should not have for object to retain him where he is until Atlanta, Mobile, Montgomery, and perhaps Augusta and Savannah, fall. Knoxville is only the left wing of the united armies under Gen. Grant. It is 110 miles from the center at Chattanooga, a secondary base, which is still distant from the right wing and the primary base in Tennessee. It is very questionable whether the left wing should be pushed beyond Knoxville. By keeping the army there on the defensive, a considerable force may be spared from it to re-enforce the large army of the center to penetrate into Georgia, where every mile gained in advance tends to dissever the Confederacy. Gen. Longstreet's force has been increased by a force from North Carolina, said to be Pickett's division, numbering 2,800 men. Gen. Pickett did not come with it, but remained in North Carolina. Added to the above about 1,000 convalescents arrived from Richmond.

On the other side, he had suffered from desertions at the rate of 20 a day, and had allowed 5 per cent. of his force to go home on furloughs ranging from twenty-five to thirty-five days each. His present strength is 21,000 infantry and artillery and 6,000 cavalry. The Army of the Ohio, numbered (Twenty-third Corps, 7,000; Ninth Corps, 4,000; Fourth corps, 8,000) 19,000 infantry and artillery, and 6,000 cavalry, of which, however, only about 3,500 were mounted. The question of supplies is satisfactorily settled. The railroad from Chattanooga to Loudon was opened. The work on the bridge at Loudon was being rapidly carried on; it should be finished is seventy days. A wagon bridge having been completed across the Holston at Knoxville, I ordered the pontoon bridge removed to Loudon, to enable the supplies brought up by rail to be wagoned across the river and thence conveyed by rail to Knoxville. The number of light-draught steamers on the river is to be increased. In general the condition of affairs in East Tennessee was so much improved as to produce a decided feeling of confidence.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. G. FOSTER, Maj.-Gen. of Volunteers.

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief, U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt I, pp. 444-447.

        21-22, Reconnaissance near Burnt Mill, on Cleveland and Spring Place road


GEN.: Please find below a copy of dispatch received by me yesterday (21st) evening at 4 p. m.:

CHATTANOOGA, February 21, 1864.


Move out upon Spring Place road with 600 men and establish communication with Cruft at Red Clay. Push on as far as possible in direction of Dalton, keeping up communication with Cruft to observe movements of enemy, and prevent or give timely warning of any attack of enemy to turn Cruft's left flank. Should the enemy retire, send word to Cruft that he may advance from Red Clay.

W. D. WHIPPLE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

I left Calhoun at 6 a. m. this morning with 600 cavalrymen, with ten wagons with forage, and four ambulances. I hardly think they could have known the location of the roads at department headquarters, for this is the nearest point on this (Cleveland and Spring Place) road to Red Clay, and it (Red Clay) is 10 or 12 miles from here. I shall encamp to-night at some mills nearly 2 miles from here on the Connesauga, where I shall remain until I hear something from you. If not inconsistent, please explain to me as clearly as you can what is expected of my command.

Very respectful, your obedient servant,

ELI LONG, Col., Cmdg. Second Brig., Second Cav. Div.

Brig.-Gen. CRUFT, Cmdg. First Division, Fourth Army Corps, Red Clay.

P. S.-I have met or heard of nothing as yet.

E. L.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 469.

        22, Skirmish on Calfkiller River

Excerpt from the Report of John M. Hughs, on activities from January 1-April 18, 1864, relative to skirmish on Calfkiller River, February 22, 1864.

* * * *

On the 22d of February we met a party of "picked men" from the Fifth Tennessee (Yankee) Cavalry, under Capt. Exum. This party had refused to treat us as prisoners of war, and had murdered several of our men whom they had caught straggling from their command. The enemy numbered 110 men; my own force was about 60. The fighting on our part was severe in the extreme; men never fought with more desperation or gallantry. Forty-seven of the enemy were killed, 13 wounded, and 4 captured; our loss was 2 wounded.

* * * *

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 56.

The following report indicates a ruse de guerre on the part of Confederate guerrillas.

FEBRUARY 22, 1864--Skirmish on Calfkiller Creek, Tenn.

Report of Col. William B. Stokes, Fifth Tennessee Cavalry [Union].[14]

HDQRS. U. S. FORCES, Sparta, Tenn., February 24, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that I arrived at this place on the 18th instant with Companies A, B, G, I, K, and L, of the Fifth Tennessee Cavalry. I have occupied all of the deserted houses in the town with my men, barricaded the streets strongly, and fortified around my artillery. Since my arrival I have been engaged in scouring the country and foraging, the forage being very scarce and at some distance from the town. I have ascertained that the country is infested with a great number of rebel soldiers under Col.'s Hughs, Hamilton, Ferguson, Carter, and Bledsoe, the whole force being under Col. Hughs, a brave, vigilant, and energetic officer. There is little or no robbing being done by the guerrillas, their attention being directed toward my men. Col. Hughs' command is well armed, having secured the best of arms when on their raids into Kentucky. They number at least 600 fighting men.

On the 22d instant, two companies of my command of Hughs, Ferguson, Carter, and Bledsoe. After fighting some time they were surrounded and overwhelmed. The officers [6 in number] with 45 men have come in through the hills.

Yesterday Carter made a dash on one of my picket-posts. He had 6 of his men dressed in Federal uniform. The remainder were dressed in gray, and as those dressed in our uniform approached the vedettes they told them not to shoot, that the rebels were after them; and as those in gray appeared a few yards in the rear of those in blue hallowing to them to surrender the story appeared very plausible, and the ones in blue immediately rushed upon the reserve pickets. Four of my pickets were killed-3 after they had surrendered and the other after he had been captured. A great many of the rebels were dressed in our uniform at the time the two companies were attacked, and several of my men were killed after they were captured. Hughs himself does not allow this barbarity, but his subordinate officers practice it.

I have to fight for every ear of corn and blade of fodder I get.

Deserters from the rebel army are constantly joining Hughs. The people are thoroughly and decidedly disloyal, but a great many are taking the oath. The oath of allegiance has been found on the persons of several soldiers we have killed. The country is rocky and mountainous, and very hard for cavalry to operate in. I have to fight rebel soldiers and citizens, the former carrying the arms and doing the open fighting; the latter, carrying news and ambushing.

Portions of Companies C, F, and H arrived to-day. The greater part of these companies remained at Nashville, being without horses. I earnestly urge that they be mounted as soon as possible, and ordered to report to me. Their services are needed very much here, and not at the city of Nashville. Horses are required to mount my men. There are no serviceable ones in the country, the rebels having taken all of them. The rebels are mounted on the fastest horses in the country, and they use them very much to our disadvantage. If all of my regiment were here and mounted, I would soon disperse the rebels. I again urge the necessity of mounting my entire regiment and ordering it to the field.

I respectfully ask that this communication be forwarded to department headquarters for the information of the general commanding.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully,

W. B. STOKES, Col. Fifth Tennessee Cavalry, Cmdg.

Capt. B. H. POLK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., District of Nashville.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 416-417.

        22, Skirmish at Powell's Bridge

FEBRUARY 22, 1864.-Skirmishes at Gibson's and Wyerman's Mills, on Indian Creek, Va., and at Powell's Bridge, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. Theophilus T. Garrard, U. S. Army, commanding District of the Clinch.

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF THE CLINCH, Cumberland Gap, Tenn., February 24, 1864.

GEN.: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your dispatches of the 19th and 22d instant.

As I telegraphed on the 22d instant, the First Battalion, Eleventh Tennessee Cavalry, Lieut.-Col. Davis commanding, which was stationed at Wyerman's Mill, 5 miles east from the gap on the Jonesville road, was surprised at daylight that day, entirely surrounded....

Simultaneously with the surprise of Col. Davis' command the outpost at Powell's bridge, on Tazewell road, where I had 50 men of the Thirty-fourth Kentucky Infantry, in charge of Capt. Pickering, stationed at the block-house, was attacked by the enemy [a portion of Vaughn's command] three times, but without success. To prevent their being cut off, I moved Capt. Pickering, with his men, to within safe distance.

* * * *

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

T. T. GARRARD, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 411-412.

February 22.-Two companies of the Thirty fourth Kentucky infantry (A and I) were engaged in a hand-to-hand encounter of about four hours duration, [emphasis added] against superior numbers of the enemy. The rebels about five hundred strong, attacked them at Powell's River Bridge, Tenn., as six o'clock A.M., and after making four separate charges on the bridge, which were gallantly met and repulsed, the rebels were driven from their position and compelled to retreat in disorder, leaving horses, saddles, arms, etc., on the field. They took most of their dead and wounded with them.

There were a great many daring acts of bravery committed; but as the whole affair is one of the most brilliant of the war, it would be almost impossible to make any distinction. There is one, however, that is well worth recording. The attack was made by infantry, while the cavalry prepared for a charge. The cavalry was soon in line and moving on the bridge; on they came in a steady, solid column, covered by the fire of their infantry. In a moment the Nationals saw their perilous position, and Lieutenant Slater called for a volunteer to tear up the boards to prevent them crossing. There was some hesitation, and in a moment all would have been lost, had not one William Goss (company clerk of company I) leaped from the intrenchmetns, and, running to the bridge under the fire of about four hundred guns, threw ten boards off into the river and returned unhurt. This prevented the capture of the whole force.-Louisville Journal.

Rebellion Record, Vol. 8, p. 46.

        22, Skirmish at Mulberry Gap

Rebellion Record, Vol. 8, p. 46.[15]

        22, Confederate Lieutenant-General James Longstreet thanks authorities in Georgia for delivery of clothing for Confederate Army in East Tennessee

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Greeneville, Tenn., March 22, 1864.

Col. IRA R. FOSTER, Quartermaster-Gen. of Georgia:

COL.: Your letter to Lieut.-Gen. Longstreet, by Mr. C. A. King, agent, was presented simultaneously with the 3,000 suits of clothing, with the liberality and forethought of the State of Georgia had provided for her destitute sons in the field.

Gen. Longstreet has intrusted to me the pleasing duty of thanking you for the promptness and extent of the effort made by you in clothing and sheltering the brave Georgians in his army. The privations uncomplainingly borne by them during the last campaign, and their gallant and distinguished services throughout the war, rendered them fully worthy of the grateful attention and fostering care of their noble State, which in no way more exhibits her greatest than in the bountiful manner in which she provides for her faithful soldiers.

With the assurance of the high admiration of the lieutenant-general commanding for the efficiency of the department which has been able to accomplish such results, I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. M. SORREL, Lieut.-Col. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 666-667.

        22, First Lieutenant Robert Cruikshank, 123rd New York Infantry Regiment, letter home to his wife Mary

Camp 123rd Regt. [sic], N. Y. S. V.

Elk River, Tenn.,

Feb. 22,1864.

Dear Mary,

I shall be very busy for some days but must take time to write you. Being gone from Camp so long my work on reports, etc., has fallen behind and I shall have to make it up.

We had hard work while at Boons Hill but had good luck, as it is termed. We captured fourteen guerrillas, seized nineteen horses, forty mules and a quantity of provision and did not lose a man.

The Paymaster is here but has no money. He is expecting to have it sent to him but does not know. If I should get pay now it will be for only two months and I shall not send any home as some of my men have made application for a leave of absence and want to borrow some if they are granted. I feel I ought to accommodate them. I sent in an application for Henry J. Cleveland to go home for thirty days. If it is approved he will start for home in about two weeks.

I presume you may hear from letters sent home by the men that I have had some difficulty with the Colonel. I will write you all about it so you will know the truth. I wrote you in a former letter about going out to search some houses when at Boons Hill. Soon after we came in it was reported that there were some things stolen out of one of the houses and the Colonel ordered me to search the men. I found one of the men had five case knives and three forks and some of the men had dried apples, but a lady's pin that was said to have been taken could not be found. I had with me Frank McFarland acting as sergeant, three corporals and a detachment, besides my own men. The Colonel wanted to know who I had with me as non-commissioned officers and I told him, naming Frank, when he began to abuse him. I told the Colonel that I had ordered Frank to assist me in searching the houses. He then turned his abuse on me, as if I could search the houses and see and watch the house and were guarding it to keep anyone from escaping. He said I was not fit to be an officer, to let the men steal. I told him I would take him at his word when I would get the opportunity. All the officers blame him very much. He ordered me to put Frank and four of my men under arrest and to turn over their guns and accoutrements to the quartermaster.

You may hear that I am going to resign my commission. Do not believe it unless you see me at home. The men think I am and are begging me not to think of such a thing. They all do everything in their power to please me and I am kind to them.

The mail has just arrived and your letter of the 16th inst. is received. I did not think you would hear of my difficulty so soon. He did not place me under arrest as you heard. I have been in command of the Company all of the time. He has told one of the officers that he abused me, and was sorry for it, that I was one of his best officers. It will come out all right in a few days. He will come to me when he knows what Frank McFarland is doing. You will hear all from,

Your affectionate husband,

R. Cruikshank.

Robert Cruikshank Letters.

        22, Improvements in Longstreet's command and rumors that Knoxville may be retaken

From East Tennessee.

We are pleased to learn from an officer from General Longstreet's command, that his army are generally well clothed and shod, and are in excellent health and fine spirits. Gen. Longstreet, for some time past, has had possession of the section of East Tennessee from which the enemy principally derived their supplies, and it is believed, could possess Knoxville at any time but for the small-pox which has been raging there. [emphasis added]

Richmond [VA] Whig, February 22, 1864. [16]

        21, Skirmish near Greeneville [see February 20-24, 1865, "Expedition to Greeneville & Warrensburg" above]

        21, Parson Brownlow's Political Position

Parson Brownlow.

This eccentric person, who is now a candidate for Governor of Tennessee, thus unmistakably defines his position in his paper, the Knoxville Whig:

Since the partialities of our Union friends have led them to confer upon us the nomination for Governor, those who did not approve the nomination as warmly as they do the acts of Jeff. Davis, have made the remarkable discover that we have conspired with certain Federal officers to sacrifice Union widows and their children, and that we have caused the late military changes to be made in this district. Neither to procure votes, not to gratify the vain desires of such enemies, can we stoop to defend ourselves in such cases. The truth is-and we desire to be candid-we neither want the friendship or votes of any set of men mean enough to make such charges or fools enough to believe them

So far as abuse is concerned, coming from rebels and rebel sympathizers. Let them all cut [illegible]-"Tray, Blanche and Sweetheart.' Let the kennel be unloosed-all the pack-from the slobbering hound of the Richmond confederation t the growling cur of Constitutional Union training-let them all bark at once. While this unholy alliance of traitors are doubling on us, and expiring from the venom of their own fangs, they will not be working on better men.

We have some of the meanest rebels in Tennessee that are to be found anywhere; and we have some who sympathize with them. And seed in every way to served them, who are several degrees meaner than they are. The idlest and blackest-hearted of the Sepoys would spurn these traitors, regarding them with scorn; the whitest-livered wretch that ever ran from the battle field would despise their poltroonery. Put these devils in what position you will, and the bad traits of our ungenerous nature, deceit, cruelty, selfishness, envy, malice, hate, theft, murder,[17]seems to have taken a more debased and disgusting form in the character and persons of these have mingled with a degree of treachery and cowardice, which is not human-scarcely canine.

Come, you cowardly rascals and malicious traitors, try our hands upon us, in connection with some new and greater charges. Can't you, with your large corruption fund, bribe some one to swear that we have robbed a bank? Prove counterfeiting upon us? You have not made out a case plain enough to keep loyal men from supporting us for Governor, and if something is not done we really expect to be elected. And when these rascals are convicted by our courts of high crimes, and sent to the penitentiary, we may be slow to pardon them out.

Daily Picayune, February 21, 1865. [18]

        21-23, Temporary occupation of Greeneville by Union forces

RICHMOND, February 22, 1865.

Maj. Gen. J. C. BRECKINRIDGE, Secretary of War:

Gen. Vaughn telegrams that the enemy with 2,000 infantry advanced to Greeneville yesterday at 1 p. m. No cavalry had made its appearance. Will advise you on receipt of further intelligence.

J. S. JOHNSTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

BRISTOL, [February] 22, 1865--9.40.

Maj. J. S. JOHNSTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

The enemy are advancing. At Greeneville yesterday, at 1 p. m., 2,000 infantry, no cavalry, made their appearance. Election to-day.

J. C. VAUGHN, Brig.-Gen.

HDQRS. CAVALRY, &C., Bristol, February 22, 1865--1 p. m.

Maj. JOHNSTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

MAJ.: The enemy came into Greeneville yesterday at 1 p. m. His force is estimated at some 2,000 strong, all infantry, no cavalry having been seen. The enemy's strength is obtained through prisoners who were captured by the enemy and escaped. I am concentrating my forces so as to check any advance east of the Watauga line. The enemy's cavalry is somewhere east of Knoxville, but not more than 1,000 strong unless re-enforced recently, of which I have no notification. To hold the election is the cause of the advance, I think.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JNO. C. VAUGHN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

BRISTOL, TENN., February 23, 1865.

(Received 9.20.) Maj. J. S. JOHNSTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

Enemy still at Greeneville, 12 m. yesterday. Strength, 850. Thought to cover a raid into North Carolina. Will advise you this evening.

J. C. VAUGHN, Brig.-Gen.

HDQRS. BRIGADE, Lee County, Va., February 23, 1865.

Maj. JOHNSTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

MAJ.: I am just in receipt of a communication from Gen. Vaughn, saying that 500 Yankees made their appearance in Greeneville on 21st instant, the advance it was reported of 2,000 infantry. He did not know whether it was their intention to move any farther east or not, but desired me to move to Kingsport so as to co-operate with him on Watauga. I have very little doubt but that the only object of the enemy is to occupy Greeneville, and perhaps Jonesborough, for the purpose of holding the "Brownlow election," 4th of March. I do not think with their reported strength they would venture across the Watauga and Holston to occupy Bristol and Blountsville. My effective strength is not now one-half or one-third of my real strength, owing to the absence of Tenth Kentucky Cavalry and Jenkins' company, and the fact that Seventh Confederate (numbering 200) are about half dismounted and two-thirds unarmed. This leaves me with Fourth and Tenth Kentucky mounted and Sixty-fourth Virginia, aggregate some 450, of which some are dismounted, and many with lame horses; and the roads are now in such a condition that it would almost dismount the rest. The general (Vaughn) desires that I move to Kingsport to take the position vacated by Col. Carter, who is to move to Devault's ford on Watauga. I shall of course give all the assistance I am able, and if the enemy should seriously threaten an invasion of Virginia I could bring 600 to 800 men to bear, I believe, if I could get arms for them. I shall spare no exertion to collect all army guns in the country, but shall, no doubt, have to rely on ordnance department for a good many guns, for most of these absentees whom I am gathering up are without arms; and most all my men want cartridge-boxes, &c. But my report will be sent up soon, embracing every want. It would be a calamity to leave this country now, just when I am getting everything in working order, and in three weeks could have 300 or 400 men brought into service and my command in some state of discipline, and the horses cured of scratches, &c. The Twenty-fifth Virginia Cavalry assemble on 28th instant at Estillville. They are very anxious to remain in this department. I believe they are good men, and the good of the service would be consulted by transferring them. Shall send for my clothing and ordnance stores without delay. Will also attend to the matter of "response of Lincoln's terms" by our soldiers. If it were possible to get along without calling my battalions from here to Kingsport now, it would be greatly to our advantage.

Very truly,

H. L. GILTER, Col., Cmdg. Brigade.

HDQRS. CAVALRY BRIGADE, Lee County, Va., February 23, 1865.


GEN.: I am in receipt of your communication informing me of the occupation of Greeneville by 500 Yankees and he reported advance of 2,000 infantry, and desiring me to move to Kingsport to co-operate with you on the Watauga. I suppose their object is to hold the elections East Tennessee, and have very little idea they intend coming farther than Jonesborough, if that high. I hardly think they would endeavor to cross the Watauga to occupy Bristol or make an advance into Virginia with 2,000 men. My effective forces very much weakened by the absence of two of my best battalions and the want of horse and arms for many whom are present. I shall, however, cheerfully give you such aid as I am able, but sincerely hope I shall not be compelled to march over such roads as we now have to Kingsport before you inform me that the demonstrations of the enemy do not require my assistance. Please let me know immediately and frequently of their movements, strength, &c., so that I can act accordingly.

Very respectfully,

H. L. GILTNER, Col., Cmdg., &c.

BRISTOL, February 24, 1865.

(Received 12.30.) Maj. JOHNSTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

The enemy at Greeneville retired yesterday morning. Col. Tool reports that Gen. Gillem, with his force, moved up the French Broad River Monday in direction of North Carolina. Force estimated 3,000, mounted. What orders have you for me?

J. C. VAUGHN, Brig.-Gen.

BRISTOL, February 24, 1865.

(Received 2.20.) Maj. JOHNSTON:

Shall I follow the enemy?[19]

My force will be small.

J. C. VAUGHN, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, pp. 1006-1008.

        22, Skirmish near Greeneville [see February 20-24, 1865, Expedition to Greeneville & Warrensburg above]

        22, Depredations committed by Federal soldiers in McMinnville; an excerpt from the journal of Lucy Virginia French

…some Yanks came – wanting milk – they said. I met them at the back door – spoke pleasantly but held the door knob in my hand. I saw they were preparing to come in but I did not invite them and bolting the door, directed them to Mammy's house to get the milk. They went-dreadfully dissatisfied and grumbled to the servants that I had not asked them to come in the house. They were gentlemen, had been raised – never had been in any place before but what they were asked in the house, if they had been officers she would have asked them in – if they had been secesh etc. etc. etc., until Mammy and Puss said they thought both were born fools. The servants told them I never asked soldiers in the house – soldiers did not expect it and have no right to expect it – they usually come to get something and if I had it I gave it and they went away – if they expected to be invited in they most[ly] come with some friend to introduce them etc. etc. Finally they commenced about killing chickens, the negros [sic] got them out to if – then they wanted milk which was brought – then walnuts – these also were furnished – some wanted bread and this was handed over also – then they went off after examining all the outhouses, etc. carefully – for what I do not know. Just as dinner was on the table and we sitting down to it here they came again – whiz! Bang! Went the rocks everywhere. They were after the chickens, and they carried them off in triumph. Not all satisfied however, for they came back 3 times after more but failed to catch them. Mammy was so mad she was fit to fly and Puss was quite as much exasperated.

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, February 26, 1865.

        22, Confederate censure of Federal martial government in Memphis

Military Rule in Memphis.

The Memphis Bulletin, of the 21st ult., contains a batch of orders from the new commander, for the government of the oppressed people of East [sic] [i.e. West] Tennessee.

The order for a more general enrollment in the militia is to be vigorously enforced; and heavy penalties are imposed upon the United State officers as well as the citizens. The former are pointedly directed to "not connive at the shirking from duty on the part of wealthy, influential or socially agreeable citizens." This will no doubt stop "wine-bibbing" by Yankee officials, at the expense of other people, and the "socially agreeable" Shirkers will have to try some other dodge.

A second order prohibits any person from entering the city, except upon other of the following roads: the Horne Lake, the Hernando road, the State line road, or the new Raleigh road.

President's island, a short distance below the city, by another order, is seized and set apart for the negroes, to be under the control of the "general superintendent of freedmen." The white residents were ordered to leave by the 1st instant.

For the purpose of raising a fund to defray the expenses of the militia, another order levies a tax on the cotton and tobacco speculators. This is comprehensive: "all cotton now in Memphis, or that may be brought into the port of Memphis, shall pay a tax of two dollars on each bale; and all tobacco of one dollar on each hogshead."

A "circular" also appears, from the same authority, of so grave a character that we give it entire:


Memphis Tenn., Dec. 19, 1864.[20]

There is a troublesome class of persons within this department who, without any well grounded pretensions to legal attainments, assume the name of attorney, and on some frivolous pretext or other, for their own account or for that of some victimized client whose case they voluntarily agree to take charge of are constantly vexing the department at Washington, or the headquarters of the military division, by verbose petitions and complaints against the inconvenience brought on their petty private interest by necessary and just military restrictions, or by prayers for relief from well merited punishment.

This description of pests have tried rebellion, have failed, and having cloaked themselves under a too liberal administration of the amnesty oath, are now busy in troubling the Government in other ways, and they are now cautioned, once for all, that in the future, if they have any business so to trouble public functions with, they will send it to through the nearest post headquarters to these headquarters, from whence, if too frivolous to forward, it can be returned, and they and all citizens residing or doing business in this department, are admonished that if they are detected in disregarding the requirement, they will be granted the opportunity of travelling beyond the limits of this department to present their business in person, with permission not to return during the war.

By order of Major General N. J. T. Dana

T. H. Harris, A. A .Gen.

[A response]

This is rather contemptuous to the legal fraternity, and is reported to have cause much swearing not provided for by statute. The brethren cared but little for the restrictions they were placed under, as these they placed under, as these were expected to find means to evade; but to be officially classed as "a troublesome class of persons," "without any well ground pretension to legal attainments," "pests," etc., was the rub. We could have enjoyed a glimpse at the crest-fallen countenances of some who Dana thus spotted, beyond a doubt.

Several parties recently from Memphis inform us that the tyranny of the military rule practiced there is felt by every citizen, with bug very few exceptions. Detectives intrude themselves into every corner, and no one dares to criticize the course of the tyrants. Even the privacy of the family circle is invaded by the paid spies who throng the city;. No business is transacted except under the supervision of government officials. The municipal government has been made utterly subservient to the military, the social condition of the city has greatly depreciated, and the old residents are restless under the yoke imposed upon them. In Memphis, as completely as anywhere else, the worse [sic] kind of tyranny now rules, and will rule, until the self constituted masters are driven out. Heaven grant a speedy deliverance.


Houston Tri-Weekly, February 22, 1865.

[1] According to Wikipedia: Locofocoism, from the term Locofocos a faction of the Democratic Party that existed from 1835 until the mid-1840s. The faction was originally named the Equal Rights Party, and was created in New York City as a protest against that city's regular Democratic organization ("Tammany Hall"). It contained a mixture of anti-Tammany Democrats and labor union veterans of theWorking Men's Party. They were vigorous advocates of laissez-faire and opponents of monopoly. Their leading intellectual was editorial writer William Leggett.

The term "Locofoco" derives from "locofoco, a kind of friction match", the name of which match itself probably derives from "locomotive + Italian fuoco, foco fire, from Latin "focushearth".It originated when a group of New York Jacksonians used such matches to light candles to continue a political meeting after Tammany men tried to break up the meeting by turning off the gaslights.

The Locofocos were involved in the Flour Riot of 1837.

In the 1840 election, the term "Locofoco" was applied to the entire Democratic Party by its Whig opponents, both because Democratic President Martin Van Buren had incorporated many Locofoco ideas into his economic policy, and because Whigs considered the term to be derogatory.

In general, Locofocos supported Andrew Jackson and Van Buren, and were for free trade, greater circulation of specie, legal protections for labor unions and against paper money, financial speculation, and state banks. Among the prominent members of the faction were William Leggett, William Cullen Bryant, Alexander Ming, Jr., John Commerford, Levi D. Slamm, Henry K. Smith, Isaac S. Smith, Moses Jacques, Gorham Parks, and Walt Whitman  (then a newspaper editor).

Ralph Waldo Emerson said of the Locofocos: "The new race is stiff, heady, and rebellious; they are fanatics in freedom; they hate tolls, taxes, turnpikes, banks, hierarchies, governors, yea, almost all laws."

[2] Neither Ward nor the Banner of Peace are identified.

[3] TSL&A, Diaries, Memoirs, etc., French, L. Virginia (Smith), War Journals, AC nos. 89-200 and 73-25. [Hereinafter cited as War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.]

[4] As cited in Winds of Change, pp. 41-42.

[5] This may have been a house of prostitution but outside the city limits. There is at least one other indication that there were houses of prostitution in the country in isolated areas, and usually servicing Confederates, although it is not known if this was a matter of patriotism, local custom, or market demand. See May 2-12, 1864, "Scout in Hickman and Maury Counties, Tennessee" below.

[6] As cited in: See also: Montgomery Weekly Advertiser, March 4, 1863, as cited in Ibid.

[7] As cited in:


[9] Diary of John Hill Fergusson, Book 3, January 24  1863-December 31, 1863. [Hereinafter cited as John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.]

[10] Fergusson was writing his account the day after Washington's birthday, the 22nd.

[11] Valley of the Shadow.

[12] Not found.

[13] Gen. Foster relieved Gen. Burnside on December 12, 1863. For portion of this report here omitted, see OR, Ser.I, Vol. 31, pt I, p. 286.

 [14] See also Col. Hughs' report of operations in Middle Tennessee, January 1-April 18, 1864, attached above.

[15] See also: CAR, p. 35.

[16] As cited in:

[17] And those were their good points.

[18] As cited in PQCW.

[19] There is no evidence in the OR to suggest that Vaughn pursued the enemy.

[20] This order is not referenced in the OR. It was issued December 21, 1864, but news of the order was not received by the Houston newspaper until February, 1865, three months later.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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