3, "Read the Treasonous Circular!"
The desperation [sic] of Disunionism is showing itself in Nashville and in all other portions of the state. The following Secret Circular [sic] was sent to a Post Master in Jefferson County, supposing him to be a Disunionist and he has transmitted it to us. We publish it and ask a perusal of it. Let it be denounced and spit upon, and let it be rebuked at the ballot box as the offspring of Treason [sic]!
Dear Sir – Our earnest solicitude for the success of the Great Southern Rights movement to secure an immediate release from the overwhelming dangers that imperil our political and social safety, will we trust, be a sufficient apology for the results which we beg to impose on you.
The sentiment of the Southern heart is overwhelming in favor of the movement. Light only is wanted that men may see their way clearly and the prayer of every true patriot will eventually be realized. Tennessee will be a unit.
Although the time be so very short, this object may yet be accomplished, if a few men only, (the more the better, however) in each county, will devote their entire energies to it during the canvass for Delegates. We earnestly beg your attention, therefore, to the following suggestions:
1. Be sure to have your best men in the field, without regard to past political opinions [sic].
2. Be sure that no submissionist, under whatever pretext of compromising our rights, or of waiting beyond the 4th of March for new guarantees, impose himself on you. Our only hope of peace and safety consists in decided action before the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln.
3. Do not wait for general meetings of citizens, but get together immediately a few active, intelligent, discreet but thoroughgoing, uncompromising, true-hearted, "Southern-Rights Anti-Coercion" friends and appoint Committees and Canvassers, who are willing to devote themselves entirely and unceasingly to the great and perilous work, from this hour up to the close of the election.
4. Appoint Committees, also, for each Civil District, of men known to coincide with you and ourselves in sentiment.
5. Organize, fortheith, Southern Rights Anti-Coercion Societies.
6. We will send during the canvass, the UNION AND AMERICAN and GAZETTE [sic], to supply your County. These we confidently trust you will send immediately to the District Committees, who on the hour of delivery, start out on the work of distribution, and this though there be but half a dozen copies for each district. Do not, we beg of you, wait for persons to call for documents, of papers to read and CIRCULATE [sic].
7. Write as many letters to your friends [as] possible, and urge them by every consideration of patriotism, to work, work, work.
Please write as many letters to your friends, and advise us of your organization, and to whose address we shall send papers, &c., at your county seat and elsewhere; and also, in public sentiment, and whatever else you may think useful.
Once more may we not, without offense, beg of you by all you hold dear on earth, to give yourself entirely to this great work that you will know no rest until success shall crown our efforts for our country's safety in deliverance from all further alliance with those whose very breath is poisoned, whose embrace is death – until as satisfactory guarantees are offered before the army, navy and treasure of the government shall have passed into the hands of a party virtually pledged to the odious doctrine for coercion.
We can, we must, carry our State. Our hearts would link within us, at the bare thought of the degradations and infamy of abandoning our more Southern brethren united to us by all the views so sympathy and interest, and of being chained to the car of Black Republican States, who would themselves despise us for our submission; and worse than all, by moral influences alone, if not by force of legal enactment destroy our entire social fabric, and all real independence of thought and action.
Your own good judgment will suggest many things we can not now allude to.
Wm. Williams, Chm'n.
S. C. Godshall, Sec'y,
J. R. Bruce,
R. H. Williamson,
G. W. Cunningham,
H. M. Cheatham,
W. S. Peppin.
States Central Southern Rights Anti-Coercion Committee
Knoxville Whig, February 3, 1861.
3, Confederate positions established near Chapel Hill
HEADQUARTERS POLK'S CORPS, ARMY OF TENNESSEE,
Shelbyville, February 3, 1863.
Col. [P. D.] RODDEY, Pulaski, Tenn.:
COL.: Lieut.-Gen. Polk directs me to say that he [Gen. Polk] has been instructed by Gen. Bragg to send you such orders as he should deem advisable. He desires you to proceed to Chapel Hill, on the north side of Duck River, on the Farmington and Nashville road, and make that your headquarters. The object of your being posted there is that you may cover the country in which we are foraging, on the south side of the same river; also that you may afford protection to some 6 or 8 miles lying along the river as far as and including Columbia. You will keep in observation the country in your front in the direction of Nashville, Eagleville, and Unionville, posting pickets and vedettes well in advance, in the direction of all three of those places.
A cavalry force, under Col. [W. B.] Wade, will have its headquarters at Unionville, with pickets at Rover. You will be expected to co-operate with Col. Wade in watching the front toward Nashville and Murfreesborough. It is proper to inform you that a strong detachment of the enemy's cavalry is reported to have moved in the direction of Chapel Hill yesterday morning. You will be expected to move promptly, so as to get into position at the earliest moment possible. Send to the general at this place an intelligent staff officer, to receive instructions more in detail.
Very respectfully, colonel, your obedient servant,
-- -, [sic]
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 625.
3, Federal reconnaissance and Confederate demonstration prior to Confederate attack on Fort Donelson
Col. A. C. HARDING, Fort Donelson:
If you should be attacked, after making reconnaissance, get into your works, and hold position at all hazards. I can and will bring help during the evening and night. Let your command know this. Put a supply of water and anything you may need inside the entrenchments.
W. W. LOWE, Col., Cmdg.
HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Forts Henry, Heiman, and Donelson, February 3, 1863.
Col. A. C. HARDING, Fort Donelson:
Notify Col. Bruce of the demonstration being made here, and tell him as soon as it subsides you will give him assistance. He will be notified when and what force we can bring. Will get the couriers ready this evening.
W. W. LOWE, Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 39.
3, Attack on Fort Donelson
MURFREESBOROUGH, February 4, 1863.
Brig. Gen. JEFFERSON C. DAVIS, Franklin:
Col. Lowe telegraphs from Donelson that they have whipped the cavalry under Wheeler, Forrest, and Wharton. Forrest wounded. Rebels in full retreat. Lowe's cavalry following. He says they are out of rations and ammunition, and are retreating toward Charlotte and Shelbyville, and that a small force could capture the whole. Look out for them, and do your best to catch them.
By order of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:
FIRST DIVISION, FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Franklin, Tenn., February 4, 1863.
Col. GODDARD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
Dispatch in regard to rebel attack on Donelson received. Will carry out instructions to intercept the enemy with best of my ability. The cavalry is in bad condition, but is kept well out scouting in advance. I think the enemy will, if repulsed, retreat by Centreville. Will try and keep him out of Columbia. This is the most I can do in my present condition. Infantry badly off for shoes and supplies. Will try and get them at Nashville. My cavalry force is less than 1,000 effective men. If it were strong enough, I would go with it myself to Charlotte. Gen. Mitchell has informed me that he will co-operate with me.
JEFF. C. DAVIS, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 45.
Excerpt from the Report of Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, Gen.-in-Chief, U. S. Army, of operations in the Departments of the Ohio and of the Cumberland, February 3-July 26, 1863 relative to the Confederate attack on Fort Donelson, February 3, 1863.
HDQRS. OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C., November 15, 1863.
SIR: In compliance with your orders, I submit the following summary of military operations since my last annual report:
* * * *
On the 3d of February, Gen.'s Wheeler, Forrest, and Wharton invested Fort Donelson, and demanded its capitulation. This was promptly refused by its commander, Col. Harding. After an obstinate attack, which lasted all day, the rebels retired, with an estimated loss of 900. Our loss in the fort was 13 killed and 51 wounded.
* * * *
Henry W. Halleck, Gen.-in-Chief, U. S. Army
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 7.
CLARKSVILLE, February 5, 1863.
Gen. W. S. ROSECRANS:
Following is just received from Donelson:
DONELSON, [February] 4, [1863.]
....yesterday...the enemy, who, about 2 p. m., attacked this post with eight guns and a force, fully 4,000 men, under Wheeler, Wharton, Forrest, and Woodward. In the battle they charged and charged again under continuous fire of shot and shell, and were finally driven back after many repulses. They sent in at the beginning of the fight and at the end of the battle, and offered to spare us if we would surrender, and with a threat that if we refused we must take the consequences, to which we replied that we would take the consequences. We killed more than 100 of the enemy, and have some 100 prisoners here; with the gunboats and the forces from Col. Lowe, we got about 200 of them. Our loss is 12 killed and about 30 wounded. Among the killed we mourn Capt. [Philo E.] Reed, (Company A); Lieut. [Harmon D.] Bissell, quartermaster; Sergeant Campbell-all promising officers. Neither the dead or [sic] the enemy are all yet in. Col. Lowe has just come over, and the enemy are being pursued. We had not more than 800 men, and our artillery ammunition giving out, left us nothing but the infantry, with their rifles and bayonets. Gunboats and a large force of infantry from below are here.
A. C. HARDING, Col., Cmdg.
MURFREESBOROUGH, February 5, 1863.
Col. S. D. BRUCE, Clarksville:
The general commanding sends his thanks for Col. Harding's dispatch, and asks if you cannot cross the river and pitch into the retreating rebels with all your force, leaving only your camp guard.
G. P. THRUSTON, Capt. and Aide-de-Camp.
MURFREESBOROUGH, February 5, 1863.
Col. S. D. BRUCE, Clarksville:
Dispatch from Donelson says rebels retreating toward Charlotte. Granger's fleet was at Donelson last night. Have telegraphed to have him and a force at Palmyra and intercept retreat. The rebels are out of ammunition and rations and in full retreat.
C. GODDARD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 46.
3, Skirmish at Cumberland Iron-Works
No circumstantial reports filed.
3, U. S. gunboats bombard and disperse Confederates surrounding Federal force at Dover
Excerpt from the Report of Lieutenant-Commander LeRoy Fitch's report of March 17, 1863, relative to the fight at Fort Donelson [Dover], February 3, 1863:
On February 3...[a]t 8 p. m. arrived at Dover, [Tenn.], found the garrison entirely surrounded by the enemy, and out of ammunition. The gunboats shelled and dispersed the rebels.
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, p. 57.
Excerpt from the November 5, 1863 Report of Lieutenant-Commander Fitch, regarding naval operations on the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee Rivers, August 23, 1862-October 21, 1863, relative to the bombardment of Confederate forces at Fort Donelson, February 3, 1863:
On the 3d of February, ....I arrived at the town of Dover about 8 p. m., and found Colonel Harding's forces out of ammunition and entirely surrounded by superior numbers, but still holding them in check, they having withdrawn within the small breastworks back about 300 yards from the river bank.
For a minute or so I was at a loss as to where to begin, as I could not get a word from our forces, the enemy then holding the ground between them and the river; however, I let off a gun up the ravine to give them encouragement by letting them know that assistance was at hand. Just then the moon shone out bright, and by the aid of one of the officers of the garrison, who had stolen through the enemy's lines down to the river bank and pointed out the enemy's position, I was enabled to throw shell right in their very mists.
The enemy not expecting gunboats had formed the main body of his forces in line of battle through the graveyard at the west end of town, about seven or eight hundred yards from Colonel Harding's intrenchments and facing the most accessible point.
His left wing rested in a ravine leading down to the river and must have extended almost to the river bank, as we could easily, when we first moved up, hear the men talking.
This position gave us a chance to rake nearly the entire length of his line.
Simultaneously the gunboats opened fire up this ravine, into the graveyard, and into the valley beyond, where the enemy had his horses hitched, most likely kept his reserve.
The rebels were so much taken by surprise that they did not even fire a gun, but immediately commenced retreating. So well directed was our fire that they could not even carry off a caisson they had captured from our forces, but were compelled to abandon it after two fruitless attempts to destroy it by fire.
After having dispersed the main body of the enemy I stationed the Robb and Silver Lake below the town [of Dover] to throw shells and prevent the rebels from returning to carry off the wounded, while the Lexington, Fairplay, St. Clair, and Brilliant went above and shelled roads leading out to the eastward.
Supposing the retreating forces above the town would follow the river for a short distance, I sent the Lexington and St. Clair on up to shell the woods-harass and annoy them as much as possible-while the Fairplay and the Brilliant lay opposite the upper ravine and threw shells up the roads.
About 10 p. m. we ceased firing, with the exception of now and then a random shell up on the roads.
At 11 p. m. learning from Colonel Harding that the enemy had entirely disappeared, we ceased firing and took position to guard the roads from approaching the town.
Although much of our firing, after the enemy broke, was at random, we have the gratification of knowing that scarcely a projectile went amiss, and out of the four hundred and odd reported killed and wounded the gunboats did their share.
Even when the Lexington and St. Clair went above, many of their shells fell right in the midst of retreating rebels, killing many.
It is reported that the attacking forces numbered some four thousand and five hundred, with eight pieces of artillery, under command of Major-General [Joseph] Wheeler, Brigadier-Generals [N.B.] Forrest and [J.A.] Wharton, and it is certainly very gratifying for us to know that this entire force was cut up, routed, and despoiled of its prey by the timely arrival of the gunboats, and that Colonel Harding and his gallant little band were spared to wear the honors they had so fairly won.
At first I regretted that I was not there sooner with the boats, but upon reflection, I do not think that I could that I could have better arranged the time had it been in my power.
Had we been there before Wheeler, he would not have made the attack, but most probably would have marched on Fort Henry.
Had we arrived during the day, he would have seen our strength, and would have retreated with little loss.
Arriving as we did, after dark, and when he least expected us, and so sanguine of success, we found his forced arranged in the most favorable position to receive a raking fire from our guns.
The officers and men were very glad to have a shot at these river infesters, having been somewhat annoyed by them on previous occasions, and only regret that they did not remain in reach of our guns a little longer.
As it is, they claim the honor of dispersing them and saving Fort Donelson.
* * * *
LeRoy Fitch, Lieutenant Commander
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pp. 313-314.
3, Confederate attack at Island No. 10
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF COLUMBUS, Columbus, Ky., February 5, 1863--2 p. m.
Maj. Gen. C. S. HAMILTON, Cmdg. District of West Tennessee, Memphis, Tenn.:
Returned last night from Island No. 10. Was unable to find any trace of the rebel force reported by the gunboat officer, William C. Hanford [on the 3rd]. Only small bands of rebel guerrillas are swarming around.
I ordered that seven guns be immediately unspiked and properly remounted, for the defense of the island, and balance, seventy-two guns, with carriages and other valuable ordnance stores, be shipped to Memphis.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, pp. 34-35.
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF COLUMBUS, February 3, 1863--6 a. m.
Maj. Gen. C. S. HAMILTON, Cmdg. District of West Tennessee, Memphis, Tenn.:
Island No. 10 is attacked by rebel cavalry and artillery, numbering 3,000 or 4,000. W. C. Hanford, executive officer U. S. gunboat New Era, reports so in person. One hundred and fifty men of the Thirty-fifth Iowa leave immediately on tow-boat Stephen Bayard and 400 by steamer Emma, to re-enforce the small garrison. I send also ammunition for the two guns reported as serviceable on the island. Will you permit the withdrawal of our troops from Union City to take the rebels in the rear? I want cavalry badly to occupy Hickman and Clinton. Can we not get them from Saint Louis? Another gunboat, in addition to the New Era, would be of great service to prevent the occupation of the island by the rebels.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, pp. 31-32.
3, Major-General Rosecrans protests pay arrangements made for the Army of the Cumberland
MURFREESBOROUGH, TENN., February 3, 1863--10.30 p. m.
E. M. STANTON:
Paymasters have arrived with funds for payment of my command to October 31 only. I think this army richly merits all pay due it. The last payment was to August 31, and in the case of some fifty regiments was made after preparation of October rolls, which, of course, bear no trace of the August payment, and must, therefore, be made over. October rolls of some regiments were lost in the late battle, and cannot well be replaced. Such commands, with many others, have their December rolls only. The Acting Paymaster-Gen. advises my chief paymaster that money for the December payment will probably be furnished by the time of conclusion of the October payment. This will require the trouble and labor of two payments, which might be embraced in one. This is very undesirable, in view of the fact that my pay corps-by no means large-is mostly composed of paymasters just appointed, whose utter lack of practical experience would make a double payment slow, tedious, and unnecessarily burdensome. The present concentration of the bulk of my command presents an opportunity for a prompt and thorough payment which may not be long available. I earnestly request that Maj. Larned be authorized to make his payments to December 31 at once, and that funds for their completion be immediately furnished.
W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 37
3, Weekly convoys established from Smithland, Kentucky, to Fort Donelson, Tennessee
CAIRO, ILL., February 3, 1863.
Maj.-Gen. ROSECRANS, Murfreesborough, Tenn.:
Lieut.-Commander Fitch informs me that he has arranged to leave Smithland for Fort Donelson every Monday, to convoy loaded transports, and to return with those which have discharged cargo. He telegraphs me nothing very serious up Tennessee River, and no danger of either river being blockaded by rebels with the force that he has. Lieut.-Commander Phelps agrees with him in this opinion. Have sent all your dispatches to the admiral. As soon as I hear from him, will communicate with you.
A. M. PENNOCK, Fleet Capt. and Commandant of Station.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 38.
3, Joint operations planned in the Triune and Harpeth environs
MURFREESBOROUGH, [February] 3, 1863.
Brig. Gen. JAMES B. STEEDMAN, Cmdg. Forces at Nolensville (via La Vergne):
The general commanding directs you to start with your whole command to-morrow morning at daylight, by way of Triune and Harpeth, of Riggs' Cross-Roads. You will there be joined by a brigade from Gen. McCook's corps, with which your force will co-operate. That brigade is instructed in regard to the joint operations. Take a forage train along. I have notified Gen. Thomas of this order.
J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 40.
3, Federal cavalry push Confederate cavalry south of Duck River
TWENTY-FIRST ARMY CORPS, February 3, 1863.
Lieut. Col. LYNE STARLING, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Twenty-first Army Corps:
COL.: I have the honor to report the following information, just received from scouts:
Gen. Forrest, with his cavalry, is at Chapel Hill. Gen. Cheatham is encamped near Shelbyville, on the south side of Duck River. The dash made by your cavalry toward river caused a general falling back of all the rebel cavalry.
GEO. G. KNOX, Lieut. 1st Illinois Arty. and Chief of Scouts, 21st Army Corps.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 41.
3, Reduction in means of transportation for the Army of the Cumberland
SPECIAL FIELD ORDERS, No. 31. HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND,
Murfreesborough, Tenn., February 3, 1863.
* * * *
XVI. The transportation of this army will be at once reduced to the following limits: For each regiment of infantry, 10 wagons; for each regiment of cavalry, 25 wagons; for each battery of artillery, the same number of wagons that there are guns in the battery; for each brigade headquarters, 5 wagons. Each division will be allowed an ammunition train of 25 wagons and a supply train of 40 wagons. All transportation is excess of this allowance will be immediately turned over to Lieut. C. H. Irvin, acting assistant quartermaster, at Nashville.
It is made the duty of all inspecting officers to promptly report any regiment, brigade, or division which has transportation in excess of this allowance.
* * * *
By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:
H. THRALL, Capt. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 41.
3, "I like to gather up those cowardly conscrips [sic] that is hiding out." Lieutenant A. J. Lacy, 8th Tennessee cavalry, to his parents in Jackson County
Maury Co Tennessee February the 3 1863 [sic]
Dear and most affectionate Father & Mother [sic]
I seat myself this beautiful morning to write to you one time more. Father I have nothing of interest to write to you. I received your verry [sic] kind letter dated Jan the 13th. I received your letter that you sent by Mr. Stephen Davis and I also got that pare of gloves that Mother sent me. I have lost one of them. I rote to you abut [sic] getting my blanket stole [sic] at Collumbia [sic]. I captured me [sic] 2 blankets in west [sic] Tenn [sic] that is better and it war. I wouldent [sic] take $40 for them both.
I got my horse killed Dec [sic] the 31st in the battle at Parkers [sic] Cross Roads. I lost [my] horse bridal [sic] and saddle. I captured me a better saddle from the Yankees than my other saddle war [sic]. I drawed [sic] $225 for my horse and riging [sic]. I have bought me another good horse. I give 225 dollars for him. I payed the money down right in his fingers. I must change the subject.
Our reg [sic] has been for the last week gathering up conscripts and we are detailed by Gen [sic] Pillow to gather up the conscripts in the state of Tenn. Wee [sic] are ordered to cook 5 days [sic] rashens [sic] today and march to morrow [sic]. It is said that wee [sic] are a going [sic] in to Dixen [sic] Co. I dont [sic] know the reality of thir [sic] report. I would like to see you all.
I have been from home 4 months. I want to see you all verry [sic] bad but I dont [sic] expect to see you shortly if ever I do. But I hope that I will have the pleasure of seeing you all once more in this life and have the privalige [sic] of seeing my old residence one more time. No man knows the sweets and benefit of a good home untill [sic] he leaves his home and tries camp life a while. I have suffered a great deal with cold in the past month. Wee [sic] went down to 9 mi [sic] of Clarksville on [the] Cumberland river. It rained and snowed and turned as cold as it ever got in the world. Wee [sic] had no tents and our blankets was wet and frozeed [sic]. [sic] Some of our boys come verry [sic] near friezeing [sic] to death and it seems like that wee [sic] would all frieze [sic] to death it was so cold.
Father my life seems verry [sic] sweet to me. I want to live as bad as any man but I would rather die than be subjugated. My life is sweet to me and my country is also verry [sic] sweet to me. I have set and read your letters that has come from you and shed tears as I would read it. I would give 50 dollars to get to see you all. Margaret E [sic] Lacy I want you to keep me [sic] clothing readdy [sic] all the time if you can. I need pants now and also a coat. Great Lanes if you can and have me a coat made that will come down to my knees. Father I want you to go to see Ridley Draper and if he will sell his uniform coat and if he will sell it I wish you would by [sic] it for me and send it to me by the first that passes for I cant [sic] by [sic] a uniform coat here at all. Send it by any reliable man that you can her of a comeing [sic] and also send me a pare [sic] of pants as quick [sic] as you can for I am needing them bad. I got weighed this morning. I weigh 180 lbs [sic] I am enjoying a better health than I did. I am verry [sic] well thought of in the co [sic] I can chew tobacco and step about as polite as Loften says as polite as a mule at you know what.
I am glad to hear the LGL is enjoying good health. I would like to be with him a gathering [sic] up conscrips [sic] that or to be defending their country. I like to gather up those cowardly conscrips [sic] that is hiding out.  Wright [sic] to me every chance. I must close for the present. This leaves me well and I hope it will find you in the same situation. I must close. So no more at present but will remain yours
A J Lacy
Brevert [sic] 2 Lt To Mr William Lacy [sic]
When you see this remember A J Lacy
Bevert 2 Lt in Co E Col G G Dibrell Reg[iment] [sic] 8th Tenn [sic] Cavalry
3, Discriminating saloon closings in Nashville
On last Saturday night, the authorities made a descent on the drinking saloons and whisky shops of this city, closing them up instanter. We notice that some of them, having permits, are re-opened. Hereafter we hope to see the rich dealers in the whisky traffic prosecuted with as much rigor as the poor, who are driven to it through necessity. On last Saturday we noticed in our police report, the arrest of Mrs. King and Mrs. Flaherty, for tippling, while other and richer dealers, equally as culpable, were not molested. We deprecate the habit of such informers, who, perhaps, drink as much whisky as anybody. They go to the poor in the guise of friendship, and feigning sickness, get a drink and then meanly inform on them, not having the courage to do the same thing with the rich. In a moral point of view they are as culpable as the venders, and a great deal meaner. We want to see a change in this matter.
Nashville Daily Union, February 3, 1863.
3, Gas light returns to Nashville
Light Again!—Oh! what a blessing is light!—a blessing which few citizens of the present generation know how to appreciate thoroughly except we of Nashville, who have been deprived of gaslight since the night of the 21st ultimo, from want of coal whereof to manufacture. Last night our public buildings, printing offices, editorial rooms, stores, and dwellings, cast from their windows their accustomed cheerful light, and the footsteps of pedestrians fell with a firmer and more elastic tread than they were wont during the twelve dark nights preceding, which will long be remembered. Welcome, pure gaslight!
Nashville Dispatch, February 3, 1863.
3, Federal commander Brigadier General Robert B. Mitchell commends secessionists families in Nashville for nursing Confederate wounded at the battle of Stones River
Headquarters U. S. Forces, Nashville, Tennessee, February 1, 1863.
Orders—The General commanding at this Post desires to express his admiration of the zeal evinced by certain Secession families in administering to the wants, and alleviating the sufferings of the Confederate wounded, to-day brought to this city.
Great praise should be awarded them for their devotion for the suffering soldiers of that cause to which they are so enthusiastically allied.
Desiring to give them still greater facilities for the exercise of that devotion which to-day led them through the mud of the public streets of this city, unmindful of the inclemency of the weather, and desiring further to obviate the necessity of that public and flaunting display which must be repugnant to the retiring dispositions of the softer sex:
The General commanding directs as follows:
Surgeon Thurston, Medical Director, will select forty-five of the wounded and sick Confederate soldiers, this day brought from the front, to be quartered as follows:
Fifteen at the house of Mrs. McCall, fifteen at the house of Dr. Buchanan, and fifteen at the house of Sandy Carter, all on Cherry street, immediately below Church street.
As it is desirable that the sick and wounded should not be agitated by the presence of too many persons, no one will be admitted to the rooms in which the wounded are, except their Surgeons, without passes from Surgeon Thurston.
Each family above named will be held responsible for the safe delivery of the Confederate soldiers thus assigned, when called for by proper military authority, under penalty, in failure of such delivery, of forfeiture to the United States of their property and personal liberty.
By order of Brig. Gen. Robt. B. Mitchell, commanding.
Nashville Dispatch, February 3, 1863.
3-5, Expedition from Murfreesborough to Auburn, Liberty, Alexandria, Lebanon, Carthage and Gallatin environs
FEBRUARY 3-5, 1863.-Expedition from Murfreesborough to Auburn, Liberty, and Alexandria, Tenn.
Report of Maj. Gen. Joseph J. Reynolds, U. S. Army, commanding Fifth Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.
HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Murfreesborough, February 8, 1863.
MAJ.: I have the honor to submit the accompanying report of the operations of the recent expedition of the Fifth Division, Fourteenth Army Corps: Left Murfreesborough February 3, 1863, with the following force, viz.,: First Brigade, Col. [J. T.] Wilder; Second Brigade, Col. [A. S.] Hall; Lilly's Eighteenth Indiana Battery, six guns, Capt. [E.] Lilly; Harris' Nineteenth Indiana Battery, four guns, Capt. [S. J.] Harris; two mountain howitzers, Lieut. [W. B.] Rippetoe, of the Eighteenth Battery; and detachments of the Third Ohio Cavalry, Maj. Paramore; Fourth Ohio Cavalry, Lieut.-Col. [J. L.] Pugh; Third Indiana Cavalry, Capt. [G. F.] Herritt, and Fourth Indiana Cavalry, Capt. [J. T.] Deweese; in all about 3,600 men.
When about 8 miles from Murfreesborough, on the Auburn pike, the advance guard reported rebel cavalry in sight. The body proved to be a scouting party of the enemy, some 30 strong, who retired as we advanced, without an exchange of shots. The position was such that we could not get round and capture them. We encamped the night of the 3d at Auburn, 21 miles from Murfreesborough by the lower pike. Ascertained that a rebel camp was situated at the forks of the roads, about 2 ½ miles west of Liberty. Made an early start on the 4th, hoping to encounter the enemy in that position. After marching some 3 miles, met the enemy's cavalry outpost, about 150 strong. Skirmishing between this advance and our cavalry continued for some 2 miles, but not at short range, during which we wounded 1 rebel. This advance party retired to the main camp, partially destroying the bridge over Smith's Fork, which, being fordable, did not impede our progress. We pushed on to the enemy's camp, and it had been hastily vacated, and that they had retreated toward Liberty. Send cavalry in pursuit, and drove them beyond Liberty.
Moved with my main body through Alexandria, about 15 miles from Auburn, and encamped. Found here some flour and bacon belonging to the rebels, of which we took possession. The loyal people stated that the mills at Alexandria and Liberty, although occasionally impressed for the use of the rebels, were of great benefit to them, and I did not order their destruction.
On the 5th, moved with main body toward Lebanon, and sent the detachment of Fourth Indiana Cavalry, under Capt. Deweese, to New Middleton, on the Carthage pike, some 6 miles south of Carthage, with orders to destroy the machinery of a large mill. This mill had for a long time been used exclusively for the rebels, and was of no use to the loyal inhabitants; in fact, it was used for grinding the grain of the loyal people to make food for rebels. The machinery was effectually destroyed, and also a large quantity of what and flour found in the mill.
We encamped the evening of the 5th on Spring Creek, 4 miles east of Lebanon. Three of our infantry went a short distance outside the lines to get some straw for bedding (we had not nets, and the weather was very inclement) and were pounced upon and taken off by a small squad of rebel cavalry. Lieut. Green, commanding my headquarters provost guard, took some 8 or 10 men and gave chase. After a race of 7 miles, overtook the rebels, recovered all of our men, brought back 1 prisoner.
During the day of the 5th, destroyed a quantity of rebel bacon and flour, which we could not transport; also 3 wagons and contents, loaded with flour, bacon, and sundries, on the way to the rebel camp, but which had been hidden in the woods on learning of our approach.
On the 6th, marched the main body through Lebanon, which was occupied on the night of the 5th by the One hundred and twenty-third Illinois Volunteers, Col. [James] Monroe, and encamped at Baird's Mills, on the pike to Murfreesborough. This morning sent out cavalry on the New Middleton road, to cross back on to the Alexandria road, and catch rebel hangers-on in our rear; also on road to Rome, as far as Big Spring, and on road to Gallatin. All these parties join main camp at Baird's Mills in the evening. At Lebanon found and brought away some 8,000 pounds of bacon, stored there for rebel use.
On the 7th, marched from Baird's Mills to Murfreesborough (19 miles), crossing East Fork of Stone's River on bridge of wagons, and made our camp after dark.
Five miles from Baird's Mills, our train was fired into by a body of rebel cavalry, about 150 strong. They came out of thick cedars, which abound in that vicinity; delivered one fire at random, and then ran. The fire was returned by the infantry escort, the One hundred and twenty-third Illinois Volunteers, Col. Monroe. We wounded several of the rebels at this point, and took 1 prisoner. Two shells from one of Harris' guns dispersed a body of men and horses from an open space in the woods; they ran precipitately, leaving behind several saddles, &c., and a large quantity of boots. Precise damage done them could not be ascertained. We had 1 man very slightly wounded.
During the trip, at various points we captured 43 prisoners, representing various corps in the rebel service, more than 300 animals, about 50 beef-cattle, besides destroying the subsistence stores above named.
We had 5 men reported missing on coming into camp; they had straggled or are prisoners.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. J. REYNOLDS, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg. Division.
Report of Lieut. Col. Douglas A. Murray, Third Ohio Cavalry, commanding Second Cavalry Brigade.
HDQRS. SECOND CAVALRY BRIGADE, Camp Stanley, Tenn., February 8, 1863.
GEN.: I have the honor to report, for your information, the part taken by a portion of the Second Cavalry Brigade, consisting of the Third and Fourth Ohio Cavalry, with detachments of the Third and Fourth Indiana Cavalry, from the 3d to the 7th of February, 1863, while attached to the command of Brig.-Gen. [J. J.] Reynolds.
Joined the command of the general on the morning of the 3d, and proceeded in rear of the command till about 4 miles to the front of our pickets on the Liberty pike, when the cavalry, with the exception of the Fourth Indiana, were ordered to the front as advance guard, and to push on to Auburn, and, if possible, to Prosperity Church, about 3 ½ miles beyond it. The general learning that the enemy were there in strong force, we moved carefully, with a strong advance and flank guard, without any interruption, as far as ordered. Hearing that about 30 rebel cavalrymen had moved at a rapid pace along the road toward the church half an hour ahead of us, we did not succeed in coming up with them, therefore, in compliance with instructions, returned to Auburn and encamped one-half mile in front of the command to furnish the requisite number. Nothing occurred during the night worthy of mentioning. Next morning, at daylight, moved on in advance toward Liberty, driving in a picket of the enemy, consisting of about 50 or 60 men. About 2 ½ miles this side of Liberty, we passed over on the road that led to Alexandria, where also a small body of the enemy were seen and a report that the enemy were in force to our right, which was without foundation. Passed through Alexandria, and encamped about 3 miles from it on the Lebanon pike, throwing out strong pickets front and rear. The pickets reported hearing that small bands of rebel cavalry were in the country, consisting of from 5 to 10 in number, plundering and stealing all they could lay their hands on, and committing all manner of depredations. Moved early next morning in the advance. Received orders to send scouting parties both on Rome and Gallatin pikes, to proceed about 8 miles on both these roads. The Third Ohio Cavalry, consisting of 100 men, took the former, under command of Maj. J. W. Paramore, and made several important arrests, viz.,: Gen. R. Anderson, senator; Col. W. L. Martin, representative; W. B. Parsley and John Cox, conscript agents, and G. A. Parsley, lieutenant so-called C. S. Army, besides 3 enlisted men. The Fourth Ohio Cavalry, under command of Maj. [C. G.] Megrue, consisting of 100 men, took the Gallatin pike, and made several arrests. The entire command, with the balance of the cavalry in advance, proceeded through Lebanon, and took the Murfreesborough pike as far as Baird's Mills, and encamped, throwing out pickets to the front on the road and roads leading from the main road as soon as we arrived in camp. About one-half hour after the arrival of the command, reported currently there that Morgan with his command would to a certainty make a strong attack upon us at Stone's River next day, which turned out to be, like the majority of such reports, without foundation. Received orders from Gen. Reynolds to send 50 men as an escort to an officer and 5 men, who were to carry a dispatch to Gen. Thomas. The escort had orders to proceed to the river and see the dispatch party across and then return. They met with no interruption, neither say anything to indicate that any force were in that vicinity, and arrived at camp about 8 p. m. Left camp next morning in advance, and proceeded to Stone's River without the least interruption of any kind; crossed the river, the rear portion of the train being fired into by a party of rebels, supposed to number about 120 or 130 men, who, after firing, retreated and fled in every direction, I was told. When we recrossed the river, and met the command advancing, ordered again by the general to proceed in the advance to the river, and not cross over until the entire command did so. I threw out strong pickets to the rear and flanks, which I did not withdraw until the entire command had passed over the river, which they did by means of a bridge formed by wagons. We had two small pieces of mountain howitzers with our brigade, which the lieutenant in charge informed me that Gen. Reynolds said to him might with his section remain with us. It appears from all I heard that Col. Wilder will not allow it, as he claims them as his, and wishes them to accompany his brigade (infantry) when they are mounted, which is the intention, I believe. They would be a great acquisition to us, and, if possible, if I cannot obtain those, I hear that there are several such pieces in Nashville, Tenn. Could I not, on your recommendation, procure a section of such guns? I could easily man them, having a number of old artillerymen in the command.
Our horses had ample forage during the scout; worked very hard, and traveled over a large section of country. The country passed through was principally hilly, the roads good, and with the exception of the bridge over Stone's River, the different bridges on the road were in good order. Our command returned last evening about 8.30 o'clock.
Our casualties were 6 enlisted men, 1 of the Third Ohio Cavalry, 5 of the Fourth Ohio Cavalry, supposed to be captured by the enemy.
The command picked up some fine-looking horses and mules, 91 of the former and 19 of the latter.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
D. A. MURRAY, Lieut. Col. Third Ohio Cavalry, Cmdg. Second Cav. Brigade.
Report of Capt. John T. Deweese, Fourth Indiana Cavalry.
HDQRS. FIRST BATTALION, FOURTH INDIANA CAVALRY, Murfreesborough, Tenn., February 10, 1863.
LIEUT.: In obedience to orders from brigade headquarters, on the morning of the 3d of this month I reported to Maj.-Gen. Reynolds, commanding the Fifth Division of this army. My command consisted of 125 men, being parts of Companies A, B, C, D, and E, of this regiment.
On the 3d and 4th instant nothing of importance occurred worthy of note. We marched each day 25 miles without any opposition from the enemy, camping on the night of the 3d at Auburn and on the 4th at Alexandria.
On the morning of the 5th, in pursuance to orders from Maj.-Gen. Reynolds, I left the road occupied by the main column of our march, and marched due north 9 ½ miles, on the Midway pike, to Elesin's Mill, where the rebel army had collected a large amount of wheat and corn, and were grinding it for their own use. The enemy having heard of our approach, fled before we entered the village. We immediately proceeded to destroy the mill by tearing and breaking the machinery, so as to render it entirely unserviceable for months. We also captured and destroyed about 30,000 pounds of flour, sacked up for army use, and about 600 bushels of wheat and corn. After resting our horses we started for Lebanon, at which place we encamped for the night.
On our way from the mill we were closely followed by some 700 of Breckinridge's men; but, taking things coolly, we recaptured and burned three of the wagons taken from our army at the fight at Hartsville; also 7 prisoners and their arms, and 22 horses and 3 mules. Our loss was 2 privates from Company C, captured by being allowed to straggle behind the rear guard by the officer who commanded the same. One of the prisoners captured turned out to be a rebel mail-carrier, only thirty-six hours from Tullahoma, having in his possession valuable information of the movements of the enemy.
On the morning of the 6th, we took up our line of march for our camp, at which place we arrived at 9 o'clock at night, making a march of over 200 miles in four days the men sleeping without tents and subsisting on half-rations.
My thanks are due to the officers and men, without exception, for the cool and determined manner in which they behaved themselves while pursued by a force seven times their number, and more than fifteen miles from our army, and in country where we were all strangers and the enemy were thoroughly posted on the nature of the country.
On our line of march we were warmly greeted by the friends of the Union, and at the town of Alexandria we were treated to a sight of our glorious old flag, which a lady had successfully hidden during the reign of terror under the rebel Gen. Bragg.
We found forage and provisions of all kinds plentiful, and the country well watered and amply able to support an army for its own protection of 15,000 or 20,000.
With great respect, lieutenant, I remain your fellow officer and grateful friend,
JNO. T. DEWEESE, Capt., Cmdg. First Battalion, Fourth Indiana Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 42-46.
The Federal General Reynolds moved to Alexandria, Tenn., yesterday for the purpose of destroying the flouring mills at that place.- Patton Miller's cavalry regiment fought them several hours, but owing to the enemy[s superior force, were obliged to fall back. Enemy's loss eleven killed, one hundred and thirty-seven wounded, and twenty-eight prisoners. Our loss only one wounded.
Macon Daily Telegraph, February 9, 1863.
3-March 6, Meridian Expedition, Memphis to Yazoo River
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 164-391.
3, Skirmish with Rebel guerrillas near LaGrange
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the Report of Col. P. C. Shanks, Seventh Indiana Cavalry, of operations January 22-February 9, relative to skirmish with Rebel guerrillas near LaGrange, February 3, 1864
COLLIERVILLE, TENN., February 10, 1864.
* * * *
On February 2, at 8 a. m., I sent Capt. Shoemaker with 40 men to escort Lieut. Grebe with dispatches to Gen. Smith. He reached Grand Junction and learned of the enemy at LaGrange. He reported to me the fact. I sent him Lieut. Skinner and 40 more men.
He then, on the morning of the 3d, drove the enemy from LaGrange, and without further difficulty reported at Memphis. The result of the fray at LaGrange was taking 8 prisoners, killing 2, and wounded 1, and some horses.
JOHN P. C. SHANKS, Col. Seventh Indiana Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 274
3, Anti-guerrilla Federal cavalry expedition, Fayetteville, Tennessee, to New Market, Alabama [see February 2, 1865, Anti-guerrilla Federal infantry expedition, above]
3, Editorial Extolling Citizens to Enlist to Defend Against Guerillas
We have already recorded the death of Majors Divine and McCaughey, two or East Tennessee's most worthy sons, at the hands of the gang of guerillas who were in Athens a few days ago, and who are even now threatening our line of communication towards Knoxville. Although they were officers of the Federal army they were inhumanly murdered after being captured. These atrocious acts have aroused a volume of indignation among our loyal population which will not be satisfied until ample vengeance shall be visited on the heads of any and all of those roving desperadoes who may fall into our hands, and open every rebel sympathizer who shall be convicted of having aided them in any way whatever. The Government should take steps to retaliate on these fiends. It is bound to do so. Major McCaughey, in addition to being one of the purest men in the Stage, and one of its most thoroughly loyal and patriotic citizens, was an officer of a twelve months battalion. It was because he was loyal and an officer, that he was inhumanly butchered. We call upon the military to note this fact, and to make such an example of some guerrillas who may be captured as shall insure the safely; of other officers who may fall into their hands. Let the military remember that if they would protect themselves they must vindicate the memory of the old patriot, John McCaughey. We have a word for Tennesseans on this subject. Quite a number so State troops have recently been raised, and are now being equipped. Some call them Home Guards, but they are not. They are soldiers and as such they have a reputation at stake. They are not only United States solders; but they are East Tennessee solders. East Tennessee has already furnished her thousands of troops, and none of her regiments has ever turned its back to traitors in a disgraceful manner. No man has yet had occasion to be ashamed to acknowledge that he belonged to an East Tennessee regiment. So far there is not a single spot not blemish on the escutcheon of East Tennessee. Shall there be now? No, no-a thousand times, no! Then let every officer and man belonging to the troops now being raised in this Division of the State resolve to excel-if that could be done-in desperate courage and unceasing vigilance their friends and neighbors who enlisted before them. [sic] Let there be discipline, and when he enemy shall be prowling through [last line missing]
Chattanooga Daily Gazette, February 3, 1865.
3, A Call for Revenge on East Tennessee Guerrillas
We have already recorded the death of Majors Divine and McGaughey, two of East Tennessee's most worthy sons at the hands of a gang of guerrillas who were in Athens a few days ago, and who are even now threatening our line of communications towards Knoxville. Although they were officers of the Federal army they were, inhumanly murdered after being captured. These atrocious acts have aroused a volume of indignation among our loyal population which will not be satisfied until ample vengeance shall be visited on the heads of any and all of those roving desperadoes who may fall into our hands, and upon every rebel sympathizer who shall be convicted of having aided them in any what whatever. The Government should take steps to retaliate on these fiends. It is bound to do so. Major McGaughey, in addition to being one of the purest men in the State, and one of its most thoroughly loyal and patriotic citizens, was an officer of a twelve months battalion,. It was because he was loyal and an officer, that he was inhumanely butchered. We call upon the military to note this fact, and to make such an example of some guerrillas who may be captured as shall insure the safety of other officers who may fall into their hands. Let the military remember that if they would protect themselves they must vindicate the memory of that noble old patriot, John McGaughey. We have a word for Tennesseans of this subject. Quite a number of State troops have recently been raised, and are now being equipped. Some of these Home Guards, but they are not. They are soldiers, and as such they have a reputation at stake, They are not only United States soldiers; but they are East Tennessee soldiers. East Tennessee has already furnished her thousands of troops, and none of her regiments has never yet turned its back to traitors in a disgraceful manner. No man has yet had occasion to be ashamed to acknowledge that he belonged to an East Tennessee regiment, on the escutcheon of east Tennessee. Shall there be now? No, no-a thousand times, no! Then let every officer and man belonging to the troops now being raised in this Division of the State resolve to excel-it that could be done-in desperate courage and unceasing vigilance their friends and neighbors who enlisted before them. Let there be discipline and when the enemy shall be prowling through the country, then somebody will be hurt.
Chattanooga Daily Gazette, February 3, 1865. 
ca. 3-5, Scout (C. S. A.) from Bristol to Dandridge, Beaver Dam, Strawberry Plains, Morristown, Cocke County and Knoxville
BRISTOL, TENN., February 5, 1865.
Maj. JOHNSTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
MAJ.: Lieut.-Col. Tool, of the Third Tennessee, has returned from a scout below. He reports the Ninth Tennessee Cavalry at Dandridge, the Eighth and Thirteenth at Beaver Dam, in Jefferson County, all of which will number 1,500 men for duty; the Tenth Michigan Cavalry, some 450 strong, at Knoxville and Strawberry Plains. The Fourth Tennessee Infantry and First Ohio Heavy Artillery are encamped at Mouser's Mill, some nine miles southeast of Morristown; the Twelfth [Second?] Ohio Heavy Artillery stationed at Strawberry Plains and Knoxville. The two Ohio regiments will number about 1,600 men. They have two negro regiments-one in Cocke County, above Knoxville; the other at Knoxville. Kirk's regiment numbers some 400 men, which is scouting to the front most of the time. There are in Knoxville the First and Second Tennessee Infantry Regiments. Both will not number over 275 men. The elections in Tennessee [are] on the 22d of this month and 4th of March. From captured letters and other sources I learn they intend moving up to hold elections in all the counties in upper East Tennessee. Col. Tool captured seventeen prisoners during his scout. He is encamped with his regiment some fifteen miles below Jonesborough. My command has to be scattered very much to procure forage, and I fear that we cannot feed our horses longer than this month on the front. I have a portion (the largest) on the road to Bean's Station, below Kingsport, where the most forage is to be found. I would respectfully suggest the repairing of the railroad from this point east. All the engines destroyed by the enemy during their last raid are now in moving order, as well as several cars, and can be run out if the enemy move up. There is more meat here than wagons could transport out if important to move it.
JOHN C. VAUGHAN, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, pp. 961-962.
 See also Louisville Daily Journal, January 26, 1861, as cited in PQCW; and The New York Herald, January 31, 1861, as cited in GALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN.
 See also Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pp. 25-27.
 According to a footnote this was probably March, because Brigadier-General John A. Garfield did not become Rosecrans Chief of Staff until February 28, 1863.
 Whether or not these "cowardly conscrips" were Union sympathizers, Southerner draft resistors, cowards, or simply neutral is an intriguing question.
 There are three lengthy reports on this expedition; only one is presented here.
 Although all the action took place in Mississippi this action was initiated in Memphis and so is included here. There are a total of 72 reports on this expedition.
 The particulars regarding the story of Divine and McCaughey seem to be lost to posterity.
 TSL&A, 19th CN.
 Major McGaughey was captured in the Action at Athens, January 28, 1865. The OR gives no information relative to Major Divine. The details of their deaths are not known to be extant.
 TSL&A, 19th CN.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456