Wednesday, March 11, 2015

3.11.2015 Tennessee War Notes

        11, Confederate Conscript Sweep and Skirmish near Paris[1]


No. 1.-Maj.-Gen. U. S. Grant, U. S. Army.

No. 2.-Lieut. Charles H. Thurber, Battery I, First Missouri Light Artillery.

No. 3.-Capt. John T. Croft, Fifth Iowa Cavalry.

No. 4.-Maj.-Gen. Leonidas Polk, C. S. Army.

No. 1.

Report of Maj.-Gen. U. S. Grant, U. S. Army.

FORT HENRY, March 13, 1862.

Learning that rebel troops had assembled at Paris for the purpose of enforcing conscription orders of Governor Harris, I sent night before last a portion of Curtis' Horse, Fifty-second Indiana, and Bulliss' battery.

The enemy were driven from their works, situated about a mile and a half beyond the town, with the loss of probably 100 killed and wounded. Our loss was Capt. Bulliss and 4 men killed and 5 men wounded. We have taken 8 prisoners. I am now engaged in sending more troops to the west bank of the river. The enemy are in force at Humboldt and might re-enforce their Paris troops in one day.



No. 2.

Report of Lieut. Charles H. Thurber, Battery I, First Missouri Light Artillery.

HDQRS. BUEL'S BATTERY, MISSOURI VOLS., In the Field, March 16, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor most respectfully to submit the following report, not being certain that it is my duty to do so. However, it will probably be of some interest to you:

On the 11th of March, 1862, about 8 o'clock a.m., the battery under command of Capt. Robert E. Bulliss left Paris Landing, on Tennessee River, in Henry County, Tennessee, and proceeded under escort of four companies of cavalry, the whole under command of Capt. J. T. Croft, acting major First Battalion Curtis' Horse, to attack the enemy at Paris, Tenn., where there were several hundred encamped, under command of Maj. H. C. King, about a mile beyond Paris. Our advance captured the pickets that were stationed this side of the town. Our forces passed the town about 5 o'clock p. m., and halted about a quarter of a mile from where we supposed the enemy were. The country being very hilly, we labored under great disadvantage in getting a suitable position for the battery. At last one was found on the right of the road on some rising ground. Only two companies of cavalry formed our support. The other two companies were sent to reconnoiter the enemy's position. They had not proceeded 300 yards from the battery when the enemy, who were lying in ambush, rose and fired two volleys into them, killing several. As soon as the cavalry returned we opened upon the enemy with effect, shelling them from their position and driving them to their camp, with place we also fired into, setting fire to several of their tents. Capt. Robert E. Bulliss fell in the early part of the engagement mortally wounded.

It soon becoming dark, I was ordered to put the battery in motion, which I did, the whole force returning short distance on the same road we came, where we camped for the night. The next morning, March 12, we proceeded to camp, 3 miles southward of Fort Heiman, Kentucky, where we are at present. The men of the battery worked the guns with the steadiness and accuracy of veterans. Their conduct was beyond my most sanguine expectations. The bridges along our return route were burning, and the command had to halt and extinguish and rebuild them before we could cross them. Capt. Bulliss' remains have been sent to Chicago, Ill., to his family.

I remain, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant,


First Lieut., Cmdg. Battery.

No. 3.

Report of Capt. John T. Croft, Fifth Iowa Cavalry.

HDQRS. FIRST BATTALION CURTIS' HORSE, Fort Heiman, March 13, 1862.

SIR: In accordance with your instructions I left Fort Heiman during the night of the 11th. Proceeded with Bulliss' battery of Saint Louis and the First Battalion of Curtis' Horse [Fifth Iowa Cavalry] to Henry County, Tennessee, to afford protection to Union men, friends, and citizens of that county, who wished protection from being drafted on the 12th at Paris, Tenn. Large numbers fell in and traveled in our rear for such protection. Our advance guard came upon the outer pickets about 6 miles from the town; on seeing them killed 2, taking their arms. I then detailed 20 men, under Lieut. Williams, to advance cautiously and secure their pickets. This he did successfully, surprising them, taking 8 prisoners, with their horses and equipments. Among them was Capt. Couts, of Stock's mounted infantry.

Ascertaining about the enemy's force, I made a charge upon the town. About 5 p. m. I ordered one section of Bulliss' battery, the cavalry in advance, for a charge on the town, which we did successfully, driving the enemy before. We passed down Main street, with white flags hanging in every window, driving the enemy into their intrenchments, about a mile and a half west, in the timber, on a high hill. Then we planted our battery, and soon shelled them from that portion of their grounds. Thinking it vacated, I ordered a charge up the hill with two companies of cavalry (Companies A and B, under Capt. Lower and Lieut. Summers). About two-thirds the way up the hill we discovered the ambuscade. About 300 opened a terrible fire on us, but it passed over our heads. Companies A and B, much to their credit, returned a successful fire with revolvers and carbines of three volleys, returning with a loss of 5 killed and 3 wounded. I had the battery open a fire on them, causing a sad havoc among them. Capt. Bulliss was mortally wounded in this fire. The action lasted a little more than an hour, then firing ceased. We fell back upon the town, cut off the telegraphic communication, took possession of the court-house and a large hotel for our sick and wounded.

During the night I thought best to fall back here. We expected to find Gen. Grant with a force of infantry.

JOHN T. CROFT, [Capt.], Cmdg.

No. 4.

Report of Maj.-Gen. Leonidas Polk, C. S. Army.


SIR: In compliance with the dispatch from headquarters of the 14th, I inclose the accompanying statement, furnished by Maj. King, of the affair of the 11th near Paris.

In reply to the inquiry as to whether there were infantry troops at or near Paris at the time of the skirmish, I have to say that finding Maj. King's battalion to be mounted rifles, and having two large companies of cavalry besides at my disposal, which I posted there, I deemed the spirit of the order to post a battalion of infantry at Paris complied with. The only troops, therefore, there were King's Mounted Rifles and two companies of cavalry.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. POLK, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 16-19.

        11, Recruitment in Memphis

Logwood's Mounted Lancers

Col. T. H. Logwood is now in the city, directing his attention and energy raising a Regiment of Mounted Lancers in the war. In organizing the various companies each recruit will be required to furnish his own horse. The arms, equipments, lance included, are furnished by the War Department as soon as companies are mustered into service. Col. Logwood has also been authorized to receive into his command any companies who are now enlisted for twelve months.

Headquarters at Gayoso Block on Main.

Memphis Appeal, March 11, 1862.

        11, A demand for a better police force in Memphis

The Police Force— Our police force have of late had hard duty to perform; the present Council materially reduced their number, while circumstances connected with the war have brought very many strangers into this city, and as thieves, gamblers, and swindlers always follow the crowd, there has been an unusual number of that class of gentry among us. At the present time the number of the floating brigand population is greater than at any previous period, and just now when the services of the police are so much required their ranks are being thinned by the volunteer and militia service, and the services of some of the remaining are partially required to assist militia organizations. These are facts which, in justice to the police force, should be taken into account in estimating their services, and should also awaken serious attention on the part of those interested in the safety and welfare of the city. Judging from numerous occurring incidents...[the authorities] will find a wide field of activity. We have too many disreputable drinking houses, too many gambling houses, and other vile places.

Memphis Appeal, March 11, 1862.

        11, Confidence game in Confederate Memphis

Swindling – A young gentleman looked in at the Merchant's Exchange last evening and asked Secretary Toof if a gentleman with black whisker was up there. On being answered in the negative he stated that his name was J.H. Moore, that he was from Henry county, Tennessee, he was in a battle in Arkansas. He had been accosted at the levy by a respectable looking man with black whiskers who fell into conversation with him and appeared to be a very nice, clever fellow. In the course of their chat he asked Moore where he was from. The reply was from Henry county. The nice gentleman with the black whiskers with much apparent interest said:

Why I am from that county myself." He spoke of the insecurity of paper money [in] these war times and the importance of having gold to get into Arkansas with, adding that he had an uncle in the quartermaster's department who had just received a thousand dollars of gold, and he, the nice gentleman with black whiskers, could get what he wanted for notes at a very small premium, and he did not mind recommending a gentleman who came from the same county as himself....Moore replied that he had two hundred dollars, and that the nice gentleman with black whiskers invited him to go up town with him to his uncle, and he would see what he could do for him. They went up to north court square, where the nice gentleman asked Mr. Moore to remain in the street while he went up to his uncle's office to see whether he was in. This was done, and soon the nice gentleman with black whiskers came down stairs again and said that he had found his uncle in, he had not parted with his gold and the desired exchange could be made. "But," he added, "I must do the business myself, for if my uncle sees a stranger with me he will think I am making a speculation for my own profit, and I must let him think the gold is for myself." Moore gave him his two hundred dollars, the nice gentleman with the black whiskers (which had been probably put on for the occasion), mounted the stairs which pair of stairs Moore was not sure; and though the duped victim waited until the minutes grew into hours, he never saw him come down. and [he] walked at last into Merchant's Exchange to make inquiries. Mr. Toof informed him that he had been swindled, and asked him whether he had not read of such things in the newspapers so as to be on his guard against such a stale trick. The young man replied that he seldom read the papers as very few [subscriptions] were taken about where he lived. He was referred to the detective police. We venture the assertion that no regular reader of a good newspaper can be swindled in the way described above, they know too much for that.

Memphis Appeal, March 11, 1862.

        11, Mrs. Piquet fined for wearing pants

A Feminine in Pants.—Mrs. Piquet was found parading the streets on Sunday night in masculine habiliments. Nelson Warsaw was in company with her. The Recorder fined them six dollars each.

Memphis Daily Appeal, March 11, 1862.

        11, Overton Hospital and the Society of Southern Mothers

Overton Hospital.—The large number of sick now in our military hospitals, and the probability of a large accession of patients at an early day from the battle field, calls upon our people to extend to them all the help with the resources of the country will supply. The Society of Southern Mothers, so long and so well known for their unselfish devotion to the sick soldier, are still at their work at the Overton, and night and day some of their number are in attendance upon the patients. They earnestly appeal to the people everywhere in the South to continue that confidence which, on previous occasions, poured into their treasury the means to make their nursing effectual by supplying nourishing and delicate food, invigorating and pure cordials, fresh bedding, and the thousand little necessities of a sick room. All contributions from abroad should be directed to Messrs. Pickett, Wormeley & Co., No. 8 Front Row.

Memphis Daily Appeal, March 11, 1862.

        11, An Account of Nashville's Surrender to Federal Forces

The Surrender of Nashville.

A gentleman who left Nashville shortly after the battle at Fort Donelson, communicates to the Mobile Tribune an interesting account of the evacuation and surrender of the city, a portion of which we append:

The fight at Fort Donelson on the 13th, 14th and the 15th of February, was of intense concern to us, and each day's work down there wound up with the statement that the fight would be renewed to-morrow. The fears that the fall of Fort  Henry were calculated to inspire had been well nigh dispelled by the way Fort Donelson was holding out. It was better located, and stronger in men and guns. Pillow, Floyd and Buckner were there. Pillow had said-let come what might, he never would surrender the place, and Nashville felt that we could not afford to lose that battle-Saturday's work was glorious. Our citizens shouted over it. Many were saying, "I never liked Pillow, but forgive him now-he is the man for the occasion." A sober, modest citizen, ad old line Whig and ex-Governor, was heard to say Saturday afternoon, on being asked how the fight went on [said]: "First rate-Pillow is giving them h_ll, and rubbing it in."

The dispatches closed on Saturday as they had for three successive days before-"the enemy are expecting large reinforcements." But we slept soundly and expected to have great news on the morrow. About 9 o'clock Sunday morning I rode out into the country seven or eight miles, and leaving the turnpike, dined with a friend in one of the quiet and luxurious farmer homes of Middle Tennessee. Returning leisurely, I struck the pike about 4 P. M., and everybody I had met in the morning had asked me "the latest news from the city. I asked the first man I met. Any news? Prepared to hear only of victory.

"News! What's' the last you've heard?"

"Last night's dispatch."

"None since? The last out and plenty of it. Fort Donelson has fallen and Nashville is surrendered. They say the white flag is waving now on our Capitol, and the gunboats will be up before sundown."

I thought he was hoaxing me, but quickened my pace. The next man confirmed it all and more. I saw there were literally a cloud of witnesses, pouring along the turnpike heading to Franklin. Convalescent soldiers, quitting the hospitals, were waddling along with their scanty baggage. Travelers, in groups and squads had left the hotels, carrying carpetbags and satchels, and saddle-bags in hand. The family of the owner of the omnibus line were rolling out in those vehicles. Double and one-horse and four-horse wagons. On reaching the tollgate, on the top of the hill overlooking Nashville, I strained my eyes to see the white flag over the capitol. The tall flag staff was naked. There was no flag of any sort on it.

Passing down Broad street by the Nashville and Decatur road, the first man I saw was Governor Harris, about to leave on a special train, with the Legislature and archives of the State. The town was in commotion. Over the wire bridge that spans the Cumberland General Johnston's army were passing, taking the direction of the Murfreesboro turnpike. The train of wagons and soldiers reached out of sight, and, had not got over that night. The sight of a withdrawing or retreating army is very disheartening.

My residence is in Edgefield a little village separated from Nashville by the Cumberland river. For several days General Johnston's headquarters had been established on that side of the river, and near me-The lady with whom he and his staff took their meals is my neighbor and friend, and tells me that the General opened the news to her at [the] table in these words:

"Madam, I take you to be a person of firmness, and trust your neighbors are. Don't be alarmed. Last night my last dispatch, up to 12 o'clock, was favorable, and I lay down expecting a great victory to day; but this morning, at 4 o'clock, I was waked by a courier, with the news that our forces at Fort Donelson were surrounded and must surrender-They are not made of steel. Our soldiers have fought bravely as ever soldiers did; but they cannot hold out day after day against fresh forces and such odds. I cannot make men [do that]. Stay at home. Tell your friends from me to stay at home. I cannot make a fresh fight before Nashville, and for the good of the city shall retire. I know General Buell well. He is a gentleman, and will not suffer any violence on peaceable citizens, or disturb private property."

It might have been well if the General had issued a proclamation. He and staff crossed the bridge that night at 11 o'clock. General Breckinridge followed, and your correspondent followed soon after.

The question has often been asked, "Why didn't the people of Nashville made a stand? Why give up the city without striking a blow?"

The people were astonished and indignant at the way they were handed over to the enemy's mercy and occupation. But what could they do? When Generals and armed and drilled soldiers give up and retire, what can unarmed and undisciplined citizens do before a foe advancing by land and water?

"Throw brickbats at them," said one. Indeed! That would be well enough if the enemy would deal in the same missiles.

The bones of General Jackson, the defender of New Orleans, must have turned in his grave, at the Hermitage, a few miles away, at such surrender.

A few months before, on urgent call, every man who had a rifle or double barrel gun had brought it forward and given it up for army service. Not fifty serviceable guns could our citizens have mustered. No, not even pikes, though they had just enrolled themselves and received to have them made; and if Gen. Johnston made a stand before the city were resolved to stand with him. Such of them that were not willing to be surrendered to the unconventional mercies of Lincolndom, with the prospect of having the oath tendered them or the bastile, [sic] followed the retiring army.

After taking my family as far as Decatur, I returned to Nashville on Wednesday. The stores were closed and bolted. The streets deserted; save by a guard here and there, and a press gang taking up every man they could find and sending him to load government pork into barges, upon which it was being taken up the river and put out of the enemy's way. Had a stand been made before the city, or even a feint of a stand been made, no doubt all the government stores could have been removed safely. As it is, vast amounts have been thrown away, wasted, given out, both by the Quartermaster and Commissary departments. At one time the doors were thrown open to whoever would under the impression that they had better let the poor have these provisions than the enemy who was expected instantly. A friend said he saw quantities of meat lying on the roadside, where persons having overloaded their carts, had thrown it out. Barrels of flour, sacks of coffee, [illegible] of lard and meat were rolled into private houses and back yards, with hundreds of boxes of candles, bolts of cloth, &c. Afterwards this order was countermanded, as the enemy was not exactly at the door, and a guard placed over the stores and an effort made to get them off by railroad and boats & private carriages, hacks and carts were stopped in the street and pressed into service; and some of my friends had to get their baggage to the station in wheelbarrows. Advantage was taken of the confusion and dismay of the hour for private injustice had irresponsible operation.-The selfishness developed in such ordeals is humiliating.

The opinion prevailed there that Nashville will be burnt, first and last!-if not, when we have it then we drive the enemy out of it. For Tennesseans are resolved that the enemy shall not rest on their soil. Gen. Floyd and staff left Thursday morning and it was understood that Gen. John. H. Morgan, with his company, would retire slowly as the enemy is force entered. The Louisiana Cavalry of Col. Scott were near Franklin, on their way to the vicinity where they will act as scouts and hold the enemy close in bounds.

As far out as Brentwood, Franklin, and Columbia, some people are leaving their homes and sending off their slaves. Others, deeply committed Southerners, stand at risk to consequences. They look for inconvenience and heavy loses, staying or going. In reply to the question often asked whether any Union elements had been developed by those events, there was always some of this element in Nashville, but in very inconsiderable proportion to the population. Let Unionists show their heads and hands; now it is hoped they will. We have friends enough left to watch them; and when the tide of war rolls back, the country will finally be purged of them, for they have to leave with the Lincoln army.

The great mass of Tennesseans specially Middle and West, are [illegible] to the core, and thoroughly aroused for the first time. They chafe under the humiliation and disgrace of the surrender of their capital. Those that can will move their families out of the reach of immediate harm, and return to face the foe on a hundred fields. The great battles of this war are to be fought in the West. This is but the beginning. The people realize now what is at stake, and they will measure out wealth and blood without stint.

Daily Dispatch, March 11, 1862. [2]

        11, Skirmish at Rutherford Creek [incidental to March 4-14, 1863, Expedition from Murfreesborough toward Columbia, Tennessee, etc., above]

        11, Chattanooga, two poems, "Maid of the Mountain" and "Ode"


Maid of the Mountain, of the stranger to thee,

Has seen thy dark eyes like the stars in the sea,

How softly they rolled, how brightly they beamed,

Like witching moonbeams, that through orange groves streamed.


Maid of the mountain though far from my home

And doomed among strangers, forever to roam,

My harp, though all tuneless, shall wake once again,

To sing of they beauty, through sad be the strain


Maid of the mountain, thy step is as light

As a bird of the air, in its upward flight,

Thy cheeks are like roses that bloom in the vale,

Thy locks are as dark as the shade in the dale.


Maid of the mountain, may joy be thine,

And pleasures, like dew drops, encircle thy shrine,

May the heart that shall woo thee forever be true-

May give [?] the Mountain a long, long adieu!

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, March 11, 1863


Whilst warriors rush to field of fame,

And wade through blood to win a name,

Forgetting all the joys of life,

Seem bent alone on deadly strife,

'I, with my glass of golden wine,

Will on my couch of ease recline,

And swear no fife or drum shall roll,

Their dismal horrors through my soul!

No "Conscript Father" guide my feet

To march by flank or in retreat.

Away with the canon drum and fife,

I scorn to join the martial strife,

No blood shall stain this hand of mine

Except "the blood of Scia'-vine" [?]

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, March 11, 1863

        11, Burning of warehouse in Eagleville [see March 9-14, 1863, Reconnaissance from Salem to Versailles above]

        11, "In Canvass Bower." A sophisticated and satirical look at the Confederate soldier's life during winter camp at Tullahoma.

I am candid-war is not my forte. I prefer a Christmas ball to a leaden one. The tented line is not half as inviting as a field of wheat, or the flowery field of literature; a peal of laughter is more fascinating than a peal of artillery; a storm of grape and canister retires before a storm of applause. I am partial to the grape, but prefer the vegetable to the mineral [variety]. I do not want blood upon my hands....

To be in line of promotion [in the Army of Tennessee], an individual must take a position in line of battle, to be shot at by sharpshooters, with globe rifles and other harmless missiles; how delightful-to a man of nerve, but nothing could nerve us to such folly. We prefer a fishing line, a tender loin (rare cooked) to a battle line, lines to peace would be far preferable; to be shot wouldn't pay-there is more solid reality and enjoyment in eating a dozen oysters raw, stewed or fried, than to be decapitated by a six ponder, and heralded as a hero in, and a martyr to the cause of liberty. Some men may bite at those gorgeous, golden glories. I'm not in that book. The strings of my lyre never can be tuned to warlike notes; they will only sound for notes of affection, or Confederate notes, no other circulation can get a note out of them; no shower of minnies [sic] can move them like a shower of Minnie's kisses; no mountain howitzer can fight a fire like mountain maid

* * * *

We have a great many loafers here [in Tullahoma camp]-in fact the army would not be complete without them; they are the ornamental part of our campfires, and when a Conscriptor [sic] comes along the decamp without paying their mess bills. Our mortality also is very great; every Friday you can see men hanging around. Some few have been shot in the neck with rifle whiskey [sic], made out of wheat, or something as good as wheat.

Strange hallucination our people have fallen into; they come two to ten miles to see a rebel, here where they are so numerous, and even pay ten cents for a sight of the Chattanooga Rebel. What is the difference between a Chattanooga rebel and one down here? The thought is enough to appaul[3] [sic] me! It is singular that we look to the rear for news from the front. Wait for the Rebel up there to hear what is doing down here.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, March 11, 1863.

        11, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 45, relative to organization and inspection of artillery units in the Army of the Cumberland

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 45. HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, Tenn., March 11, 1863.

I. Corps commanders will provide, by suitable orders, the means of regularly supplying forage rations and quartermaster's stores to the batteries of their commands.

II. Chiefs of artillery of corps will verify, by a personal inspection at least once a month, the inspection reports of division chiefs of artillery, and will make a special report of the chief of artillery at these headquarters of the condition of each battery, suggesting necessary changes or improvements in equipments or ammunition. The management of battery horses will receive their special attention.

III. Light batteries attached to divisions will not, as a general rule, be assigned to brigades; but those batteries now reporting to brigade commanders, will continue to do so, subject to be withdrawn by order of the division commander.

IV. The batteries composing the artillery reserve will be under the command of an artillery officer assigned to that duty, who will report direct to these headquarters, subject, however, to the direction of the commanding officer in whose lines the command is placed.

V. Officers and enlisted men of batteries will not be detailed on duty which will separate them from their companies, except in special cases, and by orders from these headquarters.

VI. On the march, the cannoneers will not be allowed to ride on the artillery carriages, but will march by the side of their pieces, opposite their posts, nor will any baggage, save the knapsacks of the cannoneers, be carried on the carriages. Battery commanders will see of the enforcement of this order; and they, as well as the chiefs of artillery, will cause all unauthorized articles to be thrown off. Brigade and division commanders will see that these orders are enforced.

VII. No change of armament will be made in batteries without authority from these headquarters.

VIII. After an engagement with the enemy, a full report of the same will be made by the battery commander, through the intermediate artillery commanders, to the headquarters, with a statement of loss or damage sustained of personnel and materiel.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 133-134.

        11, J. A. Rogers, assistant surgeon, 28th Tennessee Regiment, in camp in the Tullahoma environs writes home to his father

Near Tullahoma March the 11th 1863

Dear Papa,

I concluded that as I had a chance to send you a letter I would write a few lines they have me well except that I have the Diaerhrea [sic] to some extent. I hope to get over it soon. News here is unimportant I saw the Yankees come into town yesterday that Van Dorn took at Franklin some said there was 2700 I don't pretend to say how many there was but one thing I do know is that there was a very large crowd of them they seemed to be in very good spirits for prisoners after wading the creek that was waist deep besides marching through the Rain all day they started off on the trains this morning for Dixie the report is that now Van Dorn has captured a whole Division including the boys that was here but Madam Rumor is always abroad and carys [sic] with her many tales so I don't know what to believe some believed that he had captured the ones that he brought here until we saw them seeing is believing the report for awhile was that Van Dorn was whipped [sic] until the Fed arrived here

The old 18th Regt. [sic] & the 84th are now consolidated. S. S. Stanton is the Col. D. C. Crook Lt. Col. I don't know who the major is he belongs to the 84th Billy Whitefield of the old 28th is adjutant C. R. Willson [sic] our old surgeon still holds his position our asst. surgeon J. J. Moore was thrown out Dr. Bill Sp___g [sic] of the 84th is asst. surgeon I still hold my position I expect to as long as I stay in the Regt. [sic] & expect to stay within it as long as the war continues. I don't' have any idea that will stop under 18 months we are in Wrights [sic] Brigade Chethams [sic] Division Polks [sic] corps I will have to quit writing Please send me the hat the first chance I was pleased very much with the shoes. I would like to have a pair of pants and a pair of socks I can't think of anything else[.] Do write soon as I am anxious to hear from you all[.]

J. A. Rogers

TSLA Confederate Collection: Box 11, Folder 14,

Letters, Rogers, Joseph Anderson et al.

        11, "There is nothing of importance to write – our Division took a trip to Woodbury, 20 miles east of here last week and routed Morgan's gang." Colonel John T. Wilder's letter home to his wife in Indiana

Murfreesboro, Tenn.

March 11th 1863

Dear Pet,

Not getting any letter from you I concluded to write again – There is nothing of any importance to write – our Division took a trip to Woodbury, 20 miles east of here last week and routed Morgan's gang. The 17th [I] took a Lieut. & 18 men prisoners, and had one man wounded – about half the army is on the move. I think, to Franklin, or Columbia. It seems as if or authorities would ever wake up to the fact that all troops first under Gen. Gilbert are so many men thrown away – His conduct at Munfordville, Perryville, and Lebanon, Ky. and this last, outrageous blunder at Franklin, Tenn., ought to send him to an asylum for Idiots, for a greater Imbecile in uniform does not exist – how long Gov. Morton will allow Ind.[iana] soldiers to be placed under his control, to be butchered up and then thrown away, seems yet to be found out – I wish you to write me what you think of cooing down her to stay awhile. The probability is that our Division will remain here some time and I have a first rate house for my HeadQr's, you could come here I think and have a pleasant time for a month or so. Capt. Lilly, Comg.[4] The battery of my Brig. Has his wife and child here, and she would be company for you, and I am in camp a great deal more than when I was with the Regt. [sic] You could bring one, or both of the children, and there are plenty of black girls could be got to help you take care of them – you do not know how much I want to see you, as I know you would come – there would be no danger in coming, and Gen. Hascall [?] at Indianapolis, could put you in charge of some officer coming through this place is so strongly fortified that there is no possible danger of any attack here, and it would be perfectly safe for you. Will you come – I sent you $100 – by express, did you get it – give my love to all, and believe me as ever your affectionate husband.

John T. Wilder

P.S. I sent in my resignation last week, and Gen. Rosecrans sent for me, and gave me a scolding, winding up by complimenting me very highly, and refusing to accept it.

Wilder Collection UTC Library Special Collections

        11, An account of Ella V. Reno and Sarah E. Bradbury, Federal soldiers

The Romantic Story of the Female Soldiers.

In our Sunday's issue we published the fact that Ella V. Reno and Sarah E. Bradbury had been arrested in military uniform, at Murfreesboro', and sent to Col. Truesdail. After an examination into their case, the Colonel generously provided them with comfortable female attire, and furnished them with means to reach their homes. Miss Bradbury, whose assumed name was Frank Morton, made a written statement of her life, under oath, before the Judge Advocate, from which we make the following extracts:

"I am eighteen years old, was born in Wilson county, Tennessee, and moved from there to this county about one year ago. I was raised by a step-father, my mother having died when I was seven years old. I have no recollection of having ever seen my father. I lived seven miles from Nashville, on the old Chicken road that leads from Nashville to Lebanon.

"I have been in the service six months. I first went into the 7th Illinois cavalry, in company C. This company was the body guard of Gen. Palmer. I was induced to go into the service by my friend, Mr. H., who, by his frequent visits and manifestations of love, won my heart. I dressed myself in men's clothing and determined to follow him. I served in this company two months, making a faithful and attentive soldier; while there I became Orderly for my General, and flatter myself that I made him a good officer. During all this time my sex was never discovered. Unfortunately, my friend was captured by the rebels while out scouting the day after I went into his company, and I have never heard of him since.

"Despairing of seeing him again, and becoming attached to a young man in the 22d Illinois infantry, I joined his regiment in order that I might be the more with him. I was with him constantly, and we have passed many pleasant hours together. One day, while taking a walk with him, and thinking that I had gained his confidence, I gave him my history and disclosed my sex. This he was surprised to hear, for he had taken me for a boy, and was disposed to doubt me. Since that time he has made me frequent proposals of marriage. Circumstances proved to me that I was mistaken in my man, for I soon became satisfied that he was not a gentleman. Thus losing confidence in him, I made up my mind to return to my home. When I thought of having left home without the consent of my friends, I instantly abandoned the thought, and determined to remain in the army. Camp life agreed with me, and I never enjoyed better health in my life.

"Afterward I became a member of General Sheridan's escort, company L, 2d Kentucky cavalry. One day Colonel Barret sent me as bearer of dispatches to Col. Libott, a distance of six miles. On my return, one of my brother orderlies betrayed me to the Colonel, he becoming jealous of my reputation as an orderly, and having found out my sex a few days previous. My sex thus exposed, I was arrested and sent to Col. Truesdail in irons. May I never fall into worse hands, for I found him a gentleman in every sense of the word.

"I have made a good and faithful soldier, have learned a good deal of human nature, and had some aspirations as a soldier, and though at the time of my arrest that my chances were good for promotion. I will try to profit by the lessons I have learned."

We strongly suspect Frank to be one who figured in Nashville some months ago. The soldiers brought a large number of girls with them—one is still here, known as Charley, and several have returned to their homes in the North.

Nashville Dispatch, March 11, 1863.

        11, Gender incognito and the cavalry

Army Police Proceedings.

Before the Chief of Army Police, Nashville, March 10, 1863.—Two females were arrested on board a steamboat on Saturday night, dressed as soldiers, in company with a body of cavalry. They were provided with female apparel and sent to Louisville. Such martial spirits are not needed, and their presence in the army is detrimental to its best interests. In this case the Chief of Police very properly addressed a note to the officers in command of the cavalry, informing them that if these instances continued, a severe example would be made of both women and the officers encouraging them to such a course, in accordance with an order of the Commanding General.

Nashville Dispatch, March 11, 1863.

11, Alleged ban on cultivation in Middle Tennessee

The most infamous order which has yet fallen from the pen of a Federal officer, says the Chattanooga Rebel, has been issued by tacit consent in Middle Tennessee. The order reads simply to the effect that there shall be no further cultivation of the soil in that section. All farming implements are to be seized, all farmers found in a field are to be arrested and all crops to be destroyed

TUSCALOOSA [AL] Observer, March 11, 1863.

        11, Entry in Alice Williamson's Diary, Sumner County

Yesterday was the day of elections and as only the union men were allowed to vote nobody knows how it turned out nor do they care. Sallie Montgomery rode out this evening, the pickets would not let her pass, so she slipped them as many do. I suppose they are scared again. Perhaps that scamp John Morgan is about. I only hope he is, for we have not seen a rebel for more than a year and our day must come soon.

Williamson Diary

        11, U. S. S. Peosta bombards Confederate guerrillas near Yellow Creek on the Tennessee River

No circumstantial reports filed.

At about 1:30 p. m. the crew responded to an apparent threat to the boat and began shelling the woods near the mouth of Yellow Creek firing in all about 36 rounds. They then proceeded up the river, returning in a few hours. There, four of the crew landed and fired a small framed building located near the creek.

U. S. S. Peosta Daily Deck Log[5]

        11, Military trial of a Middle Tennessee bushwhacker

A Desperate Gorilla [sic]

A very interesting trial is now going on before the Military Commission, of which Col. John F. Miller is the President and Lieut. H.C. Blackburn Judge Advocate. The prisoner (Robert Gassett) stands charged with violating the laws of war in joining a band of marauders; of stealing three mules in Robertson county from Mr. J. A. Washington; of attempting the life of Mr. Washington; of stealing a horse, a gun, and a watch, from Mr. E. P. Falless; of murdering Mr. John T. Albright in Cheatham county of murdering B. F. Binley in the same county; of murdering James Maddox, of the same county; of murdering Capt. De Pugh in the same county, and so forth, et cetera, to be continued. Hon. Balie Peyton is conducting the prosecution, and James M. Brien, Esq., has the pleasure of appearing for the defence.

Nashville Dispatch, March 11, 1864.

        11, "Those men in the interests of the rebellion, who have done so much evil, can never more be trusted." Confederate Refugees in East Tennessee

Still Going South.

Since our last issue the following persons and families have been ordered South, and as we learn, have departed via Chattanooga. It is thought by some to be an act of great cruelty on the part of our Government, to send women and children out of our lines at this season of the year. We will be excused if we fail to sympathize with those who behold an act of cruelty in sending persistent rebels South. Two years ago the wife of the editor of this paper, with two sick children, and the wife and children of Horace Maynard, the former herself sick, were forced out of this town to the North, and that upon the shortest notice. Most of the families now going out exulted over this removal, and said the Rebels were doing them right.

These secessionists have filled the land with suffering and sorrow. The homes of the humble poor Union families, all over Eastern Tennessee, have been plundered, darkened and desolated.

Mothers are going to their graves broken hearted. Bereaved widows, with their bare-footed orphan children, are shivering in the winter's cold, and poorly clad, are making their way North, because their husbands and fathers dared to be Union men. All this, and a hundred times more and worse, has been the fate of Union families here, inflicted upon them by the getters up of the rebellion, and the advocates of it, not the least prominent of whom were rebel females.

It is useless to discuss the well agreed upon resolution, that these two parties can't live in this country, even after the war is over. Those men in the interests of the rebellion, who have done so much evil, can never more be trusted.

Miss Nancy Scott, Dr. John Jackson, Rev. A. A. Doak, Mrs. Claiborne Kain, A. B. Maxwell, T. C. Champ and family.—Knoxville Whig.

[Little Rock] Unconditional Union, March 11, 1864.[6]

        11-28, Counter-insurgency operations around Sparta, including skirmishes on Calfkiller Creek and near Beersheba Springs

MARCH 11-28, 1864.-Operations about Sparta, Tenn., including skirmishes on Calfkiller Creek and near Beersheba Springs.

Report of Col. William B. Stokes, Fifth Tennessee Cavalry.

HDQRS. U. S. FORCES, Sparta, Tenn., March 28, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to make the following report of operations since my last report:

On the 11th instant, having heard of the enemy on Calfkiller, I sent out a scout of 80 men, under Capt.'s Blackburn and Waters, in search of them. They met the enemy concentrated, numbering 150 men, 10 miles from this place, and after a stubborn and desperate resistance of 1 hour they succeeded in dispersing and running them into the mountains. The rebels lost 1 man killed and several wounded, the notorious Champ Ferguson being one of the latter. Our loss was 1 killed and 4 slightly wounded.

The next day I sent out a force of 200 men, but they were unable to find the enemy in any force. While out they succeeded in killing 7 Texas Rangers, men of the most daring and desperate character. Among these was Lieut. Davis, the leader of the band. These men had been murdering and robbing Union citizens.

On the 15th, this force returned, and after feeding, 150 started in pursuit of Col. Hughs, who had crossed Caney Fork on the 14th with the larger portion of his command.

On the morning of the 18th, the force attacked Hughs' camp at the foot of Cumberland Mountains, 2 miles from Beersheba Springs, utterly routing them, succeeding in killing 7 of their number. They were at breakfast and some were sleeping when attacked, and in the rout they threw away saddles, blankets, clothing, and arms. The entire force would have been captured or killed if they had not run up the mountain, where it was almost impossible for men to travel. Hughs had visited the railroad near Estill Springs, and was returning when attacked. We captured a number of saddles, arms, blankets, and clothing belonging to the Federals, and also Col. Hughs' portfolio and papers. Our loss was 1 killed and 1 mortally wounded. The rebels at this fight were entirely dispersed, a great many being dismounted.

On the 20th, I sent out a force for the purpose of picking up stragglers and preventing them from again concentrating. They scoured Overton, Putnam, and Jackson Counties, but were unable to find the enemy in any force; they were out five days, and killed 5 men, among them Lieut. Bowman. Capt. Loure, of the guerrillas, was wounded during this scout. Capt. Bledsoe was killed a few days previous by some of my men while foraging. Yesterday, learning that Carter was across Caney Fork, I immediately sent out a force to look after him. They were unable to find him, but succeeded in killing 1 of his men being together. They are merely trying to keep out of my way.

Since I arrived here my command has been constantly at work. At no one time has the command been idle. Forage has been scarce and hard to obtain. Over one-half of my command are dismounted, having worn out their horses by constant duty. No horses can be obtained in this country. I am proud to state that my officers and men have worked unremittingly, faithfully, and cheerfully in the discharge of their duties. A great number of [Confederate] soldiers have taken the amnesty oath, and the people manifest a friendly disposition toward the restoration of civil government.

Owing to the impossibility of obtaining forage of any kind in this country, I shall within a few days move the command to Chestnut Mound, some 25 miles from this place, where there is forage. While there I shall continue to scout the country designated in instructions from Maj.-Gen. Thomas. Lieut.-Col. Corbin is here [Sparta] with a portion of the Fourteenth Regiment, U. S. Colored troops, and is recruiting very rapidly.

I would once more respectfully call the attention of the general commanding to the necessity of mounting my command, To clear the country designated in instructions of guerrillas my men must be mounted. Without being considered impertinent, I would once more urge upon the authorities the advantages of arming my command with the Spencer rifle. It is useless to deny but that the command would be rendered much more effective. I will pledge my honor that if this command is armed with these guns, no regiment in the rebel service can defeat them.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. B. STOKES, Col. Fifth Tennessee Volunteer Cavalry, Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 494-495.[7]


On Thursday evening [17th] about 60 Rebels dashed thro' this place [Beersheba]--two stopping a moments at Mr. A's--one of them was Luke Ridley, a son of the Judges! The encamped in a little grove near Mr. Dugan's at the base of the opposite mt. [8] [sic] where their camp-fires shone all night long. About dawn [18th] this pace [Beersheba Springs] was full of Yankees--flourishing their pistols and in hot haste after the Rebs [sic]. Their number was about 3 times that of the Rebs [sic]--they were principally Stokes' men--the rebs [sic] said they were Colonel Hughe's [sic] men[9] and belonged to Carter's command. It seems they had been down to Decherd--destroyed a train, (containing only hay and forage,) and were getting back to Sparta I don't know where the Yanks are from--at all events they got down the mt. [sic] unseen--and surprised the rebels [sic] at breakfast--who took off pell-mell up the opposite mt. [sic]. Looking at its rugged face and rocky brow from here, as it lies nearly opposite to us one wonders how they could scale that height on horseback, but they did. As they came out on top of the mt. [sic] they made a little stand--one Yankee was wounded and has since died at McM. [sic] The rebels [sic] lost some of their saddles, blankets etc. in the melee, and one man. He was a wounded man, had been shot somewhere through the body at the R.R. and it is supposed gave out as he reached the top of the mt. [sic] and was shot down after he surrendered. He was shot through the head. Mr. Dugan found him on Friday [19th], the brought him down to the valley and buried him. He was a youth, apparently about 18 years if age--none knew who he was. Will not some mother's heart watch for him who shall come no more, and ache with its lonely watching. The Yankees returned soon from the pursuit--and went on to town [McMinnville]--making a great story of the affair by the time they reached there

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, entry for March 20, 1864.

11, Restoring confidence of the people in Alexandria environs


Nashville, Tenn., March 11, 1865

*   *   *   I*

X. The Fourth Tennessee Mounted Infantry, Lieut. Col. J. H. Blackburn commanding, will report to Alexandria, Tenn., and take post at that place. Col. Blackburn will exert himself to restore confidence to the people and destroy the guerrillas now infesting that region. All of the latter which his forces may capture will be turned over for trial to the civil authorities of the counties in which they are captured, provided that there are such civil authorities organized; otherwise they will be tried by military commission.

  By command of Maj.-Gen. Thomas:

*   *   *   *

SOUTHARD HOFFMAN,  Maj. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, pp. 891-892.

        11, Newspaper report relative to guerrilla activity in the Memphis environs

~ ~ ~

Important from Memphis-Special to the Republican.

Cairo, March 3,- Guerrillas have never been so numerous or troublesome as at present around Memphis. A few miles up the river on last Tuesday, they captured a raft of lumber 12 miles above Memphis. The parties on the raft escaped in a skiff when the guerrillas took possession, robbed of everything and then set it on fire and started it down stream. It was met by the packet boat Pocahontas and saved, the fire doing but little damage. The gang then left, stating they were Capt. Earles' scouts.

On the same day [3rd] the guerrillas visited the house of Joseph Dunbar, and mile and a half outside the Memphis picket line, and taking him a short distance they tied him up and whipped him severely.

The same gang robbed the supply store of Thomas Baxter and shot two negroes, one whom has since died.[10]

On the Hernando road, and within two miles of the city, another gang of thirty guerrillas visited last Sunday night, the residence of Mr. Giles, conscripting his two sons.

Near the above place they visited the house of Thomas Duncan, robbed him and then set fire in his house and conscripted a man by the name of Williams. [emphasis added]

The houses of Mr. Brooks and Chas. Welford were also robbed and burned.

Thirty bales of Government cotton were burned within three miles of Memphis on the Arkansas side.

Within two four miles of Memphis they burned nine bales of Government cotton and whipped two negroes to death. The Government boat Naugatuck is reported sunk by guerrillas last Monday [1st], at the home of Mr. Justus near Duncan's wagon yard.

On last Saturday night [February 5th] the guerrillas captured seven or eight cotton buyers and robbed them of all they had.

By order of Gen Dana, Lieut Chas. H. Hare, Co. I, 7th Indiana Cavalry, is dismissed from service, four marauding, pillaging and philandering

New Orleans Times, March 11, 1865


[1] Also listed in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.,but as "Action, Paris."

[2] As cited in PQCW.

[3] This was a pun – the owner of the Chattaooga Dail Rebel was Frank Paul.

[4] Commanding.

[5] As cited in William R. Morris, "The Tennessee River Voyages of U. S. S. Peosta," in Timberclads to Turtlebacks: A Glossary of Civil War Ship Types (np: Butternut Bivouac, Home Mail New FAQs Links: and-in: [Hereinafter: U. S. S. Peosta Daily Deck Log.] The only "Yellow Creek" near the Tennessee River is found in Rhea County, very close to the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant. See USGS Decatur Quad Map.

[6] As cited in:

[7] See also: Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 55 for Hughs' operations in Middle Tennessee, January 1-April 18, 1864, above.

[8] It appears that French was referring to two of three mountains in Warren County: Ben Lemond Mountain, Harrison Ferry Mountain and Cardwell Mountain. It is difficult to be more specific. See: Tennessee Atlas & Gazetteer, DeLorme, 5th edition, 1999, p. 39.

[9] John Hughs.

[10] Such behavior as is described, whipping, shooting, setting homes on fire, seem to be precursors to the tactics of the Ku Klux Klan in the near future.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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