Saturday, July 4, 2015

July 4, 2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

These Civil War entries will soon be concluded, with no notice given.



4, Thoughts on the Fourth of July

The Great National Holiday.

I reckon the nation is so busy preparing to swallow itself that it will not have time to celebrate it with the usual pomp. It seems to me that the thought of this day ought to be enough to stop the mad careers of all men who have a particle of patriotism. But nothing short of utter destruction will stop them now.

* * * *

Diary of Amanda McDowell.


          4-5, On the Fourth of July in Confederate Memphis

On this day recurs the anniversary of the most important event, which, up to the present year, ever occurred on the North American continent. On the fourth day of July, 1776, the Continental Congress absolved the colonies from the rule of England. During the many years which have intervened, to the present time, the day has been held in high esteem, and sacredly devoted to fulsome eulogies, high sounding speeches, and spread-eagle oratory. It has been kept as a holiday by the patriotic, and he who annulled its demands was looked upon as a blasphemer.

This is all well and proper. The day, because of its memories, is the noblest and best of our calendar. Our ancestors fought through many long years of privation and suffering. They battled against the tyranny which would have usurped their dearest rights, and the declaration for which they fought became to them the aegis of all they could claim as freemen. The South has a deep interest in the remembrance and regard due this important day. On her consecrated grounds the greater number of the battles of the revolution were fought, and no land can hallow so devotedly the remembrances of the generous and true hearted southrons of '76.

The most glorious galaxy of stars during the revolution, were southerners. We cannot forget that Jefferson was the author of the American Magna Charta; that Lee, Wythe, Rutledge, Carroll, and other lights, around whom cluster the proudest memories of chivalry and heroism, were the men, who in this day of their country's pride, dared to write the names which freed the land from despotism.

That the South must continue to honor the day is evident. It is peculiarly a national holiday, in which she has an interest, hallowed by the traditions of its noble dead and the thrilling legends of its heroes. It is no New England invention; but all its memories cluster about the day, even long before the old federal union had a corporate existence. It was baptized with southern blood, in the infancy of the republic, and in the respect and admiration we give it we do but a duty which the patriot must acknowledge just, and only the bigot will contemn.

The Fourth of July.—This is the "glorious Fourth," the day of music, banners, orations, bon-fires, and fireworks. We saw few indications yesterday of an approaching festival; two or three banks gave notice of closing, and the criminal court concluded not to sit; but the juvenile and the patriotic portions of the community showed no sign of observing the time honored customs of the day. Should the day of national independence rank as a mere Yankee institution?

Memphis Daily Appeal, July 4, 1861.

The Glorious Fourth.—The cessation from labor was more general yesterday than we had on the previous evening anticipated. There was a general expression of sentiment that the Fourth of July was not a Yankee, but an American institution, and that it must be observed and perpetuated throughout the South that our children may have their attention called to the deeds of their forefathers.[1] [emphasis added] There was but little demonstration. Court square was patronized by the ladies, but the streets generally were very quiet. At sunset Capt. Jackson fired a splendid feu de joie with his three thirty-two pounders, now mounted at the battery opposite Exchange hall.

Memphis Daily Appeal, July 5, 1861.



4, General Orders, No. 61, Federal soldiers forbidden from selling government issue arms, clothing and ammunition, Memphis


I. Officers and soldiers are hereby prohibited under severe penalties from selling military clothing, arms, or ammunition, whether the same be public or private property, to citizens. In cases where such sales have been heretofore made the citizens who purchased the same will at once return the property so purchased to the commanding officer of the company or regiment to which the soldier belongs of whom the articles were obtained, or to the post quartermaster, under penalty of being arrested and placed in confinement.

II. It is made the duty of all officers to see that this order is strictly enforced, and that all officers, soldiers, or citizens violating the same, by either selling or purchasing, are arrested.

By order of Maj.-Gen. Grant:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 70.

          4, Editorial opinion concerning the Fourth of July

The anniversary of American freedom will be celebrated today in Memphis. Since that day of holy memories what outrages have been committed in the name of the Liberty it inaugurated! Law laid aside, men dragged from their beds, and clinging wives to preform [sic] compulsed [sic] and unremunerated labor, and shot for endeavoring to escape it. Property rift from its owners, the expression of opinion tortured into crime, and the very Minster of God ostracized from the pulpit. But the old day comes around once more; and the flag that floated over Monterey and Chapultepec, waves its liberty protecting folds over Memphis. Life and property are once more safe, the sacredness of the poor man's rights respected, and religion, herself, liberated. Surely whatever differences of political opinion may be entertained, none can refuse to rejoice in these results attendant on the presence of the old flag in Memphis on the Fourth of July, 1862, contrasted with the Fourth of July 1861!

Memphis Union Appeal, July 4, 1862.

          4, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 83, Remarks on the Fourth of July

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 83. HDQRS. ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, [Jackson, Tenn.], July 4, 1862.

Soldiers of the Army of the Mississippi:

To-day we celebrate the eighty-sixth anniversary of our national independence. Let the sublime recollections which the day inspires fill our hearts with that fire of patriotism which animated our forefathers in their seven years' contest for the freedom which is now assailed by an arrogant and unscrupulous rebellion.

No love of war, no appeal to passions, no hatred for those whose rights you have been willing to defend, and for which you are now in arms, has exiled you from peaceful pursuits and the endearments of home and friends.

An intelligent patriotism, duty appreciating the priceless value of a Government that covers and protects all that we hold dear in this world, brings you here. Unskilled in using the bowie-knife or plying the lash on the backs of your fellow-men, you did not come boasting you could whip three to one, but modestly and simply offered your lives for the defense of our common liberties; by your docility and patience in inuring yourselves to the toils and hardships of a new profession, and by your courage taught the enemies of our liberties a lesson which, I trust, you will be still more ready to repeat when the occasion offers.

Remember the haughty declaration of the rebels that our Government was at an end! Remember the unscrupulous lies by which they have maligned your character and your motives, calling you thieves, murderers, plundering hordes, two wish to subjugate and destroy! And in reverent fear of the Almighty Ruler of Nations, in whose sight we are but sinners, on this day lift your eyes with hope that He will not permit arrogance, falsehood, treachery, and cruel deception of a peaceful and happy people to triumph; that the tears of the widows and orphans the rebels have made by plunging us into this cruel war may drown them in the day of battle, and that He may give peace and equal rights to all again, under that Government whose natal day we celebrate.

In honor of the day all duties, except the stated roll calls, police, and guard duty, will be suspended. The troops will be paraded under arms, and each brigade will fire a national salute at meridian.

By order of Gen. Rosecrans:

OR, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 71.

          4, A Protest Against Feminine Taunting of Federal Pickets in Memphis


It costs but very little to be polite and affable. The effort, intellectual and physical, neither exhausts the constitution nor impoverishes the mind.

Gentlemen of refinement and polish, are always urbane in their demeanor to all, equals as well as to inferiors. In that, they furnish indubitable evidence of being well bred, refined and educated with a punctilious observance of the elevating amenities of life. Their deportment and graceful presence, betoken the gentleman, which contrasts strongly with the coarse, vulgar, uncultivated booby, who is loudest in his manifestations of dislike, of anything that displeases him, under all circumstances and in all places. The clown carries the evidence of his doleful ignorance in his countenance. He is always blundering and stammering, sitting on his hat, upsetting his tea on the snowy spread, stumbling over a chair, or falls sprawling on the door steps as he bows himself in the approved lobster-like style out of the room.

These two cases show the effect of early training, we decide at once, which of the two has been blessed with the refining influences of good society, and that intellectual expansion secured by the attrition of mind upon mind, which gives character and a status to the man.

We are led to make these remarks on what is expected from every well-bred person, in consequence of the insulting course pursued by a well-known pseudo poetess of a bevy of goslin[g]s green on Madison street, towards our soldiers.

All that an envenomed, vile tongued, virago, aided by hissing adders could do, has been done, to insult our pickets, as they come in from and to out on duty.

The poor, week [sic], and fluttering aspirant for the groves of Parnassus, vents her intoxicated hatred and crazy wrath towards or men, by hissing in the modern geesy [sic] style, looking very sharp and very fierce, flaunting her dress as evidence of contempt with various other elegant and lady-like proofs of her utter abhorrence for Federal soldiers.

Her demonstrations are eloquent of her early training, her associations were evidently coarse, unrefined and far removed from that retiring modesty, which so embellishes and ennobles woman.

Crack-brained, dreamy and visionary secessionists, whose head is crammed with rickety, disjointed poetical twaddle, which would get any school girl a sound thrashing for writing, and very apt to fancy themselves buoyed up with a divine afflatus, which is really excessively offensive and gassy. Such vagaries, however, we can tolerate, and by great exertion endure, but we cannot, and will not, endure their silly taunts and indignities to our men. We therefore strongly urge our military authorities to arrest all such offenders ands send them South.

Secessia is precisely the place for them, they should yearn to reach their beloved Dixie.

We don't want them.


Memphis Union Appeal, July 4, 1862.

          4, General Orders, No. 91

Headquarters, District of West Tennessee

Memphis, Tennessee, July 4, 1862

I. All officers and soldiers are hereby prohibited, under severe penalties, from selling military clothing, arms or property to civilians. In cases where such sales have been made, the civilian who purchased the same will at once return the property so purchased, to the Commanding Officer of the company or regiment to which the soldier belongs from whom the articles were obtained, or to the Post Quartermaster, under the penalty of being arrested and placed in confinement.

II. It is made the duty of all officers to see that this order is strictly enforced, and that all officers, soldiers or citizens violating the same, by either selling or purchasing, are arrested.

By command of Major General U. S. Grant

Jno. A, Rawlins, Assistant Adjutant General

Memphis Union Appeal, August 10, 1862.

          4, Burning the flag on the Fourth of July in Murfreesboro


A gentleman of Murfreesboro writes to us that several girls of respectable families in that place, on passing his residence on the 4th, threw rocks and dirt at a Union flag flying in his yard. On coming out, they hurried away; but, after a while, the she rebels again sneaked up, stole the flag, and burned it in the presence of several rebel ladies whom they had assembled in their yard. What a dirty set of strops those girls must be; a negro kitchen wench would have better manners. Within the last day or two the flags on the dwellings of at least three Union families of this city, have been pelted with rocks and sticks by the children of rebel families. No boy or girl would dare to do such an outrage did he not know that it would be winked at, if not openly approved, by older ones at home. It is a little thing, a contemptible thing, we admit; in ordinary times too insignificant to be noticed, but at a time like the present the parents of such vulgar, dirty little ruffians should be kept on bread and water in the work house for at least a week. When they got out they perhaps might teach their children something about common decency and civility. Public safety demands that every symptom of treason be punished.

Nashville Daily Union, July 9, 1862.

          4, Homeopathic cures for "diarrhoea, [sic] bloody flux, cholera morbus, to Asiatic cholera, in its first stage."

Important Information for Soldiers.

Sure Remedy for Diarrhoea [sic] and Similar Complaints.

It is very important to our soldiers at the South, that they should know that in one of the most common forest trees, they have a perfectly sure, safe remedy for every grade of bowel complaint, from the most ordinary case of relaxation, up through all the stages of I declare from personal experience of many years, that there is no remedy of equal value, none so safe and immediate in its effects.

I will relate once instance. A gentleman so reduced by bloody flux, that he had to be assisted from his wagon in to the house, was entirely cured in one night; indeed in one hour, for in that time he was relieved of all pain, and was in a gentle sleep, which lasted till morning, when he pursued his journey.

In almost all sections of the Southern States there is to be found a large tree known as Sweet Gum; its true name is Liquid Amber. It exudes from wounds a white aromatic gum, and bears a burr about an inch in diameter, perforated with cells like honey-comb. Its leaves are five pointed, and resemble those of the maple; the bark is rough and striated [sic], and upon young trees very rough, and what is termed watry. [sic]

Take the inside bark, that of an old tree is best, and make a tea of it, of such strength that it will resemble in color and somewhat in taste, strong coffee, and let the patient drink from half a pint to four pints, clear or with sugar, and it may be taken cold or hot.

It will surely cure the complaint if it is not absolutely incurable, and its great value is that it leaves the bowels in a healthy condition. I am fully satisfied that if our soldiers will use this simple remedy, it will save many lives and much suffering.

If any doubt this, let him consult any of the old negroes, particularly from Mississippi and Louisiana, who know the value of the remedy, and have used it for ages. So have the Indians, from whom I learned how to use it in the malarious forests of Indiana. With it made and administered by an aged squaw, while I lay utterly prostrate in a wagon, unable to mount my horse, I was entirely cured in a few hours, and perfectly able to ride.

In 1832 an acquaintance of mine cured many cases of Asiatic cholera in Cincinnati. I was myself cured of a severe attack the same year, by steeping a handful of the sweet gum bark in a pint of water half an hour, which I drank clear, and taken thus it is not unpalatable.

To this statement I willingly append my name, and those who know me will believe it. I consider it of such importance that it should be most extensively circulated. It ought to be placed in the hands of every soldier upon Southern soil. Its truth will be readily vouched for by many who know its value, and it should not be readily forgotten. It will not be by those who experience its benefits.

I am, truly, the soldiers' friend,

Solon Robinson.New York, June 20, 1862

Nashville Daily Union, July 4, 1862.


4, Fall of Vicksburg, Mississippi

          4, "A Superb Flower"

On the 4th inst. Mr. Sharkey, the accomplished gardener and florist who superintends the horticultural department attached to the Lunatic Asylum, sent us a mammoth leaf and bud of the Queen of the Water-lilies, the oriental Victoria Regia. The leaf was considerably over three feet in diameter, and as round as a buckler. The bud, which was perfectly colored when we received it, was about the size of a large tea-cup, only longer, and judging from its prickly sheath, not remarkably promising. We placed it in a large bowl of water, and said mentally: "Now spread yourself, your Majesty." In the space of a few hours, it became evident that either our advice or the stirring inspiration of the day, was affecting its status deeply. Presently a large petal, snowy white without, but within lined with the brilliant pink of a fair sea-shell, was thrown out. Like the advance flag of the body-guard to announce the approval of Her Royal Highness. A few hours elapsed, and the gigantic lily in full court-dress-the outer circlet of petals white, slightly veined with scarlet, and the inner circlet formed or a flounce of dark and very rich crimson petals overlying the first, while a superb crown of orange hue adorned the center-floated before our delighted eyes, upon the water, as magnificently as Cleopatra ever sailed in her royal barge, down the waves of the Nile. This splendid representative of the Lily family measured one foot in diameter. Nor did this marvelous flower delight the eyes only, for it exhaled a most delicate and fragrant breath.

Your Majesty, you're one of 'em!

It must be richly worth a ride to the Asylum to see this lily blooming in its element, and we have a mind to pay Victoria Regia a call, when guerrillas will be less likely to confiscate patriotic editors. Mr. Sharkey, who superintends the Asylum gardens, is one of the most skillful gardeners in the country, and conducts his useful and beautiful department with much ability.

Nashville Daily Union, July 9, 1863.

          4, Reconnaissance toward and engagement at University of the South

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Report of A. McD. McCook on activities during the Tullahoma Campaign.

HDQRS. TWENTIETH ARMY CORPS, Winchester July 10, 1863

* * * *

On the morning of the 4th of July, Col. Watkins was ordered to make a reconnaissance on the University road toward Tracy City. He encountered three regiments of rebel cavalry on the summit of the mountains. After a spirited skirmish, he gallantly drove the enemy for 3 ½ miles. His instructions having been complied with, he returned to his camp at Cowan. Sheridan's division remained at Cowan until the 10th Instant, when he was ordered to make a reconnaissance toward Bridgeport and Jasper. He is now performing that duty, some of his troops being in the vicinity of those places to-day, the 12th.

* * * *

A. McD. McCOOK, Maj.-Gen. U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 467-468.


HDQRS. THIRD CAVALRY BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, In the Field, five miles from Winchester, Tenn., July 8, 1863.

* * * *

[July] 4, made a reconnaissance toward University, 4 miles from which point met the enemy in considerable force, composed of cavalry and mounted infantry; engaged him, and drove him one-half a mile past University Depot, where, having fully accomplished the object aimed at, it was thought advisable to withdraw. In this action the loss of the Sixth Kentucky was 1 lieutenant and 1 private killed and 1 lieutenant and 4 privates wounded; also 16 horses killed and wounded. The loss of the Fifth Kentucky was 1 private killed and 9 enlisted men wounded, and 10 horses killed and wounded. Twenty-two prisoners were captured from the enemy in this engagement. It has been subsequently ascertained that the loss of the enemy in killed and wounded was far greater than ours.

* * * *


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 551-552.

          4, Skirmish at Cowan

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

          4, "Converts."

Thirty of the Confederates, captured within the past week, have obtained their release by enlisting in the service of the United States. Of this number, two are Mississippians, one Alabamian, and the balance Tennesseans. It is said that Morrison,[2] the suspected spy, is one of the recruits.

Nashville Daily Press, July 4, 1863.

          4, Mrs. A. Shook's Confrontation with Major-General Jefferson C. Davis in Franklin County

Yankee Tyranny in Franklin County, Tennessee—Patriotism of Citizens.

A citizen of Tennessee has given us sundry items, exhibiting the inexorable despotism of the Yankees wherever they obtain a foothold. The Yankees occupied Winchester on the 3d of July, celebrated the 4th, and issued a number of the Winchester Bulletin on that day, taunting the editor and proprietor with supplying his place in his absence. Gen. McCook occupied the residence of Mr. Henderson as his headquarters, and Gen. Jeff C. Davis (who killed Bull Nelson, the Kentucky Yankee General, last year,) occupied the residence of Harrison T. Carr, a member of the last Tennessee Legislature. They put guards around the houses in town, and a few of them were robbed. But they gave leave to their troops to wander up and down the country, like devils, seeking what they might devour. The consequence was, that they carried on a system of general plunder, taking meat, meal, flour, and other provisions from all but the very poor, leaving nothing to eat, making a large majority of the people wholly dependent on the enemy for rations, which were doled out to them for three days at a time.

They went to old Captain Taylor's, who is about ninety years old, and his son, W. E. Taylor's, formerly clerk of the county court, both of them regarded as rich men, and so completely robbed them that they had to subsist on boiled corn for more than a week, when they got a day's rations of meat and flour from a Yankee soldier, who took pity on them.

A brigade of troops was sent to the farm of A. Shook, a substantial citizen of seventy odd years, under the guidance of one of his negroes [sic], and three regiments spent the day there. They took all the provisions, not leaving half a gallon of meal for the old man and the family of his son, O. S. Shook, who had been in the 1st Tennessee regiment in Virginia. They killed every hog, sheep and calf they could find, took five negro men—all he had—and three of them were armed, uniformed and put in the Yankee service. They stole Mrs. O. S. Shook's watch and jewelry, and afterwards a guard was put over her room.

Mrs. Shook went to town to draw rations. The Provost Marshal was disposed to be courteous, but said she must go to General Davis. She went to Davis' quarters, and the Adjutant or Clerk repeated the name—"Shook? Shook?" when Davis said, "All rebels; and you, madam are as d____d a rebel as any." "Yes," said she, "and always will be."

Davis said, "You can't get any rations."

Mrs. S.—"Do you intend for me and my children to starve? You have stolen all my meat and everything else to eat."

He replied, "I don't care a d__n, if you and your children do starve."

Mrs. S.—"Well, I'm willing to go out of your lines, and then I'll not be dependent on you."

"Go, then."

"How can I go?"

"Do as Union women do who leave your lines. Take your children on your back and pack them out, madam."

Mrs. Shook's little niece, who accompanied her, remarked, "I never heard of any Union women packing children on their backs and leaving our lines, unless they were negro women, and they ran away."

He made no reply, but asked Mrs. Shook whether she wanted a pass or a guard to go out of his lines.

She preferred a guard, and he granted it. She was treated respectfully by every body but Davis. He seemed familiar with the people's names, and called the names of all the men in the Shook family—the father and his sons, one of whom was the Confederate Postmaster at Winchester, another in Starnes' cavalry, and a third a lawyer, had been in the 1st Tennessee regiment, as already stated.

It is said, that so sweeping has been the pillaging and desolation, that not a shock of wheat has been left in the country, and they were cutting the green corn; and there are no vegetables, and not a single hen, goose or other fowl. Notwithstanding this barbarous treatment, the spirits of the people are not broken, but they are defiant and opposed to reconstruction of the old Union hulk. The Yankee papers say that they have no friends in Franklin county, and complain that the ladies wont receive them into their parlors, saying that if they would do so, they would find them a jovial set of fellows. Huntsville Confederate, 5th.


Montgomery Weekly Advertiser, September 16, 1863.[3]

          4, Grinding corn and foraging for the Army of the Cumberland

WINCHESTER, TENN., July 4, 1863.

Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:

….I am shelling corn to grind meal. If I could leave my troops four or five days without transportation-say one wagon to a regiment and three for a battery--I could soon have sufficient supplies to move forward, or in any direction, provided I could load them at Wartrace. I have every disposable wagon out foraging. If Stanley would come over in this settlement I think he could do well by his horses. I have sent for him and hope he will be here at 4 p. m. to-day, when I can give him all the information necessary. If he is between Decherd and the mountains I fear he will fare badly. Here we have plenty of hay and corn, great many pasture fields (clover), and considerable corn scattered through the country, and more as we recede from the railroad. All well here and happy.

Very respectfully,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. I, p. 392.

          ca. 4, Shooting of a Confederate blacksmith at Lynchburg

Samuel Diamond, the Blacksmith of Company "B" First Confederate cavalry, was shot about ten days a go, at Lynchburg, Tenn., by a man named Eden, on or Gen. Forrest's Escort. He was shot through the left lung, but was not dead at last accounts. Any further information concerning the affair can be obtained by applying to Sam. Cannon, 1st Confederate Regiment, at Camp Trenton, Ga.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, July 14, 1863.

          4-7, One woman's experience in McMinnville during the Tullahoma Campaign

* * * *

When we reached McM[innville]-Saturday evening July 4th, the reports we had heard were confirmed-Bragg was retreating to Chattanooga, without a fight. Gloom hung like a pall over the little village-only a few persons could be seen as I rode down the full length of Main Street. Our Soldiers had all left & all Southern sympathizers-(men I mean) who could possibly get off had gone-business was suspended-doors all closed-the Federals constantly expected. We were compelled [sic] to remain in the village, until Tuesday [7th], on account of our broken vehicle-we could not proceed without it-could not get it mended &could not hire a vehicle of any sort. Our vehicle was ready at 8 o'clock Monday [6th] night and we determined to leave after early breakfast, next morning; but the Federals unceremoniously entered the West end of the Village, about sunrise with "all the pride, pomp &circumstance of glorious war," streaming banners-nodding plumes-gaily caparisoned horses & dashing cavaliers, all marching to the music of the fife & drum. This rather hurried us & as soon as we could jump out of bed &commence a toilet, [sic] we...made as quick a march out on the road leading East as circumstances would permit, finishing our toilet on the way. We stopped at Mr. L's [sic] got breakfast, performed our morning ablutions & were off again for Bersheba, [sic] believing we would be overtaken.

Journal of Bettie Ridley Blackmore.


4, S. P. Carter, Brig. Gen. and Provost Marshall General of East Tennessee advises sending Confederate deserters to the rear to prevent spying

KNOXVILLE, July 4, 1864.

Gen. WEBSTER, Chief of Staff, Nashville:

If rebel deserters are turned loose so close to rebel lines as is Knoxville the place would soon be filled with spies, who could, under guise of deserters, come in with impunity. It is too expensive to hold and feed them, even should such course not deter them from deserting. The only safe course left is to send them to the rear. If any disposition can be made of them after reaching Chattanooga or Nashville they are still in hands of authorities and can be disposed of as I thought best.

S. P. CARTER, Brig. Gen. and Prov. March Gen. of East Tennessee.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 161.

          4, Lucy Virginia French's comment on the cost of Sherman's march to Atlanta

The number of wounded sent back to Nashville and Murfreesboro is immense. One man who came from N. [sic] a day or two since, says the whole city smells rank with them – and Murfreesboro is as full as Nashville.

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, July 4, 1864.

          4, The 4th of July in Columbia

The cannon was heard in Town [sic] of Columbia celebrating the day…a greate [sic] many negro men[,] women & children with there [sic] flags & flag poles[.] [A] dinner was prepared for many at White's Spring but the black ladies was marched to the Table[.] [T]he soldiers pitched in & devoured it & so the blacks was quite unlucky (they got none). In the evening the soldier was sent all over Town [sic] & pressed & captured all the able bodied negro men that could be gathered, several hundred, to gone somewhere to work….

Nimrod Porter Diary, July 4, 1864.

          4-24, Expedition from Memphis to Grand Gulf, Mississippi[4]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 246.



4, "…the negro howled right much he did not curse any body while we were whipping him- we whipped him for saucing his master Wm. Bonner." The Bonner Affair, an atavistic Federal Home Guard response to new racial realities in early post-war Lincoln County; Testimony before the Military Commission Courts Martial July 15, 1865

My name is William Boner [sic]; I reside in Lincoln County near Fayetteville Tenn. I know the boy present – his name is Henry Bonner – he has been a slave in our family for fifteen (15) or twenty (20) years, at the present he is hireling to me. I have about twelve work hands on the place, my contract with him is, that at the end of the season, I was to leave the compensation to a committee of citizens, in case of disagreement, the matter was to be left to a Federal officer. The character of this man, has been that he was always a very sullen and contrary darkey [sic]. On the evening of the 3d of July I had a difficulty with a colored women –Mary – after this I went to the fields, and this darkey [sic] commenced talking about the difficulty. I told him to stay there and work. He was quite imprudent, said he would stay and leave when he wanted to. I told him if he was so imprudent to me and would quit when-ever he liked, that he should stay there, he said in reply, that he would do as he pleased, that I could not make him leave – that if I felt like it, I had better undertake it. All the hands were present as he had said they were going to town. I went to town also. I saw Capt Shipp on the morning of the 4th of July at Fayetteville. I made a statement to Capt Shipp who is the Provost Marshal of the place. Capt Shipp said he would send a guard down there and have the thing corrected. He did send down two soldiers from the 5th Tenn cavalry, I presume, one was named Harrison and I think the other was named Mullins. These two soldiers went to the plantation. I was with the [sic], also, Capt Adkins of the Home Guards with the Captains two brothers, Joe and Jim who belong to the Home Guards besides another party unknown. I think his name is Hastings. We arrived at the plantation about 7 o'clock in the evening of the 4th. The whipping was then administered on this boy by the Federal Soldiers and Capt Adkins (the back of the boy was exhibited here) I call that a very severe whipping. I did not think he was whipped so bad, it was dark, I could not see. I was armed, most of the party was armed. I was a little excited at the time, I do not remember what I did say. I cannot say whether I said I would blow his brains out or not. When I first went up to the house the boy Henry was tied to a tree by his hands being fastened around the tree. I was present all the time. I did not count the licks. I should think about one hundred, perhaps there was more, the switches used were either elm or birch I think elm – I cannot tell how many the men had in their hands at the time. The whipped him twice. On my repeating the imprudence of the boy Henry to Capt Shipp he told me that he would send some men or Guards down to the plantation and have the boy corrected or whipped, and he made the [word not readable] go down with me that evening. The boy did not threaten my life or threaten me with violence at all. The trouble with the woman at which the Negro boy, Henry took exception was as follows. She had been at the house for an hour, nursing her baby. I told her it was too long, she replied she would do as she pleased, her attitude was defiant. I then struck her. I had my knife open when the affair commenced. I shut it and struck her on the head with the handle of the knife and with my fist. I shut it and struck her with a rock. She then went on the field repeating that she would suckle her baby and work when she pleased.

I want to make the additional statement in justice to Capt Shipp. When I went to the filed the boy Henry brought up the subject of my treatment of the Woman, Mary, of the previous evening in a very unbecoming manner. From his attitude and the presence of the other Negroes I saw from the facts before me that I had better get away and let the Negro alone. I went away I preference to involving myself in any serious difficulty with them in my interview with Capt Shipp and the Provost Marshall I expressed these views. I thought the Negro a dangerous man.

Testimony of Matthew Mullins

My name is Matthew Mullins I belong to company "C" 5th Tennessee Cavalry. On the 4th of July I was at Fayetteville in the evening of the 4th of July I went out to Wm. Bonners plantation in company with Tyler Harrison of my company and Wm. Bonner also a Capt of the Home Guard we were joined by two other men on reaching the house of Wm Bonner. The whole party proceeded to the Negro quarters we took out one of the negro's [sic] and whipped him about three hundred yards from the quarters we tied him fact to a tree and fastened his hands on the other side with a bridle reign. We whipped him with elm switches two in a bunch with spangles on them I can not tell how long the switches were. We did not count the blows but I think they could not have exceeded one hundred and fifty -the negro howled right much he did not curse any body while we were whipping him- we whipped him for saucing his master Wm. Bonner – we were sent out under the charge of the home guard captain and were to do what he directed and he directed the party to whip the negro.

Capt Shipp ordered myself and private Harrison to report to the Capt of the Home Guard for this duty. Capt Shipp told us to go out with the home guard Capt and settle a difficulty between Wm Bonner and a Negro I have known soldiers sent out before to settle difficulties were negros [sic] have been whipped by soldiers.

Before the whipping, Wm. Bonner took us to his own house and gave us a supper tolerable nice one. He and his wife set down at the same table with us. After we got through the whippings he told us he was much obliged to us and then I returned to camp about 4 ½ mile from Bonners house – Wm Bonner and the soldiers were armed with loaded pistols. The Negro did not use any disrespectful language to Wm. Bonner or any other person present in my presence at this or any previous time.

Blood and Fire, pp. 187-190.[5]







[1] Apparently the editor wanted it both ways.

[2] Not identified.

[3] As cited in:

[4] This expedition left Memphis but all fighting was in Mississippi. Bolivar, in this case, is in Mississippi.

[5] In the end Bonner was fined $50.00 for the whipping. Recognizing the unlawfulness of such activity, General R. W. Johnson stated in a general order that: "These Home Guards did all the 'Negro Whipping' in these neighborhoods. Considering their disloyal character I have issued an order disbanding all such forces, unless organized under authority of the governor." As cited in Blood and Fire, p. 190.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


Friday, July 3, 2015

7.3.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes (Soon to be concluded)


3, President of the Memphis to Charleston Railroad to Confederate Secretary of War relative to dearth of military leadership in Memphis

Memphis, July 3, 1861

L.P. Walker

When will General Polk be here? His presence is important.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p. 117.

          3, Report to the Southern Mothers' Association Executive Committee


To the Executive Committee of the Southern Mothers:

Having been elected by you on the 7th of June, as surgeon of the institution under your charge, I immediately entered upon the discharge of my duties, and herewith have the honor to submit to you this, my first monthly report:

Number discharged 52, sent to private houses 25, in the wards 27, died 2. total 106.

Diseases—Diarrhea 11, dysentary 6, neuralgia 3, constipation 1, contusion 3, fatigue and exposure 9, measles 2, gun shot 3, opthalmia 1, pneumonia 19, intermittent 42, ptyalism 2, congestive chill 2, abcess 1, cut with bowie-knife 1. Total 106.

Of these there were from army of Tennessee 14, Missouri troops 1, 2d Arkansas regiment 91. Total 106.

In examining the above list of diseases, it will be seen that nearly twenty per cent. have been pneumonia. The causes of this are readily explained by the facts attending the trip of the 2d Arkansas regiment, colonel T. C. Hindman, commanding, to Knoxville and back. These troops, fresh from the back woods of Arkansas, unaccustomed to excitements, and actuated by the loftiest patriotism, thought it incumbent upon them to cheer at each flag station, village and town upon the road, both going and coming, until their bronchias became inflamed in the highest degree.

In addition to this, the dust and cinders, the open cars, the heat of the days, the cold nights, the sudden change of the weather while in East Tennessee, insufficient clothing, the want of blankets, and sleeping on the damp earth, rendered their trip everything but one of pleasure. Hence our rooms were filled on their return with fully developed cases of pneumonia. None are so classified that did not present several of the characteristic symptoms and phenomena of the disease. In addition to there, nearly all the cases of intermittent were more or less accompanied with congestion and pleuritic affections of the lungs.

In view of the number of patients and the character of the disease, it affords me pleasure to state that only two have so far proved fatal, and that there is only one man whose case may be regarded as critical. Mr. Gallagher, of the Crocket Rangers, died on the 15th ult., having come under my charge after he had been abandoned by his physician. I immediately called Dr. Hopson in consultation with me, but he had become so prostrated and diseased that our efforts were unavailing to restore him. He died in consequence of secondary hemorrhage. The other, Mr. S. L. Poston, of Capt. Harvey's company, 2d Arkansas regiment, was attacked with pneumonia in Knoxville on the 14th ult., and arrived here on the 17th. His case was complicated with phthisis pulmonalis, and was in the third stage on his arrival here. He died June 23d.

In my attendance upon the sick soldiers under my charge I have been nobly aided by the excellent council and advice of  Drs. Allen, Shanks, Holliday, Erskine, Cypert, Wilson, Irwin, and others of the city, and  Surgeons Bartlett and Darling of 2d Arkansas regiment. They have visited our rooms as friends and as physicians, and I earnestly hope that each member of the profession will consider himself at all times a welcome visitor to our rooms.

The druggest [sic] and military board of Memphis have aided us by contributions of valuable drugs and medicines, and to them we should return our sincere thanks. I have endeavored to use the strictest economy in the administration of medicines by having them compounded at my rooms, saving valuable time.

It is a source of pleasure to me to bear testimony to the patriotic, self-sacrificing devotion of the different members of the association, who have been engaged in nursing the sick during the last two weeks. Assiduous in their daily vigils, they have accomplished as much, or more, by the tender care of the patients confided to them, than could have been done by any other means. It could not be otherwise. Actuated by the holiest and noblest patriotism they left their splendid palaces to administer to the wants at the bedside of the humble soldier. They have watched over their patients with a devotion and interest that excites the liveliest admiration. Mothers have left the cares and charms of home, to bathe the fevered brow and cool the parched tongue of those who were sons and brothers in the holy cause of defending our sunny South. The zeal and devotion of the "Southern Mothers" displayed at the rooms has extended to the fireside, and they have thrown open their doors, and taken the convalescing to their homes. So far, the demand for them to be thus provided for, has exceeded the supply.

Our thanks are due to Capt. A. B. Jewell, for many acts of kindness, especially in providing us, on several occasions, with good barbers; thereby aiding materially the comfort and appearance of the patients.

I have found it necessary to station sentinels at the front and rear entrances, also at the foot of the second stair case, leading to the Third [illegible] to all, as much as promiscuous visiting interfered with the treatment of the patients. In this connection, I will state to the members of the association, that so long as I have charge of the wards, I will enforce the strictest order and decorum. No "southern mother" shall ever blush at the recollection of ever having crossed the threshold of our rooms. No invalid soldier will ever regret that he was nursed by a "southern mother."

I will close by saying to the commanding officers and to the patriotic soldiers of the South that the rooms of the "southern mothers" in Memphis are always open, that they are ready and willing to receive their sick and wounded, and that they will be provided with everything to render them comfortable; that they will be watched over and nursed with the tenderest care by the members of the order, without fee or reward.

Respectfully yours, etc.,

G. W. Curry.

July 1st, 1861

To the Executive Committee of the Southern Mothers:

I herewith tender to you my resignation as surgeon of the institution under your charge.

Highly appreciating the honor you have conferred upon me, and the uniform kindness you have always shown me, I am, respectfully,

Yours etc.,

G. W. Curry, M. D.

"Mothers' Rooms," July 2, 1861

G. W. Curry, M. D., Surgeon of the Society of "Southern Mothers:"

Dear Sir: The resignation of your position in our society having been laid before a called meeting of the association, seventeen members being present, it was by acclamation voted that we cannot dispense with your services in our "Rooms;" we therefore decline to accept the resignation, and beg you to enter immediately upon your duties again, assuring you of our perfect confidence in your skill, our high regard for you personally, and our heartfelt gratitude for the noble and disinterested service you have rendered as in our attempts to alleviate the horrors of war by nursing to the best of our ability the suffering sons of the South in arms for the defense of our homes.

S. C. Law, President.

Mary E. Pope, Secretary.

Memphis Daily Appeal, July 3, 1861.


By way of Louisville we learn that proceedings of the East Tennessee Union Convention have been received at that place. All the counties were represented except Rhea. The following is given as a summary of the declaration of grievances:

It quotes facts showing that the right of free suffrage  has been obstructed by a disunion government: that they have been subjected to insults, their flags fired upon and torn down, their houses rudely entered, their families insulted, their women and children shot by a merciless soldiery, and their citizens robbed and assassinated, and that in view of these facts they have resolved that the action of the State Legislature, in passing a declaration of independence and in forming a military league with the Southern Confederacy, was unconstitutional, and not binding upon loyal citizens: that, in order to avoid a conflict with their brethren, a committee be appointed to prepare a memorial asking the consent of the Legislature that the eastern part of the State may form a separate government.

Arrangements are being made for holding and election in the counties of East Tennessee to choose delegates to a General Convention to be held at Kingston.

The Cincinnati Times gives the following as "reliable returns" of the result of the vote on secession in all the counties in East Tennessee, with the exception of eleven:

                                                          Union                             Disunion

Bradley                                             13-2                      507

Carter                                                1317                       83

Grainger                                            1736                     495

Knox                                                 3206                    1216

Sevier                                                 1527                      60

Sullivan                                             1586                     627

Hawkins                                            410            

Hancock                                            400

Roane                                               1000

Washington                                       389

Anderson                                         1600

Monroe                                              247

Jefferson                                          1500

Greene                                             2007

Hamilton                                           400

Marion                                              150

Cocke                                                 800

Claiborne                                           1451

Total                                                  20,661                  2998

The eleven counties to be heard from will (the Times says) no doubt swell the majority to 25,000

Daily National Intelligencer, (Washington, DC) July 03, 1861


          3, General Orders No. 60 relative to suppression of guerrilla warfare in West Tennessee


Headquarters Dist. of West Tenn'

July 3,1862

The system of guerrilla warfare now being prosecuted by some troops organized under authority of the so-called Southern Confederacy, and others without such authority, being so pernicious to the welfare of the community where it is carried on, and it being within the power of the community to suppress this system it is ordered that wherever loss is sustained by the Government, collections shall be made, by seizure of sufficient amount of personal property, from persons in the immediate neighborhood sympathizing with the rebellion, to remunerate the Government for all loss and expense of [confisca]tion.

Persons acting as guerrillas without organization, and with uniform to distinguish them from private citizens, are not entitled to the treatment of prisoners of war when caught, and will not receive such treatment

By order of Major-General U. S. Grant.

Memphis Bulletin, July 18, 1862[1].

          3, SPECIAL FIELD ORDERS, No. 148, relative to maintaining Federal control of railroads in West Tennessee


Corinth, Miss., July 3, 1862.

I. The commanding officer at Columbus is charged with guarding the railroad from that place to Humboldt, inclusive; the commanding officer at Jackson, from that place to Grand Junction and Bethel, inclusive; the commanding officer of Memphis, from that place to Grand Junction; the commanding officer at Corinth, to Bethel, Iuka, and south and west as far as the roads are opened, except where they come within the limits of other commands; and the commanding officer at Tuscumbia, from Decatur to Iuka, inclusive. Such officers will be under the general orders of their superiors in brigades, divisions, districts, and subdistricts.

II. Military officers not assigned to special duty under the superintendent of the railroad are simply charged with the guarding of the roads and trains; in no case will they interfere with the running of the trains, which will be exclusively under the orders of the superintendent, his assistants, and employes. They, however, will furnish details of working parties, under their own officers, on requisition of the superintendent and his assistants, and such working parties will be under the general direction of the latter, so far as the work itself is concerned.

III. Officers in command of railroad guards or of troops in their vicinity will be held responsible for any injury they may receive. All persons found injuring railroads or telegraph lines will be immediately shot down, and all expenses of rearing such injuries will be assessed upon persons having property or living in the vicinity. Particular care will be taken that our troops do not disturb water-tanks or switches, as serious accidents may result. In no case will any one be permitted to wash in the tanks or to draw off the water. To this end no soldier will be permitted on the track unless as a guard or marching under an officer.

IV. No person, unless traveling on military service, will be allowed a free pass. Military freight will always have the preference. The charges for passage and private freights will until otherwise ordered be the same as fixed by former schedules over the same routes. All freight and passage money collected will be used and accounted for as railroad funds.

By order of Maj.-Gen. Halleck:

J. C. KELTON, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 68-69.

          3, Elimination of prisoner visits in Shelbyville

From the Shelbyville News.

Below we publish an important order from Gen. Negley, from which it will be seen that he disapproves of secession sympathizers—whether male or female—visiting the prisoners confined here for the purpose of encouraging them in their secession proclivities, or to help them to certain delicacies, etc., etc.

General Order No. 32.

Headquarters U. S. Forces,

Shelbyville, Tenn., June 30, '62.

Information has reached these Head quarters that a number of persons, male and female, visit and gain access daily to the military prison at this place, holding communication with and furnishing to the prisoners there confined, provisions including delicacies not issued to United States soldiers. This is highly improper, as it encourages the prisoners to persist in their rebellious sentiments;

Therefore, the Provost Marshal is directed to keep a strict guard at the prison, and allow no person to visit the prisoners, to hold conversation with them, or to furnish them with any provision or delicacies whatever, without a written permission from Headquarters, but to furnish them with such rations as the government furnishes to her own troops.

By command of

Brig. Gen. Negley

In calling attention to the above order, I desire to say that the same will be rigidly enforced, and the sentinels will be instructed accordingly.

Jas. Dudley, Provost Marshal.

Nashville Daily Union , July 3, 1862.

          3, Report on desertions from Federal forces in Tennessee

Federal Force in East Tennessee.-A deserter from one of the renegade Tennessee regiments informs the Knoxville Register that there is great dissatisfaction among the Tennesseeans in the Federal service. A large number are kept under guard from the apprehension that they will desert. The same authority says, that since the formation of the Tennessee regiments near 1,000have deserted. One regiment numbers only about three hundred strong. The deserter confirms the report given several days since, that the Federal force now in Powell's valley does not exceed 10,000, with perhaps eighteen or twenty pieces of cannon. Col.Sun.

Macon Daily Telegraph, July 3, 1862.

          3, Report on the fate of some of Nashville's clerics


A the second special conference of the Nashville clergymen on Saturday, before Gov. Johnson, all declined to take the oath of allegiance. Most of them were sent to the penitentiary, prior to their removal to Gen. Halleck for the purpose of being exchanged for Tennessee prisoners. Many Nashville churches were without pastors on Sunday. Among those sent to durance vile were Rev. Doctors Baldwin, Sehon, and Sawnie, Methodists, and Ford and Howell, Baptists. Rev. Dr. Wharton was allowed some days grace on account of illness. The Rev, Mr. Elliot did not appear. The Rev. Mr. Hendricks is expected to take the oath. Catholic divine services, being loyal, were no t disturbed.

New Hampshire Sentinel, July 3, 1862.

          3, War News from Tennessee

~ ~ ~

Jackson's Tennessee Cavalry burned 1,500 bales of cotton on Thursday, Inst., within twelve mile of Memphis.

The vote at the recent municipal election in Memphis was small, no respectable person being a candidate for office

~ ~ ~

A special dispatch to the Advertiser from Jackson, dated June 30, sys Gen. Chalmers has taken Bolivar, Tenn.

~ ~ ~

Knoxville, June 30.-Gen. Buell's army is rapidly crossing the Tennessee river at Florence, and concentrating at Bridgeport, 34 miles from Chattanooga. The enemy crossed with a regiment of artillery at Battle Creek yesterday. Gen. Henry Heth has been assigned to the command at Chattanooga. All is quiet toward Cumberland Gap.

~ ~ ~

Daily Columbus Enquirer, July 3, 1862.

          3, Report on Martial Law in Knoxville

Knoxville, Tenn., is under martial law. The editor who olds Brownlow's spectre, having experiences its delights in a midnight arrest and a lodging in the guard house, soliloquizes thus upon the order of things:

"We have got martial law, and we feel disposed to return thanks for it-just as Cuffy did. He was a pious negro, and always returned thanks for what he had on his table, but always mentioned his wants also. Some wags who knew that he was short of potatoes, provided themselves with a basketful, and when Cuffy returned thanks for what was on the table, and added, "Mighty good dinner, Mass' Lord, if I only had a few pertaters', down came a shower of the coveted tubers, playing smash with cuff's scant self-ware The pious negro, without changing his attitude, unhesitatingly continued his prayer – 'Dem's 'em, Mass' Lord-only just luff 'em down a little easier next time."

We are very thankful to our government for martial law, but hope they will 'luff down a little easier' next time."

Milwaukee Morning Sentinel, July 3, 1862. [2]

          3, Suggestion to establish a female prison in Nashville

The following communication speaks for itself. Now dear, sweet, bewitching ladies, please don't make mouths, or talk saucy any more!

Nashville, July 2d, 1862.

Editor Nashville Union:

Sir: As a citizen of this place, interested in the welfare and happiness of its inhabitants, I think the "powers that be" could do no better than to establish a prison in which to confine female rebels. I believe every other city has been compelled to resort to this measure, and why should Nashville be so far behind other places in establishing these benevolent institutions. Why should the patriotism and good conduct of men be so carefully guarded and watched, and that of our lady friends so woefully neglected? Is it not as important to our country that its women should be instructed in lessons of patriotism and obedience to law, as that the other sex should?

Nashville Daily Union, July 3, 1862.

          3, 14, Statements of East Tennessee Unionists taken prisoner as Confederates seeking removal from Federal prison at Camp Chase, Ohio

PRISON No. 3, MESS No. 1, Camp Chase, near Columbus, Ohio, July 3, 1862.


DEAR SIR: I am a prisoner at Camp Chase, Ohio, and I feel myself a loyal man, if I could have hope [helped] myself, but I am here and wish to let you know that I was not persuaded into it, but actually driven in, as all the violators of the Confederacy were, or hung, or imprisoned. I as well as many other Union men of East Tennessee joined a company of Union home guard, gotten up by J. S. Lamb, in the Fourth District of Knox County, Tenn. I drilled with them and expressed my honest sentiments for the Union and Constitution, and for Andrew Johnson, Horace Maynard, [William G.] Brownlow and T. A. R. Nelson. I have the pleasure to announce to you that I voted for the Union three times and would have done so again and again had I had the opportunity; but, alas, we have been overrun by a military despotism that prevailed in East Tennessee for over twelve months; but after the August election had done all that I could at the ballot box for the Union, and J. S. Lamb and some others saw it plain by Governor Harris' and Zollicoffer's proclamation that we were bound to be oppressed. They gathered all they could and made an effort to cross Cumberland Mountains to Kentucky to join the U. S. Army, but we were defeated by the secesh soldiers and several prisoners taken. I got back home and kept myself hid for some time, and though all was over, I was surrounded and notified that those who were engaged in trying to get to the U. S. Army would be hunted up, and if they refused to go into service would be "sent up"-a phrase to mean shooting, hanging, or imprisonment, for they said that they would join the Union Army. I therefore consented to go into a company of sappers and miners, as I was informed it was to work and not to fight, with the intention if I had any chance to escape and get to the Union Army; and four of us boys of the same company had entered into a secret covenant, as soon as we were sure that the Union forces were near enough we would go to them and leave Mr. Secesh. Our names are as follows: J. S. Lamb, Calvin Garrett, William Martin, and myself, Joel B. Crawford. We were taken before we knew they were so near. I send this to you and I wish you as my friend to do the best you can for me. I am willing to take any oath that the War Department may require.

I am, respectfully, yours,


I know most of the above statements to be true, as Crawford is a neighbor of mine.


FROM PRISON No. 3, MESS No. 1, Camp Chase, near Columbus, Ohio, July 3, 1862.

Hon. HORACE MAYNARD, Washington, D. C.:

We, the undersigned, wish to give you as full account of the cause as possible of our being prisoners in Camp Chase, as we were Union men, as J. S. Lamb has already referred to us as his "Union fellow-sufferers in East Tennessee," by the secesh military despotism that reigned for some time in our country. We know you and our fathers were your warm supporters as well as Union lovers, and so would we have done the same, but William Martin was too young to vote, I did myself, Calvin Garrett. I know you are acquainted with our fathers, Reuben Garrett and Jonathan Martin, that live (Garrett) on the top of Copper Ridge and Martin at the foot of the same, Union County, Tenn., on the road leading from Knoxville to Maynardville, Tenn. We were with Joseph S. Lamb when he started to cross Cumberland Mountains to join the U. S. Army, but as J. S. Lamb has already informed you we were stopped by the secesh army and defeated, but we made the second attempt and again found we could not go through. We got home and were about to be taken. We scouted in the ridges for some time. We were informed that if we would give ourselves up and agree to go into the service we would not be hurt. As we saw no other prospect, by their giving us our choice of company and some time to choose, we agreed to it and put off the time as long as we could and finding no possible way to get out of it we concluded to go into a company of sappers and miners, as we were informed that that company was to work and not to fight. We had concluded to enter that company, and if any possible chance offered, if the Federal Army got close to us, we would desert and go to the Union Army. Four of us boys had entered into that covenant secretly ourselves. The names are Calvin Garrett, William Martin, Joseph S. Lamb and Joel B. Crawford. We would not wish you to publish this to the world, for if we are safely discharged from here our secesh neighbors would kill us secretly. The prisoners, some of them that are here, have threatened, particularly if an exchange takes place, that J. S. Lamb and Martin are to go up, Martin for conducting the Union boys to camp where Lamb was waiting on the sick when I (Garrett) was taken, and for telling them that there were two horses and some Union boys who would be glad to go with them, and J. S. Lamb for going and getting the powder and giving it to them in order as he said to defeat the secesh pursuit; and none of us four ever wish, as you and the War Department may judge, to be exchanged.

We wish to be discharged by taking any oath that the Department may require. We send this to you and wish you to read and lay it before the War Department, and if you can do us any good we will be under all obligations to you.

We subscribe ourselves, your obedient servant,



I know a number of the above statements to be true, and have no doubt of any, for such were common in East Tennessee.


OR, Ser. II, Vol. 4, pp. 122-123.


Statement of Joseph S. Lamb, prisoner.

CAMP CHASE, July 14, 1862.

I reside in Knox County, Tenn., ten miles from the city of Knoxville. I am the person to whom the letters of May 12 and July 10, 1862, from Horace Maynard, which are now in my possession, are addressed. I am a Union man and will continue to be as long as I dare speak and have been so all the time. I voted against secession and talked against it a long as I dared. I had a Union flag at home and have yet unless they have gotten in and robbed me of it. About the 1st of June, 1861, I had my likeness taken with the Stars and Stripes across my breast. I was well known at home as a Union man both by Union men and secessionists and can give plenty of references of Union men as to this fact.

After the time of taking my likeness and the election Gen. Zollicoffer, of the rebel army, came to Knoxville and took command and proclaimed that all those of the South should unite with the Confederacy and warning them that they had better never have been born than strike a blow against the South. Afterward, about the 9th of August, I together with Calvin Garrett, William Martin and Joel B. Crawford, now confined in prison with me at Camp Chase, with many others left our homes in Knox and Union Counties and started for Kentucky to unite with the Federal Army, then lying at or near Camp Dick Robinson. After traveling all night and the forenoon of the next day, having arrived at the foot of the Cumberland Mountains and about thirty miles on our journey, our advance was attacked by a squad of secession cavalry under command of Capt. Ashby. We were unarmed. Capt. Thornburg, of our party, was wounded in the neck and he and nine others taken prisoners. We were informed by the mountain pilots that it would be impossible to cross the Confederate lines, they being too closely guarded, upon which we all returned to our homes, narrowly escaping being taken prisoners upon our return.

In about ten or fifteen days afterward there came into my home upon me some seven armed men and arrested me and informed me that the charge was treason. At this time I had a sign on the front of my house on which I had painted "The Union." They ordered me to destroy it; to split it up. I told them I could not do that; that it showed my sentiments and I could not split it up. They swore I should do so and drew their pistols, when one of them said, "that was too hard," and took an ax and split it up and burned it. I was then cussed for a traitor and tory and abused for, as they accused me, supporting such men as Maynard, Brownlow and other Union men; and another charge they has against me at Graveston, Tenn.,[3] was that I in presence of some of their volunteers called for three cheers for the U. S. Army and for Gen. Winfield Scott, whom I served under in Mexico, and further that I had called for three groans for secession. I had called for those cheers and those groans as charged. They cursed my wife the same night they arrested me for saying she did not think the Union men were traitors and tories for maintaining their sentiments; that such a charge should rather go upon the other side.

They compelled me them to go along with them to Knoxville. There I was informed that the only way to save myself was to join the Southern Army and support the South against invasion. Being advised by my friends I did so, in hopes that the Federal Army would soon come and rescue us, and with the full determination never to fire a gun against the flag that had protected us. I had a choice as to what company I should join and I joined a company of sappers and miners, as I understood that that was a company for labor and not to fight. When I united with the company of sappers and miners I got of my wife a white handkerchief, which I have yet in my possession, remarking to her and intending that if we got in a battle with the Federal soldiers that I would wave that handkerchief as a token. That I knew that would save my life and they would not harm me, for I knew what Federal soldiers were.

I was at Big Creek Gap waiting on and cooking for some sick soldiers about the 21st day of February last, when a squad of Capt. Cross' company, of Second Tennessee (Union) Regt. [sic], came in sight some 200 yards off. I could easily have escaped after I discovered them had I had any disposition to do so. Calvin Garrett was then with me and he could have easily escaped also. Instead of making my escape I was out of doors and immediately started, meeting them walking slowly.

Garrett did not start toward them with me but did not attempt to escape. I and Crawford, Martin and Garrett and previously entered into a secret agreement that if ever we came near enough to the Federal lines that we knew we could make our escape we would do so and unite with the Federal Army. We were all of us taken prisoners the same day by Capt. Cross' company of infantry. Martin and Crawford had been taken before us and Martin piloted Capt. Cross' company to us. We were taken prisoners and have remained prisoners ever since. I understood from members of Capt. Cross' company who took me that Martin said when took him that if they would give him a gun he would go and shoot Lieut. McCauley who was in command of the rebel company. They said Martin also told them that if they would come down a mile further they would get a couple of other boys who would be anxious to go with them, alluding to me and Garrett. About the time they were going to leave after arresting myself and Garrett the thought struck me of some powder, two kegs of rifle and one of blasting powder, being laid away there, and I told them of it, saying that to take it away would defeat the pursuit of the rebel forces; and I think it proved to be so, as I understood that they gathered in force to pursue us.

I am willing and anxious to take the oath of allegiance to the Federal Government and to enlist and fight in the Federal Army till the last gun in fired if I should live or the rebellion is put down, and to support the government of Governor Andrew Johnson. I am a warm friend of William G. Brownlow and Horace Maynard and of Governor Andrew Johnson. I am firmly of the opinion that Calvin Garrett, William Martin and Joel B. Crawford have at all times at heart been Union men, are now, and if released will be good citizens of the United States and I believe they would unite with the Federal Army.


Taken, subscribed and sworn to before me this 14th day of July, A. D. 1862.

C. W. B. ALLISON, Col., Cmdg. Post, Camp Chase, Ohio.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 4, pp. 217-219.


3, Skirmish at Boiling Fork Creek, near Winchester

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the report of Major-General Philip H. Sheridan on operations during the Tullahoma Campaign relative to a skirmish at Boiling Fork Creek near Winchester, July 3, 1863:

* * * *

At 4 o'clock next morning, I marched on Winchester, driving the enemy's pickets. I directed the cavalry to charge a body of about 200 charge, but went pell-mell through the town, losing several men, taken prisoners. The enemy were driven across the Boiling Fork, a small stream about 1 ½ miles beyond the town. Here they made a stand, wounding 4 of Col. Harrison's cavalry. I then directed Gen. Lytle to advance his brigade and drive the enemy from the stream, at the same time halting the other two brigades at Winchester to ascertain if the division of Gen. Davis, which was to support me, had made to crossing of Elk River, and to open communication with Gen. Brannan, whom I expected on my left, at Decherd. Finding that Gen. Stanley was marching on Decherd with his cavalry, and that Gen. Davis had crossed the river, I continued my march on Cowan, where I arrived about 3 p. m., and found that the rear of Bragg's army had evacuated and crossed the mountain at about 11 a. m. Just before reaching Cowan I was joined by Col. Watkins, of the Sixth Kentucky, with about 1,200 cavalry, who was directed to report to me for duty. At this point, in obedience to your orders, I halted my division and went into camp. During the night I learned that the enemy had taken up a position at or near University, on the top of the mountain, about 7 miles from this place, and had covered his front with Gen. Wharton's cavalry brigade.

* * * *

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 515-516.

          3, Winchester occupied by Federal forces under Sheridan

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Report of A. McD. McCook on activities during the Tullahoma Campaign.

HDQRS. TWENTIETH ARMY CORPS, Winchester July 10, 1863

*  *  *  *  *

At daylight on the morning of the 3d of July, Sheridan entered Winchester, driving the enemy's cavalry from the town, and pursuing toward Cowan Station, on the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad. His division arrived there at 3 p. m., and went into camp. Davis' division crossed Elk River on the morning of the 3d, and marched upon Winchester, where it was encamped, the division garrisoning the town, Gen. Davis in command. The headquarters of the Twentieth Corps reached Winchester at 3 p. m. on the 3d.

* * * *

A. McD. McCOOK, Maj.-Gen. U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 467.

          3, Scouts from Memphis

JULY 3, 1863.-Scouts from Memphis, Tenn.

Report of Col. David Moore, commanding Brigade.

HDQRS. FOURTH BRIG., FIFTH DIV., SIXTEENTH A. C., Memphis, Tenn., July 4, 1863.

CAPT.: I sent heavy patrols out last night, as ordered, on Hernando and Horn Lake roads. The patrol on Horn Lake road went out 10 miles and returned, reporting no enemy. The one on Hernando road was fired upon 2 miles south of Nonconnah Creek. The fire was returned, killing one of the enemy's horses. The enemy then fled, pursued by the patrol to within 2 miles of Horn Lake, when, having been ordered to go but 10 miles, they returned, bringing no prisoners. The rebels were about 15 strong.

I have the honor to be, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

DAVID MOORE, Col., Commanding Fourth Brigade.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, p. 518


3, Skirmish near LaGrange

No circumstantial reports filed.


Mayor's Office

Memphis, July 3, 1864

Pursuant to orders from the Mayor General Commanding District of West Tennessee, the owners or lessees of all houses, sheds, enclosures or vacant lots in the city of Memphis, are hereby notified to immediately remove all grass, weeds, and rubbish from the sidewalks and gutters fronting their premises, and to fill all holes in their lots or ground in which water may collect.

Flatboats must be kept free from stagnant water, or removed without the city.

On Monday, July 18, 1864, and on each succeeding Monday, the loose dirt in front of each home or lot shall be cleaned by the owner or lessee thereof to the middle of the street, and piles made of the dirt near the edge of the gutters, when it will be the carted away at the expense of the city.

The police force, the street commissioner and wharf master are charged with this enforcement of this regulation, and they will arrest and carry before the recorder of the city all delinquents for such fine or other proceedings as the offense may deem it.

T.H. Harrison, Lieut. Col. and Acting Mayor

Memphis Bulletin, July 10, 1864.

3, Letter from Pulaski

Letter from Pulaski, Tennessee.

Camp at Pulaski, Tenn.

July 3rd, 1864.

EDITOR SENTINEL:-Thinking you would like to her from this benighted place I write you a few lines.

Pulaski, in Giles Co., Tennessee, is a very pretty place, and besides very healthy. It is in the south-western part of Tennessee, on the line of railroad running from Nashville to Stevenson. It is not a very important military post, but keeps the railroad from being destroyed. There are present some-troops here, and a batter of ten guns, twenty pounders, and I think if Forrest tries to come in here he will be fooled. Forrest and Roddy are reported to be at Decatur, a distance of 30 miles. Some of the cavalry paid him a visit about a week ago, but he did not receive them in very hospital style.

Brigadier General Starkweather is in command here at present, and he does not give the rebels much mercy. I hope he may stay here some time.

No more at present.



Milwaukee Daily Sentinel, (Milwaukee, WI) July 12, 1864. [4]

June 23, 1864, Report of Murder and a Lover's Revenge in Overton county. Pistol Packin' Momma

From the Nashville Times.


Romance of the War in Tennessee-A Young Woman Shoots a Guerrilla to Avenge the Murder of her Lover.

The following simple and unvarnished story has hardly a parallel in the pages of fiction.-Its strict truth is beyond question:

Near Murfreesboro, June 28, 1864.

To the Editor of the Times:

The original of the following letter is in my possession. The events so graphically narrated transpired in Overton county, Tenn. I knew Dr. Sadler from a small boy. The man who killed him for no personal grudge, but on account of his sentiments. I have no personal acquaintance with the young lady, but have the highest authority for stating that she is a pure, high minded girl, the daughter of a plain farmer in moderate circumstances. It only remains to state that Peteet was killed January the 30th [1864] and Gordenhire February 4, 1864, so that the vengeance they invoked has overtaken all three of the murder of M. G. Sadler.

John W. Bowen.

Martin's Creek, April 30, 1864.

Major Cliff: According to promise I now attempt to give you a statement of the reasons why I killed Turner, and a brief history of the affair. Dr. Sadler had, for two years previous to his death, seemed equally as near and as dear to me as a brother, and for several months nearer than any person-my parents not excepted. If he had not, I never would have done what I did-promise to be his.

The men who killed him had threatened his life often because he was Union man; they said he should not live, and after taking the oath they arrested him, but Lieut. Oakley released him at Pa's Gate. He stayed at Pa's till bed time, and I warned him of the danger he was in, told him I had heard his life threatened that day, and that I felt confident he would be killed if he did not leave the neighborhood and stay off until these men became reconciled. He promised to go; said he had some business in Carthage and would leave. He promised us he would leave the neighborhood that night, or by daylight next morning, and we felt assured he had gone. But for some unaccountable reason he did not leave. About 4 o'clock P. M. next day news came to me at Mr. Johnson's, where I had gone with my brother, that Dr. Sadler was killed. I had met Poteet, Gordenhire and Turner on the road and told my brother there that they were searching for Dr. Sadler to kill him. Sure enough they went to the house where he was and strange to me, after his warning, he permitted them to come in. They met him, apparently perfectly friendly, and said they had come to get some brandy from Mr. Yelton, which they obtained, and immediately after drinking all three drew their pistols and commenced firing at Sadler. He drew his, but it was snatched away from him; he then drew his knife, which was also taken from him. He then ran round the house and up a stair-way, escaping out of their sight. They followed, however, and searched till they found him, and brought him down and laid him on a bed, mortally wounded. He requested some of his people to send for Dr. Dillin to dress his wounds. It is strange to me why, but Sadler's friends had all left the room, when Turner went up and put his pistol against his temple, and shot him through the head. They all rejoiced like demons, and stood by till he made his last struggle. They then pulled his eyes open and asked in a loud voice, if he were dead. They then took his horse and saddle, and pistols, and robbed him of all his money, and otherwise insulted and abused his remains.

Now, for this, I resolved to have revenge. Peteet and Gordenhire being dead, I determined to kill Turner, and to seek an early opportunity of doing it. But I kept my resolution to myself, knowing that I would be prevented. I went prepared, but never could get to see him.

On the Thursday before I killed him, I learned he was preparing to leave for Louisiana, and I determined he should not escape if I could prevent it. I arose that morning, and fixed my pistols so that they would be sure fire, and determined to hunt all that day. Then sitting down I wrote a few lines so that if I fell, my friends might know where to look for my remains. I took my knitting, as if I were going to spend the day with a neighbor living on the road towards Turner's. It rained very severely, making the roads muddy, so that I became fatigued and concluded to go back and ride the next day, or Saturday. But Ma rode my horse on Saturday, and left me to keep house. We had company Sunday, A. M., so that I could not leave, but the company left about noon, and I started again in search of Turner. I went to his house about two and a half miles from Pa's. I found no one at home, and therefore sat down to await his return. After waiting perhaps, one-and-a-half-hours, a man came to see Turner, and not finding him, he said he supposed he and his wife had gone to Mrs. Christian's, his sister-in-law, who lived about one-half mile distant.

I concluded to go there and see, fearing the man would tell him I was waiting and he would escape me. I found him there, and a number of other persons, including his wife, and father and mother. Most of them left when I entered the house I asked Mrs. Christian if Turner were gone. She pointed to him at the gate, just leaving. I looked at the clock and it was 4½ o'clock P. M. I then walked out into the yard, and as Turner was starting called to him to stop. He turned I fired at the distance of about 12 paces, and missed. I fired again as quick as possible, and hit him in the back of the head, and he fell on his face and knees I fired again and hit him in the back, and he fell upon his right side. I fired twice before, only one of these shots taking effect. By this time I was in five steps of him, and stood and watched him till he was dead. [emphasis added] I then turned round and walked toward the house and met Mrs. Christian and her sister coming out. They asked me what I did that for. My response was, "You know what that man did the 13th of December last-murdered a dear friend of mine. I have been determined to do this deed ever since, and I shall never regret it." They said no more to me, but commenced blowing a horn. I got my horse out and started home, where I shall stay or leave when I choose, going where I please and saying what I please.

Chattanooga Daily Gazette, July 3, 1864.


3, Lifting of martial law in Memphis


Memphis, Tenn., July 3, 1865.

[Extract III]

Extract I, Special Orders No. 70, and Extract I, Special orders No. 83, series of 1364, from these Headquarters, are hereby revoked, and the officers appointed by them will cease to exercise their functions after this date.

They will also turn over to the officers elect all books and papers pertaining to their several offices.

By order of Major-General Jno. E. Smith

Davis, History of the City of Memphis, p. 47.


[1] See also: Memphis Daily Union, August 27, 1862

[2] TSL&A, 19th CN

[3] Unknown.

[4] TSL&A, 19th CN.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX