Friday, May 6, 2016

Notes from Civil War Tennessee, May 6, 1861 – 1865.

Notes from Civil War Tennessee,

May 6, 1861 – 1865.




          6, Arrest of prominent East Tennessee Unionist Thomas A. R. Nelson[1]


Knoxville, August 6, 1861.

Adjt. Gen. S. COOPER, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Thomas A. R. Nelson, with an escort of three men, supposed to be on his way to take his seat in the Federal Congress at Washington, was arrested about midnight night before last in Lee County, Virginia, by a company of Home Guards of that county. He was brought to a camp under my command at Cumberland Gap, and was from there sent, under a guard of 60 men, to Abingdon, Va. These facts are to-day communicated to me by Lieut.-Col. Walker, of Cumberland Gap. The knowledge of the event has apparently produced much excitement among Nelson's adherents here, giving rise to menacing language.

I have information from various sources, apparently reliable, that different bodies of men in the counties of Southeastern Kentucky, estimated to amount in the aggregate to several thousand, are under military organization, and are threatening to force a passage through the mountains into East Tennessee. The Federalists here, I am now well advised, are awaiting such a movement. My impression is that a large number of Union men are opposed to it, but there are very many Lincoln men here who will be restrained from co-operating only by considerations of policy or apprehensions of the consequences. A very large amount of arms and ammunition has been placed by the Lincoln Government in Kentucky. Anderson (of Sumter memory) is by the Federalists here believed to be the leading military man. A Kentuckian named Nelson, late a lieutenant in the U. S. Navy, by some said to be Anderson's aide, by others said to be a newly-appointed general, having his headquarters at Cincinnati, is the most prominent man in getting up the threatened invasion of East Tennessee. My information goes to show that they contemplate a movement very soon, but I am not sufficiently advised of their state of preparation. It is becoming difficult to command reliable information, on account of the apprehension felt by spies in that region.

I send you a copy of the best map I am able to have made of the topography of country about the Kentucky line. It has been gathered from the best information I could get from scouts, but think it may be imperfect. The centers of their military organizations seem to be Crab Orchard, London, Somerset, Barboursville, Albany, Columbia, and Boston. The principal gaps in the mountain are Cumberland, Big Creek, Elk, and the passes by Chitwood's and Camp McGinnis, but the top of the mountain is comparatively flat and 30 or 40 miles broad and there are innumerable bridle-path passes intervening between Cumberland Gap and Camp McGinnis. My purpose is to form a chain of infantry posts at Cumberland Gap, Big Creek Gap, Elk Gap, Camp McGinnis, and Livingston, for which I have 33 infantry companies, all but one regiment very raw troops. There are six cavalry companies, which I propose to use as scouts, advanced posts, and to pass intelligence rapidly along the line of infantry posts. I will have a constant patrol at Archer's Gap, Chitwood's, and at other advanced posts near the Kentucky line, patrolling scouts of cavalry traversing the various paths leading across the mountains, the objects being to cut off communication between Kentucky and Tennessee Federalists, seize arms, or prevent them from being brought over, &c. Should there be an approach of Kentuckians in much force, I could soon concentrate upon the line of approach. I have a regiment here, one I am disposing at different bridges on the railroad, and sixteen other companies of infantry, the latter entirely undisciplined and some of them without arms. I hope in a few days to have a battalion of cavalry for service in connection with the road. There are three field pieces of artillery at Cumberland Gap, used as a fixed battery, with no experienced artillerists. Here there is a field artillery company with six 6-pounders, which might be taken to the Kentucky border when required.

I have great reason to fear that our friends in Kentucky are powerless to resist the complete dominancy of the Lincoln forces. I have thus far obtained no knowledge of the state of things in Southwestern Virginia or on the Kanawha.

Very respectfully,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 4, pp. 381-383.[2]

The Nelson Arrest

The Knoxville Whig of 24th contains the promised address of the Hon. Thomas A.R. Nelson to the people of East Tennessee. It occupies two columns of the Whig. After stating the causes which led to his flight the mode of his arrest, the reason for his Unionism, with which the reader is already familiar, he says:-

"While on the way to Richmond I had some conversation with a portion of Tennessee delegation to the Southern Congress, and other public men connected with the Southern Confederacy. The intense solitude which was expressed, especially by the most prominent and distinguished of the original Secessionists, who, without any request on my part, volunteered their kind offices, with generous liberality, in regard to the  (not legible) of the people of East Tennessee, and the unusual kindness and consideration with which I was treated as a prisoner, convinced me that I was in error in supposing that the military power would be exerted for any other purpose than that of retaining the railroad and of aggressive acts on our part.

"Acting under this changed conviction, believing that, if I were retained as a prisoner, or punished with death, under any strained construction of the treason laws, my friends in East Tennessee would in either event retaliate by arresting public men of the opposite party here, that this would lead to counter arrests, and that the horrors of civil war would immediately exist among us, I felt that it was due to you and to myself that I should obtain my release as soon as possible, on the best terms I could effect without dishonor; and, after various informal propositions, I finally addressed to President Davis the following letter:-

"Richmond, Aug. 12, 1861.

"To His Excellency Jeff Davis, President of the Confederate States."

"'Sir: I have been arrested, and, as I learned since my arrival in this city, upon the charge of treason, but whether against the State of Tennessee or the Confederate States I am not advised, I am conscious of no act, either against the State or the Confederacy, that will support or sustain such an accusation.

"'I am sincerely anxious to preserve the peace and quiet of East Tennessee, the section of the State in which I reside, as best promotive of the peace and interest of the entire State. I ask to be discharged from a vexatious prosecution, that I may return home peacefully to follow my private interests and pursuits, assuring you Excellency that I will not, directly or indirectly, by counsel, advice or action, encourage, aid or assist the United States Government to invade or attain success in the present struggle with Confederate States, nor will I counsel or advise others to threat or cripple the Confederate States in the pending contest with the United States, nor will I do so by own acts.

"In view off the increased majority in the election which has just taken place in Tennessee, I shall feel it my duty, as a citizen of that State, to submit to her late action, and shall religiously abstain from any other words or acts of condemnation or opposition to her Government.

"'The parties arrested with me, with the exception of my son, who acted by my command, were mere guides and conductors through mountain passes, on my way to my place of destination; and, whatever view may be taken of my own course, they are innocent-in no way responsible, legally or morally-and have committed no offence against the laws of the Confederacy or the State of Tennessee; and I ask that they also be discharged from custody by your Excellency.

"'Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

"'Thos. A R. Nelson.'"

"To which the following answer was returned:

"Richmond, Aug. 13, 1861.

"'Sir:-I have received your letter of the 12th inst., in which you ask to be discharged from arrest and prosecution, and make promise that you will, as a citizen of Tennessee, submit to her late action, and religiously abstain from any further words or acts of condemnation whatever, or opposition to her Government.

The desire of this Government, being to maintain the independence it has asserted by the united feeling and action of all its citizens, it has been its policy no to enter into questions of differences of political opinions heretofore existing.

"'I am, therefore, pleased to be spared the necessity of inquiring whether the accusation against you will be founded or not vexatious or not, and to rest content with your submission as a loyal citizen of your State to her recent action in adhering to this Confederacy, and adopting its permanent Constitution by an increased majority. I have ordered your discharge, and that of your companions, from custody. I am, &c.

"'Jefferson Davis.


"' Since my return home, I am thoroughly satisfied that my friends would have risked the action I dreaded; and, upon the most mature reflections, am content with my own course in the premises. But whether it was right or wrong, wide or unwise, I feel bound, as an honorable man, to act up to the spirit and letter of the obligation I assumed. I shall offer no plea of duress; because neither the Southern Confederacy nor any other earthly power could have compelled me to make an agreement that my judgment and conscience did not approve in the situation in which I was placed.

"No terms or conditions, expressed or implied, public or private, attended my release other than those plain expressed in the two above quoted; but I have thought it due to our past relations and painful solitude many of you have felt in my behalf, that I should thus briefly address you

"While, I do not promise allegiance or active support to the Southern Confederacy, and will not advise you to assume any obligations contrary to your convictions of duty, I feel perfectly free to say that the failure of the Government of the United States for four long months to sustain us in our positions; its apparent inability to do so, since the battle of Manassas, within any reasonable time; the deliberate scion of our State in the August election; the assurances of public men that no test oaths or drafting measures will be adopted or required, the mutual hatred which has grown up between the antagonist sections of the Union, and the recent confiscation laws which have been either adopted or proposed on both sides, as well as other causes, have painfully impressed my own mind with the belief that unless some wonderful and improbable change is effected, our beloved Union is gone forever, and it is our policy and duty to submit to a result which, however we may deplore it, seems to be inevitable.

Aware that my advice as well as my motives may be liable to misconstruction, I would still respectfully recommend to my friends the propriety of abstaining from all further opposition or resistance to the Confederate authorities, or the action of our own State, and should this be done, although I have no authority to speak for them, I am satisfied that no military power will be exerted among us, except such as may be indispensably necessary to retain military possession of East Tennessee. And to those of our citizens who have gone beyond the limits of the State, either through fear or the purpose of arming themselves to resist a course of action which is disavowed in Gen. Polk's letter, I think I can safely say, without arrogance, that from the course which was adopted towards me, they would risk nothing by returning to the State and submitting to a result which they have in vain endeavored to prevent. Thos. A.R. Nelson.

Knoxville, Tenn., Aug. 7, 1861

The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 2, 1861

          6, Prominent Memphis capitalists seek immunity from induction into Confederate army via formation of "Memphis Legion"

MEMPHIS, TENN., August 6, 1861.

Gen. L. POLK, Cmdg.:

SIR: The undersigned, officers of the Memphis Legion, beg leave to represent that since the war proclamation of President Lincoln in April last, nearly 4,000 citizens of Memphis and vicinity have gone into the Army of the Southern Confederacy, leaving at home only the heads of families and business men, who cannot go into regular service until compelled by dire necessity. Of this class about 700 have formed a military organization, known as the Memphis Legion, many members of which are men of prominence and influence, who have large amounts invested in the commercial and manufacturing interests of this place and cannot leave without great pecuniary sacrifice, and, as we believe, without great inconvenience to the public. We think it is essentially necessary that the great commercial and manufacturing interests of Memphis should be encouraged and sustained to the utmost extent, that we may continue to furnish that portion of the surrounding country with the supplies and means which are expected of us to maintain the various relations existing between this and other communities. Hence it is, we think, important that as many of our enterprising merchants and manufacturers should remain at home and so arrange their military connections as to enable them to give a considerable portion of their time to business operations. As originally intended, our organization contemplated no other object than the protection of our families and our homes. It is thought, however, that we can make our legion more effective for this purpose and more useful to the public by placing ourselves under your command, which we will cheerfully do, provided that the War Department will receive us on the terms proposed or suggested in your memorandum to Col. Worsham, namely, to be subject to the other of the commanding general at this place, and to be detailed for duty mainly for the defense of Memphis and immediate vicinity (with the understanding that when not on duty our members may be allowed the privilege of attending to their ordinary business). We are led to believe that there are duties required here which can be performed by us under this arrangement. The subject of pay and subsistence, together with those of uniforms and arms, we leave to be settled by yourself and the Department, but would remark that we are poorly armed and equipped; in fact have not enough, nor but few of the right sort. We hope you are in possession of facts enough to appreciate our motives, and will only add that if you approve of these suggestions and they are practicable and proper, we will feel grateful if you will ascertain the views of the War Department of the subject, the same to be agreed upon for the term of one year.

Respectfully, your obedient servants,

L. V. DIXON, Col.

J. J. WORSHAM, Lieut.-Col.


JOHN B. WELD, Adjutant.

[AND 9 CAPT. S.]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 127-128.

6, Northern newspaper report on impressment of Negroes in Tennessee

Negroes Impressed in Tennessee. – A number of colored persons have arrived in Cincinnati from Tennessee, having fled to escape the conscription ordered by the Tennessee authorities of all free colored men between the ages of eighteen and fifty-five for the Confederate army, and of all women who are fit for service for camp and hospital service. They state that the impressment was without previous notice, and so sudden that very few escaped. Those who came here had to abandon everything, some of them considerable property. They state that the free people of color are promised that if they serve faithfully through the war they will be made citizens. In the North colored companies have been offered to the Government and rejected. – Cincinnati Gazette.

Daily National Intelligencer (Washington DC) August 6, 1861.[3]





          6, "From Middle Tennessee."

We learn that at Columbia, the county seat of Maury county, an attempt was made about ten days since, to get up a grand "Union" demonstration, which terminated in a most humiliating and disgraceful failure. Flaming posters were handed around the streets and stuck up at public places, announcing that the "loyal" citizens of Maury, would, on a certain day, present General Negley's brigade of Hessian invaders with a "Union" flag. Accordingly, upon the appointed occasion, the brigade assembled at the court house to hear its blushing honors, when but three citizens, of the whole population of Maury, presented themselves as participants in the infamous and reasonable procedure! This trio of traitors should be handed down to posterity, and we accordingly give their names: C. P. Bynum, C. D. Crawford, and Junius Wilson, all three of whom have long been regard a men of doubtful loyalty.[4]

It is stated that the Federal commander, Negley, was so mortified at this demonstration of "Union sentiment," that his whole speech in reply to the presentation, consisted in a protest against the policy of the movement as one calculated to divide and exasperate the people. It proved a complete "fizzle" in every respect, and only served to attest the stern and unwavering devotion of the people to the Confederate cause.

We are pleased to learn that the people of Middle Tennessee – even those who were once lukewarm in support of the war – are every day becoming more bitterly opposed to the rule of Andrew Johnson and his minions, by reason of their atrocious outrages on the rights of persons and property.

Memphis Appeal, May 6, 1862.

          6, Newspaper report on conditions in Memphis

Dullness and Distress in Memphis.

Memphis, according to the refugees, is dull as an abandoned cemetery; and so many people have left there that they do not think out of a population of thirty thousand, claimed there before the commencement of the Rebellion, there are now no more than twelve thousand in the city. Nearly all the stores are closed, and the proprietors of the few that are open, keep very few goods to sell; having secreted the greater part of their stock to prevent its being stolen.

No one wants to sell anything, but endeavors to avoid selling; knowing that the wretched shinplasters, which form the staple of the currency in retail circles, are entirely worthless. There is no gold or silver in Memphis or vicinity, and no notes [scratch in film] of the Bank of Tennessee, but in their stead the town is flooded with five, ten, and twenty-five and fifty cent issues of the Tennessee and Mississippi Railway.

Great distress prevails among the people, and has prevailed for six months, in consequence of the severest poverty, and a great many laboring men and mechanics have been compelled to join the Southern army to obtain the common necessaries of life.

Nashville Daily Union, May 6, 1862.

          6, "…an immense number of hearty yeomen, who came filled with love of country to overflowing, and greater enthusiasm on no occasion was ever manifested."

Tennessee Moving for the Union.

Great Meeting of Unionists in Alexandria, Tenn.

Mr. Editor:--Please permit us through your columns to publish to the world the fact that the Union feeling is reviving in Middle Tennessee. On Saturday, the 3d day of May—a day appointed for public speaking and hoisting the Union flag—early in the morning there began to pour into the town of Alexandria, from the hill-tops and fertile vallies, an immense number of hearty yeomen, who came filled with love of country to overflowing, and greater enthusiasm on no occasion was ever manifested. After the pole was raised, and everything made ready for hoisting the flag, the crowd proceeded to the house of Mr. O. D. Williams, a staunch and unflinching Union man, where the flag was received from the hands of his lady, Mrs. Williams, with the following appropriate address:

"Sir:--It is my happy lot to present to you, on this occasion, this flag, the emblem of American independence and republican institutions, which I here hold, to be placed by you and your patriotic associates, in behalf of the loyal citizens of this community, upon this pole of liberty, planted for the purpose; yes, a hickory pole, the representative of Tennessee's greatest hero and most illustrious statesman. Place it there to flutter in the breezes of heaven, as a beacon light and hope anchor for the loyal citizens of this community. It is scarcely one year ago that the American flag here was trailed contemptuously in the dust, to be replaced by the serpent like one of secession which flaunted aloft its defiant folds to the admiring gaze of its phrenzied votaries. They exalted for being able to profanely trample under foot the Constitution and laws of their country.

"Loyal men stood aghast, despondingly contemplating the horrid scene. And for a time the children of darkness seemed to prevail. But behold what a change has come over the land! Union men are no longer stricken with terror at the hissing threats of secessionists. The Constitution and the laws are being vindicated; disunion myrmidons are flying every where, with lightning speed, before the conquering marches of the Union soldiery. The Federal army is now, Jasper like, restoring its colors, affording protection to the people, and restoring order wherever they go.

"I heartily congratulate you, sir, upon the recent brilliant achievements of our brave army. In them I can behold, as I sincerely trust, the dawn of an early peace, which I ardently hope will never again be disturbed by the causes which have lately and now mar it. I must confess that the satisfaction which I experience on the present occasion would be greatly abridged if I did not believe that the loyal men of this village and vicinity are now ready, and will defend if necessary, with their strong arms the flag; and will strike down any vandal hands that may again attempt to tear it from its position; for it is the flag of Washington and his compatriots, under which our country achieved independence and attained to greatness—a flag that has afforded protection at home and secured respect abroad, and is the hope of republican institutions and the rights of mankind throughout the world. Who would oppose such a flag? None, I hope, in a short time.

"In conclusion, sir, I will ask of you again to raise aloft in our midst the Star Spangled Banner, that it may continue to wave over the land of the free, and the home of the brave."

Col. Wm. Stokes received the flag, and in his eloquent manner pledged the fidelity of the crowd to that flag, and the certainty of its never being removed. Captain Henry proposed three cheers for the flag received from Mrs. Williams, which was answered with three deafening shouts. The flag was then run up, and the joy of the crowd was unbounded.

The crowd was then addressed by Col. Stokes, who spoke nearly three hours, reviewing the past, and showing up what he conceived would be the developments of the future. The crowd then dispersed to meet at New Middleton, on Saturday, the 10th day of May, there to be again addressed by Col. Stokes.

Nashville Daily Union, May 6, 1862.

6, Renewing police surveillance of free Negroes in Nashville

To Free Colored Persons.—Almost every day one or more colored persons are brought before the Recorder, charged with being out without a certificate, and fined. Most of them are aware that the law requires them to have their certificate always with them; but the old police being acquainted with all those doing business in town, they were never molested, and the consequence is, they left their certificates at home. A new set of policemen having been appointed, colored persons must comply with the law.

Nashville Dispatch, May 6, 1862.

          6, The condition of Overton Hospital

Overton Hospital.—We have again and again been asked to call public attention to the condition of the Overton Hospital. We have not done so because we have reason to believe that a newspaper article on the subject would not aid in producing the change that is desired. The hospital is entirely under military authority. The assistance formerly given by the citizens' committee to such good purpose has been dispensed with. Those who wish to see a change at the hospital should draw up a brief and plain statement of fact; let it be signed by well-known parties personally acquainted with the facts stated, and forwarded it to Gen. Beauregard. The general's well-known humanity might be relied on for the rest.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 6, 1862.




          6, "I knew nothing about reconnoitering, never did such a thing and didn't know how to go about it…." Federal reconnoitering at La Vergne

No circumstantial reports filed. [5]

...On the morning of May 6th an order came transferring us from this brigade in which we have always been to this new brigade....

On the same morning desptaches [sic] came from General Steedman at Lavergne [sic], a place on the railroad midway between here and Nashville, saying that he had been driven in the day before by about 6000 [sic] cavalry and mounted infantry, advancing from Lebanon, and that the railroad was in imminent danger...[we were ordered to] proceed immediately to Lavergne [sic]....I started to see the brigade commander, found him, and he told me where to find corn, and he also told me to have my command in the saddle by 6 in the morning as he would send me in command of a reconnoitering force to hunt up the enemy. Here was a fine fix.

I knew nothing about reconnoitering, never did such a thing and didn't know how to go about it, and here now I was to take four or five hundred men, with a guide, and strike out among the cedar thickets, rocks, hills and ravines of this abominable Stone [sic] River county to find the location, strength &c of an enemy who knew the country well, and were reported to be five or six thousand strong. As I laid down on a brush pile in the woods to sleep that night visions of Libby prison loomed up before me, and as I started in the morning I looked at my blankets strapped to my saddle and wondered whether I could sleep comfortably under the next night while one of my southern brethren stood guard over me; but my duty was to obey and let results take care of themselves; I dare not plead ignorance, so I was up betimes, and with my own command reinforced by 150 men from another regiment I struck out into a bridle path over the hills and after moving northward about 8 miles came to a ford across Stone River. Halting here I sent 150 men across the River with orders to divide into 5 parties of 30 each and scour the country as far as they could safely go, in search of rebels, "contraband" horses and mules, and report to me at the ford at 3 o'clock in the afternoon. Posting pickets then around my remaining force I sat down to await the result; everything was quite until noon and I went into a house near by where I found a fine old lady and her handsome intelligent daughter -- intimated that I could eat some dinner, and soon had a very good dinner.

While eating word was brought from one of my pickets that he had seen a party of mounted men some distance from him and supposed them to be rebels. To drop the dinner, mount and hasten to the picket post was the work of a moment; just as I reached the post I saw a man dismount and enter a house on a hill about a half mile distant; I could see the flashing of his saber scabbard but couldn't distinguish the color of his uniform, by concluded it was a rebel, as my men were miles away by that time and I determined to "bag" him, so sending back for 5 men, I made a circuit through the timber and surrounded the house, then dismounting, with pistol in hand I walked to the door of the house and on looking in saw one of Uncle Sam's boys quietly putting himself outside of a chunk of "pone" and a bowl of milk. I ascertained that he belonged to another force...who...had lost his way....My hope of capturing a live butternut having thus vanished, I sent the man off to find his command and pilot them through to me, while I returned to my party, and in about an hour the Major with about 100 men reached me; being his senior he asked me for orders and I sent him across the river with his command to follow up and join my men sent out in the morning, which he did, just as a party of 100 rebels had attached a detached party of 50 of my men. They drove the rebels, killing one, wounding two and killing two horses.

My scouting parties were all in safely by half past three o'clock and we moved to Lavergne [sic], having learned that there was no considerable force of the enemy nearer than Lebanon....

Three Years in the Army of the Cumberland, pp. 59-61.

          6, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 102, relative to increase of wall tents for infantry and cavalry regimental commanders in the Army of the Cumberland


Murfreesborough, Tenn., May 6, 1863.

General Orders, No. 78, current Series, from these headquarters, are so amended as to allow four instead of three wall tents to the field and staff officers of each regiment of infantry, and five instead of three to the field and staff officers of every regiment of cavalry having twelve companies and the full number of field and staff officers prescribed for such an organization. Cavalry regiments having a less number of companies will be limited to the allowance prescribed by these orders for regiments of infantry.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 314.





          6, "A Dangerous Toy"

For several months past we have noticed as a favorite amusement among the juveniles of our city the use of a certain ingenuously contrived toy for throwing missiles such as small stones or pieces of brick, We never have known a boy who was not fond of casting stones, either at some target or in the air, and when a youth is the happy possessor of a sling, or some such a plaything as that which we have alluded to, he is delighted and consequently indulges in the use of it almost constantly. This might [pass?] in the country, but in town where there are more windows and more people which may accidentally come between the lad and the target which he shoots at, throwing stones will not begin to do. Last evening a Mr. Murphy, while standing on the corner of Union and Second streets, received quite a severe wound in his face from a missile, which was accidentally shot in that direction from one of those playthings in the hand of a little boy upon the opposite side of the street, who was as much alarmed at striking him as he was injured by his carelessness. The use of this toy should attract the attention of parents.[6]

Memphis Bulletin, May 6, 1864.

          6, "A Terrible Railroad Accident"

A train on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad bound for this city, and containing a large number of soldiers, collided with a construction train near South Tunnel, south of Gallatin, yesterday morning, by which three or four soldiers were killed and about sixty wounded, several it is feared, mortally. The cars were badly wrecked. This accident delayed the mail train, which arrived here something over two hours behind time. We believe the wounded were brought to this city.

Nashville Dispatch, May 6, 1864.

          6, Inventory of supplies for the Quartermaster's Department, Army of the Tennessee


Chattanooga, Tenn., May 6, 1864.

Lieut. Col. W. T. CLARK, Chief of Staff, Hdqrs. Dept. and Army of the Tennessee:

COL.: I have the honor to make the following statement of supplies in the Army of the Tennessee:

Each regiment of the Fifteenth Corps has three wagons, one for officers, one for the companies, and one for the medical department; each brigade headquarters two wagons; each division headquarters three wagons. The remainder of the wagons are organized into supply trains and kept in camp at Chattanooga, when not hauling supplies to the corps. Some of the trains have not yet arrived at Chattanooga. Each division is supplied with fifty wagon-loads of ammunition. The Second and Fourth Divisions are supplied with ten days' rations from May 6; the First Division with five days' rations from May 6. Twenty-five wagon-loads of forage have been sent to the Fourth Division, and twenty-three wagon loads to the Second Division (on May 6). The First Division train will be in to-night, May 6, for forage. Left Wing, Sixteenth Corps, is supplied as follows: Two wagons for each regiment; the remainder en route to Chattanooga, and organized as in Fifteenth Corps. Up to this time wagons have been furnished to Sixteenth Corps by the Fifteenth, and twenty wagons are now waiting here to load for that corps; forty more will be furnished to-morrow. The divisions have four days' rations from May 6. Forty wagon-loads of ammunition were sent to Gen. Dodge's command May 6, and twenty wagon-loads of forage. There are wagons enough here now to keep up the supplies, and the remainder are arriving daily. Gen. Dodge's trains are expected to be in by to-morrow night.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. D. BINGHAM, Lieut. Col. and Chief Quartermaster Dept. of the Tennessee.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. IV, pp. 52-53.





                    6, "While the two were engaged in robbing the house one of the other two seized me and commenced taking liberties with my person." Martha Marshall's Narrative; A Post-War Bushwhacker Attack in Franklin County

On Saturday the sixth day of May A. D. 1865 about one o'clock a party of four men rode up to my house in Franklin County Tenn. They came to the door and pushed said door open. Geo Pless who was then living there opened the door. They asked who lives here. He answered Pless. They then asked if this was the place Nelson was killed at. This Nelson was a Guerrilla Capt & killed my brother in law while surprised in robbing the house, some time previous. Pless answered them no sir this is not the place. The same man then came in and hitting Pless over the head forced him to sit down. They or two of them then commenced robbing the house. While the two were engaged in robbing the house one of the other two seized me and commenced taking liberties with my person. I broke away from him, and going to one of the others appealed to him to make the other stop which he did. They then dragged Mr. Pless into the floor and told him they were going to kill him that if he wanted to pray he must do so then. Mr. Pless got to his knees to pray just at that time I started to leave with my two little children just as I got to the door the one who was about to kill Mr. Pless stepped to the door and told the two who were there to guard us and to see to it I did not get away. He then took Mr. Pless out of the house to kill him when the same man who made the one spoken of above leave me alone took him Pless from the other. Mr. Pless succeeded in slipping off and affected his escape. Three of them then rode off leaving one of their party behind. The man left behind entered the house and catching Mrs Pless was about affecting his purpose on her person when she begged him to desist saying it would kill her since she was expecting every moment to be confined. He says then by G__D___ I'll have that other woman and catching hold of my babe which I had in my arms threw it in the backside of the bed. He then caught holt [sic] of me & threw me up on the bed and threatened to kill me. I again jumped off when he caught both hands and forced me down in the bed striking me in the side with his fist or pistol he said G___D____ you, you push me off & I will kill your baby. He succeeded in attaining his purpose. I with Mrs Pless & children left the house and went over to my fathers. While at my fathers the four again entered but left. While we were at the house the one who raped me there jumped on the bed for the purpose of burning the house. Mrs Pless extinguished it. Their brutality toward me was most inhumane. The whole party was very large but four entered the house. I did not recognize any of the parties.

Blood and Fire, pp. 162-163.

          6, Federal authorities prohibit wearing of insignia or uniforms of late Confederate army in East Tennessee


I. Hereafter any person found within the limits of this command, wearing or having about his person the badges, insignia, or uniform of an officer of the late Confederate armies, will be considered as guilty of an act of hostility toward the United States Government and will subject himself to arrest and imprisonment.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Stoneman:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 638.

          6, General Orders, No. 52, relative of amnesty oath for former Confederate soldiers


For the information of whom it may concern, the following dispatch from Maj. Gen. G. H. Thomas, commanding Department of the Cumberland, is published:

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, Tenn., May 6, 1865.

Maj. Gen. C. C. WASHBURN, Memphis:

You are authorized to administer the amnesty oath to rebel soldiers, but not to officers or citizens. It is now too late for them to be reaping the benefits of the amnesty proclamation, after having maintained an attitude of hostility for four years.

By command of Maj. Gen. G. H. Thomas:

* * * *

WM. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

Citizens who left our lines and sought refuge in rebeldom, and have resisted all persuasions to return until the present moment, will not be allowed to return to Memphis at present. Confederate officers returning to this district paroled from the armies of Lee, Johnston, and Taylor will not be allowed to wear their uniform or any badge reminding of their treason. Paroled enlisted men, or those who have taken the amnesty oath, will be required to divest themselves of their rebel uniforms as soon as they can procure other clothing, and they are given thirty days from the time of their coming into the district to do this.

By order of Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn:

WM. H. MORGAN, Maj. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 671.








[1] Aug. 4, 1861--Arrest of Hon. Thomas A. R. Nelson on his way to the Union lines.

Aug 13, 1861.--President Davis orders Nelson's discharge.

[2] See also: OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, p. 825.


[4] Meaning loyalty to the Confederacy.

[5] Listed neither in OR nor Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

[6] It is not known what this toy looked like or how it operated. It is tempting to call it a "war toy," some class of spring-loaded gun which fired stones. It does not sound as though it was a sling (or "slung") shot. It indicates the general acceptance of violence in civilian-juveniles engendered by the war. It was a dangerous, potentially lethal, "toy."


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Editor, The Courier

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


Thursday, May 5, 2016

Notes from Civil War Tennessee,May 5, 1861 – 1865.

Notes from Civil War Tennessee,

May 5, 1861 – 1865.




            5, Concerns about secession expressed by one Madison County yeoman farmer

…. times are so critical [sic] the South will have to feed itself, heretofore has drawn large supplies from the North. Lincoln's forces are already stationed at Cairo to cut off arms & munitions of war destined South & provisions. They intend whiping [sic] the South, & don't intend that they; shall have any arms to fight with and starve men, women and children and the poor down trodden [sic] for whom they pretend to feel so deeply.

Robert H. Cartmell Diary.

            5, Tents

Camp Equipments.

We have received a communication on this subject of which we give a portion below, and call the attention of the military board to the subject. The comments are made by one who has a practical knowledge of the subject.

["] The tents are made of a material that is too thin; it does not turn rain, nor does it protect from the cold nor from the heat of the sun. Double the material of which the tents are made and the defect will in some measure be remedied. "Oh, no, this costs too much!" Poor economy, gentlemen, when the efficiency of your army is considered; poor economy, gentlemen, when the lives of your soldiers are put in the scale. Ask the mothers and sisters whose sons and brothers are there, what they think of the few paltry dollars it would take to make the soldier barely comfortable, for that is all he asks, for our common protection; but O, ye rulers! it is as little as you can do to provide for his comfort, without which his health is sacrificed. If you cannot do that, call on us and we will contribute our jewelry to the last ring, guard, token of affection though it be.

The tents are badly made. When the rope goes through the cloth there are no ilet [sic] holes, and, consequently the tents tear the first time they are pitched, and a few removals will render them useless. There is no such thing as closing the door way. There should be a fly, supported by two sticks, for shade in the day time, and to be let down for protection from cold air at night.

I do not blame those who have furnished these tents, for they did all they knew how to do, but I hope that they will remedy the defect now that it is pointed out to them.

The officers have no better tents than the men. There is not a table to write on in the whole encampment, and the luxury of a chair, even a camp stool, is unheard of. Let this thing be remedied, gentlemen who control, and you will be thanked by the soldiers; neglect them, and you will hear a voice that no ruler has ever heard with impunity. I return to my company, the Southern Guards, on Monday, and will keep the mothers and sisters of our young men informed of how they are treated.

T. J. F.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 5, 1861.

            5, Flag presentation to the Bluff City Guards

Presentation on Court Square.—WE thank our friend W. K. Poston, Esq., for copies of the address made by Mrs. Geo. Dixon yesterday on presenting a beautiful flag to the gallant company of Bluff City Guards, on the part of the mothers, wives, and sisters of members of the corps, and of the reply of Capt. Edmondson, but to our regret the crowded state of our columns render their insertion impossible. The address is an eloquent incentive to noble deeds; the reply is a manly and chivalric expression of the determination of the corps so to act as to honor the flag so flatteringly presented.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 5, 1861.

            5, Hickory Rifles flag presentation

Flag to the Hickory Rifles.—Captain Martin's fine company, the Hickory Rifles, all entered Dr. Grundy's church last evening to receive a flag offered them by the ladies of Memphis. The gallant fellows, all in full marching trim, made a fine, manly appearance. The beautiful flag, a perfect bijou in make and material, was presented by Miss white in an address admirably conceived and touchingly delivered admirably conceived and touchingly delivered; both matter and manner were greatly admired. The address was responded to in a neat and graceful reply by Chas. Pacie, Esq.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 5, 1861.




            5, Action at Lebanon. John Hunt Morgan Caught Asleep by Combined Union Cavalry and Infantry Force

MAY 5, 1862.-Action at Lebanon, Tenn.


No. 1.-Brig. Gen. Ebenezer Dumont, U. S. Army.

No. 2.-Col. William W. Duffield, Ninth Michigan Infantry.

No. 1

Report of Brig. Gen. Ebenezer Dumont, U. S. Army.

LEBANON, TENN., May 5, 1862.

I surprised and attacked the enemy under Col.'s Morgan[1] and Wood this morning at 4 o'clock at this place, and after a hard-fought battle of one and a half hours and a running fight of 15 miles in pursuit achieved a complete and substantial victory. My force was about 600, composed of detachments from Col. Wynkoop, G. Clay Smith, and Wolford; that of the enemy, as stated by himself, upward of 800, besides which the disloyal inhabitants not in the army opened a murderous fire on our soldiers from their houses and kept it up until all the organized forces of the enemy had fled or been slain or captured. The loyal inhabitants-not a few, but having no arms-could render us no assistance. Forces on either side were exclusively mounted troops. I captured, say, 150 prisoners, among whom is one Col. Wood, 3 captains, and 4 lieutenants; upward of 150 horses and upward of 100 stand of arms, I would think. Our killed will not exceed, as now advised, 6, and our wounded 25. Among the latter is Col. G. Clay Smith, Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, in the abdomen, dangerously. I am not as yet advised that we lost any prisoners except Maj. Given, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, who fell into the hands of the enemy during the street fight by mistaking the enemy for our own troops.

I will make a detailed report [see below] as soon as I can get returns which will enable me to make it strictly accurate; they are not yet in. The detailed report can make little change or in any way affect the substantial value of the victory that was and is complete and overwhelming.

Never did men behave better. It will be my duty in my detailed report to mention meritorious conduct, a duty which justice to the meritorious requires and which I shall execute with exceeding delight, for in this little affair intrepidity, personal daring, and heroic courage were conspicuous from the firing of the first to the last gun. Battles of more import, measured by the number of troops engaged or results, might afford less to commend than does the battle of Lebanon of May 5.

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,

E. DUMONT, Brig.-Gen.

No. 2

Reports of Col. William W. Duffield, Ninth Michigan Infantry.


I have this instant returned from Lebanon after a four days' chase after Morgan. Detachment of Seventh Pennsylvania and First and Fourth Kentucky Cavalry overtook Morgan at Lebanon this morning at 5 o'clock, completely surprised him, thoroughly routed him, and captured a large quantity of arms and horses and 150 prisoners, among the number Lieut. Col. Robert C. Wood, of Adams' cavalry, late an officer in the U. S. Army. The enemy were pursued by Gen. Dumont to the Cumberland River. Gen. Dumont is still at Lebanon.

WM. W. DUFFIELD, Col., Cmdg. Twenty-third Brigade.

HDQRS. TWENTY-THIRD BRIGADE, Murfreesborough, Tenn., Tuesday, May 6, 1862.

CAPT.: Agreeably to verbal instructions received from Brig. Gen. E. Dumont, I started in pursuit of the rebel force, commanded by Col. John H. Morgan, which had attacked Gen. Mitchel's train at Pulaski, leaving early on the morning of the 3d instant, and taking with me the Ninth Michigan Infantry, Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst, and the Eighth Kentucky Infantry, Col. Barnes. Upon reaching Wartrace, and learning that the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, Col. Smith, had been ordered to Shelbyville, I directed Col. Barnes to occupy Wartrace, and protect the bridges at that place with the Eighth Kentucky Infantry, where it still remains. With the Ninth Michigan Infantry I move on to Shelbyville, reaching that point at 5 o'clock in the afternoon. Learning from scouts that the enemy was at Unionville and moving northward, I telegraphed Col. Lester, of the Third Minnesota Infantry, to place strong guards at the bridges at Murfreesborough, and to Col. Barnes, of the Eighth Kentucky Infantry, to adopt similar precautions near Wartrace, and, after bivouacking for the night on the Fayetteville road near Shelbyville, proceeded to Murfreesborough at daybreak on the 4th instant, by railway, with the Ninth Michigan Infantry, halting at the cross-roads and throwing out scouting parties in both directions.

On reaching Murfreesborough at 4 o'clock in the afternoon I learned that the enemy at noon had crossed the railway 10 miles north of that place, tearing up the track and burning the station house and a quantity of cotton stored there, and that upon the arrival of the First Kentucky Cavalry, Col. Wolford, from Nashville, Col. Lester had dispatched that force in pursuit, together with the Third Battalion of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, Maj. Given. I also learned that the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, Col. Smith, had reached Murfreesborough, from Shelbyville, and the Second Battalion Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, Col. Wynkoop, from Nashville, and that both forces had united at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, and proceeded with Gen. Dumont and yourself to Lebanon. Taking only my own escort of 15 men, I also started for Lebanon at 5 o'clock in the afternoon. Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst and three of my own staff followed after, overtaking me at Los Cases [sic]. Here also I met the First Kentucky Cavalry, Col. Wolford, and the Third Battalion Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, Maj. Given, returning from the pursuit, having been informed that I had been cut off at Shelbyville and needed re-enforcements. I directed this force to turn back with me at once and unite with the one recently dispatched from Murfreesborough under Gen. Dumont, and pushed on all night for Lebanon, overtaking the forces under Gen. Dumont, who had halted at 1 o'clock on the morning of the 5th instant within 4 miles of that place and rested until daybreak. The column was then put in motion, proceeded at the trot, drove in the pickets, and charged into the town. The enemy was completely surprised, and was only aware of our presence by the fire of his pickets, posted less than a mile from the village. His main force was quartered at the college buildings, on the outskirts of the town, from which he endeavored on foot to reach the livery stables in the village, where his horses had been picketed for the night, to saddle up and mount; but being overtaken by the head of our column, threw himself into the houses lining the street, and maintained a heavy and well-sustained fire from the windows upon each side of the street. He was, however, driven from house to house until he fled from the town in the wildest confusion.

I need not inform you of the personal daring and gallantry of our troops, exposed, as they were, to this murderous cross and flanking fire from a sheltered and concealed foe, yet still delivering their fire at the windows with great coolness and precision, falling back to load and again returning to the attack, as both Gen. Dumont and yourself were present and can speak from personal observation.

During the time occupied in forcing the street a large portion of the enemy rallied in the public square, but were repulsed by a vigorous charge, and retreated toward the north and east, our troops following in close pursuit.

Gen. Dumont and yourself having followed, directing the pursuit, and being left in charge of the town, I directed Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst to search the village and collect the wounded with my own escort and the small force of 15 men of the Third Battalion Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, under Capt. Essington, which did not join in the pursuit. While so engaged several scattering shots were fired upon us from the windows of adjoining houses and a sudden and most unexpected volley poured in from the windows of the Odd Fellows' Hall. The attack was so unexpected that the troops fell back in great disorder, but were promptly rallied in the public square. The Odd Fellows' Hall was a large brick building, in the center of the village, immediately opposite the stables occupied by a portion of the enemy's horses, and he had thrown himself into it, barricaded the lower windows and doors, and was firing from the second-story windows. Having no artillery with which to shell him out, I directed Capt. Essington, the officer in command of the troops remaining in the village, to dismount his men, and, with my own escort, also dismounted, to advance under cover of the houses and stables on the other side of the street, to maintain a steady fire upon the windows, and when the enemy had been silenced to demand an unconditional surrender, and in case of refusal to fire the building. This was done, and the enemy laid down his arms and surrendered unconditionally to Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst. His force was more than double our own, consisting of 50 privates, 10 non-commissioned officers, 4 lieutenants, 1 captain, and the field officer in command, Lieut. Col. Robert C. Wood, jr., all of Col. Wirt Adams' rebel cavalry, in all 66 prisoners, who were turned over to Gen. Dumont on his return that afternoon.

I inclose you herewith the list of prisoners taken and an inventory of the captured arms.

I remain, captain, your obedient servant,

WM. W. DUFFIELD, Col., Cmdg. Twenty-third Brigade.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 884-886.

Official Report of General Dumont[2]

Headquarters, U. S. Forces

Nashville, May 15th, 1862

Colonel James B. Fry, A.A.G.

I now in pursuance of your directions, have the honor to submit to you a more detailed report of the expedition resulting in the defeat of the enemy under Colonel John Morgan, at Lebanon, Tenn., on the morning to May 5th, 1862.

On Friday night, May 2d, 1862, at midnight, I received a despatch sent by Brigadier-General Negley from Columbia, Tenn., informing me that on that day, Morgan, at the head of two thousand men, had, at Pulaski, Tenn., captured 280 convalescents of General Mitchel's command, and was then attacking General Mitchell's wagon train, south of Pulaski, and asking me to send reenforcements [sic]. Upon glancing over the map I was satisfied that I could not get troops to Pulaski in time to participate in anything to be done there, but that I might stand a chance to intercept the enemy by pushing with all speed by railway to Shelbyville, and thence in pursuit, shaping my course by the route of the enemy. I immediately telegraphed to Colonel Duffield at Murfreesboro to hold 1,000 infantry in readiness to move by rail by the time of my arrival that I would be there with the cars to transport them before morning. One hour afterward I was on my way with the train, accompanied by a guard of thirty men from the 51st Ohio regiment, Colonel Stanley Matthews, whom I consulted as to the course best to be pursued, and who rendered what I considered judicious an valuable advice and prompt assistance. Upon him I devolved my command at Nashville, during my temporary absence from the city. At six o'clock on Saturday morning, May 3d, I reached Murfreesboro with the train, but, to my mortification, found that my despatch to Colonel Duffield had not been delivered; and that troops were not ready. I went to Colonel Duffield's camp and informed him what I wanted. In the shortest possible time he had the 9th Michigan, Lieutenant-Colonel Parkhurst, and the 8th Kentucky, Colonel Barnes, on board the cars, and with these regiments, Colonel Duffield and myself proceeded forthwith on the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad to Wartrace. At Wartrace I posted the 8th Kentucky regiment and the thirty men from Colonel Matthew's regiment, with a view to intercept the enemy, should he attempt to cross the railroad at that place. Having ordered the 4th Kentucky cavalry forward from Wartrace to Shelbyville, with the 9th Michigan, I proceeded to Shelbyville, and there posted it with the same view. At Shelbyville I learned that the enemy had encamped on Friday night nearer Famington, which is about halfway between Shelbyville and Pulaski. I reached Shelbyville about 5 o'clock p. m. on Friday, and immediately ordered forward the 38 Indiana regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel Merriweather, toward Famington.[3] As vain as it would seem for infantry to overtake a mounted enemy, I considered it best to have them about, in view of the information which had been given me as to Morgan's strength. Eager for the fray, never did men make a better march than did this regiment on that night, and if it did not finally participate in the engagement, it was simply because a physical impossibility stood in the way. I feel grateful to Lieutenant-Colonel Merriweather and his regiment for the promptness and zeal displayed in joining me in pursuit of the enemy.

With some three hundred of the 4th Kentucky cavalry, Colonel G. Clay Smith, I followed the 38th Indiana regiment toward Farmington, not being able to get ready to start as promptly as did Colonel Merriweather. At midnight I halted my command and sent forward scouts to ascertain the whereabouts of the enemy, and learned that he had crossed Duck river that morning, making toward Doolittle,[4] on the Shelbyville and Nashville turnpike. With that start it seemed evident that he could not be overtaken with infantry; still, I directed Lieutenant-Colonel Merriweather and Lieutenant-Colonel Ruchstul, of the 4th Kentucky cavalry, to follow on his trail. Believing that the enemy intended to purse an easterly direction and to cross the railroad at some point between Wartrace and Murfreesboro, with a detachment of Colonel Smith's 4th Kentucky cavalry, returned to Shelbyville, reaching that place a little before daybreak. I directed Colonel Duffield to again take the cars, with the 9th Michigan, and go to the bridge north of Wartrace, fearing that Morgan would cross at that place before I could intercept him and burn the bridge. I proceeded myself on Sunday morning [4th], after an hour's rest, with Colonel Smith and the detachment from his command, toward Murfreesboro, hoping to intercept Morgan as he crossed the Shelbyville and Murfreesboro pike. Knowing that infantry could no longer aid me, and still supposing the enemy strong, I sent a courier foreword to Murfreesboro, with word to Colonel Wynkoop, 7th Pennsylvania cavalry, and Colonel Wolford, 1st Kentucky cavalry, to meet me at 2 o'clock p. m. of Sunday. Wynkoop did meet me with 120 of his men, informing me that Morgan had already crossed the railroad between Murfreesboro and Nashville, tearing up the track, burning cotton, &c., and that Wolford had gone in pursuit. Causing Wynkoop to join me with his 120 men, I hastened forward to Murfreesboro, arrived there about 5 o'clock p. m. of Sunday, fed my horses, and pushed forward toward Lebanon, Colonel Duffield and Lieutenant-Colonel Parkhurst accompanying me.

I had proceeded from Murfreesboro about eight miles toward Lebanon, when, to my utter amazement, I met Colonel Wolford coming back with his command. He informed me that he had followed the enemy until almost reaching him, when he was overtaken with an order from Murfreesboro to return on account of an apprehended attack on that town. I ordered him to join me, which he obeyed with alacrity and gladness, and having now some six hundred troops of the 1st and 4th Kentucky and 7th Pennsylvania cavalry, I pushed toward Lebanon, confidant that, after my long, tedious, and discouraging march, I would yet be able to strike the enemy before he could cross the Cumberland and get beyond my reach. At a little after midnight I reached a point within four miles of Lebanon, and learning that Morgan was certainly there, posted a guard to intercept any one that might give him intelligence of my approach, and halted with a view of resting my greatly fatigued men and of striking him at daybreak. A little before the break of day I moved forward at a rapid pace, the detachment from the 7th Pennsylvania, let by Colonel Wynkoop, in advance, followed by Colonel Wolford at the head of the detachment of the 1st Kentucky cavalry. Colonel G. Clay Smith commanded the rear guard, composed of a detachment from the 4th Kentucky cavalry. I directed Wynkoop and Wolford to move at full speed into town by different streets and charge upon the enemy, believing that the benefits resulting to us by his surprise would be of more value than any advantage I could obtain by a different policy. I felt confident that I could whip him if he did not escape, and that all I had to fear was from his heels; that the best way to prevent his escape was to precipitate my main force upon him, strike him hard and first, and not suffer him to get out of my sight or beyond my reach. To avoid the risk of this course, I held Colonel Smith's 4th Kentucky momentarily in reserve.

I hesitated some in pursuing this policy of making a charge without knowing precisely the enemy's position or strength, but am now fully satisfied that his escape would have been inevitable if it had not been adopted, as the roads leading from the town were very numerous, many of them diverging at right angles from the main road outside of town.

The enemy, it seems, were in two squadrons, one in charge of Morgan and the other in charge of Lieutenant-Colonel Wood, all under command of Morgan. Morgan occupied the college,[5] a large, massive building, on a hill to the right of the road, along which I must enter the town. Wood and his men occupied the public square and the various buildings in and around it, including an immense livery stable and the Odd Fellows' Hall, which were not immediately upon the square.

To charge upon or approach Morgan at all, it was necessary that the attacking forces should go beyond him into the public square, because there was first a creek, then a stone fence, then a hill, and then a board fence between the road and the college; and to get beyond these obstacles, my whole line was exposed to a fire from Morgan on the right and from Wood in front. The charge was most gallantly made by Colonels Wynkoop and Wolford, and seeing that to hold Colonel Smith in reserve was but to expose him to the fire of Morgan, with no ability to return it effectively, rather than order him to fall back, I directed him to charge also through another street into the public square. A terrible fight ensued; no man flinched. On every side, where I looked, determined valor and heroic courage were conspicuous.

It was as yet hardly light; the rain fell in torrents. The town was illuminated by a sheet of flame and redolent with the unceasing roll of musketry. Morgan did not at this time come down to the square, but maintained his ground on the hill and in the lane of the north of the college, and from thence gave his troops in the town what aid he could by opening upon us an annoying but a destructive fire. From the fire of the first gun, my troops constantly advanced, gave back not an inch, while the enemy quailed before the valor, wavered before the deadly fire of my men, and finally broke and fled in every direction and in the utmost terror. During the deadly strife, Colonel G. Clay Smith was shot in the leg painfully, but bravely kept the field at the head of him men until the enemy finally fled, and then joined many miles in pursuit.

Colonel Wolford was badly wounded in the abdomen by a pistol shot, and by a desperate charge upon the head of his column, but off from his command and subsequently captured, but subsequently recaptured. [sic] He is a brave and determined man and his troops on this occasion proved themselves worthy of so gallant a leader. After Wolford was wounded and captured his command devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. Letcher, and well, faithfully, and [sic] bravely did he take upon himself the responsibility and do his duty. He won credit, and it pleasant to me to award it.

The public square being cleared of the enemy, the field being ours in this quarter, I determined now to direct my attention more particularly to the Morgan on the hill, who had annoyed us a good deal, and had, up to this time, been engaged by but a small part of my command.

Inspired by the success that we had already achieved, my gallant troops had no sooner received my command than they engaged Morgan closely, and came down upon him with a jar. Their fire was so well directed and soon became so hot that he gave way in good order an led us a chase through many of the streets and alleys of the town, thinking he would be able to dodge us and make his escape on a road unobserved. To this end he made many attempts to decoy me after small parties, that would approach us, fire into us, and then slowly retreat. I suffered not myself to be thus put upon the wrong scent, but kept my eyes upon, and gave my attention to the main force of the enemy, and at length disconcerted and defeated his purpose, by bringing all my forces to bear upon him, and compelling him to stand or be put to utter rout. He chose the latter, and fled toward that point on the Cumberland river at which the town of Rome is situated. That town is thirteen miles from Lebanon. He fled at full speed, and was joined, a mile from town, at the junction of an intersecting road, by some two hundred or three hundred men, driven by us from the public square. My troops, with the exception of a portion left behind under the gallant Colonel Duffield and Lieutenant-Colonel Parkhurst, to look after such of the enemy as might still be secreted in the houses, followed, never permitting the enemy to get out of sight, killing, wounding, and taking prisoners at every half mile, for a distance of twenty miles, and not losing a man on our part in the chase. At Rome we recaptured Colonel Wolford, who had been carried at a fearful rate, wounded as he was, a distance of thirteen miles. Having followed the enemy until my horses began to drop dead under their riders, and until the enemy had been so killed, wounded, captured, or escaped singly by byroads, that not to exceed forty men were still together, the pursuit was finally abandoned at Carthage. From Lebanon to Carthage the road was strewn with the dead and wounded of the enemy, and with many horses that had been shot or had fallen dead from exhaustion. In this latter respect my command suffered even more than the enemy. Bearing our trophies of victory taken in the chase, consisting of upward on one hundred prisoners besides those taken in the town, and many horses and arms, I ordered my command back. I had not proceeded far on my return until met by a messenger informing me that they were still fighting at Lebanon. I hastened with all speed, but found all quiet and in good order when I arrived, but learned from Colonel Duffield and Lieutenant-Colonel Parkhurst and Major J. A. Brents, to all of whom I am greatly indebted...that after I had followed the retreating enemy with my main command, it was discovered that some sixty or seventy were in the Odd Fellow' Hall. These had been, in my absence, surrounded and captured. This was a good job, and made me proud of the victory achieved, valor displayed, and trophies won.

Lieutenant-Colonel Wood took refuge in this hall, in the hope that all my troops would follow Morgan, and that he could then withdraw with his men and escape. In this purpose he was signally defeated by the vigilance of Colonel Duffield, Lieutenant-Colonel Parkhurst, Major Brents, Captain Essington, Lieutenant Birnet, and the officers and men to whom that duty had been by me confided. It was Major Brent's who threw a guard of the 1st Kentucky cavalry to the rear and prevented the escape....

The disloyal inhabitants, it is believed by many, united with the enemy, fired from the houses upon and killed some of my men. I thought to punish these murderous "non-combatants" and assassins by burning down the houses from which the firing came, but found that I could not do it without destroying the property of Union men, of which some of the best specimens in Tennessee or any other land or country reside in this town. I feared, too, that I might make a mistake and do injustice, as some that I arrested declared that through firing came from their houses, they did not fire, but that Morgan's and Wood's men, when hotly pursued, broke into the houses and did the firing. Such was possible. I doubted, but could not disprove it.

Of the horses captured, many had been take by Morgan from loyal citizens; indeed, that seems to be his mode of always keeping well mounted on fresh horses. I have returned many of these, and it affords me great pleasure to do it.

In this expedition we killed and wounded many of the enemy. A number were killed and wounded in town, but by far the greater number in the pursuit. They lay along the road for a distance of twenty miles. On our return we found that many of them had been taken away by the inhabitants. I have been told that we killed upward of sixty, among whom was Captain A. C. Brown of Louisiana, brother-in-law of Governor Isham G. Harris. We captured upward of one hundred and fifty prisoners....

We captured upward of one hundred and fifty horses and mules, many saddles and bridles, and many swords, guns, [sic] and pistols. A number of negro slaves fell into our hands, acting as the servants of Morgan's officers and men.

We captured an elegant American flag that had been taken from the dome of the court house the night before. Also a most elegant sword, presented to Major Governor, of the 18th Ohio Volunteers, and captured by Morgan at Pulaski....We also captured Morgan's negro [sic] and mare. Morgan told Colonel Wolford, while the Colonel was in his hands as a prisoner, that his force was upward of eight hundred. Our loss was ten killed, twenty-one wounded, and five missing....

Major J. A. Brents, Patriots and Guerrillas, pp. 139- 152.[6]



Our readers will recollect that Captain (now Colonel) John H. Morgan, recently performed some of his characteristic exploits at and near Pulaski, Giles county, Tenn. What he accomplished there was an accident-a chance accident that arouse in his way, and was by no means the object which he set out to accomplish.

When he set out on his expedition from Corinth, he had some 300 men along with him.-They were not all fighting men, however, for all their baggage, provender, &c. were carried on pack mules instead of by wagons, and those in charge of the mules went along in that capacity only. When they came into Pulaski, it was a complete surprise. They came charging into town, and capturing the straggling Federals at every point. The son of Gen. Mitchell, a Major in the Federal army, was at a [house?] there. He was a prisoner before he knew any danger was night. A battalion of infantry [?] was some few miles off the road to Huntsville. They were sent for in haste to come to the relief of their brother Federals in Morgan's clutches; but Morgan has ways of knowing things practiced by anyone else, and soon knew of the approach of the Yankees. He divided his forces into two parties, dispatched two of them on either side [of] the road to meet them. Soon they were met, and simultaneously the men on either side came up, completely surrounding the Feds, which, when they perceived, they hoisted a white flag and surrendered at once. The whole batch of them had to be turned loose on parole, as Morgan had started to go somewhere else than that point, and had quite a different object in view. The men were opposed to b being paroled, but wanted to remain prisoners so that they would not have to fight against us any more. After burning up cars and railroad and trains of Federal property, and doing such other little tricks, this usual for Morgan, he departed on his way

He went out by Lewisburg and Farmington, in Marshall county, and from thence to Unionville [Rutherford county] on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, which is perhaps some ten miles above Shelbyville, and a few miles above Wartrace. There he cut the telegraph wire, and having an operator and a battery along, he telegraphed to the Federal Commander at Nashville that Morgan and his rebel cavalry were advancing on Shelbyville, and send all the cavalry to that point. The object of this, was to draw the cavalry down this way, while he made tracks in the other direction to some point where he has an important work to perform. This would no doubt have been successful, but by some means-most likely from some of those whom he paroled at Pulaski, the enemy at Nashville had some clue to his further designs, and was not led astray by this advice, which proved very unfortunate afterwards.

After sending this message, he pushed on by Versailles and Eaglesville [sic] in Williamson county,[7] leaving Murfreesboro some either or ten miles to the right, and crossed the railroad at Smyrna, some eight miles above Murfreesboro, and from thence pushed on to Lebanon in Wilson county, some 25 miles to the east of Nashville, arriving just at night.

In all their travels they passed as Union men, belonging to the Lincoln cavalry, and found no difficulty n doing so. At Unionville, one old gentleman –a good Southern by the by, said, "you need not tell that tale to me; I've seen your before; you're Morgan's men"- but no one believed him, till he was about leaving and they saw that he had cut the [telegraph] wires.

At Lebanon the next morning he was attacked by a very large cavalry force-three times that of his own. He ordered his men to dismount in the streets of the village and post themselves behind a fence and wait, with good aim drawn on the foe till he should give the word. He let them approach within fifteen steps, when he ordered his men to fire. It is told us, by a gentleman who was in the action, that the never saw so many men "tumble" at one fire in his life. Every gun brought down a Hessian. They turned and fled precipitately.

Just then the keen eye of Morgan descried in the distance on the top of a ridge, what he guessed was large reinforcements of the enemy, but could not certainly make out that it was; soon he sent forward one of his men to reconnoiter, who quickly returned with the information that overwhelming numbers of cavalry and infantry were approaching-the cavalry at full charge; and as the worked was spoken they were almost upon them. Morgan told his men to save themselves as best they could. Those whose horses had not been killed, mounted and fled. How many of those on foot escaped is not known-though some id, as they have since joined their chief. There are sixty or seventy missing, a few of whom are known to be killed and wounded. The greatest part of them went off in a body, and escaped to Sparta, in White county, Tennessee.

As Morgan and his men were retreating, they were met by a party of Federals, who mistook them for their own men, and inquired where Morgan was, and why they retreated.-They were at once call upon to surrender, which they did, when they found themselves in Morgan's presence. Most of them, however, escaped, as they could not be well kept in a retreat. Among them was Gen. Dumont-This Morgan did not know (he had represented himself as a Colonel) till after he had escaped.

Morgan lost that fine dashing black mare of his, which is by no means a small loss. She fell with him in charging down a steep place and was disabled.

He soon collect a sufficient force at Sparta, and is now on his way to-some place.-Before long we shall hear of him again

Atlanta Confederacy.

Georgia Weekly Telegraph, May 16, 1862.



The Great Cavalry Battle at Lebanon, Tenn.-Utter Rout of Colonel Morgan's Rebel Rangers-Gallantry of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry.

Correspondence of the Philadelphia Inquirer.

Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 8, 1862.

The telegraph has doubtless already informed your readers of the great cavalry battle of Lebanon, in this State, which resulted in the complete route of Colonel Morgan's celebrated and of Rangers. The particulars of this gallantly contested fight are as follows:-

On Saturday last intelligence was received at Nashville and Murfreesboro that Colonel Morgan had captured a large and valuable train of wagons destined for General Mithchel's [sic] division of the army, now in Northern Alabama, at Pulaski, near the Southern Tennessee border. The news that this notorious and hitherto successful leader had made his way through our lines, and was marching North caused no little excitement, and the available forced under General Dumont, at Nashville, and Colonel Duffield, acting Brigadier General. At Murfreesboro', were immediately put in motion to intercept him.

The Second Battalion of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, consisting of Captain Dart's, Capt May's and Captain Schafer's companies, under the immediate command of Colonel Wynkoop and Lieutenant-Colonel Sipes, were a part of the forced holding Nashville, and received order to march for Shelbyville on Saturday morning, at two o'clock. By four o'clock all the men that could be spared, about two hundred, were in the saddle, and after a forced march of thirty-six miles, reached Murfreesboro at three o'clock in the afternoon. Here they were ordered to halt and wait further instructions. On Sunday morning a telegram came from General Dumont, Ordering the command to push on for Shelbyville, and in a very brief time the columns was [sic] in motion. Ten miles from Murfreesboro', the General was met by the Fourth Cavalry and a part of the Third Battalion of the Seventh Pennsylvania, coming from Shelbyville. Morgan having passed that point and gone north, taking [the] crossroads between Murfreesboro' and Nashville.

Our force was ordered to countermarch, and returned to Murfreesboro at 3 o'clock P.M. Morgan, in the meantime, had succeeded in reaching the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and had torn up the rails. The train had been stopped, but Morgan was too much hurried by our advancing forced to profit by his raid, and the road was soon repaired so as to permit the train to pass on. All the available cavalry were ordered to pursue him, and Gen. Dumont started after him at f o'clock in the afternoon with portions of six companies of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, part of the First Kentucky and part of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry. Every effort was made by the wily rebel to throw his pursuers off the trail, but they were not to be deceived, and they kept after him until about one o'clock at night, when it was learned that the Confederates were quartered in the town of Lebanon thirty miles from Murfreesboro'. Our troops were given a brief rest, and at three o'clock dashed forward with all speed. In an hour they came upon the enemy's pickets, and then commenced one of the most remarkable battles of the war.

Morgan's band, numbering eight hundred men, were quartered in the houses of the town, and were taken completely by surprise-never for a moment having dreamed that our troops could come upon them at this hour. A few of them were in their saddles, but by far the greater number were in the buildings lining both sides of the principal street and the public square. A company of the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry were in the advance, and as they entered the town a volley was fired upon them from the windows, which caused them to break and fall back precipitately. Colonel Wynkoop command was next, and the order came from General Dumont for his force to charge through the town. Without a moment'[s] hesitation it was obeyed, and the three companies of the second battalion dashed through the leaden hail. The bullets actually rained upon them from both sides of the streets, gut not a man faltered. In this charge, two men were killed and three wounded.

On arriving past the enemy, the column was again formed, and charged back through the lane of fire, the men discharging their pistols and carbines right and left as they passed the enemy. Thus four times did these brave Pennsylvanians run the gauntlet of the protected foe, and many a Rebel fell by their well-directed bullets, as he appeared at a window or doorway to fire upon them. General Dumont then ordered the detachment to march around and reach the square by another route, which order was obeyed, and here the enemy were met mounted. A running fight then commenced, which lasted for near twenty miles, and only ended when Morgan and his band reduced to only fifteen men, had succeeded in crossing the Cumberland river in a flat-boat, leaving all their horses behind them, except one.

On this running fight, which was nothing but a rapid retreat of the Rebels and as rapid a pursuit by our troops, many instances of individual daring were observed Hand-to-hand the enemy were met, and in every instance either bit the dust or surrendered. The road was strewed with pistols, carbines, sabers, knives and blankets dropped by the fugitives, and almost every soldier has some trophy of the field.

I do not want to be understood as detracting from any of the troops engaged. The Kentuckians fought with their well-known daring, and achieved new honors for their glorious State. The Fifth Battalion of the Seventh Pennsylvania were at one time ordered to dismount and approach the rear of the Odd Fellow's Hall, where m any of the Reels had taken refuge and were pouring a murderous fire upon our men. The order was promptly obeyed, and so completely did they hem in the enemy, by their skillful approaches, that the white flag was run out, and sixty-nine prisoners were captured in his building alone. Captain Essington and Captain McCormick, with their subordinate officers, fought most gallantly throughout, and more than one Rebel fell by their hands.

It is a well-authenticated fact that many of the citizens of the town took part with Morgan and fired upon our troops. One, at least of them, was killed by the Pennsylvania Seventh, while in the act of discharging his piece. And more startling still, women were actually seen to fire from the windows at our soldiers. I am aware that this is denied, but it is susceptible of positive proof. [sic]  Of course, these instances were rare, but that they occurred at all is disgraceful to humanity. Surely no cause can prosper which thus degassed women to fiends.

The Seventh Pennsylvania lost in killed and wounded as follows:-

Regimental Adjutant R. Mosen, wounded in arm and side; not dangerous.

Lieutenant Greenough, Co. C., wounded in arm and shoulder, not serious.

Lieutenant Taylor, Coo. K, wounded in forehead, slightly.

Sergeant Reilley, Co. M, killed.

Corporal McGrand, Co. K, killed.

Private Henry Pruyme, Co. C, wounded.

Private James Howe, Co. C, wounded.

Private Adam Winkelbeck, Co. E, wounded mortally, since dead.

Major James Givin, commanding the Third Battalion was taken prisoner during the action and forced along with Colonel Morgan's command for two days, when he was released on parole, and returned to this camp. He represents his experience with the Rebels as by no means pleasant, as the speed at which they traveled while being pursued from Lebanon was only limited by the capacity of the horses, and the balls of our men cam hailing upon them at every jump. The Major speaks well of Morgan, and from his account there can be no doubt that the celebrated gang of Ranges was completely dispersed.

The prisoners taken, one hundred and sixty-nine in number, have been sent to Nashville, and from there will go to Chicago. Among them is Lieutenant-Colonel Wood, of the Texas Rangers, who was second in command. He was formerly a Captain in the United States Army, and is quite an accomplished soldier.

Morgan's celebrated mare was captured, and is now in Lebanon. She was slightly wounded in one of her fore legs, but will soon be as "good as new." Her rebel owner offered a reward of a thousand dollars to anyone who would bring her to him on the northern side of the Cumberland river.

Philadelphia Inquirer, May 17, 1862[8].

            5, Lydia in trousers

In Pants.—Among the parties introduced in court yesterday to the Recorder was Miss Lydia Angela, who, having become disgusted with crinoline, and especially with the frightful staring, outspreading, skyscraping, flower-bed-containing fashionable bonnet, had put on a neat coat and pants, a tidy white stand up collar and a felt hat, and was parading the town unencumbered by flowing garments or head covering monstrosity. For thus indulging her dislikes, and entering her practical protest against the fashionable bonnet she repudiates, as more fit for the ample front of a cow than for the head of a woman, Lydia was compelled to pay six dollars to the city treasury.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 6, 1862.





            5, Excerpt from a letter by Edward Bradford, with the 20th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry (C. S. A.), stationed at Wartrace to his father Frederick Bradford, in Tank, Tennessee, Davidson County

Tom Sneed says all of your negroes [sic] have gone to the yanks, but three, Joe and two other boys. I don't know what you will do if they all leave you, but you have got enough to make plenty to eat for the family, if they will stay and work as they ought to do. I wish I had one of them out here, I could take good care of him and if he did not behave himself, I would send him south and sell him.

Frederick Bradford Papers, TSL&A

            5, "The boys have flower pots and posy beds before their tents …" An excerpt from the letter of Bliss Morse, 105th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, to his mother, concerning his camp at Murfreesboro

* * * *

The boys have flower pots and posy beds before their tents, and young cedars set in the ground for shade. The streets between the reg'ts. [sic] are set out with cedars drove [sic] in the ground. It looks as neat and pretty as any door yard in Painesville [Ohio]. Those white tents are a fine sight to look at, as we stood on a high knoll and could look around the country. I could see them in every direction peering through the trees on the east side of Murfreesboro.

Diaries of Bliss Morse.

            5, "The Ladies of Nashville."

Owing to the misrepresentations of gossipy and careless correspondents, the female population of this city have not enjoyed the reputation in the North which they are justly entitled to. A large number of the people of the loyal portion of the United States disbelieve the fact that the most reserved and intelligent ladies to be found in any section of the country reside in Middle Tennessee, thanks to the schools and seminaries of Nashville Columbia, Franklin and other places.

True, upon the occupation of this city the National forces, a bitter, but not malicious feeling existed among our enemies, but the position of the ladies here has ever been high-toned and generous, with the slightest exception, may be.

As a general thing, the inhabitants were rebels. But there is not a family in Nashville which has not bestowed the luxuries of food upon our fatigued troops, time and again. Our whole line of pickets always enjoy table fare with those who reside in their precincts. Hundreds of ladies who, until lately, have pronounced themselves secessionists, make daily visits to our hospitals. All of the Officers who have been in command since the entree [sic] of Buell, more than a year ago, and their respective staffs, have been the recipients of sumptuous and generous treatment from the fair sex. The choices of liquors and wines, and the most palatable of preserves and jellies have been donated our poor, sick and wounded braves, buy the ladies of Nashville.

The ladies often say foolish tings, to be sure – they always chat – that is their prerogative. When a party of ladies assemble together, they often make remarks of a funny nature – that is, they think it is funny, but we men do not look upon it in that light. But we cannot make ourselves believe that the ladies will commit real naughty acts. As for making faces and hissing at Federal officers, we have never witnessed such performances – and as for the jerking aside of a calico, and the brief exposition of dainty feet, etc. [sic] there must be some mistake. At least, if such things have occurred, we have been singularly unfortunate, as our epicurean optics have never encountered such delectable exhibitions.

No, reader: all the political malignity in the world will not [sic] annihilate female virtue and modesty.

Last week seventeen hundred ladies subscribed to the oath of allegiance to the United States. These ladies all have either brothers, husbands, fathers, sons, lovers, relatives or dear friends in the rebel ranks. They must necessarily love them; but we will state our existence upon the non-violation of these oaths.

Ladies, as your relative's and dear friends return, as prisoners or otherwise, persuade them to scorn and reject the "authority" of the Jeff. Davis oligarchy. You will then be more loveable and honorable than before.

Nashville Daily Press, May 5, 1863.

            5, Tales of German deserters from Bragg's army


Our Murfreesboro Correspondence


Two German deserters from Bragg's army came into the [Union] lines yesterday by different routes, and both make interesting statements of their sufferings and the injustice done them. One of them was named Richmond, and had been in this country about four years. He had been conscripted, although holding papers proving a citizen of one of the German States. He was first robbed of these and subsequently of all else had in the way of clothing or money. He left Tullahoma two weeks ago. He says no troops have moved west from Virginia. He roughly estimates the rebels under Brat at seventy-five thousand, large numbers of whom were being move to Manchester and Wartrace.

Frank Notting, another German citizen with protection papers from the German Consul, was impressed into the service at Tullahoma by a Captain Peyton, Provost Marshal. He insisted that he was exempt and showed his papers to Captain Peyton, who destroyed them, swore him into the service and gave him in charge of an orderly sergeant who had direction to shoot him if he endeavored to escape. He says that some of the men in his company told him it was not right, and that there were three of them in the same fix.


The New York Herald. May 5, 1863.




            5, "A Disorderly House and Unfortunate Hostess."

Jane, a semi-colored [sic] African female was up before his Honor yesterday morning, to answer to the charge of keeping a noisy domicile. Jane lives in a notoriously bad neighborhood on Beal street. She takes in washing, and it so happened, unfortunately for her, that certain parties of conflicting color and conflicting sex met at her residence the other evening to patronize her, but so far forgot their errand as to engage in a noisy jollification which drew an officer to the spot who spotted Jane and returned for her the next morning, when she very suddenly found herself before his Honor of allowing the peace to be disturbed by certain ones upon her premises, and the premises in the case being substantiated, she was fined an X exactly [sic].

Memphis Bulletin, May 5, 1864.

            5, "Ragstores a Nuisance"

During the recent inspection of the city by Health Commissioner Underwood among the many noticeable matters which demanded his attention were those establishments where large quantities of old and filthy clothing have been purchased and stored. We are surprised that this matter has to long escaped the attention of the authorities of dirty rags not unfrequently a perfect malaria is created in the air about the premises where such are allowed to remain. For instance the garments of those having been afflicted with small pox have often passed into the possession of the Report of the Adjutant General dealer and left by him where they were liable to endanger the health of those living near or visiting the establishment. Whole neighborhoods which have been infested with contagious diseases, have doubtless frequently become so by the negligence of the Report of the Adjutant General merchant and want of attention on the part of the authorities to the matter.

Memphis Bulletin, May 5, 1864.

            5, Determining race at the Refugee School in Nashville

Day before yesterday (5th) a girl came to school who had just the look and complexion of a snuff-dipping refugee. She, also, like them, wore a dress of the same color, derived from some kind of bark. Her manner was as listless and her expression as vacant. Wishing much to know whether she could claim our superior race as her own, or whether a few drops of the black blood in her veins had procures perhaps from her father and master the fiat-"only a niggar! [sic] " I made known my curiosity to one of the teachers, with my perplexity as to how I should obtain the coveted information, without wounding her feelings.'

"Oh! You need not fear for that," was the reply, "They're used to it, and expect to be asked whether they're niggars [sic] or not."

I could not do it, however, without considerable circumlocution; and commenced by asking if she could buy herself a book, whom she lived with, &c. After some time the questions eliminated the fact that though she didn't know whether she was free, or a "refugee," her own second name, or the age,-she did [sic] know that she had lived most of her life in Texas, where she had always worked out of doors, had hoed corn, and ploughed-that she lived with the same people now-that her father she had never heard anything of-that he mother was black, "though not really black," and finally that she herself was a "niggar [sic],"—which nobody else could have told her by her features or complexion.

Powers, Pencillings, p. 73.




            5, Lieutenant-General U. S. Grant establishes time limits for surrender of guerrillas

HDQRS. FIFTH SUB-DISTRICT OF MIDDLE TENNESSEE, Clarksville, Tenn., April 20, 1865.

Maj. B. H. POLK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Nashville:

Maj.: Application has been made to me, thorough citizens, by guerrillas in this district to know upon what terms they could lay down their arms and become peaceable citizens. As a decision in one case might form a precedent for others, I respectfully refer the question to district headquarters for decision.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. A. SMITH, Col., Cmdg.

* * * *

MAY 5, 1865.

I would advise as a cheap way to get clear of guerrillas that a certain time be given for them to come in, say the 20th of this month, up to which time their paroles will be received, but after which they will be proceeded against as outlaws.

U. S. GRANT, Lieut.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 418-419.

            5-13, Expedition from Pulaski to New Market, Alabama[9]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, pp. 558-565.











[1] If John Hunt Morgan made a report about his abysmal defeat at Lebanon it has not been found. More than likely he just didn't want to talk about it much. He also lost his favorite mare, "Black Bess."

[2] This lengthy report, said to be General Ebenezer Dumont's official report on the Action at Lebanon, is not found in the OR.

[3] A pro-Union community in Rutherford County

[4] Not identified.

[5] Today Cumberland University.

[6] Major J. A. Brents, The Patriots and Guerrillas of East Tennessee and Kentucky. The sufferings of the Patriots. Also the Experience of the Author as an Officer in the Union Army. Including Sketches of Noted Guerrillas and Distinguished Patriots. (NY: Henry, Dexter Publishers, 1863), pp. 319-152. [Hereinafter: Brents, Patriots and Guerrillas.] See also:Louisvillle Daily Journal, May 31, 1862.

[7] Versailles and Eagleville are in Rutherford County.

[8] See also: Louisville Daily Journal, May 14, 1862

[9] This was a mopping up exercise in which an assortment of bushwhackers, horse-thieves, guerrillas and murderers surrendered, apparently mostly from Northern Alabama, to Federal forces. The base camp for the operation was near Pulaski, at the headquarters of the Fifth Indiana Cavalry, then commanded by Major Moses D. Leeson. All action took place in Alabama, although the mission originated in Pulaski, Tennessee.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Editor, The Courier

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX