Tuesday, February 9, 2016

Notes from Civil War Tennessee, February 9, 1861-1865


Notes from Civil War Tennessee, February 9, 1861-1865




9, The vote against secession, and against "Convention" or "No Convention"

In the election on February 9, old Vox Populi [sic] spoke emphatically. On the plain question of Secession, the vote was heavily pro-Union, the returns showing a vote of 88,803 for Union candidates and 22,749 for Secession candidates. In regard to the calling of a Convention, the movement was rejected by a vote of 69, 675 to 57, 798. The decision by the people was a significant one, in that the action of both Governor Harris and the General Assembly was rebuked.

Robert D. White, Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, Vol. 5, p. 272.[1]

          9, "Display of Flags"

The stars and stripes have been thrown to the breeze in every section of the City. The display is equal to that made in the late Presidential campaign, and revives reminiscences of the zeal and earnestness evinced by the workers in that canvass.

Whatever may be the result of the difficulties which at present agitate our country-whether we are to be united in our common destiny or whether two Republics shall take the place of that which has stood for nearly a century, the admired of all nations we will still bow with reverence to the sight of the stars and stripes, and recognize it as the standard around which the sons of liberty can rally and truthfully exclaim "Thou art the shelter of the free."

And if the remonstrances of the people of the South-pleading and begging for redress for years-does not in this critical moment, arouse her brethren of the North to a sense of justice and right, and honor demands a separation, we would still have the same claims upon the "colors of Washington, great son of the South, and of Virginia, mother of the States." Let us not abandon the stars and stripes under which Southern men have so often been led to victory."

Nashville Daily Gazette, February 9, 1861.

          9, "The Issue Today"

What is it? or, rather, what is it not? The opponents of action, of decision and of settlement, says the time is not [right for secession.]

We [have waited patiently] for Committees, waited for Juntas. We have waited for events, until events have forced us along with their powerful and sweeping tide.

The issue is upon us, and we are told to wait other issues; it is not one of party of clique, it is not one in which leaders can judge better than the masses, nor so well.

What have the leaders done? In every possible way mistaken their road out of the difficulties, in Congress and out of Congress, and now in every State where action has been had they come round and admit their error. They indulged the hope that party ties would cement the Union, while in the North there was no party ties [sic] to affiliate with or sympathize with. The Union party ridiculed at the North in the late election, has only the effect to lead to greater hopes with the Union-savers of the South.

What ground can there be of saving the Union, when the North and the South are equally averse to its existence, and sternly opposed to any and all measures of conciliation?

But we are told to wait and hope for contingencies, yet in the possible future -- when all the past is conclusive that these are impossible.

The action of the Peace Congress, with John Tyler at its head, and Salmon P. Chase the chief expounder of its oracles, setting with closed doors -- wonderful Peace Congress! most potent Peace Congress, with such a head, and such an expounder of oracles.

John Tyler, a name for twenty years the synonym of anything but integrity: Salmon P. Chase, a whig democrat, a liberty party man, again a democrat, and lastly the embodiment of the most rabid abolitionism! And, do we wait, under the training of our great leaders, for light from the Tyler Congress? Do [such matters] rest upon John Tyler's shoulders -- upon the stability of Salmon P. Chase? Why, where is our common sense -- where is honesty of purpose, when two such men are relied on to save the Union. Death made John Tyler President, but no mortal power can give him greatness of soul or intellect. The issue is not with the Tyler Congress; it is with ourselves and for ourselves. We know, if we can think at all, that a Convention is necessary....We know that if we are to go out, secession is the only remedy for evils that, without it, will be intolerable. We know that if we do not have a Convention, we shall not know peace. We know that if we vote against a Convention now, we will have to vote for one in a few months. We know that our destinies are in our own hands. Every State is speaking for it self, North and South. Shall we alone speak for others? Mankind is prone to inaction, and every reason of the most fallacious character has been urged, that now is the time for action.

Now is the time for action. The future is not ours; the present is. Let us act, then, as men, believing that in ourselves is the power, and that the ability to judge does not rest alone in our former leaders.

The arguments of to-day will be thrown aside to-morrow, and some new contingency thrust forward to hang our hopes on.

We are told to wait, by the same men who were laughed at in the North, when they were told that the South was in earnest and would not abide the election of a man upon the ground alone of sectional power, prejudice and fanaticism. Mr. Crittenden says wait, and Mr. Crittenden said before the election that the South would not wait any further aggression. Mr. Douglas says wait, and Mr. Douglas was for coercion before the election, and whether we believe what they say now or what they said before the election, we cannot forget the fate of the Whig party under the leading of the one, or that of the Democratic party, a victim to the ambition of the other -- a sacrifice to Northern feeling and sectional animosity.

We are told that the people of the North will soon speak. How soon? The people of the South have spoken all over the South, but not one answering voice comes from the North. The cities -- yes, the cities have spoken; but what care [have] the people of the rural districts for the cities? The cities spoke the same language in November as now -- they were opposed to crushing the South, because their interests were bound up with the South. Where has there been a meeting, except to confirm the election of November, outside the cities in the Northern States?

Every true-hearted Northern man, that allows his judgment to control his feelings, says to the South, the whole South, Go out, and then possibly we can crush this monster in our midst; go out and so preserve the peace; go out, and so make the issue clear and plain that it is for the Union you go out, if it is possible to reconstruct it. [?]

If you stay in the demon of anarchy among yourselves, and the worse demon of fanaticism among us is quickened into new life; and already have the terms been sided upon which Kentucky and Tennessee are to be made free States, by that foremost man in the new President's affections, Horace Greeley.

Wait until the fires of Abolition are kindled along our borders and in our very midst, or vote that it shall be otherwise from today.

Nashville Daily Gazette, February 9, 1861.

          9, Election Day in Jackson, the first vote on secession

Today the election was held…to decide whether a convention should meet or not & members to the convention should meet or not & members to the convention. The people of this state are much divided, a part unwilling to live longer in this union [sic] with an uninterrupted agitation of the slavery question, a dominant party threatening to exclude them from every inch of the territory belonging…to both. The northern states or several, if not most of them have passed laws annulling [sic] fugitive slave act fugitive slave act. Under this circumstance…the South are excited, restless, consider their equality & safety endangered are not willing to submit, as yet the North are unwilling to move an inch, a portion of the people of Tennessee, and I believe they are in the majority, are willing to wait. They don't say how long.

Robert H. Cartmell Diary.

          9, "THE CONVENTION."

To-day the people of Tennessee are deciding whether the State convention shall be held, and who are their choice for delegates to that body. Although at this time nothing definite is known regarding the voice of the State, we have no doubt that the majority in favor of the convention will be very large. The next question which will come up is, whether or not the action of that convention shall be submitted to the people for ratification or rejection; whether the convention, composed as it will be of delegates of every shade of opinion, will be allowed the final disposition of a question involving the destiny of Tennessee, or whether the people after having been furnished with the action of that body, shall be permitted to either approve or disapprove those actions at the ballot box. The Nashville Union, in an article on this subject, while acknowledging that submitting the action of the convention to the pole would be expedient under certain circumstances, seems to take the position that the submission is not absolutely necessary. After expressing the opinion that "should a war be raging in our midst – a contingency by no means improbable – it might be the part of wisdom, prudence and safety that the action of the convention should be definite, prompt and decided. Under other circumstances however," continues the Union, "especially if the sentiments of the people should prove by the ensuing election, to be at all doubtful, it is due to the people that they should have an opportunity of speaking their voices, at the ballot box, in an unmistakable manner."

The legislature which convened for the purpose of providing for a State convention did not feel authorized to even call that convention without submitting their action to a vote of the people. Certainly, if it were necessary for the people to decide by ballot whether the convention should be held, it is doubly imperative that the deliberations of the delegates be submitted to those who elected them. Even in the event of a war – be it a "contingency by no means improbable" – we hold that the people have as much right to decide for themselves as in any other contingency. The ballot box is the only medium through which the people – the whole people – can speak in a manner not to be misunderstood, and through that medium will they claim their right to be heard. Tennessee shall neither be compelled by a convention to remain in the Union nor to leave it for a Southern confederacy. Her people are freemen and, en masse, will decide for themselves at the polls.

Memphis Argus, February 9, 1861.





          9, Brigadier-General Gideon J. Pillow pledges "Liberty or death" in defense of Fort Donelson

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 1. HDQRS., Dover, Tenn., February 9, 1862.

Brig.-Gen. Pillow assumes command of the forces at this place. He relies with confidence upon the courage and fidelity of the brave officers and men under his command to maintain the post. Drive back the ruthless invader from our soil again raise the Confederate flag over Fort Henry. He expects every man to do his duty. With God's help we will accomplish our purpose. Our battle cry, "Liberty or death." [2]

By order of Brig.-Gen. Pillow:

GUS. A. HENRY, JR., Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, pp. 867-868.

          9, Amphibious assault on Confederate camp of instruction near Savannah [See February 6-10, Pursuit of Confederate steamers by U. S. N.]

          9, Unlawful Assemblages Ordinance in Confederate Memphis

Be it ordained, &c.

That hereafter all balls parties and other collections of persons for amusement in and about any notorious house of ill-fame within the Corporation of Memphis shall be unlawful and each & every person being found and arrested as a participant in such balls parties of other collections of persons shall be adjudged guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not less than five nor more than twenty five Dollars in the discretion of the Recorder. And it is hereby made the duty of the Chief of Police to see that all such assemblages are suppressed and the guilty parties arrested and brought before the Recorder.

Memphis City Council Meeting Minutes for February 9, 1862.






          9, "I had quite an adventure night before last…." An excerpt from Sergeant George S. Sinclair's February 11, 1863 letter to his wife, relative to picket duty in the Murfreesboro environs

* * * *

I had quite an adventure night before last on picket duty which gives me great reason to thank my God [sic] for his great goodness and protection to me so great a sinner. The case was this, we were out on picket…[at our] outposts with five men and a sergeant in them which are relieved from there every two hours from the reserve then the outpost men go out onto the sentinel beats and stay until they are relieved by the next outpost. Well, I had gone out onto the outpost with my five men about forty rods from the reserve and send those that were there out to the sentinel beats giving them the counter sign, the sentinel were still out forty rods from the outposts and placed about eighty feet apart. When I started out it was 7 o'clock, dark as pitch and after I had been there about half an hour, I thought that I would go out and find the exact position of the sentinels and go the rounds which it is my duty as a sergeant to do once in the two hours to see that everything is all right on the lines. So I at about half past seven started from the outpost not knowing the position of the sentinels but trusted to their attention to business to stop me on the line then I could stride the line and go around. The dough headed fools didn't hear me and I walking in an old cornfield stepping on and breaking stalks making enough noise to awake the dead, but the sentinels or one nearest to whose post I passed did not had me so I passed on out of the lines into sessesia [sic] until I knew that no picket lines were ever established soon far out. So I then turned back keeping the same path that I went out and the first intimation that I had of anything was the flash and report of a gun within twenty feet of me right in my face, but thank the Lord that the damned fool was so badly scared or I should have been nor more. I realized my situation at once and fearing that there might be another man with the first, sung out what the hell he was firing at me for that I was sergeant of the guard and told him that I would give him hell for it and then sung out ["] don't come her or I will shoot again.["] At that I knew his voice and that there was but one on a beat so I run [sic] right into him bayonet first. He was so frightened that he did not recognize me then and that he belonged to the next company to us and knew me quite well on any other occasion. He still continued to thrust his bayonet at me but I locked that with mine and run my hand in on the barrel of my gun and grabbed him by the neck with my right hand and used him none of the easiest I can tell you and jerked him along into the reserve and put him under guard.

The poor devil was so scared that by morning I had made up my mind to forgive and forget it thinking myself very fortunate in getting off without a scratch. But the poor fool reminded me that I must not call him such hard names another time like that in a threatening tone as if he had the perfect right to shoot me when he pleased and me to say nothing about it. I had ought [sic] to put a ball or my bayonet through him on the spot when he threatened to shoot the second time. His remarks rather riled me and right in the presence of his and my captain. I gave him a few belts in the face to teach him manners. HE was very reasonable after that. Without joking it was no laughing affair to have a man shoot at you even in the dark at a length of two rods for that was the distance exactly. I fully acknowledge to whom I owe my preservation.

* * * *

George G. Sinclair

Sinclair Correspondence

          9, "Cavalry are scouting all over the country, stealing money, clothes, foraging, pressing horses and capturing 'Secesh' soldiers."

I have been visiting all day, ought to mark it a day lost. A Federal force is at Franklin. Cavalry are scouting all over the country, stealing money, clothes, foraging, pressing horses and capturing "Secesh" soldiers.

I am fearful Robert will be taken prisoner. Not a dog barks but what I think, "The Yankees" are coming.

Oh! when will it end? I told Mag tonight I felt as if I should go crazy.

Oh! that we could conquer a peace.

I almost doubt the efficiency of a republican form of government. Ours has not yet lasted a century.

It is humiliating to reflect upon our glorious past and then compare it with the present.

Oh! For a Washington, a Jefferson, a Hamilton or a Jackson or some such mighty spirits to guide us aright and bring and end to this devastating war. At times I proudly imagine Jeff Davis our talented forbearing President in the man. God grant he may be. My thoughts are confused. Have lost all command of diction, can scarcely clothe my thoughts in the most ordinary language. This is the principle reason for my writing. To try to improve myself in composition [sic]. I wonder if I could compose a passable letter now.

I read but it makes but little impress [sic] upon my memory. In an hour after I close my book I can but with a mental effort quote a sentence. Often while sewing I endeavor to quote from memory and frequently have to get the book and re-peruse it. It alarms me. Yet what can I do? Resolutions and plans avail me not. Having no room of my own, my reading is done in the family room except at night after they retire, I read and study or try to. Frequently my eye is upon the page, my thoughts are far away lingering upon some recent bloody field or with my soldier friends.

The faces of the loved and dead come up before me. Every shadow seems a spirit and the low sighing wind seems a whisper of lips not closed forever. They are with me in dreams. I feel the clasp of loved hands, meet again eyes beaming with love.

Passionate, burning words fall upon my ear, words that I once heeded not. With a stark I awoke. Wretched, oh so desolate. Yet I make my own desolation and they say broke the truest heart that ever loved woman. I will not believe it, dare not believe. It is only the beautiful that can wound like that. No one ever called me handsome.

He acted wrong, so did I. Why? I write this I know not. Am always remembering it, always feeling a presence and a shadow even in my gayest hour.

I fear it is morbid. I never thought even after mature reflection that I cared for him more than a brother. If I did not, why? this eternal consciousness of an unseen presence [sic].

If H. could only come home, I would cease to feel so. Oh, that he would, but is he alive? I know not even that. Randolph when in agony of despair he exclaimed, "Alone, all alone." Expresses what I often feel, even with a loving brother and sister.

They do not understand me. But one never did. Alas! That one of all others.

I will perhaps tear this out tomorrow. I write as a relief. I never talk thus – never.

Diary of Mary L. Pearre

          9, Affair near Moscow

FEBRUARY 9, 1863.-Affair near Moscow, Tenn.

Report of Lieut. Col. Seth C. Earl, Fifty-third Illinois Infantry.


Moscow, Tenn., February 9, 1863.

SIR: I have delayed making any report of the attack on our pickets until now. Acting Lieut. M. Dare, of Company E, who was in command of the men, being one of the wounded, has not been in a condition, on account of his wound, to make any report until a few moments ago, and the other reports being so indefinite that I did not consider them reliable enough to base a report on. At the same time they all went to convince me that it was neither an attack of the enemy's pickets nor even a guerrilla party, but probably some offended citizens chasing in or looking after some stragglers.

I find, however, on inquiring of the officer in command of the pickets, that as he was going from the reserve post to the advanced picket, he heard some one command "halt," and saw two mounted men coming toward him, one of them having on blue coat. He saw no arms, and thought that they were some of our men who had been out scouting around the country. He heard them tell the pickets to hold up their hands, when, seeing they were rebels, he commanded his men to fire, but not having their guns loaded could not, but were fired on by the two horsemen, wounding, as I said before, Acting Lieut. M. Dare, of Company E, and Private John Stingly, of the same company. The two horsemen then turned and ran.

The lieutenant in command says his guns were not loaded at the time as he had been instructed by different officers of the day to load his pieces at night. The men at the reserve post, hearing the noise, advanced and fired several times, The man who was wounded says he is confident one of the men who fired on them was a negro. The strength of that picket post is 1 commissioned officer, 2 non-commissioned, and 15 privates, 2 being on the outpost.

Very respectfully, yours,

S. C. EARL, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. I, pp. 340-341.

          9, Federal reaction to reports of Confederate conscript sweeps and marauding on both sides of the Obion River

COLUMBUS, February 9, 1863.

[Col. JOHN A. RAWLINS,] Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Department of Tennessee:

Reports from Union City, Fort Pillow, and Island No. 10 are concurrent in placing an organized force of about 1,000 rebels, with some artillery, on both sides of the Obion River, under command of Col.'s Richardson and [W. A.] Dawson, constantly making excursions, marauding the country, and conscripting for the rebel army. As the Obion River is navigable at present to a point above Dyersburg, I am anxious to enter it with a gunboat, and, in co-operation with the garrisons of Island No. 10, Union City, and Fort Pillow, to break up and capture these lawless bands, this being the only way to penetrate into the heart of the country occupied by these rebels. I would request orders for the co-operation of two gunboats.

ASBOTH, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 66.

9". …we had a skirmish with the Rebels for about five or six hours but none of our regiment was hurt" Foraging and skirmish with Confederates in Liberty environs

Camp Standly [sic], near Murfreesboro, Tenn.

Feb. 9th, l863

Dear Wife:

I have not much to write this time as I have given you the particulars of our great battle and the skirmish where I was slightly wounded and my horse was shot with a buckshot but has got well of that. My back is nearly well so that it does not hurt me to do duty, and day before yesterday we went out with a forage train and when we went out nine miles, we had a skirmish with the Rebels for about five or six hours but none of our regiment was hurt. But one of the 7th Penn. boys was wounded in the thigh, and a ball struck the ground about twelve feet in front of me and glanced and struck my horse inside of the foreleg, but the ball was so near spent that it did not hurt him much, and he will soon be well of that shot.

We are on duty every other day, either go out after forage or else we are on picket. We are on picket today and I am sitting on my over coat and leaning against an oak sapling in the woods three miles from Murfreesboro on the Liberty Road (Pike). We live well here at present when we go out after forage, that is corn and fodder, we take what we can get, hams, chickens, turkeys, sweet potatoes and everything that is good to eat. Besides the rations that we draw, our mess has now about 100 lbs. of meat and about 25 lbs. coffee but we use our sugar as fast as we drew it. Some of our mess would use up more than their share so we divide it and I can save a good bit. Every little while I can trade it for milk or butter. While we laid at Nashville, I used to trade it for pies….

George Kryder Papers[3]

          9-10, A visit from General and Mrs. John Hunt Morgan and planning for another ball in McMinnville

On Monday evening [9th] Gen. Morgan and his wife call [sic] on us. Gen. M. is a tall rather fine looking man, high forehead, very fine teeth--a staid and sober expression but very agreeable--and he is exceedingly courteous but not courtly--very polite tho' [sic] not polished. Mrs. Morgan reminded me that evening of Ellen Harrison--Her side face [sic] is like Ellen's. Her manner is that of Narcisic Saunders-- a good deal of manners. I like Mrs. Morgan much--she is not very brilliant--not quick to take up a joke or see into s[ome] witticism; but when she does see she appears to enjoy it. She had gone to the hospital a day or two previous and was speaking to "Stenil" who was ill there about the money that they had made at the concert.[4] He inquired what was to be done with it--she said she did not know certainly--it would be used for the benefit of the men. "Well" said he, "I would request that it be applied to the general washing [sic] of the command." Mrs. M. it is said did not see the point until sometime afterwards--she took him in earnest and that was the funniest of all, because certain it is that a good wash would do most of the more good than anything else!...Morgan's costume on this evening was blue cloth pants and round about--with plenty of "brass button" [sic] and immense shiny cavalry boots and spurs--black felt hat turned up at the side with a star. They came on horseback--Mrs. M. had on a black riding habit, hat and veil. Capt. Marenis was here when they came--he came to get me to "lead off" a committee of lady managers of a ball to be given by some of the officers to Mr. & Mrs. "John Hamilton"[5] on Friday the 13th. I would not consent to lead off but expressed a willingness to assist any other ladies who might wish to form a committee. Marenis said he came to me as it was known I did not belong to any of the "cliques" of the place. "No" I said, "I didn't not and never intended to." Next morning [10th] Mag Rankin wrote for us to come to Mrs. Read's to a meeting of ladies and we went. Mrs. Read, Mrs. Waters, and myself were all the committee present. I wrote out an invitation list of the ladies and some of the married folks--which was all we could do then. Mollie and I went down town--soon Mrs. Marbury and Mrs. Read came after us and we went back to Maj. Rowan's. Here we concluded not to place our names upon the invitation cards--which was a great relief to me.

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, entry for February 15, 1863.





          9, Disease in Knoxville. An Excerpt from the letters of William Bentley, 104the Ohio Volunteer Infantry

Feb. 9th 1864

~ ~ ~

There are still a few cases of small pox in the city – but confined mostly to the citizens. For my part, I don't feel much afraid of the disease. I have been vaccinated twice since we came to Tenn….

Bentley Letters.





          9, Skirmish near Memphis

FEBRUARY 9, 1865.-Skirmish near Memphis, Tenn.

Report of Lieut. Col. Hugh Cameron, Second Arkansas Cavalry (Union), commanding Fourth Brigade, Cavalry Division, District of West Tennessee.


COL.: I have the honor to report that the escort having charge of the wood train from this brigade was attacked this morning at 8 o'clock about the time it arrived in the wood-yard one and one-quarter miles outside the pickets by a party of rebels believed to be seventy-five in number. The escort comprised seventeen mounted Second Arkansas Cavalry, twelve dismounted Second Missouri Cavalry, and eleven dismounted First Iowa Cavalry, making forty men, commanded by Second Lieut. Laban N. Garrett, Company A, Second Arkansas Cavalry. At 8.30 o'clock I received information by messenger that the escort had been driven back and the train captured. I at once sent messengers to division headquarters with the information and for orders and immediately ordered out all the cavalry of the brigade. My messengers, returning, met me near the Carr avenue picket about 9 o'clock, bringing orders for me to pursue the rebels some distance beyond where the train was captured. I pushed forward as fast as possible ten miles on the rebel trail, but did not overtake any of any of the party. Had my men been mounted on serviceable horses I might have overtaken and severely chastised them. The trail was through the woods in the direction of Hernando, as I followed it. Doctor Raines, living about one mile west of the Hernando road and ten miles from the City of Memphis, informed me that the rebel force passed his house on the way to the wood-yard at 4 a. m. and returned with the captured mules at 9.15 a. m. in a hurry; that they divided just before they reached his place, thirty-five or forty passing his house, and the remainder turning to the right and making for a skirt of timber southeast of his house, though which the Mississippi and Tennessee Railroad passes.

I abandoned pursuit, satisfied that I could accomplish nothing with my broken-down horses, and determined to return. Dividing my detachment of sixty-six men, I ordered Capt. O'Brien back over the road we came with thirty-three men, and with the remainder I returned by the Hernando road. On reaching the Hernando road I captured Doctor Gabbert, who said he lived in the vicinity of Hernando, and supposing that he might give important information I brought him along. I have turned him and the property captured with him over to the provost marshal. A negro moving his family to Memphis told me that he passed a rebel force having a large of mules with them about twelve miles from Hernando; he supposed about 11 o'clock . In the encounter at the wood-yard our casualties were 1 sergeant, Second Arkansas Cavalry killed; 1 man, Second Missouri Cavalry, mortally wounded, and 3 slightly; 1 man, of the first Iowa Cavalry, severely wounded; 1 man, of the Second Missouri Cavalry, prisoner; also 5 teamsters, Second Arkansas Cavalry, prisoners. Loss of property, 111 U. S. mules in harness. Rebel casualties, as far as ascertained, 1 man killed, from whose person was taken, it is reported, a cotton pass dated February 8, 1865, and a letter containing valuable information. I have delayed this report, expecting to be able to get said cotton pass and letter and forward them with it, but have failed. I have placed the lieutenant commanding the escort in arrest for neglecting to take possession of said papers, and have no doubt that he deserves to be punished for carelessness and inefficiency; for the result of his operations in the woodyard, it seems to me, proves him to be both careless and inefficient.

I have the honor to be, colonel, respectfully, your obedient servant,

HUGH CAMERON, Lieut. Col. Second Arkansas Cavalry, Cmdg. Fourth Brigade.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, pp. 37-38.


As an addendum, place the following link in your browser, http://vimeo.com/87829771, to view a short movie entitled "TOBACCO BURN." It is powerful cinema, and while it is not about the Civil War, it is about a common but widely unspoken issue in the slave holding south, that is, white on black rape. It is an intense, riveting  film, with no gratuitous violence or sex scenes. Its production values are far beyond the category of most "short films."







[1] Robert H. White, Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, 1857-1869, Vol. 5, (Nashville: Tennessee Historical Commission, 1959), p. 272. [Hereinafter: Messages of the Governors of Tennessee.]

[2] In the end, however, he would choose neither, and skedaddled to Nashville, leaving the Confederate Army to fend for itself and be captured. Brave, brave, pompous Brigadier General Gideon Pillow.

[3] Center for Archival Collections, George Kryder Papers, Transcripts, MS 163:  http://www.bgsu.edu/colleges/library/cac/transcripts.

[4] See February 7, 1862, "A night at the McMinnville opera" above.

[5] Not identified.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Editor, The Courier

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


Wednesday, January 20, 2016


January 21, 1861-1865


21, "Firing of a Cannon."
About 7 o'clock last night, fifteen guns were fired from Capitol Hill in honor of the secession of Georgia....
Nashville Daily Gazette January 21, 1861.


          21, Warnings of residual pro-Union sentiment in East Tennessee
HDQRS., Knoxville, Tenn., January 21, 1862.
Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector-Gen., Richmond, Va.
* * * *
Outwardly the country remains sufficiently quiet but it is filled with Union men who continue to talk sedition and who are evidently waiting only for a safe opportunity to act out their rebellious sentiments. If such men are arrested by the military the Confederate State courts take them by writ of habeas corpus and they are released under bond to keep the peace; all which is satisfactory in a theoretical point of view but practically fatal to the influence of military authority and to the peace of the country. It seems not unlikely that every prisoner now in our hands might or will be thus released by the Confederate court even after being condemned by court-martial to be held as prisoners of war.
It is reported to-day that several fragmentary companies recruiting in different counties ostensibly for the service of the Confederate States have suddenly disappeared; gone to Kentucky.
It is confidently hoped that the bridge over the Holston at Union will be completed in the current month.
Very respectfully, sir, your obedient servant,
D. LEADBETTER, Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, p. 877.
          21, Memphis Prostitutes Lidia Angling and Annie Davis arrested for street walking
Femininical.—About 4½ o'clock, yesterday evening a young woman was arrested by officer Sullivan while indecently exposing her person near Odd Fellows' Hall. Another girl who was with her that officer also took into custody for hustling ladies, among them an old lady of sixty, from the sidewalk. Their names were Lidia Angling and Annie Davis. The same officer arrested two other women yesterday, who were fighting, each armed with a hatchet, on Jefferson street, near the bayou. One of them had received a cut on the head, the other was considerably scratched
Memphis Daily Appeal, January 21, 1862.


          21, Correspondence between Major-General Charles A. Dana and U. S. Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton, relative to illegal cotton trade involving "Yankees and Jews"
MEMPHIS, January 21, 1863.
DEAR SIR: You will remember our conversations on the subject of excluding cotton speculators from the regions occupied by our armies in the South. I now write to urge the matter upon your attention as a measure of military necessity. The mania for sudden fortunes made in cotton, raging in a vast population of Jews and Yankees scattered throughout this whole country, and in this town almost exceeding the numbers of the regular residents, has to an alarming extent corrupted and demoralized the army. Every colonel, captain, or quartermaster is in secret partnership with some operator in cotton; every soldier dreams of adding a bale of cotton to his monthly pay. I had no conception of the extent of this evil until I came and saw for myself. Besides, the resources of the rebels are inordinately increased from this source. Plenty of cotton is brought in from beyond our lines, especially by the agency of Jewish traders, who pay for it ostensibly in Treasury notes, but treaty in gold. What I propose is that no private purchaser of cotton shall be allowed in any part of the occupied region. Let quartermasters buy the article at a fixed price, say 20 or 25 cents per pound, and forward it by army transportation to proper centers, say to Helena, Memphis, or Cincinnati, to be sold at public auction on Government account. Let the sales take place on regular, fixed days, so that all parties desirous of buying can be sure when to be present. But little capital will be required for such an operation. The sales being frequent and for cash, will constantly replace the amount employed for the purpose. I should say that $200,000 would be sufficient to conduct the movement. I have no doubt that this $200,000 so employed would be more than equal to 30,000 men added to the national armies. My pecuniary interest is in the continuance of the present state of things, for while it lasts there are occasional opportunities of profit to be made by a daring operator; but I should be false to my duty did I, on that account, fail to implore you to put an end to an evil so enormous, so insidious, and so full of peril to the country. My first impulse was to hurry to Washington to represent these things to you in person; return East so speedily. I beg you, however, to act without delay if possible. An excellent man to put at the head of the business would be Gen. Strong. I make this suggestion without any idea whether the employment would be agreeable to him.
Yours, faithfully,
P. S.-Since writing the above I have seen Gen. Grant, who fully agrees with all my statements and suggestions, except that imputing corruption to every officer, which, of course, I did not intend to be taken literally. I have also just attended a public sale by the quartermaster here of 500 [sic.] bales of cotton confiscated by Gen. Grant at Oxford and Holly Springs. It belonged to Jacob Thompson and other notorious rebels. This cotton brought to-day over $1,500,000 cash. This sum alone would be five times enough to set on foot the system I recommend, without drawing upon the Treasury at all. In fact, there can be no question that by adopting this system the quartermaster's department in this valley would become self-holders would no longer find that the rebellion had quadrupled the price of their great staple, but only doubled it.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. I, p. 331.
          21, Capture of forage train near Murfreesborough[1]
No. 1.-Edward Potter, forage-master, U. S. service.
No. 2.-Gen. Braxton Bragg, C. S. Army.
No. 1.
Report of Edward Potter, forage-master, U. S. service.
HDQRS. SECOND BRIGADE, FIFTH DIVISION, CENTER, Murfreesborough, January 27, 1863.
COL.: I have the honor to make the following report to you of the capture of the forage train from your command of the 21st instant: We left camp at your quarters shortly after daylight of the morning of the 21st, with 34 wagons and 128 men, in charge of Capt. B. W. Canfield, of One hundred and fifth Regt. [sic] Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Company E, the train in the advance, until formed on the Liberty pike, about 1 ½ miles from your quarters. Before forming on the pike, I passed a large train forming from Gen. Wood's division, and formed our train in the advance of them, in charge of Mr. Campbell, wagon-master of the Eightieth Illinois Regt. [sic], with instruction to halt the train as soon as would give the large train room to form in our rear, while I returned to get two wagons of ours which had become fastened in with the large train, and to see at what time their train would be ready to move. The officer in charge told me it was ready then, but the guard was to quite ready, but would be in a very few moments. I then said I would move on our train to keep out of his way, as they would shortly overtake me. To which he replied, "Very well."
On my reaching the train, I found it halted, and the men in the wagons. They were placed there by order of Capt. Canfield. I said to him it was not in order for the men to ride, and the replied that the men had a fast walk to get up, and he would let them ride to the outpost pickets, and I ordered the drivers to move on, taking the advance myself, with four orderlies, one wagon-master, and one lieutenant from the Nineteenth Indiana Battery. We moved about one-fourth of a mile in the advance of the teams, halting and making inquiries of all the pickets and vedettes until I arrived at the point where we were attacked, which I was told was the last vedette post. At this point the wagon train was about one-fourth of a mile in our rear, and a short distance in the advance of me were some 30 men in our uniform, whom I supposed to be our pickets. As I was under the captain, I dismounted to ask him to form his men in the order of marching, and permitted the horsemen to advance within 40 feet of me, when they demanded my surrender.
At this moment I discovered our surprise, and ordered a halt of the teams and the men to form in line of the left of the wagons, and replied to the order to surrender by firing five shots, killing 3 men, and receiving two volleys from them, when I engaged Col. [J. B.] Hutcheson with my saber, disarming him, when I was overpowered by numbers, and surrendered my saber to Col. Hutcheson. While this was going on, the firing had commenced at the wagons, about 30 rods from me, in the rear, but how they were making of it I could not tell until I saw the teams advancing on the road where I was held a prisoner, and was told that every man was taken. We had 1 man slightly wounded in the hand. I saw 5 of Morgan's men taken from our wagon, dead, at Liberty, and 3 wounded men on horseback. We made a forced march to Smithville, and halted for one hour, and then started for McMinnville in the captured wagons. I made my escape from capture, and arrived at your quarters on the evening of the 26th instant. Our train was out for rough feed where I had previously found it, about 7 miles from Murfreesborough, and 1 mile to the left of the pike where we were captured. About 80 rods from where our capture was made we passed 2 men, who said they were patrols, and that everything was all right in front.
No. 2.
Report of Gen. Braxton Bragg, C. S. Army.
TULLAHOMA, January 22, 1863.
(Received at Richmond, Va., January 23, 1863.)
Lieut.-Col. [J. B.] Hutcheson, with 100 men, Morgan's cavalry, made a dash yesterday upon the enemy's camp at Murfreesborough, and captured and brought off safely 150 prisoners and 30 wagons. Maj. [D. W.] Holman (Wheeler's cavalry) since last report captured and destroyed another large transport on Cumberland loaded with subsistence. The enemy has made no show of an advance from Murfreesborough.
Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 15-16.
          21 Skirmish on Shelbyville Pike
No circumstantial reports filed.
          21, Boiler plate opinion in Chattanooga
We have not heard as yet of a negro [sic] police in Nashville, but from all accounts, that city is full of blackguards.
"By Lincoln we live, by Lincoln we move, and by Lincoln we have our being" is the latest prayer of thanksgiving among the Yankee lick-spittles and nigger thieves. [sic]
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, January 21, 1863.
          21, "Powder and Lead" a newspaper advertisement by W. D. Humphries, Confederate Post Ordnance Officer in Chattanooga
We need all the lead we can obtain. I will pay a liberal price for it, delivered at the Ordnance Depot, or give Powder at a fair pro rata of exchange. Bring it on at once, and don't disdain small quantities.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, January 21, 1863.
          21, The metropolitan gas works close in Nashville
The gas works will be closed up after to-day until a supply of coal can be obtained. Our citizens have already had a foretaste of the deprivation they will experience from the stoppage of the gas works in the fact that the streets have not been lighted for five or six nights. But the greatest deprivation will fall upon those whose business requires the use of gas lights. Candles were largely in demand yesterday, and dealers advanced their prices very considerably.
Nashville Dispatch, January 21, 1863.
          21, Account of Military Matters in Middle Tennessee Subsequent to the Battle of Stones River
Movements of the Belligerents After the Battle of Murfreesboro.
From the published statements of Gen. Rosecrans, after the retirement of the Confederates fro the battle field near Murfreesboro, it appears that on the morning of Sunday, the 4th, after it was announced to General commanding that Gen. Bragg had retreated, the Federals troops were engaged in throwing up entrenchments, cautiously approaching the town, and kept up a brisk cannonade till they got near enough to throw shell into the city, which was entered about the middle of the day by Gen. Rosecrans and staff. It is also stated that Bragg left his dead unburied, but succeeded in removing all his sores, artillery and munitions of war.
A survey of the battle-field after the strife had ended is said to have revealed a woful state of affairs-the dead and wounded lying in heaps, and scattered about in every direction in greater numbers than had been reported. The work of interment wasn't son accomplished, and the removal of the wounded who were suffering beyond description exposes as they were to the rain and cold, although attended to diligently, was not completed till after hundreds had died of exposure and for the want of cars and attention. Those who could be removed were taken to Nashville, where every hospital, church, hotel and hundreds of private dwellings, taken possession for that purpose, were filled to their utmost capacity. The country, however, were assured by an official announcement, that most the wounds were very slight, and that at least two thirst of the disabled menwould soon be able to return to their respective commands, and enter again upon active service.
All the Secession families in Murfreesboro are reported to have left the city before it was occupied by the Federal army. Pursuit of the vanquished was commenced as soon as practicable, but it seems from both the Federal and Confederate reports, that it was not very vigorously followed up. Some skirmishing with the rear columns and the retreating foe is said to have occurred, in which no great loss was sustained by either army. It was believed, as the enemy retired in the directions, that Bragg would make a stand there and again offer battle, but from recent reports is made to appear that he did not stop at Tullahoma, but proceeded on to Winchester where the main body of Bragg's army was stationed at latest dates. Rumor says that Longstreet has succeeded him in the command of the Confederate force in Tennessee.
It is stated that during the battle near Murfreesboro, there were many desertions from the Federal army, including several officers, and particularly from those division which were repulsed by Gen. Hardee in the great battle of Dec. 31st, in which, as reported, Gen. McCook's corps was so badly cut up to pieces that the various remnants, brigades and divisions retreated in the wildest confusion and so mingled that but few belonging to the same company or regiment could be found together. Under such circumstances, hundreds took occasion to abandon the service, and were among the missing a roll-call thereafter. Immediately after the termination of the conflict, and as soon as the fact became known that an unusual number of desertions had taken place, Gen. Rosecrans issued orders for the arrest of all such; wherever found, and their return to Nashville in irons.
The prisoners captured in the several engagements by Gen. Rosecrans' army were taken to Nashville, where the officer were placed in custody under the following order, issued by Gen. Rosecrans:
The Gen. Commanding is pained to inform the commissioned officers of the Confederate army taken prisoners that, owing to the barbarous measured announced by President Davis in a recent proclamation, denying parole to our officers, he will be obliged to threat them in like manner.
It is a matter of regret to him that this rigor appears necessary, and trusts that such remonstrances as may be made in the name of justice, humanity and civilization, may reach the Confederate authorities and induce them to pursue a different course, and thereby enable him to accord to their officers the privileges which he is always pleased to extend to brave men, even though fighting for a cause which he considers hostile to the nation and disastrous to human freedom.
On the 9th Gen. Rosecrans announced that he was pursuing the enemy, and expected they would push on the Chattanooga before making a stand. He had been largely reinforced by fresh troops, and no fears were entertained as to the result, should another battle ensue.
The Federals complain bitterly of the atrocities committed by the soldiery of the Confederate army before, during and after the battle, and the Confederates report the Federal soldiers were guilty of the most flagrant enormities possible for men to commit. The truth of the reports relative to the barbarity of the combatants is not doubted.
The latest intelligence from Tennessee represents that Cheatham's and Cowan's divisions of Bragg's army were at Shelbyville, awaiting reinforcements from Richmond. Wheeler, Starne and Forrest were at Charlotte, forty miles northeest of Nashville, with a heavy force, threatening the destruction of the transports on the Cumberland river, several of which are reported to have fallen into their hands. It was believed that gunboats would have to be sent up the river to shell out the enemy, and keep the navigation of the Cumberland and open below Nashville.
The Desert News [Salt Lake City, Utah], January 21, 1863.
21, "I had 4 bullets shot throw my close and when I fell a nother horse blounged right on my bowles, but still I was abel to go on my hands and knees." Matthew Askew's (Co.D, 1st O.V.I) letter to his brother describing his experiences at the Battle of Stones river
Convelesent Camp near Nashville, Tennessee
January the 21st, 1863
Dear Brother, I do not know wheather it would be better to direct my letter to wheir I am at present or to the regement. I will leave that to your self.
We have ben living on half rations since the battle, but now we have full rations of every thing. The river is up and thair has 40 bots or more come up the Cumberland to Nashville. Provishons is verry dear in Nashville. Flour 8 to 10 dollers per barell, meat 10 to 12 cents per pound, butter 75 cents per pound, potatoes wone doller per peck, appels 15 dollars per barrel, shugger 20 cents per pound, wood 12 dollers per cord, and every little notions in perporsion.
We had a few days of pretty hard winter weather heair, snow 3 or 4 inshes deep. But this morning it has all gon and become warme, but very muddy in our camp. Our camp is made up of all the men that is slightly wounded and sick that belongs to the 2 Devishon, which is comanded by General Johnson of Kentucky. I supose we have in our camp 400 and 50 men out of the whole Devishon. The town is pretty much all hospitals. They have taken a god many of the churches for the sick and wounded. The Hospital no. 8 this morning reports 16 in the dead roome and every other I supose as bad as it. The men that dy heair is a cation of all diseses you can menstion.
I can give you no information of your nabours. Dan Groves was taken prisner and wheather he was retaken or not I canot tell. I have not heard from James Bennet or Joseph Hogan since the fight. I hear our Regement is going to be paid of shortely, but thair is a pore prospect for me to receive any pay. I have got no discript rowl with me and I am not abel to go to my Regement, so I will be very like to mis my pay this time.
I must now come to a close. Pleas giv my kind respects to you dear wife and children, Uncel and Ant and all my inquiring frinds.
I have no sight of getting a furlow this winter as thair is so many that is worse than I am that canot get home.
Pleas right me a few lines as soon as poseball and send me a few postedg stamps as I am out of money till I get to my regement. I could get all I wanted.
I had 4 bullets shot throw my close and when I fell a nother horse blounged right on my bowles, but still I was abel to go on my hands and knees. My best frind was from Cinncitia, his name was Goerge Jemmeson, a brick layer. He was shot through the thigh with a cannon ball and died soon after.
So no more from your well wishing brother,
Matthew Askew
Askew Family Correspondence[2]


          21, Scout from Chattanooga to Harrison & Ooltewah
JANUARY 21, 1864.-Scout from Chattanooga to Harrison and Ooltewah, Tenn.
Report of Col. Geza Mihalotzy, Twenty-fourth Illinois Infantry.
HDQRS. 24TH Regt. [sic] ILLINOIS VOL. INFANTRY, Chattanooga, Tenn., January 24, 1864.
GEN.: I have the honor to submit the following report, detailing additional results of the expedition under my command of detachment Third Brigade, First Division, Fourteenth Army Corps, to Harrison and Ooltewah:
On the 20th instant the following-named 4 deserters from the rebel army came into our lines, whom I sent to Provost-Marshal-Gen. Wiles the same day: John L. Tanner, private, Sixteenth Tennessee Infantry; J. C. Cantrell, private, Sixteenth Tennessee Infantry; T. J. Cantrell, private, Sixteenth Tennessee Infantry, stationed 4 miles below Dalton, and report the strength of the rebel forces at those places respectively as follows: At Tunnel Hill, three brigades of infantry and a large force of artillery; at Dalton, two divisions of infantry.
On the 21st instant, the morning after receiving you dispatch, in obedience to orders, I proceeded with my command Ooltewah, while I sent my train to Chattanooga by the direct road. With the train in charge of Lieut. Hodges, Thirty-seventh Indiana Volunteers, I sent 3 citizen prisoners from the neighborhood of Harrison (J. T. Gardenhire, J. A. Hunter, and ____Lyon) to Provost-Marshal-Gen. Wiles, who are charged with having aided rebel guerrillas.
On approaching the town of Ooltewah about 10 a. m. I encountered a squad of rebel cavalry, some 60 men strong, who, however, precipitately fled from my advance guard, and having no cavalry at my disposal I was unable to pursue them. The intention of this force was to get into the rear the thereby cut off the communication of the scouting party of 50 under Capt. H. A. Sheldon, of First Wisconsin Volunteers, whom I had sent out on the preceding day, as report in my dispatch of January 20, 1864.
On my way to Ooltewah, at the house of Anthony Moore, I seized the records of the county registrar's office, comprising the following: Eighteen volumes of records of Registrar's Office, County of Hamilton; two volumes Laws of Tennessee, 1857-'59; one volume Code of Tennessee. The above volumes are at my headquarters, to be disposed of according to instructions.
At Ooltewah I arrested Miss S. Locke and Miss Barnet, who have already been delivered to Provost-Marshal-Gen. Wiles, both of whom are charged with carrying contraband information to the rebel army. Through the scouting expedition above mentioned I have obtained the following information: The rebel forces at Tunnel Hill and Dalton, whose exact strength I was unable to ascertain, were reported doing considerable moving and shifting recently, the object of which, however, could not be learned. A force of 300 of Wheeler's rebel cavalry are encamped 5 miles beyond Igou's Gap, whose pickets are stationed at the gap. This force is continually making raids in small detachments on the Union towns and farms of that neighborhood, and committing all manner of outrages and cruelties on the loyal population.
As an incident illustrative of the barbarities constantly being perpetrated by these outlaws, I will mention that a Mr. Tallent, a loyal citizen living near the forks of the roads leading to Red Clay and McDaniel's Gap, recently found In his immediate neighborhood a young child In a perishing condition, stripped of all Its clothing, which the rebels had left there, having attempted by that means to find the father of the said child, whom they proposed to hang, he being a loyal citizen.
I have been reliably informed that a rebel raid on our river transportation at Harrison is now positively being prepared. This raiding force will have to pass thought the mountain gaps near Ooltewah. The rebels infesting that region of country have been In the habit of disguising themselves In Federal uniforms, and have by this means often succeeded In deceiving the Union people. Messrs. Stone and Scroggins, Union citizens living at Julien's Gap, can give information of a guerrilla band commanded by a citizen of Ooltewah, who steal and plunder from the loyal citizens continually. They also know where a large portion of the spoils of this band are now secreted. A number of discharged soldiers from Tennessee regiments have banded together with Union citizens and organized themselves for self-defense. They are armed with such weapons as they have been able to procure, consisting of rifles, carbines, and revolvers. This band of loyal men, who are men of the highest sense of honor and true patriotism, are doing all they can to promote the success of our cause. Their number could be increased to 200 if arms could be provided for them. By their aid Surgeon Hunt, of the Ninth Tennessee Infantry, whom I previously reported captured by guerrillas, was enabled to escape, and he is now in captured by guerrillas, was enabled to escape, and he is now in safety. I have also learned that [a number of]....citizens, living In the vicinity of Ooltewah, are In the habit of harboring the guerrillas infesting that region, and that the rebels have signified their intention to burn the town, of Ooltewah as soon as the families of the Misses Locke and Barnet, above mentioned, quit the town. After obtaining the above information from my scouting party, who returned about two hours after I arrived at Ooltewah, I took up the march to Chattanooga and arrived in camp at 9.30 o'clock the same day with my command, without having sustained any loss.
In conclusion I would again most respectfully beg leave to call the attention of the general commanding to the advantages to be gained by permanently stationing a small force at the town of Ooltewah. A force of two regiments with a half battery of battery of artillery could, in conjunction with the organization of citizens above mentioned, hold all the mountain passes in that region, thereby effectually preventing all raids, securing our river transportation, and affording to the almost exclusively loyal population the protection which they so much deserve. A great amount of most valuable information could also be obtained by such a force with the aid of the citizens of the band previously mentioned, they being intimately acquainted with the country thereabouts and able and willing to put in operation a most effective system of espionage for that purpose.
I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
G. MIHALOTZY, Col. 24th Regt. [sic] Ill. Vol. Inf., Cmdg. Expedition.
Maj. Gen. J. M. PALMER, Cmdg. Fourteenth Corps.
HDQRS. FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Chattanooga, January 24, 1864.
Respectfully forwarded, and attention called to the highly judicious suggestions of Col. Mihalotzy.
J. M. PALMER, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 103-104.
          21, Skirmish at Strawberry Plains
HDQRS. SECOND DIVISION, NINTH ARMY CORPS, Lyon's Mills, Tenn., January 31, 1864.
CAPT.: On the 21st ultimo the Ninth Corps was at Strawberry Plains. The army was moving toward Knoxville, with heavy trains over bad roads, and the Ninth Corps was left to bring up the rear. The bridge being dismantled and set on fire, our pickets were withdrawn, as directed by the major-general commanding, from the south side of the river in a flat-boat. The enemy soon appeared, lined the banks of the river commanding the plains, and from Seminary Hill opened fire with a field battery. Lieut. Gittings, with Batteries L and M, third U. S. Artillery, was posted near a block-house covering the depot, but placed his four guns in a better position on the ridge next in rear of the block-house, and replied with such effect as to silence the enemy, notwithstanding a cross-fire brought to bear upon him from a point to our left and front.
We remained in position all day at Strawberry Plains annoyed, after the artillery ceased, only by the enemy's sharpshooters. They showed a considerable force of cavalry and mounted infantry, some squadrons, and one long column which we were able to reach with our shells with considerable apparent effect. They seemed to be moving down from the New Market road out upon the Sevierville road, from which there were roads leading to a ford 2 miles below us, and other fords still lower down, crossing at either of which would have enabled them to cut our train stretched between Strawberry Plains and Knoxville. The picket at the ford was strengthened, and a regiment sent to Flat Creek by the general's order. In the evening a train of cars was expected to take off some public property remaining at the depot, consisting mainly of two guns, said to belong to Goodspeed's battery (not of the Ninth Corps), and some caissons. There was no transportation to take this property away, and a telegram was received stating that the cars had run off the track just out of Knoxville. The troops were ordered by Gen. Parke to be at Flat Creek by daylight. The batteries were started at 12, the troops at 3. I was directed to bring off the guns and caissons, before mentioned, if possible; if not, to destroy them. The men of the Ninth Corps volunteered to drag the guns, which they did with much labor, and the caissons were destroyed, as it was impossible to bring them away. The troops reached Flat Creek by daylight, and were ordered to move on toward Knoxville in rear of the Twenty-third Corps.
At about 1 o'clock on the 22d, the enemy's cavalry appeared in our rear, 1 mile above the Armstrong house, just as we came up with Manson's division, Twenty-third Corps, which had been halted. The lines were formed and we marched in company with Gen. Manson, without annoyance from the enemy, to a position a mile above the intersection of the Armstrong's Ferry road with the Knoxville road, where I ordered a halt of all the troops, threw out skirmishers toward the enemy, encountered their skirmish line, drove them back, and carried two wooded knolls which they had seized In our rear and right. The rebel force driven off, we went into bivouac. They made a demonstration on Gen. Manson's pickets early in the evening, which was repulsed. Their whole force returned toward Strawberry Plains about midnight, and we saw no more of them. They were said to be Armstrong's division of cavalry and mounted Infantry.
* * * *
O. B. WILLCOX, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 107-108.
          21, U. S. C. T. in Shelbyville environs, excerpt from a letter to Laura Owen
Dalton, Ga
Janry 21st 1864
My beloved wife
* * * *
There are two citizens in camp from Tullahoma Tenn & report people in Midl [sic] Tenn [sic] have plenty to eat & doing well, some Yankee soldiers in the country & three Negro regiments guarding [sic] Shelbyville.
* * * *
U.G. Owen
Dr. U. G. Owen to Laura, January 21, 1864.
          21, Termination of passes from Nashville
Special Notice.
Headquarters Military Div. Of the Miss,
Office of Provost Marshal General.
Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 21, 1864
No application need hereafter be made at this office for passes to go South of the Federal lines, as none will be granted.
By command of Major General U. S. Grant
W. R. Rowley, Major and Provost Marshal General.
Nashville Dispatch, January 24,1864.
21, Report on Confederate guerrilla activities between the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers
We have some cheering news from the Cumberland river, in the vicinity of Clarksville, through the Federal lines. Captain Bruce Phillips, formerly of the 14th Tennessee regiment, and who commanded that regiment, in the first day's fight at Gettysburg, who received authority last fall to recruit a regiment of cavalry inside the Federal lines, is now in the section of the country between the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, ding serious damage to the foe. He has between 150 and 200 men and has been actively engaged all winter in annoying the Federal Garrisons at Clarksville and Fort Donelson, and the working parties upon the North-western railroad. Not long since he attacked several thousand of the armed negroes working on the railroad, killed and wounded a large number, and put the rest to flight. Some of them whose masters lived in Clarksville, had reached that place, and reported that their whole force had been scattered except those were killed and wounded, and that they themselves had been so badly scared that they had been running for thirty miles to get home. A few days before Christmas, Captain Phillips with fifteen men was in the immediate vicinity of Clarksville. The fact becoming known to the Federal commander at Clarksville, he dispatched a party of fifty-[sic] to capture them. Phillip's party ambuscaded them, and killed seventeen and wounded a many others. Only seventeen of the party returned to Clarksville. Capt. Phillips is a daring and efficient officer, is entirely familiar with the country in which he is now operating, and will doubtless do much good.
Macon Daily Telegraph, January 21, 1864.
.21, State Political Reorganization Rally in Nashville
The Reorganization Movement in Tennessee.
At Nashville, on the 21st inst. a large meeting was held at the capitol relative to reorganization. Hon. M. M. Brien presided, assisted by Col. Pickens, of East Tennessee, and Joseph Ramsey, Esq., of Bedford, as Vice Presidents. The meeting was addressed by Jas. F., Fowler, Esq., Colonel Edwards, of East Tennessee Capt. E. O, Hatton and Gov. Johnson. A lengthy preamble and the following resolutions were adopted:
Resolved. 1. That we recognize the authority and duty of the executives of the United States, of such agents and instruments he may constitutionally appoint and employ, in cooperation with the legislative and judicial department of the government, to secure to the loyal people of any State of the Untied Stated the constitutional guarantee of a republican for of government.
Resolved 2. The people being the rightful source of all power of government, the welfare of the people of Tennessee will be the best secured by committing the restoration and permanent establishment of civil  government to a constitutional convention, to be chosen by the loyal citizens of the State; and having implicit confidence in the integrity of the Hon. Andrew Johnson Military Governor, we submit that he may call such a convention of the State at any time when,, in his judgment, the State can be represented from all her parts.
Resolved 3. As slavery was the cause of all our trouble, and as it is an unmitigated evil in itself; and since it may be considered dead by the action of its friend, that it may never be resurrected, to enable a small minority to bring the ruin upon our children that it has given us, were here pledge ourselves to use all our influence to elect such men and only such men, as delegates to said convention as shall be in favor of immediate and universal emancipation now and forever. And we invite our fellow citizens everywhere to unite with us on this platform to unite with us on this platform and we use this opportune moment to free ourselves and our posterity from the bondage in which we have been so long enslaved by the influence of an arrogant and dominant aristocracy. [3]
Resolved 4. That on the call of said convention it shall consist of delegates duly elected from the respective Senatorial and Representative Districts under the last constitutional apportionment.
North American and United States Gazette,[4] July 28, 1864. [5]


          21, Report on the Enrolled Militia at Memphis
Lieut. Col. C. T. CHRISTENSEN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith for the information of the major-general commanding the following report of the Enrolled Militia at Memphis: On the 9th of December, 1864, this militia force numbered in the aggregate 2,445 men, of whom 1,319 were armed. On the 15th of December, 1864, a board of examiners was ordered, and all former exemptions and excuses revoked. This board has already added three new regiments to the previous forces and filled the old ones nearly to the maximum. The organization now is composed of seven regiments and two battalions of infantry and two squadrons of cavalry, numbering in the aggregate 6,941. Arrangements have been made to have them all armed by the 20th instant. The arms are in good condition, as in most regiments they employ hired armorers for the sole purpose of keeping the muskets in order. There is good prospect of bringing this militia force up to 7,000 men. Gen. Diana has been earnest and active, and in this as in all else connected with affairs of his department he has displayed great energy and ability.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN M. WILSON, Lieut.-Col. and Assistant Inspector-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 48, pt. I, p. 599.

[1] Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee lists this as an affair.
[2]Center for Archival Collections, Askew Family Correspondence: Transcripts. MMS 1380.  http://www.bgsu.edu/colleges/library/cac/transcripts/mms1380.html
[3] Emphasis added.
[4] Philadelphia, PA
[5] TSL&A, 19th CN

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