Tuesday, November 22, 2011

November 22 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

22, Winchester's donation of clothing
Winchester, Nov. 18, 1861
Dear Madam -- "The Soldiers' Relief Society of Winchester" have prepared two boxes of clothing, of various kinds, such as we suppose will be used in the Hospital of which you have charge...."
Nashville Daily Gazette, November 22, 1861


22, "Meeting of the Memphis Clergy"

At the meeting of the clergymen of the city yesterday afternoon [22nd], the different denominations of the Protestant church, the Catholic, and the Hebrews were represented. Rev. Dr. White, of the Episcopal church, was called to the chair, and the Rev. Philip H. Thompson, of the Presbyterian church, appointed Secretary.

The chairman stated that the object of the meeting was to devise some way by which the spiritual wants of the sick and wounded soldiers in the different hospitals of the city, might receive regular and systematic attention. After discussing various methods by which the object could be obtained, it was concluded best to memorialize the government to have a regular chaplain appointed, and the following resolution was unanimously adopted:

Resolved: 1st, That the chairman and secretary of the meeting be appointed a committed to write to the secretary of War to inform him of the necessity of having some resident chaplain appointed to attend to the spiritual wants of the inmates of the several hospitals of sick and wounded soldiers in this city and vicinity.

Resolved 2d, That the Rev. Charles Jones be recommended as a suitable person to fill said office.

Mr. Jones is a venerable and devoted minister of the Baptist church, a native of Georgia.

The great and increasing number of the sick and wounded soldiers in our midst, requires the constant attention of a minister of the gospel. The pastors in the city have visited the sick and wounded, and will continue to render all the assistance in their power. But in the multiplicity of their engagements they feel unable to give the regular attention which is so much required. The chaplain, if appointed, will devote his whole time to the hospitals, and when a patient desires to see a minister of any particular denominations, the chaplain will notify the pastor. The meeting was characterized by the most perfect harmony and fraternal regard.

Memphis Commercial Appeal, November 23, 1861.



22, "Your failure to attend to these duties will subject you to heavy penalties, as provided under the late amendment to the Militia Laws." Confederate orders to Captain T. R. Mason, 89th Regiment Tennessee Militia from Robertson County

Headquarters, 89th. Regiment,

Tennessee Militia

November 22nd. 1861

Captain T. R. Mason,

In obedience to Gov. Harris' General Order Number 12 you will hold the Militia under your command in readiness for marching orders by the 25th instant. You will from your command detail one half of the whole number and be prepared at the shortest notice to march with said details to the General Rendezvous at Nashville.

You will order said details so made by you in obedience hereto to supply themselves with rations sufficient to subsist them until their arrival at rendezvous at Nashville which they will be subsisted by the Confederate States.

By proper orders I will direct you at to time and place where your command will report themselves to receive public transportation. You will at once have a report of your Company in accordance with the Militia Laws forwarded to me. You will at once collect all descriptions of arms, except (pistols and knives owned by, or in the possession of any and everybody of all ages and sexes, without any exception, living within the bounds of your Company ) and you will return all of said arms at once to me and I will appoint there disinterested freeholders to assess the value of said arms and will give my receipt for the same to the owner, to whom the State will make compensation. Your failure to attend to these duties will subject you to heavy penalties, as provided under the late amendment to the Militia Laws. Such is also the case in regard to any citizen who shall refuse, upon demand by you, or those you may appoint, to deliver arms as above herein specified, which are not required for the common defense, or who shall conceal the same.
Where a Militia man is actually engaged in the service under this call he will keep his gun and march with it. All other arms, as above name, you will at once deliver to me without delay.

The details herein called for must be made by you as soon as possible, and in a very few days I will send you an order to march with them from the point I will designate to the general rendezvous at Nashville. All necessary expenses incurred in the transportation and subsistence of the Militia detailed for active service will be borne by the Confederate States. You will encourage good order and discipline among your troops and enjoin upon them the duty of respecting the rights of citizens.

If in answer to this call, a number of Volunteers for service your Company will be relieved from duty under the requisition. This order is made in pursuance of Gov. Harris's General Order Number 12, and with the late amendments to the Militia Law. You can detail such persons as you deem suitable to aid you in carrying out the same, in making details for actual service you can observe such course as you think best so that you furnish one half of your command either as Militia Men or Volunteers, or some of each, as they may prefer, but in one of these ways you will at once make up the number, all of whom will be able-bodied men, or as nearly so as may be practical. You will excuse no man on any trivial grounds.
By late Militia Laws telegraph operators, necessary employees on Railroads and all persons employed in Quartermaster's Commissary and other Departments of the Confederate States, all persons employed in the manufacturer of arms, powder and munitions of war for the State of Tennessee, or the Confederate States, are exempted from services in the Militia of this State.

The Colonel commanding feels confident that you and your command will at once and heartily, do you whole duty in obeying this call, and thereby drive back the invaders who seek to overwhelm us.

Bring all the arms to me at Springfield next Tuesday morning (Draughon's Office)

W. A. Holman, Colonel Commandant

Winds of Change, pp. 20-21.



22, "WAR PICTURES – No. 1" United States Military Road System in Tennessee, some details of its operation, a lesson in modern military logistics
The Military Railroad System
The Immensity of the Military Railroad System in the South -- The Government Workshops and Manufactories in Nashville -- Graphic Description of the System, by our Special Correspondent.
* * * *
Nashville, Tenn. Tuesday, Nov. 15, 1864.
Few persons, even of those in the highest military stations, are acquainted with the gigantic efforts which have been called into requisition to sustain our armies occupying this portion of the Southwest. The results thus far have fully met the expectations of the most sanguine.
It will be remembered that Nashville was first occupied by National troops in February 1862. The Confederate forces, before retiring from the city, destroyed everything in the shape of machinery for manufacturing purposes, stores, etc. -- but most particularly did the retreating armies employ themselves in making complete their work of destruction in the shops and manufactories attached to the Nashville and Chattanooga and the Tennessee and Alabama Railroad, which had been of the most vital importance to the railroad system of this section. And eminently so in assisting the progress of the rebellion. Everything in the shape of locomotives and rolling stock was, of course, removed, and has since served our enemies in those districts of Dixie not penetrated by the warriors of the Imperial Republic.
You will at once perceive that everything necessary to the running of the road above mentioned must be replaced. A short time after Gen. Buell arrived in Tennessee a few locomotives and a small number of cars were produced, and at the close of August trains ran between Nashville and Stevenson upon one raid, and between Nashville and Huntsville upon the other, in less than four weeks after Gen. Bull's retrograde movement took place, and the railroads above referred to were necessarily abandoned in consequence. The entire length of these roads within four miles of Nashville were in the possession of the enemy until the battle of Stone [sic] River. A few cars subsequently were daily run to and from Murfreesboro. A little over a year ago we located our army at Chattanooga, and less than one year ago trains were run through from Nashville to Chattanooga. Let me compare the military railroad system of one year ago with to-day:
Chaos is no more! [sic]
There are now about fifteen hundred miles of road, employing eighteen thousand me, as mechanics, engineers, blacksmiths, conductors, brakemen, laborers, &c. The rolling stock consists of 271 engines and 2,000 cars, while the buildings erected within the past year, and occupied by this particular branch extends several miles -- a detailed description of which I shall give below. I will add, however, that these buildings are built upon the most improved plan of wooden structures, all of which are guarded day and night, and protected against fire by a multiplicity of rotary engines, steam fire-pumps, cisterns, &c., &c.
All this is, in a great measure, owing to the sagacity and zeal of Gen. McCullum, Col. J. C. Crane and Mr. Anderson, to whom the country at large is greatly indebted. To Col. Grane must the highest honors belong, for the existence of this stupendous transformation. His is the executive eye, and to him almost entirely belongs the credit of bringing about this great change. Great credit, however, is also due to Gen. McCullum; Mr. A. Anderson, and the Commander-in-Chief- of the Military Division of the Mississippi, who together with Col. Crane, have shown to the world a new feature in the art of war, namely, building a railroad which shall keep pace with an advancing army, and each evening deliver the necessary supplies for the coming day.
The expenses incident to the running of the military railroads in the Division of the Mississippi, including the purchases of material and the payment of employes [sic] , reached the astonishing sum of $2,200,00 per month.
Below I give a detailed description of Col. Crane's department, the result of a visit which I made on Tuedsay last [November 8].
This is by far the immensest [sic] establishment of the kind in the country -- perhaps the world. I shall endeavor to give you a fair view of its exterior and interior, realizing the fact, however, that no such picture can urge the imagination to a proper conception of its vast proportions.
The locomotive and machine department is under the efficient superintendence of Mr. E. P. Benjamin, and employs three thousand men. The main building is two hundred feet long and eighty wide, and is in process of extension, its projected extreme length to be 450 feet. The upper part of this building is used for rebuilding and repairing locomotives and tenders, and is called the erecting floor. This spacious room will accommodate thirty-four engines at a time. Really, the shop has not yet built a new locomotive: but every piece of machinery necessary in the construction of an engine or locomotive with the exception of the wheel tire, has been turned out. Captured and crippled locomotives find their way into this shop, and in a few weeks steam out as good as new. The foreman of the locomotive-ship pointed out to me a magnificent-looking engine which had been elevated from a worn out boiler.[sic] Everything about the structure had been manufactured in this shop, except the boiler and driving wheels. While I think of it here, nothing is manufactured by the Government, the foreman informed me, which involves a loss, except a steam whistle. These can be bought cheaper than they can be manufactured, and the manufacturer of them in whose has been discontinued in consequence. During my stay upon the erecting floor, I saw a locomotive moved from one track to another, the performance of which required two men and lasted just half an hour. The locomotive was raised by an apparatus called a hydrostatic jack, placed upon a substantial track, and transferred from one track to another.
Adjoining this huge building is the machine shop, which is over two hundred feet long, filled with the most improved machinery of the age, up stairs and down. There are some very fine machines down stairs, including a marine lather, for turning heavy shafting; a lather for truck axles; a compound planer, for all kinds of light planing; two hundred planers; drill press, for all sorts of light and heavy drilling; heavy drill press; large lathe, for turning locomotive flying-wheels -- turning two at a time; slotting machines, used for horizontal planing; and two boring mills. In the upper machine shop are five bolt-cutting machines, capable of doing the heaviest of work; cotter and key-seating machine, self-feeding; several gear-cutting machines; six drilling machines; large boring and turning mill; large hydrostatic press, for putting car wheels on axles; two large driving-wheel lathes; seven planing machines; two milling machines, and twenty lathes, all sizes and descriptions. The entire machinery is new, and of the most improved pattern, and is chiefly from the well-known establishments of William Sellers, Philadelphia; BAMENT & DOUGHERTY, Industrial Works, Philadelphia; Putnam Machine Company, Fitchburg, Mass.; Lowell Machine Company, Lowell, Mass: JOHN PAISHLEY, New-Haven, Conn., and others.
The machinery of the whole, establishment is run by two horizontal engines of three hundred horse-power. These engines were formerly in the Memphis Navy yard. After the breaking out of the rebellion they were removed from Memphis and placed in the gun-factory erected in this city by the enemies of the country, for the manufacture of small arms. The engine and fire-room is a perfect parlor, over which towers a chimney 120 feet in height, the brick used in its construction having been taken from old houses which were torn down for that purpose.
One of the most perfect and completely arranged blacksmith shops is connected with the locomotive and machine department. The foreman of the shop, Mr. DUNCAN LIVINGSTONE, pronounces it the completest [sic] workshop of the in the country. It is about two hundred feet in length and eighty in width, and employs nearly two hundred of the best blacksmiths that could be found, all of whom receive from three and half to ten dollars a day. There are four forges which are blown by steam. By an invention of one of the employes of this shop, the ashes and coal-dust is carried off by the same blast which blows the fire, making the forge present a clean appearance at all times. Every variety of heavy work as well as light is turned out here.
Connected with this department is a foundry, in which all kinds of work are turned out. There are also carpentry and pattern shops, in which the woodwork for the locomotive and tenders are manufactured. There is also an immense storehouse, nearly two hundred fee long, containing an endless variety of everything used upon a locomotive and railroad, such as axes, shovels, picks, ropes, lanterns, oil-cans, stoves, lamps, batting, &c., &c.
A "round house," which is to be the largest in the country, is in process of construction, which, when completed, will have sixty stalls, and will be so constructed that one hundred locomotives maybe accommodated at a time.
One of the most durable structures is a water-tank, which has just been finished. It is 75 feet long and 25 feet long, cut out of solid rock (for the reader will recollect that Nashville is situated on a rock,) and done by negroes. The existence of this tank is a wonder, and is entitled to higher rank than a multiplicity of renowned structures which loom up in a greater advantage.
Within a few steps of the workshops, connected with the locomotive and Machine Department, are the commodious lodging houses and dining halls for the men connected thereto. There are some forth houses in all, many of which are over two hundred feet in length. In addition to these are at least a hundred negro cabins, the entire collection making quite a respectable town. I will conclude by saying that the duties of three thousand men in this department is to keep two hundred and seventy-one locomotives in good repair and complete running order.
The car department, only second in proportion to the locomotive and machine department, employs at present fifteen hundred men, under the superintendence of Mr. GEORGE HERRICK formerly of the New York and Erie Railroad. The chief duty of the employes [sic] of this department is to keep in good repair three thousand freight and baggage cars, and will build two hundred of the former and six [hundred] of the latter during the coming Winter.[sic] Every inch of iron, brass and wood work, including the painting and upholstering, is performed here.
The main building of the car department is two hundred and two feet long and eighty wide, and is solely used for the manufacturing and repairing of cars. At present, Mr. Herrick is having a headquarters car built for Gen. Thomas, which, for convenience and elegance, is the finest affair I have ever seen. With the exception of the ornamental work, this model combination of house and carriage is complete. It is an iron-plated vehicle, fifty-feet in length and of the usual width, containing a kitchen, dining saloon [sic] sleeping apartment, wash-room, and water closet, and office. Nothing could be more complete, while the upholstery and ornamental work is recherché. A car of the same description is also being manufactured for Gen. McCullum. Mer Herrick has also transformed half a dozen superb cars, which were capture a long time ago upon the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, late hospital carriages, which must elicit the hearty appreciation of many a poor fellow whom may yet require the necessity of testing the mode of conveyance. This car is intended to run up to the battle-field, and is so arranged that the wounded never leave their mattress from the time they are placed upon it upon the battle-field until they are removed to their cots in the hospitals at Nashville. The cars are all ventilated by an invention of the manufacturer, and when empty present an incomprehensible mass of network, composed of iron and India-rubber. Each car will accommodate 30 badly wounded. The hospital train always follows the passenger train, and the utmost care is taken to guard against accidents; and I will state here, that since the commencement of running these improved hospital carriages, no soldier had sustained the slightest injury. There are attached to the Car Department a blacksmith's shop, brass and iron foundries, and paint, glass and upholstery shops, besides a spacious storehouse. The blacksmith shop is upon the same order as the one in the locomotive and machine department, except that it does not employ so many hands. This shop, in connection with the iron foundry, manufactures all the iron work and castings used about a baggage or passenger car and engines. The brass foundry turns out all the articles of this metal required about cars and engines, all of which are handsome specimens of excellent workmanship. Every ounce of dust and dirt is saved, and all the sweepings of the foundry, and washed out like gold dust. The pain, glass and upholstery shops employ about a hundred hands, who are kept constantly at work at their various trades. The employes in the car department are so amply accommodated with lodgings as those at the locomotive and machine shops.
I almost forgot to mention that this establishment has just turned out a sort of hermaphrodite affair, which is called a "gunboat car." It will accommodate twenty men inside, who can keep off with the Minie rifle two hundred of an attacking party with out fear of injury. Armed with the Spencer rifle, a much greater body of men could be driven off the twenty soldiers inside. Upon the top of the car may be placed a six-pounder, which could be used with effect upon a retiring party.
The carpenters' department occupy building a short distance from those above described. There are about five hundred men employed in this department, under the superintendence of Mr. NAGLE. This squad of men are engaged solely in building, and are already the founders of a large town.
The hospital, provided for the reception and care of all who may become sick, or who may receive injuries in any of the departments of Col. CRANE, or who may be wounded upon any of the railroads, consists of a pretty collection of houses about tho hundred yards to the west of the workshops. Without extending this subject, I will say that it is complete in every particular, it is under the superintendence of Dr. FARGNARHARON [?], a genuine Union man, of Gallatin, Tenn., who has sacrificed thousands of dollars during the progress of the rebellion. He is ably assisted by Dr. STEMMERMAN, and other, including Dr. SHEFFIELD, Professor of Homeopathy. At present there are less than a hundred patients; there are accommodations for four hundred.
A spacious freight house occupies the premises of Col Drane, used chiefly for the storage of freight enroute South. It is six hundred and seventy five feet long [sic], and nearly one hundred wide.
It must be remembered that a large number of the clerks and other employees of the Quartermaster Department, are enrolled and liable to be called out at any time, not only in the defence of the city, but to assist in the protection of stores and depots in any section of the Military Division of the Mississippi. Col. CRANE has organized and commands a brigade of infantry, and has armed and equipped them, and build an armor, which is two hundred feel long by eighty wide. Most of the men composing this brigade are picked, nearly all of whom have seen from three months' to three years' service. The brigade has already been called into the field of action and can be ready for service at an hour's notice.
I cannot close without saying a few words more in relation to Col. JOHN C. CRANE, the efficient and accommodating Quartermaster who is at the head and front of this immense railroad fabric. Col. Crane is one of those extraordinary young man, who, despite his great responsibilities of this office, the continuous annoyance that must necessarily exist where so many employes are congregated, bears all who seeming ease. His office is at all hours besieged with a crowd of men, each of whom brings his story of grievance, or request for favors, to all of which he listens with kind attention, tendering such advices as his judgment suggests as most likely to subserve their interests and the welfare of the Government. Every spike, every hall, every foot of timber, every pound of metal used in the shops and on the road, must be property accounted for, as well as every dime of the $2,200,000 which is monthly expended.
Col. CRANE entered the service as a private soldier in the First Missouri Cavalry, but he was shortly after selected for a more prominent position -- one more fitting his ability. He was instrumental in having the first Western regiment of cavalry accepted by the War Department in 1861, and at that time was offered the command of the regiment, but refusing it, became its Quartermaster. Early in 1862, he was appointed a Captain and Assistant Quartermaster, and ordered to report to headquarters Army of the Potomac, and during the Maryland campaign rendered good service. By the devotion to duty, &c., he has fairly won his present rank.
Col. CRANE has been relieved, and ordered to report to Cincinnati as "Inspector of the Quartermaster's Department," a position [in] which he will no doubt [serve] all with credit to himself and the department.
Benjamin C. Truman
New York Times, November 22, 1864.


November 21 - Tennessee Civil War Notes


The meeting of citizens at Odd Fellows Hall o­n yesterday, which was well attended and full of enthusiasm, demonstrated the spirit of patriotic determination that actuates or people in devising means for the defense of their soil. But o­ne feeling pervaded the assembly - that the invader, whenever he may come, must be driven back at the sacrifice of every dollar and every hazard of every life in the Confederate States. [emphasis added]

It was recommended by resolution that the business houses in the city, except those engaged in the manufacture of military equipments and munitions of war shall close every day at 3 o'clock P.M., for the purpose of organization and drill. This is a move in the right direction, and though a little tardy in point of time, is better late than never. The call made by Gov. Harris for thirty thousand militia, need not interfere with it, but the two enterprises can proceed simultaneously and in harmony.

Memphis has been far behind other southern cities in the work of home defense, and has failed until recently to appreciate its necessity. New Orleans, Mobile, Galveston and other exposed cities upon the coast, not less endangered than we, have their volunteer reserve corps, who drill a certain number of hours every day. The time has come when we should imitate their example. Our whole male population , capable of shouldering a musket or a shot gun, should become soldiers, ready in any emergency to fly to the assistance of the brave men who are already in the field to defend our firesides.

As an auxiliary to the Confederate army -- as a [group?] of young soldiers to fill up the ranks, whether decimated by disease or the sword -- this unorganized multitude must be well disciplined and drilled. [emphasis added.] Without this, they are a mere mob, inefficient and unfit for service, Such is the idea upon which the coast cities have acted, and the result of their conviction now shows itself in thousand of finely discipline citizen soldier, armed to the teeth with the weapons and guns of every description and caliber, ready to meet the foe so soon as his foot presses their soil, and determined to contest with him the possession of every inch of their territory.

Experience shows that it will be better for the volunteer [sic] feature of this movement to be kept prominently in view, as it has been elsewhere in the South. The fact cannot be disguised that the militia service is somewhat obnoxious to our people, and they always respond to a call for its organization with reluctance. Nor is this unnatural. Inasmuch as but little honor is usually won by serving it its ranks. Hence we hope that Governor Harris will assign separate military officers for this volunteer auxiliary force that is to be raised, as the Executives of Louisiana and Alabama have done -- distinct from those who have charge of the State militia.

We do not deem any sensational appeal to the public necessary to arouse them at the present time. There is danger of invasion, it is true, but no occasion for panic or alarm. All that is needed to keep back the tide is to confront the foe, determined to resist to the death. No o­ne apprehends but that we are fully able to keep him from advancing a single furlong beyond our army lines, if we are o­nly up and doing. But to render assurances doubly sure -- and to strengthen the hands of our military authorities at Columbus (Ky.) -- we should give our undivided attention to this laudable enterprise.

It is said that in a late review of the troops at New Orleans, the vast column that turned out o­n the occasion was nine squares long -- estimated at ten thousand men. Cannot Memphis, so for the "banner city" of the South, display in ten days at least three thousand effective citizen soldiers? Arms can be obtained for them from every private house, and will be furnished, when it is known that they are needed. So let the watchword and the rallying cry be Organize! Drill!

Memphis Commercial Appeal, November 21, 1861.

[1] Editor's note: It appears as though the more substantial merchants and their politicians were more worried about the working classes, who had no intention of entering the army and were at the least reluctant to support the secessionist cause. A local militia would offer a means for controlling and indoctrinating the lower classes in the secessionist agenda. Under the slogan "Organize! Drill!" the ruling classes of Memphis expected to control the lower classes and gain some protection from mobs or even the Federal army. The local elite meant what they said when they wrote: "this unorganized multitude must be well disciplined and drilled."



21, Guerrilla attack on Northwestern Railroad
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, November 22, 1864--3 p.m.
Maj.-Gen. SCHOFIELD, Pulaski:
The guerrillas got at the Northwestern railroad yesterday morning and destroyed a train sent for [Major-General] Ruger, which has detained his brigade. He expects to be here by 4 p.m. Did Gen. Wilson reach Pulaski to-day? Upon inquiry I learn that there are three crossings of Duck River below Columbia, viz, at Williamsport, Gordon's Ferry, and at Centreville; at all of them the ground at the north side commands. I will give Ruger instructions to occupy the north bank at all three places.
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p.


Saturday, November 19, 2011

“The Cyprians in Trouble;” concern expressed for the plight of Nashville prostitutes

On Thursday evening lower College street was thrown into a state of
unusual excitement in consequence of an official notification received
by some of the Cyprians to vacate their premises. The order required
Captain H. C. Hodges, A. Q. M., to take possession of the houses
occupied by Mary Combs, Mary Stratton, Lou Hulse, Maggie Seats, Jennie
Rogers and two or three others, and directed the said occupants to
vacate their several buildings before 12 M. on Monday, the 8th of
June, 1863, and hand over the keys to Captain H. C. Hodges.

On Friday morning [5th], nearly all the hacks in town were brought in
requisition, and Post Headquarters, the Capitol, and other places,
were besieged, with the hope of having the order countermanded. At
length it was whispered around that the house could be retained if the
proprietors would dismiss all their girls, and not allow soldiers to
visit the places. This made matters worse for when all expected to be
turned out of doors, there was a consolation in all going together;
but for each girl to look out for a home for herself, to be cast among
strangers, perhaps be compelled to wander all night in the streets,
was more than they could bear, and the wailings and lamentations of
the unfortunate creatures were pitiable in the extreme. Like other
human beings [sic], these poor [sic] girls have their loves and ties
of kindred, of home, and of friends; many of them are as helpless as
children, and totally unfit to take care of themselves; and there are
none to give them a helping hand to reform, none to give them a
helping hand to reform, none to give then shelter in time of need,
none to say "daughter, you are forgiven; sin no more."

These facts were represented to the proper authorities during
yesterday, and we learn that the order has been suspended for the
present, but requiring all of them to hold themselves in readiness to
vacate when called upon, and holding the proprietors responsible for
any disorderly conduct in their homes, until further orders.
While upon this subject, we may as well allude to the indelicate
practice of soldiers riding in open carriages with these girls through
the street in broad day; and would suggest that the Provost Marshal
make an endeavor to put a stop to it. The girls are not to blame. The
neither pay for the carriages nor induce men to ride in them. The
fault lies with the men, and to them alone the military and civil
authorities ought to direct their attention in suppressing this

Nashville Dispatch, June 6, 1863.

November 18 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

18, Capture of Unionists at the Doe River
JOHNSON STATION, November 19, 1861.
(Via Jonesborough.)
Yesterday we dispersed the insurgents, 300 strong, at Doe River. Took thirty prisoners in the neighborhood; none very prominent. What shall be done with them? Are those not known as criminals to be released on their oath of allegiance? Those known to have been insurgents I recommend be sent to Richmond and kept there. Please telegraph to Jonesborough, Tenn.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, p. 845



18, "Rebel Specimen of Integrity."
The following order, by the Rebel leader of a mounted corps of horse thieves and house-burners, teaches Union men some wholesome lessons:
Headquarters, Forrest's Cavalry Corps
Athens, [Tenn.] Sept. 28, 1863
General Order No. 80
I Notice is hereby given to all citizens who have been forced to take an oath of allegiance to the Federal Government, and in consequence thereof have fled the country and left their homes, that all such oaths and obligations are only binding so long as the Federals hold the country. All such citizens are advised to return to their homes, be quiet and peaceable; the Confederate authorities will not molest them.
II. All citizens aiding or abetting the Federals, pointing out Southern men, to have them oppressed and persecuted, or guiding or piloting them through the country, will, when arrested, be tried and later hung as spies and bushwhackers.
II. Notice is given to all prisoners captured at Vicksburg that they have been exchanged; and are expected to rendezvous, and rally again around their flag. Our army has been recently victorious at Chickamauga -- capturing 6,000 prisoners, 2,600 stand of small arms, and 41 piece[s] of artillery -- the enemy flying from the field leaving their dead and wounded in our hands. Your are relieved from all oaths and obligations to the Federal Government, of every character and kind, and will be unmolested in returning to your respective commands. As brave soldiers and Tennesseans, you are called upon to join you commands with delay.
N. B. Forrest, Brig. Gen. Commanding Forrest's Cav. Corps.
Forrest releases all rebels from the obligations of the Federal oath, and pardons their reasons for violating it. What an assumption of Divine power by a Memphis livery-stable keeper, an negro trader! But he did not need to grant them pardon, for nine-tenths of them had no intention to observe the oath when it was administered.
All citizens who made demonstrations in favor of the Union cause, upon the arrival of our forces, are to be shot or hung as spies. This the murderers and scoundrels have been carrying out. We should profit by their example and at least imprison rebel spies, and this city is full of them, both male and female spies. Let us send these spies and mail-carriers to prison; and after hearing the evidence in each case. let us send those of the male persuasion North, and those of the female gender South!
The notice given to prisoners captured at Vicksburg, that they have been exchanged is simply a lie, [sic] and this Memphis negro-trader knew it when he issued his order. They had not then been exchanged, nor have they yet been. There were then, a balance of more than forty thousand in our favor. This forcing of their paroled prisoners into ranks, under a false pretence [sic], shows to what extremes they are driven for the want of men and honor.
Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal and Rebel Ventilator, November 18, 1863.


Friday, November 18, 2011

November 15 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

15, Death and dying in Hardee's Corps hospital in Chattanooga; an entry from Kate Cumming's hospital journal
Mr. Rally, husband of the lady who had charge of the kitchen, died this morning. He had been all through the Kentucky campaign, and had been a good and brave soldier.
His poor wife is almost heart-broken. I tried to get her to stay with me, but as every thing here was connected with her sorrows, I could-not prevail upon her to remain. She had the consolation of being with him in his last moments -- one that many; a woman would give worlds to have.

Lost another patient -- J. P. Allen of Hilliard's Legion, from Coosa County, Ala. He was a long and patient sufferer. His death was one of those we can thin on with pleasure; it was that of a soldier of he cross. He met our great enemy with his armor on, and ready for the conflict. When I told him his moments were numbered, he said he was perfectly happy, and desired me to write to his wife, and tell her he hoped to meet her and his child in heaven. He made me a present of his Bible, which I shall treasure as long as I live.

All our men seem to die resigned; but it is difficult to judge of their frame of mind, as they are too far gone with disease when they come here to talk to them on the subject of death, which is another proof of the necessity of preparing while in health, for that long journey from which no traveler returns. Nearly all of the men who have died here were in a dying state when brought from the camps.

Yesterday we had a visit from Dr. ______ of Kentucky. He was on General Bragg's staff through the Kentucky campaign. He and some others went to the house of an old acquaintance and asked for food for themselves and horses, but the man was so afraid of the Federal authorities that he refused to give them any thing. This gentleman's daughter raged in defiance of all restraint, and gave them a cordial welcome and entertained them by singing southern songs. Dr. ______blamed the people of Kentucky for the failure of the campaign, and says that General Bragg did not receive the aid he expected from them.

Cumming, A Journal of Hospital Life, pp. 52-53.



  1863, Campbell's Station, Knox County. The Federal General Ambrose Burnside, pursued by General James Longstreet (C.S.A.) from Lenoir's Station via Concord, eschewed an attempt by General Lafayette McLaws (C.S.A.), coming from Loudon via Hotchkiss Valley and Kingston Roads, to head him off at the junction of the Concord and Kingston roads o­n this day. Burnside stood off three Confederate attacks and then retired to Knoxville that evening.

See report below:

  Near Bean's Station, December 17, 1863.
  Maj.-Gen. McLAWS,
  C. S. Army:
  GEN.: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of
  to-day asking for the particular reason for the issue of the order
  relieving you from duty  with this army. In reply, I am directed to say that throughout the
  campaign o­n which we are engaged you have exhibited a want of
  confidence in the efforts and plans which the commanding general has
  thought proper to adopt, and he is apprehensive that this feeling will
  extend more or less to the troops under you command.

  Under these circumstances the commanding general has felt that the
  interest of the public service would be advanced by your separation from
  him, and as he could not himself leave he decided upon the issue of the
  order which you have received.

  I have the honor to be, general, with great respect, your obedient
  Lieut.-Col., and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

  As I was not informed of any instance wherein I had exhibited any want
  of confidence in the plans and efforts of the commanding general, and
  am still ignorant that I have ever done so, I can but close with the regret
  that my conduct has been misunderstood or misrepresented. If I have
  failed ever in any duty it was because I was ignorant of the plans or
  efforts which the commanding general wished me to carry out or to

  As I left my division o­n the next day after receiving the orders above
  quoted and went across the country to Augusta, Ga., I am not informed
  personally of its movements thereafter.

  o­n reviewing the campaign I cannot but remark--with no spirit of
  fault-finding, however, as I was totally unacquainted with Gen.
  Longstreet's plans and therefore not informed whether or not he desired
  to bring the enemy to an engagement or to force them to retire o­nly
  toward Knoxville--that if the leading division (Hood's), commanded by
  Brig.-Gen. Jenkins, had marched o­n instead of turning to the
  right and forming line of battle toward
Lenoir's Station o­n November
the enemy could have been intercepted in his retreat either at
Campbell's Station or at a point 7 miles from the forks of the road,
  where my division was halted and brought to a decisive engagement,
  which, in the existing demoralized state of the enemy, as shown by his
  hasty retreat from
Lenoir's Station, would have rendered the siege of
  Knoxville unnecessary and its fall a sequence of the battle. Our army
  could then have either returned to Chattanooga or have threatened the
  enemy's rear in the direction of Kingston, and the battle of Missionary
  Ridge would never have occurred, or the final result would have been
  more favorable to our cause.

  I was informed o­n the evening of the 15th, after dark, by o­ne of my
  couriers, who was acquainted with the country, and by citizens of
  standing who lived in the vicinity, that there was a road which, turning
  off from the
Campbell's Station road 4 miles from the forks where I
  was, led into the road upon which the enemy were 6 or 7 miles from
  my position, and that if we could gain the junction a small force could
  hold the place against great odds, as the position was a very strong o­ne.
  I wrote to Gen. Longstreet informing him of this road after dark o­n
  the 15th, but whether or not he received my note I am not aware, as no
  answer was returned. The leading division could, however, have easily
  marched to
Campbell's Station the evening previous, and a
  demonstration of my division upon
Lenoir's Station would have covered
  the movement until after dark, when I could have joined the leading
  division, or have remained in position to act as the movements of the
  enemy demanded.

  Again, I believe that if Knoxville had been assaulted o­n the evening of
  our arrival there, or the evening after (the 18th), when Kershaw's
  brigade assaulted and carried the outworks of the enemy,
  that we could have either forced an evacuation o­n the night of the 17th
  or have gained a position which would have rendered the town
  untenable; but our troops were never assembled for an assault until the
  29th, but, o­n the contrary, they were deployed in enveloping the town.

  When the assault was made o­n the 29th, if Hood's division, o­n my left,
  had assaulted the enemy's works to the left (my left) of Fort Loudon,
  and at the same time my assault was made, both points would probably
  have been carried, and without the loss of as many men as I suffered in
  attempting the fort alone, as my loss was inflicted chiefly by a deliberate
  fire from the left of the fort, which was not kept down by the
  sharpshooters there, but which would have been diverted and rendered
  less accurate if the point had been assaulted. But if the assault had not
  been made at all we could have changed our base upon the receipt of the
  news of Gen. Bragg having been compelled to fall back from
  Missionary Ridge, selected a position in the rear of Knoxville toward
  Virginia, and retired at our leisure, for I do not believe that the enemy
  would have ventured to have followed us to an engagement, even if he
  had been re-enforced, for the country, by reason of its narrow valleys
  between inaccessible mountains, offered strong defensible positions to
  enable a small force to successfully resist o­ne much superior, and we
  thus could have made use of a vast amount of grain and hay and
  subsistence which was afterward wasted by the enemy. As it was, the
  enemy made no pursuit of us, but following at a distance retreated as we
  turned o­n them.

  o­n the night of the 8th, after my arrival at Mooresburg, I sent for my
  chief quartermaster and commissary, who had been there in advance of
  the command, and they informed me that in the section of country which
  could be foraged from that place subsistence stores and forage were
  more abundant than in any section north of it, and the commissary
  (Maj. Edwards) gave me a list of mills around the country which could
  be used in making flour and corn-meal for the troops. I informed
  Gen. Longstreet by letter to his adjutant-general (Lieut.-Col.
  Sorrel) of these facts, but no reply was given. The troops were marched
  o­n, however, and the enemy came up in the rear, destroying and
  wasting everything not absolutely needed for themselves, and then our
  army returned o­n the 14th and had to fight to get back the country
  which they could have had unmolested by remaining there.

  After the assault (the day after, I believe, or it may have been two or
  three days after), at a council of war called by Gen. Longstreet,
  consisting of Lieut.-Gen. Longstreet, Maj. Gen. L. McLaws,
  Brig. Gen. B. R. Johnson, Brig.-Gen. Jenkins,
  Brig.-Gen. Kershaw, and Col. E. P. Alexander, the question
  was submitted as to the best course to be pursued-whether to join
  Gen. Bragg or to change our base looking toward Virginia. The
  council was informed by Gen. Longstreet that he had received a
  telegram from President Davis directing him to join Gen. Bragg, if
  possible, with his forces. Several telegrams, or o­ne at least, from
  Gen. B., was shown, wherein it stated that Gen. Bragg's army had
  retired toward Dalton, Ga., the exact point I do not recollect, and
  intimating that if he (Gen. L.) could join him in would be desirable,
  but the could not except any assistance from Gen. B. in making the
  effort. Such is my recollection. Telegrams from
  the officers in command at Loudon and below, showing that the enemy
  were advancing toward Loudon, were also submitted.

  To the question, then, whether we should attempt to join Gen. Bragg,
  or change our base toward Virginia, I was called o­n for my opinion,
  being next in rank to Gen. L. I submitted that our first duty was to
  endeavor to join Gen. Bragg, as the President directed, and Gen.
  Bragg intimated as being his desire, and in discussing that question I
  argued against making the attempt, for the reason that we could not go
  by the route we came, but would have to choose o­ne farther to the east,
  and there was none in that direction that did not lead through a rough,
  mountainous, and desolate country, where neither forage nor subsistence
  could be obtained for the men and animals. That snow, as we could
  perceive, had fallen over that country, which would add to the
  difficulties of the march, as many of our men were without shoes, and
  our sick would be unable to be divided in order to obtain subsistence,
  in which event it would be a long time before we could be united again,
  so as to be of efficient service, and that the mere fact of retiring in that
  direction would thus abandon East Tennessee to the enemy, and the
  fainthearted would despond and perhaps leave us, especially those of
  that class in the regiments from Tennessee, and at the same time the
  enemy, having nothing to oppose them in East Tennessee, could
  re-enforce Gen. Grant at Chattanooga with nearly their entire force
  from Knoxville, and thus enable him to push o­n before our forces could
  possibly join Gen. Bragg, even in the unserviceable condition they
  would be in after the long and tedious march over the desolate country
  we would be compelled to travel.

  o­n the other hand, if we remained in East Tennessee, with our base
  changed toward Virginia, our force would act as a constant menace upon
  Gen. Grant's flank and rear, and compel him to keep o­ne equally as
  large in and about Knoxville to watch our movements. That we owed it
  to the people of East Tennessee, who had been loyal to us, to afford
  them some protection and not abandon them suddenly to the enemy.
  That the effect upon our troops would be beneficial, and that we would
  by remaining relieve Georgia and the whole South, excepting East
  Tennessee, from the burden of subsisting our forces, at a time, too,
  when the relief would be very sensibly felt; and that if we did have to
  draw heavily upon the resources of East Tennessee we would be
  drawing from a population the large majority of which we inimical to
  our cause, and which would be much better than necessitating us to
  oppress those farther south who were entirely loyal.

  There was no dissent from these views and the army was withdrawn
  toward Virginia. I do not claim that my views were the cause of that
  course being adopted, but I merely place my opinion upon record. I
  have no doubt but any other member of the council would have given
  the same opinion and have more forcibly expressed it.*

  L. McLAWS,

  * Casualties in McLaws' division at Bean's Station: Kershaw's
  brigade-killed, 5; wounded, 52; missing, 5; total, 62. Bryan's
  brigade-killed, 1; wounded, 1; total, 2.

OR, Series I. Vol. 31. pt. I,  pp.  497-500


November 16 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

November 16, 1863
Knoxville, Tenn., November 17, 1863
The first engagement of any consequence between our forces and those of Longstreet, in the retreat to Knoxville, took place yesterday [16th], at Campbell's Station – a little collection of houses o­n the Kingston road, where it forms a junction with the road to Loudon.
During the night of Sunday, the rebels made three different charges o­n our position at Lenoir, with the intention of capturing the batteries o­n the right of our position' but every o­nset was met and repulsed. In the morning, our troops again took up the march in retreat, and the rebels pushed our rear-guard with so much energy that we were compelled to turn a train of wagons, to obtain the mules to aid in getting away the artillery. Its destruction was necessary, as otherwise we would have been compelled to abandon it to the enemy. o­ne piece of artillery, which had become mired and could not be hauled out by the horses, fell into their hands.
The rear was brought up by General Ferrero's division of the Ninth corps, and as the progress of the wagon-trains in the advance was necessarily slow, but easy duty devolved upon that portion of our column. To check the impetuous pursuit of the rebels was indispensable to the safety of our main body, as well as the wagons, which, in addition to the baggage, carried the subsistence for the march. The result was, that a series of heavy skirmished ensued along the whole line of the retreat. As we approached Campbell's Station, where it was feared the enemy would endeavor to throw a force upon our flank, from the direction of Kingston, the division of Colonel Hartrauft was marched through the timber until it came upon the road leading from that point. In a short space of time, the wisdom of the precaution manifested itself; for the rebels soon made their appearance, but too late to execute their object. Colonel Hartauft skirmished with them, and fell back slowly, fighting as he came. The rebels, at o­ne time, made an effort to flank him, but failed. In this endeavor, they approached so close as to fire a volley directly at him and staff. A brigade of cavalry, under Colonel Biddle, gave material assistance in checking the enemy.
General Burnside, finding that the enemy were pressing him so closely as to endanger the trains and extra artillery, which, at the head of the column, still "dragged their slow length along," determined to come into position, to give them battle, and, pending it, to enable the wagons to get well in advance. Accordingly he selected positions for the artillery o­n commanding eminences to the right and left of the road, which at this point runs through a valley whose slopes are under cultivation, and consequently cleared of timber. The ground chosen was, in fact, a succession of farms, commencing at Campbell's Station, and flanking either side of the road for a distance of two miles.
Our guns were in position some time before noon, but it was near that hour when the fight became warm. General Ferrero, in falling back o­n the Loudon road, came in advance of Colonel Hartrauft, and defiling to the right, (it would be to the left as he marched, but facing the enemy, it was the right,) took up his position in line of battle. Colonel Hartrauft, whose flank was now reenforced by a detachment of General White's command, under Colonel Chapin, came in [the] rear of General Ferrero as he passed the fork of the road, and, marching to the left, came into position o­n the southern slope of the valley, Colonel Chapin still holding his position o­n the flank. A consideration of the whole movement will show with what admirable position each regiment and brigade came into line of battle. Indeed, the evolutions o­n the field at Campbell's Station have seldom been excelled in beauty and skill in coming into position, as well as in the succeeding manoeuvres, the commands o­n both sides, Union as well as rebel, exhibited a degree of discipline which at o­nce betrayed the veterans of many a battle-field. Our troops here found an enemy not unworthy of their steel, in the hands of Longstreet. Insignificant as the present fight may appear in comparison with others of this war, it certainly will rank among those in which real generalship was displayed. Every motion, every evolution, was made with the precision and regularity of the pieces o­n a chess-board.
The rebels, finding the disposition of our troops to be o­ne which offered battle, readily accepted the gage thrown down to them, and it was not long before their main body was seen advancing from the timber at the end of the clearing in two formidable lines. o­n they came, alternately surmounting the crests of the little knolls in beautiful undulating lines, and disappearing again into the hollows beneath. Our forces opened at long-range; but still they pressed o­n, heedless of the shower of bullets which whistled all around them, until they reached a position apparently suitable to them, when they began to return the fire. The rattle of musketry soon became quite lively, and continued for upward of an hour, when it was discovered that, while they had thus engaged us in front, a heavy force was menacing us o­n both flanks. The steady music of the volley-firing was not mingled with the intermittent shots of the skirmishers, who pushed out upon us from the woods o­n either side. Our troops fell back and the rebel lines closed in a semi-circle. Still advancing, still pouring in their volleys with the utmost deliberation, the enemy came o­n, and at length apportion of their column quickened into a charge. Our troops gave way, not in confusion, but in steady line, delivering their fire as they fell back, step by step, to the shelter of the batteries.
Quick as lightning our guns now belched forth from the summits of the hills above. Shell and shrapnel, canister and case, whichever came readiest to hand in the ammunition-chests, were hurled at the serried ranks of the rebels. Our gunners could distinctly see the swathes which their missiles cut in those regiments advancing in solid mass. Benjamin, Roemer, Buckley, Gettings, Henshaw, all had full pay upon the foe with their pet guns.
As might be expected, the rebels gave way under this severe fire, but in admirable order, and, falling back again to the cover of the timber, which, in addition, was beyond ordinary range, made their disposition for the renewal of the attack. Heretofore they had fought without artillery. They now bought three batteries into position, and opened from the troops of the knolls, while the infantry deployed upon our flanks o­nce more.
It was now late in the afternoon, the trains had obtained a good start o­n the road, and so far, General Burnside had obtained his object. It was unnecessary, therefore, to hazard, in his present position, the result of the attack to which the rebels were returning with renewed vigor, while a better position was afforded in his rear. He accordingly fell back about half a mile, to another series of commanding hills, where our batteries against came into position, and the fight was renewed. The second engagement, like the first, was marked by the same stubborn fighting o­n either side.
Our forces contested the ground successfully until night terminated the battle, and left them in their chosen position. As the end for which General Burnside had given battle was attained, namely, the checking of the enemy's progress, until our trains were out of danger, and as he was not desirous of risking another engagement until he reached the fortifications at Knoxville, the retreat bean o­nce more, and it is reasonable to suppose, as the enemy gave no pursuit until the morning, that they were unaware of the movement, and expected a renewal of the fight o­n the ground of yesterday.
Despite the briskness and energy with which the fight was carried o­n, our loss is very small. It will not exceed three hundred, and General Burnside estimated it as low as two hundred [sic].
The enemy have lost far more in comparison – the result of the severe artillery fire to which they were exposed; and o­ne thousand is not far from their number [sic].
I cannot finish my account without alluding to Colonel Chapin's brigade, the Twentieth –third corps, which fought with distinguished valor, and which, though not so long in the service as many of the veteran confreres [sic] has well earned a place by their side.
Rebellion Record, Vol. 8, pp. 189-190.



16, John C. Seibert, 31st Indiana Infantry, writes home from Camp Pulaski

In Camp Near Pulaski, Tenn. Nov. 16, 1864

I received you package of letters of the 8th [at] one time. I was very glad to hear from home and that you were all well. I have not much time to write as I have to go out on detail duty of some kind this afternoon and I have dinner to get before I go. We have been assigned to our companies. There was six of us put in Company C, so you can direct my letters and papers to that company now. I would like to get a paper some times as we do not get anything to read here. We see enough but hear little that is reliable. We are getting along finely. So far I have been well since I left home. Frank Vance is in Company B. He is well. I wrote to your father yesterday in regard to my things. I forgot to tell him about my mail contract. I can be released from it by applying to Head Quarters at Indianapolis but if he wants to keep it he can do so. I would like if you would send me a pr of good socks. The socks we get from [the] government is no account. They will not last over two weeks. Write as often as you can. Tell Eddie that he must learn to write and write me a letter. Kiss them all for me and take good care of yourselves. Tell Mag. she must write me a letter and let me know how she likes married life. Give my resp't to all.

Yours, Cris

Direct to Col. Smith, Co. C, 31 reg't. IVI, 1st Div, 1st Brig. 4th Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland


November 17 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

17, Major-General William T. Sherman o­n cotton as money
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF MEMPHIS, Memphis, November 17, 1862.
F. G. PRATT, Esq., Memphis, Tenn.:
DEAR SIR: Yours of November 14 has been before me some days. I have thought of the subject-matter, and appreciate what you say, but for the present think best not to tamper with the subject. Money is a thing that cannot be disposed of by an order. Were I to declare that Tennessee money should not be quoted higher than greenbacks, my order would do not good, for any person having cotton to sell has a right to brier it for anything he pleases; thus he might trade it for Tennessee money at 50 cents per pound, and for greenbacks at 52 cents, thereby making the discount. Money will seek its value, and no king or president can fix value by a decree or order. It has been tried a thousand times, always without success; but let money alone and it find its true value.
The reason why Tennessee money has been above greenbacks was, and is, because that kind of money was in demand for cotton. Now, is it our interest to encourage the bringing in of cotton? If so, must we not let the owner barter it for what he pleases? When we answer these question in the affirmative, we must let the owner of the cotton sell it as he pleases. Those who own cotton do not insult our Government by preferring Tennessee money to greenbacks. Tennessee money suits their individual purposes better than greenbacks, and it pleases me, as I see they want their money for local home use, and not to send abroad for munitions of war.
Let these things regulate themselves. War, and war alone, can inspire our enemy with respect, and they will have their belly full f that very soon. I rather think they will in time cry, "Hold, enough!" Till then, let Union men feel confident in their real strength, and determination of our Government, and despise the street talk of Jews and secessionists.
W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 868.




17, Capture of Tracy City train by Confederate guerrillas
No circumstantial reports filed.
STEVENSON, [November 17,] 1864.
Maj.-Gen. MILROY:
The officer at the tunnel reports that the Tracy City train was captured to-day by about fifty or sixty guerrillas; two of our men badly wounded and one captured; and also that they were going to Gizzard Creek to burn the bridge. I have ordered seventy men from Decherd to go to Gizzard Creek.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 929.



17-29, Confederate Cavalry operations in Middle Tennessee previous to the Battle of Nashville
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the Report of Brig. Gen. James R. Chalmers, C. S. Army, commanding Cavalry Division, of operations November 17-December 27, 1864, relative to activities in Middle Tennessee from November 17 - 29, 1864.
MAJ.: Your order directing me to forward a report of the operations of this division in the recent campaign in Middle Tennessee has been received, and shall be complied with as well as it is possible for me to do in the absence of reports from subordinate commanders, which have not yet come in.
On the 17th of November we crossed the Tennessee River at Florence and remained on Shoal Creek until the 21st of November, during which time we had several skirmishes with the enemy, and a part of our wagon train was taken by them, but was afterward recaptured and about forty of the enemy made prisoners. On the morning of the 21st the forward movement of the army commenced, my division taking the road by West Point, Kelly's Forge, and Henryville to Mount Pleasant and Columbia. On the 23d instant Rucker's brigade met Capron's brigade of the enemy's cavalry near Henryville and captured forty-five prisoners. After retreating for about five miles the enemy made a stand and a sharp skirmish ensued, but Maj.-Gen. Forrest, having got in their rear with his escort, charged them so vigorously that they fell back, leaving about twenty additional prisoners in our hands. Our loss in this affair was slight.
On the morning of the 24th Col. Rucker pursued the enemy to within seven miles of Columbia, when he again encountered and routed them, following them into the edge of the town, capturing about thirty prisoners. I retreat to say that in this pursuit Lieut.-Col. Dawson, commanding Fifteenth Tennessee Cavalry, was killed while gallantly leading his regiment in a charge. He had discharged all the loads from his revolver and was endeavoring to wrest one of the enemy's flags from its bearer when he was shot.
During the afternoon of the 24th and on the three following days (25th, 26th, and 27th) we skirmished heavily with the enemy in front of Columbia, driving them from their temporary fortifications into their regular works and obtaining possession of a valuable flouring mill within less than three miles of the town.
On the 28th Columbia was evacuated by the enemy, who took a strong position on the north side of Duck River, covering the crossing at the town. This division was moved seven miles up the river, where we forded it, and after riding for the remainder of the day and the greater part of the following night, we struck the enemy on the morning of the 29th near Hurt's Cross-Roads. Here we were joined by Gen.'s Buford's and Jackson's divisions of cavalry, and after driving the enemy's cavalry for some distance in the direction of Franklin we turned toward Spring Hill, where we met the head of the enemy's infantry column about 11 a. m., and held it in check until about 4 p. m., when Cleburne's division, of Cheatham's corps, came to our assistance. The cavalry alone had driven the advance line of the enemy for more than a mile across open fields, and with the assistance of Cleburne's division, which formed on our left, drove them from some temporary breast works which had been erected about two miles from some temporary breast works which had been erected about two miles from Spring Hill on the Davis Ferry road. It was then dark, and Stewart and Cheatham's corps of infantry having come up, this division was relieved.
During the night [29th] I was ordered to move south of Spring Hill across to the Carter's Creek pike to intercept a column of the enemy which was supposed to be cut off between Spring Hill and Columbia, and hold them in check, or if they had passed, to pursue them rapidly. When I crossed the Columbia pike I learned, to my great astonishment, that the enemy's whole column had passed up that pike, and within a very short distance of our infantry lines, during the night, and on reaching the Carter's Creek pike I found that no enemy had passed along it. I followed the latter pike to Franklin and saw nothing of the enemy until I arrived within two miles of that place, when I found them drawn up in two lines of battle behind a double line of intrenchments before it. I was joined here by Col. J. B. Biffle whit a part of Col. Dibrell's brigade of cavalry, which had been ordered to report to me. The infantry having come up, this division was formed on the extreme left on the line, and at 4.30 p. m. the whole line advanced, driving in the enemy's skirmishers easily, and this division drove back double its number of the enemy, who were strongly posted behind a stone wall, and pushed them back rapidly for one mile until they reached their permanent fortifications at Franklin. My line was pressed forward until the skirmishers were within witty yards of the fortifications, but my force was too small to justify and attempt to storm them, and I could only hold my position, which we did during the night and until an early hour in the morning, when the skirmish line was pushed forward and was the first to enter the town, capturing some 20 prisoners. Our loss up to this time, 116 killed and wounded.
* * * *
James R. Chalmers, C. S. Army, Brigadier-General
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 763-764.


Monday, November 14, 2011

November 14 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

14, "To the Owners of Guns"
There are today hundreds of guns, embracing all sorts in the possession of people in and around Nashville. The State is threatened with invasion by a strong hostile army, richly and abundantly provided with the most formidable weapons of warfare. Under the late call of the Governor, thousands of our gallant citizens are enlisting to drive back the coming hordes of despoilers, but the State has no arms to place in their hands, and is thus forced to the necessity of appealing to such persons as are fortunate enough to have guns in their possession, to give, loan, or sell them for the use of our unarmed soldiery. [emphasis added] What patriot who owns a gun, and is not actively in the service of his country, can reasonably turn a deaf ear to this appeal? The State call earnestly upon her children, who are not soldiers, to come in this season of danger and trial to the help of those who only need arms to render them as a wall of fire in the pathway of the invading horde. Who that is able, is not willing to make this trifling sacrifice in behalf of the common defence. [sic] Let every man worthy [of] the glorious name of Tennesseean, [sic] promptly respond to the call of our Governor for arms, and in less than two weeks there will be at the disposal of our authorities enough good guns to arm every man in the service. If you have a gun, reader, no matter what kind, no matter who fine or how indifferent, give it now to the cause of your bleeding company. It will not do to delay, it will not do to wait on others, it will not do to depend on shipments of arms from Europe. The emergency is upon us, -- the war cloud resting upon our very heads. We must depend upon ourselves, and what we do, must be done NOW. [sic]
Nashville Daily Gazette, November 14, 1861.


14, A plea to Military Governor Johnson "on behalf of poor orphans"
Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 14, 1863
His Excellency Andrew Johnson
Mil. Gov. of Tennessee
My dear Sir -- Knowing your charitable disposition, and your universal kindness to the poor and those in distress, I write you without other apology on a subject which I know you will consider of vital importance -- it is on behalf of poor orphans. There are in this City several Orphan children, and other who have lost their mothers, and whose fathers belong to the Army of the Union. These fathers have no means of providing for the care of their children, and many of them are running about our streets, destitute and without friend or relative to look after them. The Rev. Father Kelly, proposes to organize a Society among the Catholics of Nashville for the support and education of these orphans, and a number of us have resolved to apply to you for aid. All we want from you is a temporary home in which to place them, and we will do the rest. It has been suggested that perhaps you could give us permission to occupy the residence of Maj. Hyman, northwest from the Capitol, or some other building. If you can aid us, my dear Governor, I am sure you will do so, and you Catholic fellow citizens will feel themselves under lasting obligations to you, and the orphans will ever pray for you and bless you.
I have called to see you several times, but never found you at leisure & my time is too fully occupied to wait long. If you will be kind enough to send me a line, I will take great pleasure in waiting upon you at any time, and explain more fully our objects and plans, and furnish you whatever information I am possessed of.
Believe me, Sir, with great respect,
Your humble servant,
E. E. Jones
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 476-477.


Thursday, November 10, 2011

November 10 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

10, SPECIAL FIELD ORDERS, No. 75, relative to the jurisdiction and authority of the chief of the secret police in East Tennessee
November 10, 1863.
I. R. A. Crawford, of Greenville, Greene County, Tennessee, is hereby appointed chief of secret police in East Tennessee. He is fully empowered to employ under his command and order as many men as he may deem necessary for said service, and at such pay as their service may be worth in his estimation.
He is empowered to make requisitions for clothing, horses, equipments, arms, and ammunition, as well as all other necessaries that said service may require, and the same shall be furnished accordingly.
He is fully empowered to arrest and hold for examination all persons who may in anywise be in complicity with the enemy, or any person or persons suspected guilty of treasonable or disloyal conduct toward the Government and laws of the United States; also to seize from all such persons such property as he may deem necessary for the good of the service.
He is fully empowered and strictly enjoined, with the men subject to his order and command, to closely watch the movements of the enemy, and to immediately report the same to these headquarters, and to use every available means in his power to prevent any surprise of our forces by the enemy.
He is fully empowered to employ and send agents into the lines of the enemy for the purpose of finding out the strength, movements, and designs of the enemy, and to report the same to these headquarters.
He is artillery to make his headquarters at such points as may be, in his judgment, most advantageous to said service, and to give orders upon the Government for such supplies as may be needed, and the same shall be paid.
All requisitions for money for any purpose necessary for this service must be made to the major-general commanding this department.
* * * *
By command of Maj.-Gen. Burnside:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 111-112.




10, Social change, recruiting Negro soldiers in Murfreesboro, an excerpt from the diary of John C. Spence
An order is out for recruiting negro [sic] soldiers at this place, and put them in [a] camp of instruction. Although the Yankees profess not to press them into service, they operate about this way -- o­n Sunday evening a file of soldiers repair to the church door and stand as the negro [sic] men come out. They take them in possession, put them in confinement and any other they see about the streets.
They are taken through an examination, such as will make soldiers are retained, the others are let off. They want devilish looking and able bodied negros [sic] for this purpose.
When a sufficient number is obtained, [they] are put in squads under drill by some qualified Dutchman.
Passing o­ne morning by o­ne of the churches or barracks, a squad was being drilled by a Dutch officer, who cold not speak english [sic] plainer than he should, is marching the negros [sic] up and down the room. Say to them, ["]Marsh! lep-lep (meaning left foot) [sic]. No! te odder foot! -- lep! lep! to odder fot you po tam fool! If you tont lep when I tells you, Ill prake mine sword over you tam wolly head! Halt! Marsh! Now, lep! lep! gis see! You got de odder foot. Take tat mit your tam nonsense ["] (strikes him with the side of his sword). [sic]
Such is about the start with them at first. In a short time they get in the way of keeping the step in marching and manouvering [sic]. To every appearance make a pretty good Yankee soldier when they are dressed in the "Loyal" blue, but whether they can be made to stand powder and led is another question. Should not be willing to trust a chance with them, to go through difficulty. [sic]
Now and then [I] hear some of the younger [black] chaps talking among themselves. ["]Bill! Im quine to jine the rigiment next week! What you quine to do in the rigiment? Quine to fite de Reb. Sesesh!["] [sic]
They appear as impudent and as confident of what they will do in the army as many of the "Old Veterans," as the Yankees call the old soldiers that has [sic] been serving some time.
At this time there are a greater number of negros [sic] coming within the lines than usual, men, women and children. Almost every vacant house is filled to overflowing, seeking their freedom.
The fact is the owners generally [are] more disposed to get clear of them, have become so trifling that they wont [sic] do any thing [sic] at home but eat and sit about, seeming to have lost all energy, if they had any.
Tis hoped the Yankees will get their satisfaction of them before they get through with their phylanthopie [sic] feelings for the negro [sic].
There are many now getting rather tired. They say the negros [sic] are a lazy indolent set of creatures and wont [sic] work without some o­ne [sic] after them, driving, but why they continue to persist in their freedom is an enigma. They are not willing they shall be allowed to go in their section of [the] country to live [sic]. The fact is they have poor people enough, already there. If they come here themselves to live, their wages will of course, be cut down by having so many more to contend with for employment.
Their argument now is with slavery. In this land a poor white man would have no chance to live. They are not willing to put themselves o­n an equality with the negro [sic] as a slave. Where can be the difference? When they are in competition in labour, both of them working for the most they can get, possibly at a less rate than if o­ne was in the usual servitude.
Spence, Diary, pp. 113-114.


Wednesday, November 9, 2011

November 8 - 18 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

8-18, Revolt of East Tennessee Unionists
The revolt of the Unionists in East Tennessee was a serious threat to Confederate authorities and citizens in that region. The following indicates the breadth of their concern as well as their heightened sense of awareness and even paranoia:
KNOXVILLE, November 11, 1861. Adjutant-Gen. COOPER:
Three bridges burned between Bristol and Chattanooga, two on Georgia road. Five hundred Union men now threatening Strawberry Plains; fifteen hundred assembling in Hamilton County; and a general uprising in all the counties. I have about 1,000 men under my command.
W. B. WOOD, Col.
KNOXVILLE, November 11, 1861.
Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen.
SIR: My fears expressed to you by letters and dispatches of 4th and 5th instant have been realized by the destruction of no less than five railroad bridges--two on the East Tennessee and Virginia road, one on the East Tennessee and Georgia road an two on the Western and Atlantic road. The indications were apparent to me but I was powerless to avert it. The whole country is now in a state of rebellion. A thousand men are within six miles of Strawberry Plains bridge and an attack is contemplated to-morrow. I have sent Col. Powel there with 200 infantry, one company cavalry and about 100 citizens armed with shotguns and country rifles. Five hundred Unionists left Hamilton County to-day we suppose to attack London bridge. I have Major Campbell there with 200 infantry and one company cavalry. I have about the same force at this point and a cavalry company at Watauga bridge. An attack was made on Watauga yesterday. Our men succeeded in beating them off, but they are gathering in larger force and may renew it in a day or two. They are not yet fully organized and have no subsistence to enable them to hold out long. A few regiments and vigorous means would have a powerful effect in putting it down. A mild or conciliating policy will do no good; they must be punished; and some of the leaders ought to be punished to the extent of the law. Nothing short of this will give quiet, to the country.
Gen. Zollicoffer at great inconvenience to himself has sent me Col. Powel's regiment numbering about 600 effective men which I have disposed of as above stated. I have arrested six of the men who were engaged in burning the Lick Creek bridge and I desire to have instruction fro you as to the proper disposition of them. The slow course of civil law in punishing such incendiaries it seems to me will not have the salutary effect which is desirable. I learn from two gentlemen just arrived that another camp is being formed about ten miles from here in Sevier County and already 300 are in camp. They are being re-enforced from Blount, Roane, Johnson, Greene, Carter and other counties. I need not say that great alarm is felt by the few Southern men. They are finding places of safety for their families and would gladly enlist if we had arms to furnish them. I have had all the arms in this City seized and authorized Maj. Campbell to impress all he can find in the hands of Union men who ought now to be regarded as avowed enemies for the use of the new companies. I felt it to be my duty to place this City under martial law as there was a large majority of the people sympathizing with the enemy and communicating with them by the unfrequented mountain paths, and to prevent surprise and the destruction of the commissary and quartermaster's stores.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. B. WOOD, Col., Commanding Post.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, pp. 840-841.

BRISTOL, November 11, 1861.
Hon. J. P. BENJAMIN, Secretary of War
I have just returned from the burned bridge. We have at the next bridge, 10 miles beyond, about 250 men, under Capt. McClellan. They have two cannon, which they found on the cars.... The camp of the enemy is at N. G. Taylor's, 5 miles distant, with about 400 men. Another camp, at Elizabethtown, 2 miles farther, is said to contain 500 men. The two may be confounded. There is no doubt but that re-enforcements are every moment reaching them from Watauga County, North Carolina, and Johnson, Carter, and Washington Counties, Tennessee. These counties can furnish about 2,000 Lincolnites [sic], and each fresh occasion emboldens them. They threaten to burn Watauga Bridge to-night. Should they be successful, it will bring forward hundreds now quiet. It is all-important they should be disposed of before they unite their different forces, now ranging from 50 to 500. A fight occurred last night [10th] between 22 of our scouts and the main camp of the enemy. We captured 2, killed 9, and lost none. I have given orders for all trains to give way to the troop trains now coming forward. They will reach here to-morrow morning. Can I do anything for you?
President Virginia and Tennessee Railroad.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. I, Vol. 4, pp. 235-236.

JACKSBOROUGH, November 12, 1861.
Gen. S. Cooper:
Col. Wood, Knoxville, writes that 500 tories [sic] threaten movement on Strawberry Plains, and 1,500 from Hamilton County moving towards Loudon Bridge. Col. Churchwell, Cumberland Gap, has information indicating a strong force along from 6 miles beyond Barboursville to Rockcastle Camp, fortifying as they advance. I will have the pass blocked in two days. Gen. Carroll has one armed regiment, but has not forwarded it. Please cause Churchwell's requisition of 22d October for ammunition and implements for three 8-inch howitzers to be filled and expressed to him.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 4, p. 241.