Thursday, July 31, 2014

7.31.14 Tennessee Civil War notes

31- August 20, 1861, Confederate anxieties about the loyalty of East Tennessee


Brig. Gen. F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Cmdg., &c., Bristol, Tenn.

SIR: I am instructed by the President to make you the following communication:

The great importance of the East Tennessee and Western Virginia road requires that it should be closely guarded wherever there is reason to apprehend its destruction. The movements of the enemy or the sending of arms into East Tennessee should be so closely watched by an adequate force as to render success impracticable. You will know so well the state of things in East Tennessee that nothing more can be said in that regard than to point to you the importance of preventing organization for resistance to the Government and of attracting by every possible means the people to support the Government, both State and Confederate. It may occur that civil process in case of treason may be resisted in which event you will endeavor to be in position to give all needful support to the civil authorities. The President relies on you to give more accurate and exact information in relation to public affairs in East Tennessee than it has heretofore been possible to obtain and you are invited to the fullest correspondence in all matters relating to your command.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen.


RICHMOND, August 1, 1861.


Retain at Bristol under your orders such of the Tennessee regiments now there or that may arrive there until further advised. You are assigned to the command of the District of East Tennessee.

S. COOPER,Adjutant and Inspector Gen.


EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, August 3, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER.

SIR: That there will be an effort on the part of the Federal Government to arm the Union men of Tennessee I have no doubt. For this purpose companies and regiments of Union men are being organized in Kentucky and every day our relations with the people of Kentucky are becoming more complicated and threatening, especially that part of Kentucky adjoining East Tennessee. I fear we will have to adopt a decided and energetic policy with the people of that section. I hope, however, to visit Richmond in a few days, and confer with you upon this and other questions of interest to the State and Gen. Government.

Very respectfully,



KNOXVILLE, August 10, 1861.

Adjutant-Gen. COOPER:

News received that John Baxter is arrested at Lynchburg. This is unfortunate. He is a Unionist but has my permission to go to Nelson and counsel with him as a lawyer and friend. He gave me assurance of conciliatory influence there, and here his arrest embarrasses my plans of conciliation.



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, August 16, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, War Department, Richmond.

SIR: I am satisfied from the movements of the Union men of East Tennessee that more troops should be stationed in that division of the State. If you would establish camps of instruction at different points in East Tennessee and order to them such troops as you may have in camps in States south of us to the extent of 5,000 or 7,000 men the presence of such a force would give perfect security to our railroads and prevent the organization of a rebel army, while the presence of the force we have there at present has the effect of irritating without being sufficient to awe or subdue.

Twelve or fourteen thousand men in East Tennessee would crush out rebellion there without firing a gun, while a smaller force may involve us in scenes of blood that will take long years to heal. We can temporize with the rebellious spirit of that people no longer. If you can order a sufficient number of troops from States south of us to that point, the adoption of a decided and energetic policy (which I am resolved upon so soon as I have a sufficient force to sustain it), the arrest and indictment for treason of the ringleaders, will give perfect peace and quiet to that division of our State in the course of two months. If the suggestion with regard to East Tennessee is to be acted upon at all it should be done at once as every moment's delay but increases the danger of an outbreak there.

Very respectfully,



ORDERS, No. 3. BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, August 18, 1861.

The general in command gratified at the preservation of peace and the rapidly increasing evidences of confidence and good-will among the people of East Tennessee strictly enjoins upon those under his command the most scrupulous regard for the personal and property rights of all the inhabitants. No act or word will be tolerated calculated to alarm or irritate those who though heretofore advocating the national Union now acquiesce in the decision of the State and submit to the authority of the Government of the Confederate States. Such of the people as have fled from their homes under an apprehension of danger will be encouraged to return with an assurance of entire security to all who wish to pursue their respective avocations peacefully at home. The Confederate Government seeks not to enter into questions of difference of political opinions heretofore existing but to maintain the independence it has asserted by the united feeling and action of all its citizens. Col.'s of regiments and captains of companies will be held responsible for a strict observance of this injunction within their respective commands, and each officer commanding a separate detachment or post will have this order read to his command.

By order of Brig. Gen. F. K. Zollicoffer:



Richmond, August 20, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of Tennessee.

SIR: Your letter of August 16 has just been received by the hands of Major Bradford. The importance of the present attitude of East Tennessee is not unknown to this Department and the necessity of providing promptly the means of supporting our friends in that section is by no means disregarded. Three regiments have been accordingly already ordered into East Tennessee--two from Mississippi and one from Alabama--and it is hoped that these troops with those already within your State may suffice for the accomplishment of the objects at present necessary.

The Department fully concurs in your view of the necessity of adopting a decided policy to insure the public safety and only regrets that it is not in the power of the Government, to the extent that may be necessary.


~  ~  ~

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, pp. 829-832.



        31, Letter of John A. Ritter, 49th Indiana Volunteers

July 31, 1862 from Camp Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

Camp Cumberland Gap, Ten.

July 31, 1862

Theophilus C., John A., Thomas B., & William V. Ritter

Gentlemen Sir,

I take up my pen to write you a few lines to let you Know that I have not forgotten you and that you still have a father that cares for you though fare a way. I often think of you all and wonder what you are doing & how you are getting a long and am glad that you are not compelled to undergo the hardships & Fatigues of a campaign life for be assured that we see rough times at times and I expect that none that has been out has had a much harder time than we but when we all get home together I will have many things to tell you and till that time be obedient children. Do not disobey your dear Ma. I expect that she has her hands full. I Know if I was their I could take many things off of her but I must trust to you to fill my place as fare as you can and when I shall have spent my life I shall be proud of my sons. You may do much to make her happy. I do not Know when I shall be at home. I have not the remotest Idea. Yet I feel assured that I will get home some time. I am ingaged [sic]. Building fortifications with my Company at Cumberland Gap. The Rebbels [sic] done [sic] a vast amount of Fortifying but it was to Keep us out of the Gap coming up on the other side. Now we are fixing the Tennessee side so that they could not get us out if they were to try which I don't they will. If they do I think they will rue it.

I was down at the Camp a few evenings ago. As I came back stopt [sic] at the 2nd Tenessee Regiment. The men was playing soldier. There were some 80 or a 100 on a side. One party Represented caveralry [sic]. The caveralry [sic] were stradle of sticks for Horses had little bunches of Bushes for swords some of them had staves in the shape of paddles. The Infantry had staves for guns. The Infantry would forme [sic] up in two ranks in line of battle. The Caveralry [sic] would forme [sic] up in to ranks and make a charge on them and such cutting & slashing with the bushes was not see every day by a good deal. Some times the Caveralry [sic] would brake the lines & scatter the Infantry, sometimes the Infantry would scatter the caveralry [sic]. They would soon reforme [sic] and make an another charge in this way. They plaid soldier for an Hour or two and I left them at. I expect that they had a Jolly time but to think that men an[d] sticks for horses Galloping like little boys. Occasionally one would get his horse Killed or crippled and some times they would take each other prisners[sic]. Each party had their commanders and all was done up a good deal like they injoyed [sic] the sport fine but soldiers when they get time must have their sport. I will say to [sic], Theophilus that you must not think of enlisting. You are to young, you cannot stand a camp life at your age and attend to things till I get home and then I will try to get you in at West Point and give you a military education.

*  *  *  *

Jno. A. Ritter

Ritter Correspondence.

        31, Remarks by a private in the 15th Iowa Infantry relative to the greetings slaves made in Hardeman County, on the way to Bolivar

Hundreds of Negroes flock after us and don't seem to be afraid of the soldiers. They yelled and shouted and said "day was glad to see Uncle Sams [sic] boys" With all their ignorance they seem to have pretty good ideas as to what is going on and I think it will not be many months until their influence will be felt in the scale.

About 10 oclock [sic] we came to Bolivar a beautiful town and surrounded by a splendid country. My feet were worn out when we halted and we were all very tired upon this our really first march. Dan and I put up our little tent and will sleep in it to-night. I think our tramp has been as useless as there is no enemy here in arms.

Boyd Diary.

        31, A report on a conversation with Military Governor Andrew Johnson concerning secret Confederate committees, contrabands, defense of Nashville, rigorous treatment of disloyal citizens and guerrilla bands in the Clarksville environs

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF THE OHIO, Nashville, August 1, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Chief of Staff:

COL.: I beg leave to report to the commanding general the substance of a conversation held at this office with Governor Andrew Johnson yesterday. The conversation was protracted, and on the part of the Governor deeply earnest, and the main points were supported by considerable detail.

The Governor is so informed as to have adopted the conviction that an attempt will be made very soon by the rebels to repossess themselves of this State, and that they consider the possession of the capital a necessary incident. He believes that if they should succeed the moral and physical consequence would be disastrous to our cause, and that therefore means to the contrary should be applied which would defeat their designs beyond a peradventure. He is satisfied that the enemy has numerous secret adherents who in a crisis would give them aid, particularly should there be prospect of their success without great sacrifices; but that many of these are not ready for considerable sacrifices, and would be deterred if they were sure these sacrifices would follow.

Hence the Governor argues in reference to saving the city that an evidence of determination to hold on our part at any cost would deter them, and to corroborate this quotes a fact, that when the city was lately threatened members of a secret committee went out to restrain their friends, assuring them that the city would be destroyed by us should they get possession.

The Governor therefore believes that if the enemy is convinced we mean to hold it he would hesitate to attack, uncertain as he would be of adherents within, and suggest the construction of works of defense in the shape of redoubts and other eartheorks.

The labor he advises to be taken from those who render it necessary, and that contrabands, of which he has now control of a good many, be used in that way habitually.

The Governor says that recent observation has changed his ideas in regard to treating rebels with lenity. At one time he advised it, but now believes that they must be made to feel the burden of their own deeds and to bear everything which the necessities of the situation require should be imposed on them.

This I believe is the substance of all that was said, but, as I observed before, there was much elaboration of detail and evidence of earnest conviction.

I am, colonel, respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. H. SIDELL, Maj., Fifteenth U. S. Infantry, Act. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

P. S.--Gen. Mason writes Governor Johnson by letter received to-day and sent to me that there is no doubt of the organization of guerrilla bands near Clarksville, and that the wealthier part of the population is disloyal and humbler classes the reverse; that it would be difficult to raise a cavalry regiment there, but there are sufficient horses belonging to the secessionists to mount as many men as needful. He wants Governor Johnson's order to "possess and occupy" the horses.

Gen. Mason says he has but 250 men near Clarksville, on the opposite side of the river. He says further that he is advised by Col. Bruce that he has sent 400 men to Russellville.

I am, respectfully,

W. H. SIDELL, Maj., Fifteenth U. S. Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, pp. 242-243.



        31, In defense of Col. Cocke's sons' honor; election politics and character defamation


Knoxville, July 29, 1863

M. J. Hughes,[1] Sir:-

I see in the columns of this mornings Register a most scurrilous aspersion upon the character of two of Col. Cocke's sons purporting to emenate [sic] from a soldier in the Confederate service, who seemingly, has grown weary of fighting the common fore in noble honorable battle, and is determined to annihilate the unreproachable [sic] characters and honorable gentlemen through the barrier of newspaper correspondence. The gentleman who receives his opening salute (Lieut. Cocke) has the misfortune to be absent from his locality, otherwise, knowing him to be eminently courageous for intimate association, I would leave him to fight his own battles, and whether they would be decided by "paper bullets of the brain," or in the event the assailant would "dare meet him upon the bloody sand," I for one, would tremble, not for his success, but am confident he would prove that calumniators like chickens, come home to roost. The foul slander of his having acted the dastardly and ignoble part assigned him by the correspondent of the Register, I affirm, from a full acquaintance with the circumstances, to be void of a scintilla of foundation in truth and in fact.

Determined to leave nothing of obloquy unnoticed he throws a parting broad-side at his brother, who, he asserts, "managed to get a discharge, but looks like he is as able to in the service as any other." The aforesaid young gentleman has in his pockets and exemption [sic] from military duty duly signed and endorsed, perfected by all the formula prescribed in the system of that department.

I leave it to public adjudication, whether Col. Blake with his efficient Medical Board, or the sagacious informant in the Register, (who doubtless has mistaken, in the language of Aretmus Ward, "his forte [sic]" in dropping his scalpel to grasp the scimetar [sic]) is better qualified to decide upon such medical considerations.

I sincerely trust the writer is misled from the steppings of propriety by inaccurate information, and spouts not his own bilge-water intentionally upon the reputation of two honorable young gentlemen. He certainly could not have obtained such information from those who saw [sic], and are able to speak truth. The assertions of all of his company who are present fully exonerate Lieut. Cocke from all unsoldierly conduct, and stamp the most glaring falsity upon the alleged villiainous [sic] charges.

A Comrade In Arms

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, July 31, 1863.

        31, Speculation on civil government and emancipation in Tennessee in the wake of Rosecrans' campaign

Tennessee Restored.

The public attention has not, for some time, been called to the civil condition of the State of Tennessee, which since Bragg's retreat, is peculiar and anomalous. There is now no large army, either rebel of Union, planted on its soil. The army of Gen. Rosecrans, though nominally still in the State, is pressing upon and felt by Alabama and Georgia more than by Tennessee. While the State is therefore delivered from the presence of military rule, it has no civil government anywhere erected or respected. There are no courts, no laws, no civil administration, no body politic, no taxation nor representation. The population of the State, reduced by the war to perhaps 800,000, is in utter social and political chaos.

The time is propitious for reorganization, and the worked has fairly commenced. A State Convention met at Nashville on the 1st inst., and continued in session till the 7th, Between forty and fifty counties were represents (about half of the State,) by about two hundred members. The Convention recommended the election of a legislature in August, to form a civil Government, reestablish Courts and laws, and restore the State to the Union. This programme will be carried out. The expulsion of the last strong body of rebels from the State has made it practicable, and the people are already absorbed in the consideration and discussion of the issues presented in this new phase of affairs.

We predict the development of a more intelligent and advanced state of public opinion in Tennessee on the vital question of the times than either Maryland or Kentucky now exhibits. The systems of Slavery has been more thoroughly trampled out in that State than in any other except Missouri, and the policy of emancipation will be declared by the first organized body that speaks for Tennessee. [sic]. East Tennessee has ever been animated by a sincere hostility to the slave oligarchy of the South. Middle Tennessee has long ceased to grow products that called for slave labor. The mass of slaves has been transferred to the Cotton States, and the institution has existed for years more as a domestic than as an industrial one. It can vanish, it has vanished [sic], without shock or deep injury to the resident population of this most rich and highly favored part of the State. In West Tennessee, where cotton has remained a staple, and where Slavery had a strong hold, the events of the war have crushed it out. The marching and countermarching of our armies between Jackson, Corinth, Bolivar, Lagrange and Memphis, has opened the door so wide for the escape of slaves that all have gone that wished, and those remaining are more nominally than actually in servitude.

Under these circumstances the people of Tennessee will not be slow to perceive their policy and duty. They will cut loose from a dead system of society. They have a higher average of political intelligence and firmness than the citizens of most States in the Southeest, and will be bold in maintaining whatever positions they assume. The latent unionism of the State will come u as a strong ally of the new-born policy of Freedom that must soon be inaugurated.

We feel justified, therefore, in foreshadowing amore rapid regeneration of the State of Tennessee than has been witnessed in any border State, Missouri excepted: and when it does return to the Union, it will be with a fidelity and heartiness worthy of the home of that stern on Unionist, Andrew Jackson.

New York Times, July 31, 1863.



        31, The New Politics in Columbia, excerpt from the diary of Nimrod Porter

[I] went to town…The candidates for Congress together with the secretary of State made speeches, said amongst other things that he would rather have the negroes [sic] vote than the Rebels[.] Arnell said the same thing….

….Genl [sic] [Gideon J.] Pillow was permitted to define his position he made himself out now the best of Union Men [and] was willing to fight under the old flag & particularly against France (all this was for the effect to alay [sic] the feelings of the authorities against him)….

Diary of Nimrod Porter, July 31, 1865.


[1] Editor and owner of the Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Wednesday, July 30, 2014

7.30.14 Tennessee Civil War Notes

30 Attack on Confederate forces in Brownsville
No circumstantial reports issued.
Jackson, Tenn., July 31st.-Captain Dollin's Cavalry attacked eighty Rebels, yesterday, near Brownsville, and captured forty prisoners. The Rebels were afterwards reinforced, and recaptured twenty-nine men and fourteen horses. The Federal loss was six wounded, and the Rebel loss about the same.
Philadelphia Inquirer, August 1, 1862.
            30, Reports of guerrilla activity in and west of Hickman county
COLUMBIA, July 30, 1862.
Col. J. B. FRY:
Reports from negroes and Union citizens indicate an early attack by the guerrillas upon the weak posts along this line. A party from Hickman, numbering over 100, came to our stock pasture last night, 4 miles distant, and drove off 50 animals. The country is swarming with guerrillas. West of this they have grown exceedingly bold since I have been deprived of the means of pursuing them. I am just informed that some officers stopped the building of the stockades according to my directions and ordered them to be built otherwise. If any officer has the right to change my orders without informing me, it of course relieves me from responsibility.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 233.

            30, "The Streets."
It is well known to our citizens that, previous to the war, our public thoroughfares were always kept in a condition of neatness and substantiality; and it is a fact equally notorious, that since armies have entered the State and too Nashville in their patheay, the streets have been worn and cut up, as it were, like some veteran, unconquerable regiment or corps in the face of a stubborn foe. All can now see for themselves that the city is again slowly coming to a point where it can boast of well macadamized and clean avenues of travel. The street committee of the City Council are doing their duty like public spirited officers, and from the rejoicing of pedestrians we take it that their labors are rightly appreciated. But there is a little work for the military to perform, to which we would call the attention of General Granger. The barricades, erected some time ago to prevent the entrance of Morgan or somebody else, seem quite useless at this time. There is not the remotest probability of a raid upon Nashville, and never was, in our humble judgment, and there can be no sort of propriety in keeping some of our most frequented streets blocked up with sand-bags. Both footmen and teamsters are greatly annoyed by these monuments of past alarm, and as General Granger has at all times evinced a readiness to contribute to the well-being of our sometimes ill-used city, we hope he will see the plausibility of our suggestion. Remove the barricades, and the work of street improvement can go ahead.
Nashville Daily Press, July 30, 1863.
            30, "Richardson's Bloody Order"
We are accustomed to hear secessionist talk of Federal outrages, but we challenge the world to afford anything like the tyranny now exercised over the suffering people of the South by their relentless rulers. If ever the demonic spirit which is said to rule in hell had a counter part on earth, it is found among the rulers and petty despots who are now trampling in the dust the rights and liberties of the Southern people. And yet they talk [sic] of liberty! What liberty have they? They have the liberty of being shot, and left to rot like dogs; they have the liberty of being barricaded and burnt to death in the flames of their own consuming homes. Such [sic] is the sweet boon of liberty vouchsafed to those who do not feel willing to leave their families and go forth to suffer toil; and bleed in a hopeless cause. Such are the sweet privileges for which these men have aided by their influence to pull down the freest and best Government the sun of heaven ever shone upon. This is liberty! Yes, such liberty as hungry wolves grant the gentle lamb, or the kite gives to the doves; such liberty as Russia gives the Poles, or death to the victim. The following orders of the day read to the brigade by the Adjutant General to his serene demonship [sic], Richardson [sic] will prove how true are the charges which we have made against the rebel authorities. It seems that Richardson [sic], from being a Saint on the high road to heaven, has let go the ladder which he was ascending, and has descend to hold, converse, and plot cruelty with the infernal council in the lower regions. Let the friends of Southern [sic] liberty read, and ponder these gentle lamb-like orders of a former christian [sic] exhorter [sic]:
1st Every man of this command is expected to strictly obey all orders which the commanding General may deem necessary for discipline or the interest of the cause in which we are engaged.
2nd. Commanders of companies are hereby ordered to make a detail from their respective companies for the purpose of enforcing the conscript laws, passed by the Confederate State Congress * * * [sic] These details shall be empowered, they are hereby ordered, to rigidly enforce the laws of the Confederate States.
3d. Every white man between the ages of eighteen and forth-five in the District of West Tennessee is hereby ordered to report immediately at such places of rendezvous as may hereafter be designated. Commanding officers of companies are hereby ordered to strictly enforce this order. The following rules of procedure are given for the government of company officers and privates who may be engaged in the execution of section third of these orders
If a man should absent himself from his home to avoid this order, burn his house and other property, except such as may be useful to this command. If a man is found to resist the execution of this order, by refusing to report, shoot him down and leave him lying. If a man takes refuge in his house and offers resistance, set the house on fire and guard it in order the recusant may not get out.
Such is the liberty of the chivalrous, noble and free [sic] people of the South. What can be more gentle than Richardson's [sic] rules of procedure? Satan himself with all his attributed good qualities, could not have invented a more kind, satanic and remarkable a code of rules of procedure. This, fellow-citizens, is the boasted liberty of the free [sic] South.
Memphis Bulletin, July 30, 1863.

            30, "Murder of Union Prisoners on the Cumberland River" near Clarksville [1]
The Louisville Journal has received the following information concerning the killing of Union prisoners on the Cumberland river from headquarters of the post commander of Clarksville:
The scout sent out from the city by Colonel Smith on Monday morning last to search after Lieutenant Gamble, and furnish him safe conduct into our lines, returned early on Tuesday [August 2nd] morning, having been successful in its mission. The Lieutenant was found secreted in the woods not far from where he made his escape from the gang of villainous cutthroats. He was pale, almost devoid of clothing, and appeared to have suffered much in dodging through the brush to elude the watchful eye of those bent on his murder.
He informed the scout that he had been robbed by the guerrillas of his pants, boots, watch, and seventy-five dollars in money. After crossing the Cumberland river, and travelling about six miles in a southerly direction, the guerrillas halted and arranged their prisoner in line, telling them that they were going to parole them. After a short consultation, the leader of the gang, who was called by his men Capt. Porter, ordered the members of the gang to draw their pistols, saying, "We have but one way of parolling [sic] Federal prisoners, and that is with our revolvers." The whole party advanced in line, and commenced rapidly firing. The Lieutenant said that he well knew that there was no hope for life only in precipitate flight, so he started on the full run. A volley of pistol shots was fired at him as he disappeared in a narrow strip of brush, and another as he passed an open space a short distance beyond. Fortunately none of the balls struck him, and he made good his escape. He was forced to lie in the woods, night and day, until the scout relieved him on Monday afternoon. He piloted the cavalry to the spot where the execution had taken place, and three dead bodies, riddled with balls, were found stretched on the green sward.
On the breast of each was pinned strip of paper, dated July 30 with the following words written in pencil mark upon them: "These boys are executed in retaliation for our friends hung in Nashville." The bodies were much decomposed when found, and were buried upon the spot. One of the dead was a soldier of Co. C, 83d Illinois volunteers, named Ira Butler, another was Christopher McCarty, a boy sixteen years old, employed as a teamster in the Quartermaster's department. His parents reside in Abington, Illinois. The third body was that of a laborer in the employ of the Government at Nashville. The body of the fourth prisoner could not be found, and it is possible that he succeeded in making his escape. He was also a citizen in the employ of the Government. When the men were first taken prisoners, Lieut. Gamble informed the guerrillas that but two of the five were soldiers, and begged that the citizens might be released; but the scoundrels would not listen to his words. The execution was one of the darkest transactions of blood that ever disgraced a civilized age, and it was perpetrated with all the nonchalance of hearts fiendish and wholly corrupted. There is much speculation as to who the murderers are. We hear various names mentioned, but as they are mere speculations we will not, without further proof, inscribe their names on the roll so dark with infamy.
Lieutenant Gamble, says that they called their chief by the name of Porter. The friends referred to in the note pinned to the bosom of each dead man are presumed to be the guerrillas recently hung at Nashville, one of whom was named Gossett, a notorious robber and murder of Cheatham county, Tennessee. His career was marked with the darkest crime, as he was proved guilty before the military commission of the murder of several peaceable, unoffending citizens. Every effort will be made to hunt down the fiends guilty of this inhuman outrage of Saturday evening last. [i.e., the 30th]. They are a shame and a curse to humanity, and should be blotted out of existence.
Nashville Daily Press, August 5, 1864. [2]
            30, Legal notice allowing claims against Gideon J. Pillow
Whereas, on July 20th, 1864, an Information was filed by Horace H. Harrison, Esq., Attorney of the United States for the Middle District of Tennessee, in the District Curt of the United States for said District, against all the estate and property money, stocks, and credits of Gideon J. Pillow, and particularly against all his right, title and interest in the realty fully described ins said information, which alleges that in the District aforesaid, on land, said estate, property, moneys, stocks and credits, and particularly said right, title and interest, had been duly seized and forfeited to the United States, for causes in said set fort had averred to be true, to-wit: Because after the passage of an act of Congress, approved July 17, 1862, and entitled "An act to suppress insurrection, to punish Treason and Rebellion, to Seize and Confiscated the property of Rebels, and for other purposes,: the said Gideon J. Pillow acted as an officer of the rebels in arms against the Government of the United States, to-wit: as a Major-General[3] of the armies of the so-styled Confederate States of America.
Now, therefore, I hereby give public notice to all persons interested in said property, so seized as aforesaid, in the Capitol at Nashville, on the 3d Monday in October next, at 10 o'clock, A. M. there and then to propound their claims and make their allegations.
Edwin R. Glascock
Marshal Mid Dist. Tennessee.
Nashville Daily Times and True Union, July 30, 1864.

[1] See also Louisville Journal, August 4, 1864. [See too: December 23, 1863, "Skirmish with guerrillas, Mulberry Village, Lincoln County" above, for an account of a similar event demonstrating some remarkable similarities.]
[2] See also Nashville Dispatch, August 5, 1863.
[3] Pillow never rose above the rank of Brigadier General.

James B. Jones, Jr.
Public Historian
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN  37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456
(615)-532-1549  FAX

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

7.28.14 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

               28, "Need of Vigilance."
The frequency of conflagrations, of late, among Government steamboats, warehouses, provision and forage depots, all of vast importance to the welfare and sustenance of our armies, admonish us forcibly of the need of greatly increased watchfulness in guarding such property from the approach of incendiaries. It is highly probable that there is an organization of incendiaries, in the interest of the rebel Government, extending along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers and in all the cities of the North where there are government depots of supplies or manufactories for the army, whose object is to use the torch in any way that will cripple and retard the operations of our armies. There are thousands of rebels from the South roaming at large over the Northern States, and scores of desperadoes who would readily attempt to burn down a shop, factory, or steamboat in the service of the Government for fifty dollars. The rebels could make no use of their money so damaging to us, as to employ a force of incendiaries to destroy Government vessels and work-shops, and it is quite reasonable to believe that they are aware of the fact. If a good steamboat can be destroyed, or a locomotive and car shop, or any army wagon shop, or a depot filled with corn and hay for cavalry, artillery, and transportation horses, or any establishment of equal value and importance connected with military operations, can be burned, delaying the movements or our troops and robbing the Government of millions of dollars, the achievement is a God-send to the rebels. We think therefore that no time should be lost in placing a strong and thorough guard at every place where there is reason to apprehend the application of the torch. Incendiarism would be a tremendous weapon in the hands of desperate men, and the Government should watch out for their movements.
Nashville Daily Times and True Union, July 28, 1864.
               28, Major-General Milroy's Security Order for Nashville and Environs
Major Gen. Milroy, in Tennessee, has issued an order, that guards shall only be placed at the houses and farms of those unquestioned loyalty residing in the city of Nashville and vicinity.
The Ripley Bee, July 28, 1864. [1]
               28, Private Elam's Petition for Release from Prison
Military Prison, Nashville, Tenn.
July 28, 1864
To His Excellency, Andrew Johnson
Brig. Genl. & Mil. Gov. State of Tennessee
Sir: I have been confined to this place for more than five weeks and have had no charges preferred against me, that I am aware of, the circumstances of the casse are as follows: I belong to  Capt. Hambright's Co. "A." 10th. Regt. Tenn. Vol. Cav'y, having been detailed with several others to proceed to this place with some deserters, belonging to the 9th Tenn., after starting back to Springfield, my horse having lost a shoe, became so lame as to be unable to carry me any further and seeing a horse in a pasture by the roadside, I took him, inquired who  he belonged to, was told, where I belonged, and that the horse would be set back to the owner in two days, which I was preparing to do, as there was a detail coming to town that day, when I understood that there was a detail from Genl. Rousseau's Head Quarters, with orders to arrest me. I came to town with detail, brought two letters from Springfield, one from Lt. Martin of My Company, and the other from Mr. Holman, to Genl Rousseau, but as he was not at this office, I could not see him[.] if I had, I do not think that I would have been confined. I have now been in the service for the last fourteen Years[.] as this is the first offence of the kind, that I have ever been guilty of, I would be everlastingly obliged, if you would be so kind as to see Genl. Rousseau, and have me released and sent to my Company, and I promise in the future to conduct myself as a soldier should do, if I had any dishonest intentions, I would not have let my Company officers seen the horse, being fully aware that they would not in any instance, have countenanced me, or any of the other men in the Company in stealing horses, but as that the owner got his horse I wish you would release me.
I am, Very Respectfully, Your Obedient Servant,
Thomas J. Elam,
Prvt. Co. "A." 10th Regt Tenn  Cav'y
Stationed at Springfeld [sic] Tenn
PAJ, Vol. 7, p. 54.

[1] TSL&A, 19th CN

Monday, July 28, 2014

7.29.14 Tennessee Civil War Notes

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Sunday, July 27, 2014

7.26.14 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        27, Letter from R. J. C. Gailbreath [C. S. A.] in Bristol, Tennessee, to his wife Mariah Gailbreath, near Gainesborough, relative to railroad transportation, the first battle of Bull Run, and righteousness of the Southern cause

Bristol, Sullivan County, Tennessee

July 27th, 1861.

Dear Wife and Children-

I again embrace the pleasure of writing to you & as Ink [sic] is scares amongst us, you will pardon me for making this impression with pencil.

I can inform you, [sic] that I am in excellent health, as well as the other boys from your neighborhood.

We left Camp Trousdale on Sunday the 21st. Inst. and arrived her on Thursday the 25, [sic] making 4 days and nights travel by Railroad, [sic] passing through Nashville, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Greenville, [sic] Jonesboro, and other places of minor importance.

Crossing the Tennessee and other smaller Rivers, [sic] on Bridges, [sic] passing the Cumberland Mountains through a gap and tunnel and running under the Frowning [sic] brow of the Iron Mountains [sic] hundreds of Miles [sic] amid the most delightful and Majestic like Cenery, [sic] the Eye of Man ever beheld, in spring the beholder with a deep reverence for the Infinite [sic] wisdom of him [sic] that made us and everything. Could it have been that our thoughts had not occasionally strayed from the cenery [sic] around us and found a resting place, [sic] The Hearth at Home, [sic] where our wives and Children, [sic] with their sweet and lovely Faces, [sic] and the many items of Interest [sic] that bound us to them.

Had it not been for a thought of the Blood, [sic] Death, [sic] and carnage before us, of which I will write on another page, the trip would have been delightful.

No accident of a serious nature occurred until we were leaving Knoxville, when one of our Company, a son of Joseph Law, by the name of Don. F. in attempting to jump the Train, [sic] fell under the Train, [sic] cutting his leg smooth into, [sic] just below the left knee. We carried him into the warehouse where the Seargant [sic] cut it off again just above the knee. I carried his foot and leg in my hand from the Railroad [sic] to the Warehouse, [sic] with a shoe and a sock and a part of the Breeches [sic] leg on it-We left him there and his brother to wait on him, but learned this Morning [sic] that he has since died.

We are within a half mile of the Virginia line, connecting with Washington County sick, in that State, where the State [sic] line crosses the Railroad-There is [sic] two Flagpoles, [sic] one in Virginia, and one on the Tennessee line, and since the decision of Tennessee [to secede and join the Confederacy] the two Flags [sic] have been tied together.

While I am writing, Colonel Newman's Regiment, among which is the Granville Company, [sic] has arrived here from old Camp Trousdale, and while they March through our Camps with Marshal [sic] Music, [sic] [they] had a Warlike [sic] appearance. I stopped to shake hands and to help the other boys to Holow. [sic] They were mighty glad to see us again.

Yesterday we received order to move to Lynchburg, Virginia, and as there was a scarcity of Cars [sic] there was only Seven Companies that got off, and we, with two other Companies [sic] was left-after they got up 15 Miles [sic] into Virginia, They [sic] got a Telgraph [sic] dispatch to come back, and as they are just getting into Camps [sic] again I must stop again, to tell the Howdy Do [sic]-We were as glad to see them as if they had been gone a week.

Last Night Five [sic] of our Boys [sic] caught up with us, Bill among them-They looked like they could stand the Fight [sic] first rate.

As I promised to write more about the Big Fight Manassas [sic] I will now give you all the news as we have it. I have just been down to Town [sic] (Woodrow, Virginia), and red the Richmond Examiner, and give it to you. The Southerners had 30,000 men Commanded [sic] by Beauregard [sic], Davis and Johnston. The Yankees had 65,000 men Commanded [sic] by Scott, McDowell and Patterson. Fight [sic] commenced at 8 O'clock-Morning [sic] (Sunday) about the hour we left Camp Trousdale and lasted all day. The Southerners [sic] lost 500 killed and 1,500 wounded-Then the Northern Men [sic] lost 21,000 killed [sic] and lost 1,000 prisoners-Our side took 63 Cannons [sic] 1,000 Stands of Arms, [sic] Horses [sic] and provisions and etc. worth a Million of Dollars [sic]-Enough to Furnish [sic] the Southern Army for 12 Months. From the General [sic] detail of the battle it was the greatest Battle [sic] fought since the Memerable [sic] Battle [sic] of Waterloo-If Jeff Davis had of had [sic] Ten Thousand Men [sic] more, who was Fresh [sic] and not exhausted, he says he could have taken Washington City in 10 Hours [sic] after the battle-Our side run [sic] them within a few mile [sic] of the Potomac River-Got old Scott's Carriage, [sic] and his walking stick and he run [sic] 40 miles, got 2 members of the Yanks [sic] Congressmen as prisoners, and in fact, whipped them shamefully -- For full particulars I refer you to the News [sic] Paper. [sic]

I do not know where we will go from here. It is rumored that we will go to the Cumberland Gap, some say to Missouri. Governor Jackson of Missouri was here Yesterday [sic] in Company [sic] with Senator Atchinson-They both spoke-Jackson says that he can whip out the Yankees in Missouri if he had Guns-He has gone to Richmond to see Davis. The impression here is that he has gone there to get some of the Guns [sic] we got from the Yankees.

I cannot say now, my Dear Family, [sic] when I will see you again, if ever, but should it be the will of God to cut me off from you, rest assured that you shall never be disgraced by any Conduct [sic] on my part in this War [sic], for you and my Country; [sic] I am willing to do Battle, [sic] and if Fate [sic] be against me, let it be so. Be curageous [sic] and let not private feelings have sway with you, for I believe it is for the Best, [sic] and but performing the Providence of God that this War [sic] is upon us, in other words, it is a Righteous War. [sic]

Take good care of your health, our sweet little Children [sic] raise them up as though they should go, and although the example heretofore set by me to them has not been of that Moral Character [sic] they should have been, Yet [sic] I trust that their superior intelligence will enable them to observe and avoid my errors.

Since writing the above, we have orders to leave immediately for Richmond, and Boys [sic] are bundeling [sic] up to start.

You need not write me until I write again. Give my love to your Mother, [sic] and all the Black Folks, [sic] and to your Friends. [sic]

Should Faith [sic] preserve me, I will see you in May next, if not sooner. May Heaven will it so.


R. J. C. Gailbreath

W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 3, pp. 64-65.



        27, Skirmish[1] near Manchester

No circumstantial reports filed.

MANCHESTER, July 27, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

* * * *

Forrest appeared before me this morning and made a successful dash upon one of my reconnoitering parties, killing 3 and capturing 15 men. He was apparently withdrawn in the direction of McMinnville. I sent out a strong detachment a short distance to the front to ascertain his whereabouts. We must concentrate a cavalry force sufficient to chase him down before we can get rid of him. Will I be relieved by Gen. Wood? If so, when? I have the flour all safely stored in the depot.

W. S. SMITH, Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 218.

        27, Affair near Toone's Station, a.k.a. Lower Post Ferry.

Report of Capt. James J. Dollins, Stewart's Battalion Illinois Cavalry, on the "Affair at Toone's Station, or Lower Post Ferry, July 27, 1862.

GEN.: I am at this place. I reconnoitered the ground where I had the fighting to-day. About 1 p. m. found the enemy's cavalry posted on your side of the river. They are about 200 strong. I learn from a reliable source that some had crossed the river by swimming at Estenaula Ferry, where I destroyed the boats yesterday. I have just seen Gen. McClernand's dispatch to Gen. Ross, saying Maj. Stewart is sent to re-enforce me. After reconnoitering to-day I fell back to Toone's Station, 6 miles. They followed us to within 3 miles of that place.

Maj. Stewart had better come there, as I think their intention is to overpower the guards and burn the cotton at that place. What shall I do? Will wait your orders. All here on hand and will wait a few minutes for an answer. My dead are yet on the field.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt, I, p. 25.

        27, Major-General W. T. Sherman seeks cooperation of Memphis municipal authorities in maintaining order in the Bluff City

HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Memphis, Tenn., July 27, 1862.

JOHN PARK, Mayor of Memphis:

SIR: Yours of July 24[2] is before me and has received, as all similar papers ever will, my careful and most respectful consideration.

I have the most unbounded respect for the civil law, courts, and authorities, and shall do all in my power to restore them to their proper use, viz., the protection of life, liberty, and property.

Unfortunately at this time civil war prevails in the land, and necessarily the military for the time being must be superior to the civil authority, but does not therefore destroy it. Civil courts and executive officers should still exist and perform duties, without which civil or municipal bodies would soon pass into disrespect--an end to be avoided.

I am glad to find in Memphis yourself and municipal authorities not only in existence but in the exercise of your important functions, and I shall endeavor to restore one or more civil tribunals for the arbitrament [sic] of contracts and punishment of crimes which the military authority has neither time nor inclination to interfere with.

Among these, first in importance, is the maintenance of order, peace, and quiet within the jurisdiction of Memphis. To insure this I will keep a strong provost guard in the city, but will limit their duty to guarding public property held or claimed by the United States, and for the arrest or confinement of State prisoners and soldiers who are disorderly or improperly away from their regiments.

This guard ought not to arrest citizens for disorder or common crimes. This should be done by the city police. I understand that the city police is too weak in numbers to accomplish this perfectly, and I therefore recommend that the city council at once take steps to increase this force to a number which, in their judgment, day and night, can enforce your ordinance as to peace, quiet, and order, so that any change in our military dispositions will not have a tendency to leave your people unguarded.

I am willing to instruct my provost guard to assist the police force where any combination is made too strong for them to overcome, but the city police should be strong enough for any probable contingency.

The cost of maintaining this police force must necessarily fall upon all citizens equitably.

I am not willing, nor do I think it good policy, for the city authorities to collect the taxes belonging to the State and county, as you recommend, for these would have to be refunded. Better meet the expenses at once by a new tax on all interested. Therefore if you, on consultation with the proper municipal body, will frame a good bill for the increase of your police force and for raising the necessary means for their support and maintenance, I will approve it and aid you in the collection of the tax. Of course I cannot suggest how this tax should be laid, but I think that it should be made uniform on all interests, real estate and personal property, including money and merchandise. All who are protected should share the expenses in proportion to the interests involved.

I am, with respect, your obedient servant,

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17. pt II, p. 127.[3]



        27, "A Great Mistake."

On yesterday afternoon, Judge M. M. Brien had occasion to chastise a negro [sic] woman, to prevent her abusing a member of his family, when a large mob of negroes [sic] gathered in front of his dwelling and made pretty menacing demonstrations. The provost guard appeared, and after hearing how the matter stood, went their way. But a number of them soon returned and arrested the Judge and presented him before the bar of the Provost Marshal when he was released. Col. Spaulding was not present, but the gentleman officiating in his stead, treated the Judge very courteously, dismissing him with a remark that the time had passed when negroes [sic] could be whipped in this country. [sic] The Judge supposed the guard returned and arrested him at the suggestion of some of the angry negroes [sic] who had assembled near his residence

We would caution the soldier on duty in this city, that it would be wise to pay but little attention to many of the negroes [sic] who have accumulated in and around Nashville. Judge Brien is, and always has been, not only a Union man, but a strong administration man. And we have no doubt, but the "ironclads" and "copperbottoms," who saw the Judge marching up Capital hill has a sharp stick after him, laughed in their sleeves, and grew bolder in their reason [?]. Be careful soldiers, we know your motives are good, but don't punish your best friends by mistake. Done for the present.

Nashville Daily Press, July 27, 1863.

        27, Conditions in the Decherd and Winchester and environs

Winchester, July 27th, 1863.

Dear Press: Leaving your city on Thursday [23rd] last by the 6 A.M. train of the N&C Railroad, and being passed free of charge on the strength of a bit of pasteboard kindly furnished by the worthy superintendent Anderson, who is a perfect gentleman, as is also his assistant, I arrived safely at Decherd, after a most delightful trip in company with Mr. Sinsabaus, who is a perfect brick in his own way, and withal very much of a gentleman. At Decherd everything was noise and confusion, what between the puffing and snorting of three or four engines, the rattle and jam of hundreds of government wagons, and the almost incessant braying and screeching of a thousand or more mules, mingled with the shouts and curses of their contraband drivers, the ding to our unpracticed ear was almost intolerable. But it was surprising to witness the rapidity and accuracy with which all government business was despatched [sic] amid this tumult, and in less than one hour the crowd had dispersed, the mountains of rations had disappeared, and but few remained upon the ground except the necessary guard, and an occasional sutler, who were pretty equally divided into two parties, the one bewailing bitterly the loss of his valuable stock through his own foolhardiness in attempting to smuggle contraband goods through under the very eyes of a score of government agents, who long since have learned all the dodges of the cunning craft, and are ever on the alert to pick up and offending army follower, while the remainder were counting already the profits in perspective upon the sale of their edibles and bibibles [sic] to Uncle Sam's nephews, many of whom have just been paid off, and are consequently quite flush.

But it is time that we, too, be moving, and following one of the many long lines of wagons loaded with "grubb [sic]" for the soldiers. We finally arrived at the pretty little town of Winchester, where we found the headquarters of General Rosecrans in a fine large college building. The General himself not being at present here, having been for some time, as you know, in your city, accompanied by his Provost Marshal General, Major Wiles. The present department is under control of Captain Elias Cooper, an efficient officer and a perfect gentleman, who is never absent from his post of duty. Here, too, we find the headquarters of Colonel Wm. Truesdail, Chief of the Army Police, who has labored so assiduously in the discharge of the many duties devolving upon him, as to win for himself the admiration and respect of all true hearted men and patriots. The Colonel himself is not in Nashville, with a view, as I understand, of making some important changes and improvements upon the present police system established by him.

Everything remains quite at this point; the men an officers having by this time been perfectly recruited-all appear to be feeling well, if not better, than before their late tedious and disagreeable march from Murfreesboro. What the next important movement in this section will be, and when made, I can only guess at, and as a mere surmise is not generally considered "reliable information." I shall wait and see, hoping soon to forward you something of more general interest than I am at present to do

Yours, Asa

Nashville Daily Press, July 29, 1863.



        27, The first grand review of U. S. C. T. in Nashville

The grand review of the colored troops in this city took place yesterday afternoon at 4 o'clock. A large concourse of citizens and officers of the army were present to witness the first review of this branch of our service, which has attracted so much attention and comment from all classes. The Reviewing Officer was Brig. Gen. Chetlain, commanding the colored troops of Tennessee. The troops present were the 12th regiment U. S. C. Inf., Col. Thompson; 15th U. S. C. Inf., Col. T. J. Downey; 17th regiment U. S. C. Inf., Col. W. R. Shafter; and 100th regiment U. S. C. inf., Maj. Ford, commanding. The band of the 10th Tenn. Infantry were present and discoursed most beautiful music, and added much to the effect of the review. Col. Thompson, Review Officer present, took command, and right well did he acquit himself. The 12th regiment came upon a special train from section 26, N. W. R. R. To say that the review as good hardly does justice to these gallant troops. We have been an eyewitness of many reviews of veteran troops, but have not witnessed a more creditable review than that of yesterday. The commanders of the different regiment[s] may well feel proud of their commands-and those of our citizens-especially the galvanized portion-missed a grand sight if they were not present; and we would advise them when next an opportunity affords, to be present and see how well some of the sons, grandsons, nephews, &c., of our F. F.'s.[4] acquitted themselves as soldiers of the Union. We trust that these reviews may be frequent hereafter, that our citizens may see that the "nigger" [sic] can and will make as good a soldier as a white man. Gen. Chetlain expresses himself highly gratified with the condition of the troops here, and we can only wish him god speed in his glorious mission.

The different regiments escorted the 12th regiment to the N. W. Railroad depot, and then marched through the streets. We regret to record the fact than an officer of the Army Commis'y [sic] Dep't., so far forgot himself as a soldier and gentleman to give commands to the troops as they passed his office on Cedar street. We trust hereafter that he will discontinue the practice of putting an enemy in his mouth to steal away his brains. We would gladly give an account of the rise and progress of the organization of colored troops in this Department but time will not permit.

Gen. Chetlain and staff, Major Paddock, Inspector General, and Dr. Rush, Medical Inspector, accompany him -- both agreeable and accomplished soldiers and gentlemen. The General leaves for Chattanooga on Friday.

Nashville Daily Times and True Union, July 28, 1864.

        27, Treatment of a U. S. C. T. Slave Family in Maury county

Cruel Treatment of the Families of Colored Soldiers by Tennessee Rebels.-A correspondent of the Nashville Times writes the following:

A recital of the wrongs daily inflicted upon the wives and children of colored soldiers in Tennessee is enough to make a human man weep tears of blood! Rebels who are living under the amnesty proclamation-rebels whose crimes against the State have justly forfeited their property and their worthless necks, appear to take fiendish delight in abusing the wives and children of those noble colored men who have enlisted to fight for a Government from which they have heretofore received on injustice. I will give you one case; I might give many. In 1841, Ira Hardison, who resides in Maury County, ten miles east of Columbia, bought a man named Wilson, and from 1841 to 1863, a period of 22 years, Wilson worked faithfully for Hardison without compensation. No man ever had a more faithful or efficient slave. In November, 1863, after giving to Harrison all the best years of his life, Wilson enlisted in the 15th U. S. colored troops, commanded by Col. Donner, and every officer in the regiment can bear testimony to the intelligence, honest and good conduct of Sergeant Wilson. But ever since his enlistment, his wife and children, left in Harrison hands, have been cruelly tormented. A son was driven to work last winter and spring without shoes and almost naked, until he was ready to drop into the grave. A daughter was knocked down last Sabbath a week, kicked and stamped by the rebel brute until her life as almost despaired of. The old scoundrel taunts the mother and children continually about their husband and further being a soldier. As Sergeant Wilson is a very intelligent Christian man, he feels these wrongs keenly, and asks whether the Government for which he has taken up arms has no means of redress, Harrison is raising a fine crop cotton this year, and is boasting of the large sum of money it will yield him.

Daily Evening Bulletin, July 17, 1864. [5]



        27, Military forces placed on duty to guard polls in Benton, Henry, Weakley, Gibson, Lauderdale, Henderson, and Carroll, West Tennessee; Humphreys, Dickson, Stewart, Montgomery, Shelby, Fayette, Williamson, Davidson, Wilson, Sumner, Robertson, Cheatham, Bedford, Lincoln, Marshall, Giles, Maury, Hickman, and Lewis counties in Middle Tennessee

NASHVILLE, TENN., July 27, 1865.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE STONEMAN, Knoxville:

Governor Brownlow having applied to me for a sufficient military force to insure that the approaching elections be conducted legally in certain counties throughout this State, I wish you to send a sufficient force to the election precincts of each of the following counties to be present at the holding of the election for the purpose of enabling legal voters to hand in their votes, and also to insure them protection whenever they choose to challenge the legality of votes of other parties when offered; also to see that the judges of elections conduct them fairly and preserve propriety during the election, viz.,: Benton, Henry, Weakley, Gibson, Lauderdale, Henderson, and Carroll, West Tenn.; Humphreys, Dickson, Stewart, Montgomery, Shelby, Fayette, Williamson, Davidson, Wilson, Sumner, Robertson, Cheatham, Bedford, Lincoln, Marshall, Giles, Maury, Hickman, and Lewis, Middle Tenn. A copy of this has been sent to Gen. Smith to expedite matters. You will please see that the order is executed in the other counties named.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 1093.


[1] This event is not listed in the OR General Index and is referenced only in passing in the following excerpt from official correspondence. The event was called a "dash," which here will be determined to be a skirmish.

[2] Not found.

[3] See also: Memphis Union Appeal, July 30, 1862.

[4] Most likely an abbreviation for "Fighting Forces."

[5] GALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN (San Francisco, CA)

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456

(615)-532-1549  FAX