25, Instructing Memphis Police on Proper Constabulary Etiquette
The Police.-It was with pleasure we yesterday remarked that our newly organized policed indicated great improvement. The vigilance committee and officers are determined to take such steps as shall render them efficient in the performance of their duties. The maintenance of the public peace, the prevention and detection of crime, and the protection of persons and property, are among the responsible duties with which the police are entrusted. In discharging duties so important a more than usual staidness of demeanor and control of temper are required. The requisite of a policeman's active duties is like that of a soldier's-prompt and implicit obedience to lawful orders from those in authority. Sobriety, including an entire absence from drinking places, except when called by duty, as essential. From an address delivered sometime ago by a chief of police to his men, we copy the following, which is well worth of observance. "Under all circumstances and on occasions you must observe a prudent, gentlemanly and obliging behavior. In dealing with persons of every rank and condition in life you must at all times be firm of purpose but kind and conciliatory in temper and disposition. Even to those charged with criminal offenses, you must be guilty of no [illegible] rudeness or unnecessary harshness. Remember always that a happy mixture of resolution, courage and civility constituted a high degree of excellence in every sphere of duty, and are marked characteristics of a good police officer. The habit of smoking while on duty cannot be permitted, not will you be allowed, while on duty, to hold conversation with any one except in relation to matters appertaining to your official duties; and, even in such cases, your conversation should not be protracted beyond the time proper for the accomplishment of the matter in hand. While on duty on your beat, you must not enter any house, either public or private, unless required to do so for the performance of some official duty. In your intercourse with persons with whom your official duty may bring you in contact, you must refrain from using profane, vulgar or indecent language. Whenever called on to exercise official power, do it boldly, decidedly, yet with becoming coolness and moderation, preserving always perfect self-command and control over your temper, and taking no heed of remarks made by excited bystanders, irritating though they be. Cultivate a habit of close observation. Persons especially who are known to be of bad repute, or whose behavior may be such as to awaken suspicion, should be objects of constant watchfulness, that they may know and feel that they are observed by you and that it will be difficult to offend with impunity, or transgress the law and escape detection and consequent punishment. Loitering and lounging on the streets and corners will not be tolerated, but every officer must constantly patrol his beat, observing closely all passers-by, in order that a facility in observing and detecting the evil disposed may be acquired. A proper degree of vigilance and unceasing watchfulness should render extremely difficult the perpetration of crime within the limits of an officer's beat. Where depredations are matters of frequent occurrence within a beat, it furnished ground for a reasonable presumption of negligence, intention, or incapacity on the par of those who may have it in charge, while on the contrary the absence of crime is to be taken and considered as proof of activity and capability. You will be expected to be attentive to the mater of cleanliness of person and dress, and required at all times to preserve a near and officer-like appearance."
Memphis Daily Appeal, July 25, 1861. 
25, Confederate guerrilla raid on Brownsville
No circumstantial reports filed.
Confederates at Brownsville.
Arrest of Cotton Buyers.
$15,000 in Gold Stolen.
Prisoners Taken South.
The Confederate cavalry, numbering about one hundred, suddenly appeared at Brownsville, county seat of Haywood, about daybreak on Friday morning. The hotel was surrounded by the troops, and Messrs. Crisp and Greenwald, cotton buyers, both citizens of this place, were called for. They were immediately arrested, as were also Mr. Ed. Word, of this city, Mr. Ware from Paducah, and two foreign citizens, one of Brownsville, named Solomond [sic], and the other of Haywood.
The citizens of town interfered, and Mr. Word, who had bought no cotton, was released unconditionally. Mr. Crisp, after importunity, was paroled. About this time, Solomond [sic], one of the citizens arrested, asked permission to go and get a blanket, and escaped. This so exasperated Captain Faulkner, the commander of the Confederate forces, that he declined to release any more of the prisoners.
The Confederates hunted up all the cotton in Brownsville, and made the citizens assist in cutting open the bales, after which the torch was applied and all of it consumed. There were some three hundred bales of cotton consumed at Brownsville.
The Confederates broke open an iron safe belonging to Greenwald, and took away about fifteen thousand dollars in gold! [sic]
The Confederate force at Brownsville was a part of Jackson's cavalry, and are from Kentucky. They wore no uniforms. They are armed with double-barralled [sic] shot guns, Navy six shooter and bowie knives. They are said to have their hiding place or stronghold in a "hurricane" not far from Brownsville. This place is almost impassable from the number of trees thrown upon the ground, and gives them a great advantage in case of attack.
The citizens sent word to the Federal commander at Humboldt, and about 5 o'clock some 85 or 100 cavalry made their appearance in the town. They arrested one man attached to the Confederate force, and threatened to shoot him if he did not convey them to Faulkner's headquarters.
The Confederates left Brownsville Friday (25th) afternoon, taking Mr. Greenwald and the other prisoners with them. On Sunday (27th) Mr. Greenwald was seen as a prisoner at Senatobia, Mississippi.
Memphis Bulletin, July 30, 1862.
25, Guerrilla attack near Memphis
The Rebel Desperadoes-More Cotton Burning. – The adjoining country is yet infested with those infamous bands of prowling, outrageous, notoriously vile and desperate characters, the very thought of whose savage, villainous acts and diabolical proceedings bring a scowl of indignation to the brow. We are informed that the day before yesterday a squad of rebel cavalry attacked a citizen named Moore, on the Holly Springs road, about six miles from the city, near I. B. Holmes' plantation. Mr. Moore lives in that vicinity, and was coming to the city with a load of cotton, when the infernal rebels came upon him. They burnt the cotton on the spot, took Mr. Moore and his team with them, and, probably, ere this, the poor man has been executed by the accursed villains. The neighborhood in which this hellish transaction occurred is a hot-bed of Secessionism [sic], where the Confederate outlaws are harbored and protected, encouraged and aided in this work of devastation and ruin. The few good citizens who reside in that rebellious region live in fear and peril, not knowing what unfortunate moment the desperadoes may fall upon them with their atrocious designs. Let the country be ransacked, and the rebel sympathizers arrested, for they are as deep in guilt as the actual perpetrators.
Memphis Union Appeal, July 27, 1862.
25, Skirmish at Clinton Ferry
JULY 25, 1862.-Skirmish at Clinton Ferry, Tenn.
Report of Assistant Adjutant-Gen. H. L. Clay, C. S. Army.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., July 25, 1862.
COL.: Capt. Blalock, commanding company of cavalry at Clinton, reports that at sunrise this morning his pickets at the ferry were fired upon by the enemy. He sent re-enforcements, when a skirmish occurred, resulting in the wounding of one man. Believing he was about being surrounded he retreated.
The major-general commanding directs me to give you the report of Capt. Blalock, and suggests that the enemy may be a foraging party. If they cross the river you will move your brigade promptly forward and drive them back. You will be supported in the movement by Col. Taylor's brigade.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Col. A. W. REYNOLDS, Cmdg. Fourth Brigade.
(NOTE.-Similar letter to Col. T. H. Taylor, commanding Fifth Brigade.)
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. I, p. 829.
25, General Orders, No. 64, suspending the use of gold and silver as a medium with which to purchase cotton
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 64. HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Corinth, Miss., July 25, 1862.
The attention of the major-general commanding having been called to the fact of persons in this district sympathizing with the rebellion, who have cotton for sale, refusing to receive the United States Treasury notes in payment therefore, or anything other than gold and silver which is paid them by speculators whose love of gain is greater than their love of country, and the gold and silver thus paid indirectly affording aid and comfort to the enemy, renders necessary the publication of the following orders: 1st. From and after the 1st of August, 1862, gold and silver will not be paid within this district by speculators for the products of the rebel States. United States Treasury notes are a legal tender in all cases, and when refused the parties refusing them will be arrested, and such of their crops as are not actually required for the subsistence of their families, stock, &c., may be seized and sold by the nearest quartermaster for the benefit of whom it may concern.
2d. Money so received will be accounted for by the officer receiving it on his next account current, and used for the benefit of Government, only to be paid to the owners of the crops sold on orders from authority above that of district commanders.
3d. Any speculator paying out gold and silver in violation of this order will be arrested and sent North, and the property so purchased seized and turned over to the proper department for the benefit of the Government.
4th. A strict enforcement of this order is enjoined upon all officers in this district.
By command of Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 123.
25, Conditions in Memphis, excerpts from the report of Major-General William T. Sherman
HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE, Memphis, July 25, 1862.
Col. JOHN A. RAWLINS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Corinth, Miss.:
* * * *
Not knowing the character of country about Memphis as to water, for which our men and animals suffered much, I rode into the city on Sunday morning before daylight.. Accordingly I sent orders out to White's Station for the troops to march in, and accordingly the whole command marched into Memphis, my division taking post at Fort Pickering and Hurlbut's just below the fort, drawing water out of the river.
* * * *
As soon as Gen. Hovey drew in his pickets I sent a brigade (Morgan L. Smith's) out on the State Line road 3 miles, with orders to establish a main guard 1 mile farther out, and pickets and vedettes extending another mile, and cavalry to scout and patrol out to White's Station, 9 miles out. I quartered two brigades inside of Fort Pickering, with orders to push the work on which they are now engaged. About 750 negroes [sic] and all soldiers who are under punishment or are arrested by the provost guard will be made to work on the fortifications.
* * * *
On my arrival I was somewhat embarrassed by an order (No. 1) of Gen. Hovey, in regard to persons between the ages of eighteen and forty-five. I doubted the propriety of allowing such to go South, untrammeled by even a parole, whereas they are by the law of the Confederacy conscript soldiers and have doubtless gone to the army. Such should have been made to take a parole and then go South or North.
All in Memphis who are hostile to us should be compelled to leave, for so long as they remain correspondence will go on; and in case of military movements they will manage to convey the information to their friends. But if all who are not our friends are expelled from Memphis but few will be left. I will do nothing hastily; only if any persons manifest any active hostility I will deal with them summarily.
Your orders that when the head of a family is in the South the family too must go I will enforce. And I have said that when any man feels and entertains hostility to us and favor to our enemies it is a breach of honor to remain, and shall, if necessary, be so regarded.
I have issued an order limiting travel to daylight and to the five principal roads, on each of which I will post a small permanent guard, with nothing to do but watch the travel. By giving special instruction to these guards I am satisfied we can protect ourselves against spies and illicit trade more perfectly than by the usual system of provost-marshal passes.
I have, pursuant to your order, ordered the quartermaster to employ a suitable agent to take possession of all vacant buildings, register them and rent them for account of whom it may concern, keeping a true account current with each piece of property and accounting for rents to the quartermaster. I have also had all the negroes [sic] registered and will cause a time-table to be kept of their work, so that this matter may also admit of final settlement. There are squads of guerrillas in the country, but I cannot hear of any real force. A negro [sic] reports the arrival at Germantown of about 100 infantry and some cavalry. At soon as I get things in good shape I will begin to look into these matters.
What about Fort Pillow, its guns, &c.? Do you expect me to remove these and dismantle the fort?
* * * *
I am, &c.,
W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 121-123.
25, Federal anti-Semitism and cotton-buying in the Bolivar environs
BOLIVAR, July 25, 1862.
Maj. Gen. JOHN A. McCLERNAND:
The cotton speculators are quite clamorous for aid in getting their cotton away from Middleburg, Hickory Valley, &c., and offer to pay liberally for the service. I think I can bring it away with safety, and make it pay to the Government. As some of the Jew owners have as good as stolen the cotton from the planters, I have no conscientious scruples in making them pay liberally for getting it away.
L. F. ROSS, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 120.
25, Federals ordered to occupy Fayetteville
FAYETTEVILLE, TENN., July 25, 1863.
Col. LONG, Cmdg. Second Brigade, Second Division, Cavalry:
Maj.-Gen. Sanely directs that you immediately move your command to this place, and occupy it until further orders, and directs you to send the battalion of the Fourth Regulars now in your command to report fortheith to their regiment at Salem. I am ordered with my command to Salem, to intercept Gen. Forrest some place this did of the Tennessee River. I will march at 3 a. m. to-morrow. I have ordered the colonel of the First Ohio to remain here in possession of the town until you arrive, with his regiment and detachment belonging to the different regiments of your command, numbering near 300. I think it advisable for you to move early in the morning for this point direct. Your provision train awaits your arrival here.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
ROBT. B. MITCHELL, Brig.-Gen.
WINCHESTER, July 25, 1863.
In anticipation of Forrest's move, I have ordered Mitchell to Salem and Long to Fayetteville. Will start at once to Nashville. Any orders you have please send to Maj. Sinclair, at Winchester. Have ordered Mitchell to take command of all the cavalry. Bragg occupies the railroad all the way to Atlanta.
No word from Long yet. Have cavalry hunting bushwhackers on Elk River.
D. S. STANLEY, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 558.
25, Forrest's cavalry conducts foraging expedition in Sequatchie County
WINCHESTER, TENN., July 25, 1863.
Communication from Gen. Van Cleve, just received, in substance reports that Forrest is preparing for a raid on McMinnville; needs cavalry. Conscripts and deserters, and many citizens, heretofore rank secessionists, are coming in daily. Says some old sinners of pride wish me to send an armed force and bring them in, that they may not appear to have yielded voluntarily.
Word from Sequatchie Valley, evening of 22d, by a man who lives 9 miles above Dunlap: Saw 50 of Forrest's pickets in the valley on the 21st, and 12 miles from Chattanooga; saw 400 cavalry arming; about 1,600 head of cattle toward Chattanooga.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 556.
25, Army of Tennessee terminates retreat in Chattanooga
HDQRS., Cowan, via Winchester, July 25, 1863--9.30 p. m.
Brig.-Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:
SIR: The following information is from a rebel lieutenant who delivered himself up at Stevenson, and was forwarded to me:
Bragg and his entire army is in and about Chattanooga. He is fortifying all the surrounding points in and about that City. Gen. Hardee and personal staff was ordered some time ago to report to Gen. Johnston. Gen. A. P. [D. H.] Hill has taken command of Hardee's corps. The pontoon bridge that was at Kelly's Ford is now across the river at Chattanooga, and it is reported that Forrest's command, which was at Waldron's Ridge, north of river has crossed over this bridge to south side, and that Wheeler's force, which was at Trenton, has crossed over to take his place.
The officer has a very accurate sketch of the country between Bridge-port and Chattanooga; also of the river, extending back some considerable distance. I will send you a copy of it. I will also furnish you with a sketch of the different points on which batteries have been erected at Chattanooga. The enemy are fortifying at Knoxville, and Loudon Bridge also.
Bragg's map, now being made, embraces the following points: Chattanooga, Atlanta, Montgomery, Tuscaloosa, Decatur, bounded north by the Tennessee River. I will increase my force at Stevenson and Anderson.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
P. H. SHERIDAN, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 557.
25, Measures taken to decrease deaths of officers in the Army of the Cumberland from Confederate sharpshooters
GENERAL ORDERS, HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, No. 174. Winchester, Tenn., July 25, 1863.
I. In order to prevent the disorganization of the army its officers being picked off by the enemy's sharpshooters, the following badges of rank are recommended and permitted to be worn as undress uniform in all portions of this army when serving in the immediate vicinity of the enemy: Officers of all grades are authorized to wear single-breasted blouses directed in the Army Regulations, for the badges of rank worn on the epaulette. The rectangle of the shoulder-strap being too conspicuous on the field of battle, need not be worn. Second lieutenants will wear a single bar on the right shoulder only.
II. No private horses will be sent beyond the limits of the department without a special permit from the provost-marshal-general.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 558.
25, Letter from William F. Testerman, on Remembrance stationery, to Miss Jane Davis. Testerman was a first lieutenant in Company C of the 8th Tennessee Cavalry
Gallotin [sic], Tenn. July 25, 1864.
I again take the opportunity of Droping [sic] you a few lines in answer to your kind letters which I received a few days ago one bearing date June "23" the other June the "24" it was a plesure [sic] to me to have the honor to receive a letter from as charming a young girl as the one whos [sic] name was asscirbed [sic] at the bottom of each of them I was glad to hear that you was well but I was more glad to hear you express your mind as fully as what you did this note leaves me well and I truly hope that this will find you in good health I can't say anything to you by letter more than what you have heard from my letters before. Jane I hope the time will soon come when I can get to see you again I can write many things to you but if I could see you I could tell you more in one minute than I can rite in a week The letters that you wrote to me has proved verry [sic] satisfactory to me if you will stand up to what you told me in your letters I will be satisfied which I have no reasons to Doubt but what you will but if you was to fail it would allmost [sic] break my heart for you are the girl that I am Depending upon and if it was not for you I would not be riting [sic]by my candle to night as you wrote to me that many miles seperated [sic] us in person if my heart was like yours we would be united in heart you kneed [sic] not to Dout [sic] [.] Though we are fare apart at present my heart is with you every moment for I often think of you when you are asleep when Travailing the lonesom [sic] roads in middle Tenn [sic] The thought of your sweet smiles is all the company I have I trust that you are cinsere [sic] in what you have wrote to me. Your sparkling blue eys [sic] and rosey [sic] red cheeks has gaind [sic] my whole efections [sic] I hope for the time to come when we shall meet again then if you are in the notion that I am we can pass off the time in plesure [sic] [.] My time has come for sleep and I must soon close I want you to rite to me as soon as you can for I will be glad to hear from you any time. Direct your letters as before and dont [sic] forget your best friend so I will end my few lines but my love to you has no End remember me as ever your love and friend. Excuse bad riting [sic].
William F. Testerman to Miss Jane Davis
Civil War Love Letters.
25, Military posse in Perry, Wayne, Hardin, Hickman, Williamson and Maury counties
NASHVILLE, TENN., July 25, 1865.
Maj. Gen. JOHN E. SMITH, Memphis:
Send a force of 100 cavalry to hunt down and destroy a band of guerrillas now raiding over the counties of Perry, Wayne, and a portion of Hardin, and who make their headquarters in south part of Hickman County and near Williamsport, in Maury. Your force will remain west of the Tennessee and co-operate with a like force which Gen. Johnson will send out to scout the east of the river.
W. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 1090.
 The fact that this admonition was printed indicates that the Memphis police demonstrated few of the qualities mentioned in this article.
 As cited in PQCW.
 Also listed in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
 Maps not included in original report.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456