Friday, April 29, 2016

Notes from Civil War Tennessee, April 29, 1861 – 1865.

Notes from Civil War Tennessee,

April 29, 1861 – 1865.




            29, Report of Henry W. Hilliard to Confederate Secretary of State Robert Toombs relative to Tennessee's probable secession from the Union, including pertinent sections of Governor Isham G. Harris's secret message to the General Assembly on the same subject[1]

NASHVILLE, TENN., April 29, 1861.

Hon. ROBERT TOOMBS, Secretary of State:

SIR: Under instructions from the Government, I left Montgomery on Thursday evening and arrive at this place on Saturday. Governor Harris having been informed of my arrival, gave me an interview promptly, and I had that honor of delivering to him my letter of credence from the President. He gave me a warm reception, and expressed his gratification at my mission at this important conjuncture. The information which he gives me is of the most important and satisfactory character, and he will heartily co-operate with me in accomplishing the objects of my mission. The Legislature assembled in accordance with his proclamation, and upon receiving his message, resolved forthwith to go into secret session. It was thought best also to withhold the message from publication; the Governor has, however, submitted a copy to me. He recommends that the connection of Tennessee "with the Federal Union be formally annulled in such manner as shall involve the highest exercise of sovereign authority by the people of the State, and best secure that harmony so much to be desired, in times like the present, upon questions of even mere details."

"Therefore I respectfully recommend the perfecting of an ordinance by the Gen. Assembly formally declaring the independence of the State of Tennessee of the Federal Union, renouncing its authority, and reassuming each and every function belonging to a separate sovereignty; and that said ordinance, when it shall have been thus perfected by the Legislature, shall at the earliest practicable time be submitted to a vote of the people, to be by them adopted or rejected."

"I therefore further recommend that you perfect an ordinance, with a view to our admission as a member of the Southern Confederacy (which it is evident must soon embrace the entire slave holding States of the South), to be submitted in like manner, at the same time, but separately, for adoption or rejection by the people; so that they may have the opportunity to approve the former and reject the latter, or adapt both, as in their wisdom may seem most consistent with the future welfare of the State. However fully satisfied the Executive and Legislature may be as to the urgent necessity for the speedy adoption of both these propositions, it is our duty to furnish the amplest means for a fair and full expression of the popular will."

The object of the Governor in recommending separate ordinances is to secure beyond all possibility of doubt the speedy secession of Tennessee from the Government of the United States. [emphasis added] The Legislature will within the present week carry out these recommendations of the Governor, and the first proposition will be ratified by an overwhelming popular vote. As to the second, which provides for the admission of Tennessee as a member of the Confederate States, there will be decided opposition, for many desire to establish a middle confederacy, formed of the border States, as they are termed. You will readily comprehend that personal considerations influence opinion to some extent in regard to this measure. From all that I can learn, however, I do not doubt that the people, by a large majority, will vote to add Tennessee to her sister States of the South. A number of the leading men here have already called on me, and they favor it. The governor warmly advocates it in his message and in conversation. He is unwilling to interpose a convention between himself and the people, and therefore proposes to decide the question in the way suggested. A great change has taken place in public sentiment here within a few days, and the feeling in favor of our Government rises into enthusiasm. The flag of the Confederate States floats along the line of travel, from public residences and public buildings, and in this city it is largely displayed. [emphasis added]

So soon as the ordinances referred to shall pass the Legislature I shall confer with Governor Harris as to measures for bringing the State into such relations to our Government as may insure thorough co-operation, and facilitate the admission of Tennessee as a member of the Confederacy. Ii shall be pleased to have your views as to the proper steps to be taken by the State, and will, I am informed, appropriate $5,000,000 for that object. The State is very deficient in arms and ammunition, and the greatest anxiety is felt to obtain them; any amount of money can be raised for that purpose. It is proposed to bring into the field from 20,000 to 25,000 troops, and to provide as many more as a reserved force. The spirit of the people is roused, and the war popular beyond description. [emphasis added]  By existing laws the Governor has no authority to send troops beyond the limits of the State, but the Legislature will authorize him to order them to any point, and in anticipation of this, or under the pressure of affairs, Governor Harris is now sending troops into Virginia. The greatest activity is displayed in providing military stores, and our Government is looked to eagerly to supply them. I do not know to what extent that can be done, and shall be leased to have early and precise information on the subject.

Some 200 tons of lead and other stores intended for this State fell into the hands of the Federal troops at Cairo a few days since. A remarkable transaction, by the way, for the Government at Washington, having made a requisition on Tennessee for troops, surely should allow them to receive munitions of war. Professing to regard Tennessee as loyal, its agents intercept military stores ordered by the Governor. That act has roused the people, for the free navigation of the Mississippi is a matter so important to the people of this State that they have embodied a declaration that it shall forever remain so in their organic law. The leading men here have generally called on me, and I am impression favorable to our Government, and I do not doubt a speedy accomplishment of the objects of my mission. Our Constitution is highly approved, and the conduct of our Government inspires respect and admiration. The Kentucky troops tendered to our Government are at this time in the city. They make a fine appearance and are eager for action. I learn that the people of Kentucky want arms. If they had them that State would promptly throw off the authority of the Government at Washington. The Governor will to-day, in a special message, communicate to the legislature the fact and object of my mission. I was invited to deliver a speech in the Capitol on Saturday evening-indeed, bills were posted throughout the city stating that I would do so-but I declined, preferring to wait for an introduction to the Legislature before addressing the public. I shall hope to receive such instructions from you as may enable me fully to carry out the wishes of our Government.

I have, &c.,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 76-78.

            29, Excerpt from a letter by Robert D. Jamison of Murfreesborough relative to excitement surrounding secession crisis in Tennessee

... Uncle Atha is the most excited man I ever saw. He can talk about nothing else but the state of our country. Companies of soldiers are mustering at every point. They have two companies at Franklin, two at Columbia, one at Spring Hill, and one at Thompson Station. All of the schools have broken up around her except Uncle Atha's and Mr. Bond's.

....One of [Mr. Bond's]...scholars...has stopped and joined a company and I think some more will stop and join.

I never saw such excitement in my life. Everyone is trying to see who can do the most for his country. [emphasis added]  Mr. Bond is just on tiptoes. He has gone to Spring Hill to make a speech. The cry is heard on every side, "to arms, to arms."

Robert D. Jamison Papers, TSL&A.

                        29, Pro-Confederate feminine militancy in Memphis


The following letter, addressed by Mrs. A. J. Donelson to Gen. Scott, appears in the Memphis Bulletin of May 19th:

"Memphis, April 29, 1861. General Scott: Dear Sir:-I address you not as a stranger. I was introduced to you in 1824, at the White House, by President Jackson, as "my niece, Miss Martin at Tennessee."  In 1835 I married Lewis Randolph, a grandson of President Jefferson. In 1838 he died; and in 1841 I married Major Andrew J. Donelson, whom you will remember. In 1851 I saw you frequently in Washington.

I write to you, General Scott, as the only man in the country who can arrest the civil war now began. When it was announced that 'General Scott had resigned,' a thrill of joy ran through the South, Dannon told the glad tidings, and my heart said "God bless him."  Now it is said, You never will fight under any other than the Star-Spangled-Banner."  We have loved the Union. But the Union is gone and forever, and I wept as each star left the field of blue and set in night (remainder of paragraph is missing from page)

They replied they had come down to "take them d—n Stars and Stripes."  She instantly drew a revolver from her side and presenting it, said, "Go on, I am good for one of you, and I think for both!"

"By the looks of that girl's eye, she'll shoot," one remarked. "I think we had better not try it; we'll go back and get more men and come take it down, if you dare!"

They returned with a company of ninety armed men and demanded that the flag should be taken down. But on discovering that the house was filled with gallant men, armed to the teeth, who would rather die as dearly as possible, than see their country's flag dishonored, the secessionists retired.

When our informant left Knoxville, the Stars and Stripes still floated to the breeze over Parson Brownlow's house. [2] [emphasis added] Long may they wave! Have another field of blue and soon our fifteen stars will shine upon our sight. The stripes are all that if left of the banner you have borne victoriously in many battles.

Of you I may ask it, but not the usurper and his Abolition band, who now desecrates the honored place ones filled by our Washington, Jefferson and Jackson-of General Scott I ask it-stop this war. Say to the North you shall not shed your brother's blood. The sons of Tennessee and the South have buckled on their armor, and are ready for the fight. We will fight the battle, every man, woman and child, to the last cent in our pockets, and the last drop of blood in our veins. [emphasis added] The North boasts of its strength. If this boast be well founded, it were [sic] cowardice to destroy the weak. But the race is not always to the swift, nor the battle to the strong. God will defend us when our husbands and sons go forth to repel the invaders of our homes, our rights and our soil. Then count the cost, Hero of Battles, and let after ages bless.

Elizabeth A. Donelson

Chicago Journal.

New Hampshire Sentinel, June 6, 1861.




            29, Repulse of Federals at Cumberland Gap

Reports of Maj.-Gen. E. Kirby Smith, C. S. Army, including orders for movement of troops.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., April 30, 1862.

The enemy attacked Cumberland Gap yesterday in force. I go to-day to re-enforce Gen. Stevenson with all my available troops. Yesterday the enemy attacked Gen. Leadbetter's command at Bridgeport. It was necessary to retreat, and the bridge there was burned by Gen. Leadbetter.

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

Gen. S. COOPER, Adjt. and Insp. Gen., Richmond, Va.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.

GEN.: The enemy has attacked at Cumberland Gap. Move with all your disposable force toward Jacksborough. I will overtake you to-night or to-morrow morning. You will withdraw all the cavalry, except one company at Clinton and Cobb's Ferry, respectively. Those remaining will be directed to keep up communication with this point, and also to communicate to you across the country any important intelligence. You will take with you, if practicable, six or seven days' rations, but be careful to have the wagons in condition to travel lightly. The troops should be without impediments and in fighting order. If the steamboat is at Clinton you will keep it there.

Respectfully, you obedient servant,

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.

GEN.: The major-general commanding has received your dispatch of the 28th instant, and direct me to inform me to inform you that he will move immediately with all his disposable force up Powell's Valley to your assistance. He will be to-morrow at Jacksborough.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.

Push on by forced marches toward Jacksborough and join Brig.-Gen. Barton. Leave a sufficient force at Kingston.

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

KNOXVILLE, TENN., April 30, 1862.

COL.: You will move your regiment immediately to the railroad depot, where a train awaits to transport it to the terminus of the Kentucky Railroad. From that point you will proceed to Clinton, Tenn., and report to Brig.-Gen. Barton.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

H. L. CLAY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

HDQRS., Fincastle, Tenn., May 3, 1862.

MAJ.: Since their repulse at Cumberland Gap, on the 29th ultimo, the enemy have made no demonstration at that point. My intelligence is that they are removing the obstructions in the Big Creek Gap road west of Fincastle.[3] With my effective force here (1,500) I shall operate through the mountain on their rear, which is beyond support from the main body at Cumberland Ford.

Small as my command at this point is, it is all the disposable force in the department, and was collected from every direction to co-operate with Gen. Stevenson at Cumberland Gap.

The Georgia regiments ordered to this department were weak when reported; they have since been so reduced by measles, mumps, and typhoid fever that they do not average an effective strength of 300. Besides their numerical weakness, they are disheartened by sickness and its effects. The troops lately raised in Tennessee are in the same condition. [emphasis added]  

When my intelligence became conclusive that the enemy were concentrating for an attack on Cumberland Gap, I telegraphed Gen. Marshall and asked his co-operation. He replied that his command, all told, did not number 1,000, and that he was inclined to doubt the accuracy of my information, having been so often deceived himself, &c. In its present condition I can expect no assistance from Gen. Marshall's command.

Whilst the people of East Tennessee believe my force to be large and effective, to the department alone have I exposed its weakness and inefficiency. [emphasis added]

I shall resist the enemy's entrance into East Tennessee with all the means at my disposal, but with the people in my midst enlisted against me, and with a force of at least four to one, more efficient and better equipped, it will be alone assistance from on High that enables us to maintain possession of the department.

In case of any irretrievable disaster, I have given instructions to the chiefs of departments for the quiet and speedy removal of all their stores.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. 1, pp. 75-77.

            29, Skirmish near Monterey at Adkin's House

Report of Brig. Gen. Patton Anderson, C. S. Army, of skirmish at Monterey, Tenn., April 29.

ADKIN'S HOUSE, ON MONTEREY ROAD, TENN., April 29, 1862--12.45 p. m.

MAJ.: A few minutes after my last note was written the cavalry which had been left and Monterey came dashing through my lines a little beyond this, reporting the enemy in hot pursuit in largely-superior cavalry force and infantry; not known how many. Most of Lieut.-Col. Kelly's command were halted and formed in front some 400 to 600 yards; many, however, passed through and have probably gone to Corinth. My dispositions had been made. A few precautions were, however, added. The artillery (three pieces Washington Artillery) was in the center of the right wing, sweeping the road. Our cavalry was soon fired upon by large squadrons, perhaps 500 men, and, returning the fire feebly, fell back. The enemy came in pursuit, and as soon as his columns were unmasked, as previously directed, Lieut. Vaught, commanding the artillery, opened upon the head of his column with canister and round shot and soon put the whole to flight, killing one or two and several horses. I had not the cavalry to pursue vigorously, but sent 50 men, under an officer, to follow on and learn where he had gone. They followed to within 1 mile of Monterey and report infantry and six pieces of artillery there.

Maj. Smith, commanding 150 mounted men, on his way from Corinth to Sand Hill, came up while the firing was going on and promptly reported to me for service. I ordered him to divide and form on my right and left and to send out small parties for observation, &c., all of which he promptly executed.

After the enemy's cavalry had retreated beyond the range of our artillery I ceased firing and occupied the position until half an hour ago, when I fell back through a boggy wood to this position, on the hill commanding Mr. Atkins' house.

I had expected the infantry and artillery to move up after the cavalry was repulsed; but waiting three hours for him, and finding this to be a better position, I crossed the creek near Adkins' and took the position I now occupy. I was much influenced in his move by a report which Lieut. Forrest, of Forrest's cavalry, made me after the repulse. He came, attracted by the firing, and reported the enemy moving up the Hamburg and Corinth road in a column of 10,000 infantry. He had been posted with 20 men on this road yesterday morning at a point near Babb's house. This morning he was driven in and cut off from his retreat to me and came back toward Corinth till he heard the firing and returned. If this information be true (and it concurs with former reports of scouts), it is important. That road (the Babb) intersects the Monterey and Corinth road 4½ miles this side of Corinth, at Shope's house.

The roads are in wretched condition. It is almost impossible to get our artillery through the mud with their weakened teams. A great deal of our cavalry cannot be got to make a stand from the same cause.

Lieut. Vaught and his men deserve much praise for the coolness, courage, and skill with which they handled their pieces. He was ably assisted by Lieut. Chalaron, who likewise displayed all the good qualities of an artillery officer. The infantry did not fire a volley, but stood coolly, ready to do so when ordered.

I would be pleased to receive any suggestions from the general commanding at all times in regard to my movements, and I shall endeavor to keep him informed of what I do.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

.-Gen., Cmdg. Outpost, &c.

P. S.-I have said one or two were killed, because the first officer who rode over the field reported to me two; one who subsequently examined said he could find but one.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 800-801.

            29, Skirmish at Monterey

Report of Brig. Gen. David S. Stanley, U. S. Army, of skirmish at Monterey, Tenn., April 29.

HDQRS. SECOND DIVISION, Army of the Mississippi, May 3, 1862.

MAJ.: I have the honor to report that as early as guides could be procured on the morning of the 29th of April I marched to attempt the surprise of the rebel force at Monterey and make a reconnaissance of the country. My force consisted of the First Brigade of my division, Col. John Groesbeck commanding; sixteen companies of cavalry, Col. W. L. Elliott commanding, with Dee's and Spoor's batteries. We met the first of the enemy's pickets 2 miles north of Monterey, and soon after learned that the enemy were probably retreating. In accordance with Col. Elliott's desire, I directed him to follow with the entire cavalry force at speed through their deserted camp and the village of Monterey. The cavalry fell upon the retreating enemy, scattering them and taking some 20 prisoners. Maj. Love, Second Iowa Cavalry, pushed on the main Corinth road at a run until crossing a small bridge over a creek he was fired on by a cross-fire of four pieces of artillery, not over 50 yards distant, shooting canister. He here lost 1 man killed and 4 wounded. As he found the creek impassable, excepting by the bridge, he returned to me for orders. Believing that the major-general's instructions and the nature of the case did not justify an attack in force upon the enemy's position, I marched my force back to camp. To Col. Elliott and the cavalry belong the credit of this little dash, and I am happy to bear testimony to their gallantry and readiness for service.

Inclosed please find reports of Col. Elliott and Maj. Love.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

D. S. STANLEY, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Second Division.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 799.

            29, Raid on the Mobile & Ohio Railroad near Bethel Station

No circumstantial reports filed.

            29, Special Orders, No. 15, for the arrest of Joseph C. Rye, Cashier of the Bank of Tennessee in Columbia, for treason

Head Quarters U. S. Forces

Columbia, Tenn. April 29, 1862

Special Order No. 15

Sir: Capt. Thos. H. Green, Provost Marshall, will immediately arrest Joseph C. Rye, Cashier of the Bank of Tennessee to answer to the charge of Treason against the Government of the United States.

Joseph C. Rye will be closely confined to his residence without any intercourse until he can be handed over to the military authorities at Nashville.

The Bank and all the Bank officials wherever situated will be placed in charge of Capt. Edward M. McGovern assisted by a guard.

By Command of Brig. Gen. Negley

Records of the Adjutant General's Office

            29, "BURN THE COTTON."

We published in our last issue the order of General Beauregard, urging upon the planters of the Mississippi valley the necessity and duty of burning all cotton that is in danger of falling into the hands of the enemy. We cordially unite with him in this injunction, and believe that the tried loyalty and patriotism of our people will be fully equal to the sacrifice. It is beyond all cavil or dispute the design of the Lincoln authorities to seize all of this staple which they can lay their hands on, in the name of their government, and subject it to confiscation. [emphasis added] They have invariably pursued this policy, since our soul was first polluted by their unhallowed footsteps. They will continue it, and it is now the privilege and the duty of our planted to defeat their dishonest and infamous designs. The only question is, shall our cotton be given to the flames with the certainly to being paid by the Confederate Government, or shall the enemy be allowed to seize and confiscated it to his own use and benefit without a farthing's compensation. If the military authorities burn it, very well. But where they do not, let the planters do so themselves. [sic] They are requested to keep an account of the number of bales destroyed, and compensation will be duly made by our authorities, when the necessity of the destruction is established, at the proper time. The "fires of patriotism" were soon blazing out from untold numbers of cotton bales upon the approach of the enemy to New Orleans. Let the white smoke be seen issuing from every town, village and plantation in the Mississippi valley, when the verdict of necessity shall demand it. This policy defeats the thieving design of the foe, and inflicts a blow upon him scarcely less powerful than the rout of his armies or the defeat of his arms. By all means let it be tried-and tried before it is too late. [sic].

Memphis Appeal, April 29, 1862

            29, Lack of confidence in The Confederacy expressed in Memphis; contingency from the Daily Appeal's evacuation announced

The APPEAL will continue to punctually be issued in Memphis so long as the city is in possession of the Confederate authorities. Should it, however, be occupied by the enemy, taking a lesson from the despotic suppression of the Nashville journals by ANDREW JOHNSON, we shall discontinue its publication, here and remove to some safe point in Mississippi, where we can express our true political sentiments, and still breath the pure and untainted atmosphere of Southern freedom. [emphasis added]  We cannot do such violence to our feelings as to submit to a censorship under LINCOLN'S hireling minions that would deprive us of the privilege of depressing at all times our earnest God-speed to the progress of Southern independence, and write and speak what we think. Sooner would we sink our types, press and establishment in the bottom of the Mississippi river, and be wanderers and exiles from our homes.

Memphis Appeal, April 29, 1862.

            29, Female entrepreneurs in Nashville

New Southern, Straw Hat and Bonnet Manufactory.

The People of Nashville and vicinity are informed that they can be supplied with Hats and Bonnets from the production of their own soil—no way inferior, if not surpassing any English importation or any handicraft of the Northern States. Also, that their old Hats and Bonnets, however much soiled and out of modern style, can be made to compete with new ones, in shape and finish, at very short notice, and on reasonable terms. Hats and Bonnets are colored and finished in superior style. [emphasis added]

Black lace Veils, &c., although reduced to an apparently worthless condition, may be restored to their primitive beauty in color and finish. Feathers colored white and red, and finished to equal new. All those who wish to see "old things pass away and all things become new" in the way of Hats, Bonnets, Lace, &c., will please call at No. 15½ Kirkman's Block, Summer street.

Mrs. Lloyd,

Mrs. C. C. Dow.

Nashville Dispatch, April 29, 1862.




            29, Reconnaissance and skirmish on the Chapel Hill Pike

APRIL 29, 1863.- Reconnaissance on the Chapel Hill Pike, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. John M. Schofield, U. S. Army, commanding Third Division, Fourteenth Army Corps.


COL.: I have the honor to report that I went to the front this morning with a brigade of infantry, one battery, a small cavalry force, and forage train, as far as Jordan's Store, on the Chapel Hill pike. We found and brought in an abundant supply of good forage. While the trains were loading, I went forward with about 200 cavalry to within about 4 miles of Chapel Hill. The enemy's picket was found at Rigg's Cross-Roads, and retired, skirmishing with our advance. One of the rebels is known to have been killed and several wounded. Three prisoners were taken. No loss on our side.

From conversation with negroes [sic] and citizens living within the rebel lines, I am satisfied there is no force in the vicinity of Chapel Hill, except about 500 or 600 cavalry, and that there has been no large force there recently. I failed to ascertain the whereabouts of the main body of the enemy's cavalry.

I am informed that there are three large flouring mills at and near Chapel Hill, which furnish large supplies to the rebel army. They can easily be destroyed, if it is deemed advisable. Whether or not, will, I presume, depend upon contemplated movements of our army. I will wait for instructions from the major-general commanding before making such an expedition.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. M. SCHOFIELD, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 326.


HDQRS. SECOND BRIGADE, MARTIN'S CAVALRY DIVISION, Unionville, Tenn., April 30, 1863--6 a. m.

Lieut.-Gen. Polk's Chief of Staff:

* * * *

Brig.-Gen. [Maj.-Gen.] Schofield commanded the expedition we drove back yesterday. It consisted of about 500 mounted men and some artillery. The latter was not brought into action, but fell back almost immediately to Triune.

* * * *

I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Col., Cmdg. Second Brigade, Martin's Division of Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 804.

            29, Request for funds to pay negro laborers working on Federal fortifications at Nashville

MURFREESBOROUGH, April 29, 1863--5.10 p. m.

(Received 8.40 p. m.) Maj. J. D. KURTZ,

Corps of Engineers, Assistant Chief Engineer:

The general commanding this department has expressed his wish that the negroes [sic] employed upon the fortifications at Nashville be paid wages, and so enabled to support their families. Their case being at present a very hard one, I respectfully ask your attention to the letter I wrote to the Department on this subject, I think in November last I will shortly prepare and forward estimate to put this matter in definite shape. At present the commanding general directs me to request you officially to give it your consideration. The chief difficulties are, of course, the obtaining the money and the doubt as to propriety of paying slave negroes [sic] of loyal and of rebel owners not present, or free negroes [sic] who cannot prove their being free. [emphasis added]

I remain, very respectfully, truly, your obedient servant,

J. ST. C. MORTON. Brig.-Gen., Chief Engineer, Army of the Cumberland.


The necessity for paying them is, that from want, say, nine-tenths have deserted, and I think justly. [emphasis added]

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 291-292.

            29, Confederate scouts, Woodbury to Liberty environs

NEAR WOODBURY, April 29, 1863--10 p. m.

Maj. D. G. REED, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., McMinnville:

MAJ.: This morning I sent two scouts, on different roads, in the direction of Liberty. They have both returned, and report the enemy moving in the direction of Murfreesborough, with the greater portion, if not all, of his forces. Their wagons were loaded with citizens, furniture, &c.

I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 802.

            29, Special Order [sic], No. 13: first salvo in the war against prostitution in

Office District Provost Marshal,

District of Memphis

Memphis, Tenn., April 29th, 1863

I.* * * * [sic] If, after ten days from the date of this order any house of ill fame, kept for the purpose of prostitution and lewdness, is discovered in this District, the inmates thereof will be arrested and sent North,[4] [emphasis added] and their household furniture reported to the Commanding Officer for confiscation.

II. Any officer or soldier of the United States Army, who in this District should so far forget the respectability and dignity of his position, as to appear in places of the above named character, except on official duty, will, upon discovery, be reported with his name, and regiment, to the Commanding General.

III. Masters of steamboats are prohibited from bringing to this District and landing, as passengers, "prostitutes" [sic] or women of disreputable character. A violation of this order will subject the offender to arrest and fine. [emphasis added]

The local Provost Marshals in this District will see that these orders are enforced.

MELANCTHON SMITH, Lieut. Col., and District Provost Marshal.


Headquarters District of Memphis

Memphis, Tenn., April 30th, 1863


By order of Brig. Gen J. C. Veatch.

F. W. FOX [sic], A. A. G.

Memphis Bulletin, May 1, 1863.

            29, "I rose up and fired one shot and fell back." J. M. Winn, Confederate soldier, to his wife in Robertson County

Camp 15 miles East [sic] of Carthage

April 29th, 1863

Dear Priscilla:

Learning that I have an opportunity of sending you a letter I proceed to write to you, hoping very cincearingly [sic] that it may reach you in safety & find you well and doing well. These lines leave me in fine health & the boys are all well so far as I know, (of our Reg[iment].)

Thos. R. Mason I learn is getting well of his wound. I haven't been in but one battle since I came out this time, that was at Snows Hill near Smithville. I leigh [sic] under the Enemies' [sic] fire about ½ an hour, was then ordered to retreat. I rose up and fired one shot and fell back. Our company lost Lieutenant Ashbrook, wounded in the head he is getting well.

Puss I hardly know how to write for I wrote you a letter soon after I cam[e] through and started it by a man that said he was going through. Some of the boys say that he didn't go. This is the only chance that I have of sending a letter to you. I have been anxious to write all the time. I am very glad that I have this opportunity.

Puss, I expect when I hear from you, to hear that you have been confined, I hope as at any rate and hope that you[r] man have had an easy time of it. That you have brought forth[5] & that you both are doing well.

The boys see a tolerable hard time, everything is high out here. Corn is worth $10. per lb., Bacon from 25 to 35 cts. per lb. Horses are worth from 100 to 800 Dollars.

Write soon, write how you are & how you have been all the time, and if you have anything there say what it is and its name. Give all the particulars.

Winds of Change, p. 57.

            29, Report on successful Federal feint in Middle Tennessee[6]

FRANKLIN, April 30, 1863--9.20 a. m.


The rebel advance turned out as I predicted. It was their ox that was gored by our bull. [emphasis added] They were sure that we were advancing on them, and moved their stores and baggage back 20 miles behind Shelbyville. Forrest went to Florence and Decatur. All quiet in front. Rebels mighty vigilant and mad since our last rampage.

G. GRANGER. Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 295-296.




            29, Skirmish in Berry[7] County Tennessee

No circumstantial reports filed.

            29, Spies in McMinnville, excerpt from a letter by John L. Spurlock in Nashville to his wife Lou in McMinnville

Nashville 29th April 1864

Dear Lou,

I had intended to start home in the morning but find myself disappointed. I expected to dispense of some business this morning but the court refused to take it consequence of the of the judges. I will leave here next Saturday morning on the omnibus will go [sic] on it to Murfreesboro, where I will have to make some other arrangements to get from there up home [i.e. McMinnville]. I do not know how I will do....James Robison passed through here a few days ago on his way to Alton, Illinois. He was entrapped by a federal spy who was at McMinnville pretending to be a confederate soldier or something of the kind. I understand there are others involved in & about McMinnville and that was for their arrest have been ____[?]______ this you must not speak of for I do not intend to knowingly or unintentionally be mixed up in any of their difficulties. Tell father to tell Jim to keep his tongue in his teeth. I do not suppose he has any aspirations to do otherwise, but you know the influences that surround him. In addition every artifice is restored to entrap & ensnare by some unworthy [person?] [those] who basely seek by that means to curry favor with the federal [sic] authorities. By them [strictest construction?] will be place on language immoderately use. I do hope & trust my friends will be prudent, if they are not inevitable ruin awaits them. [emphasis added]

* * * *

John L. Spurlock

Bentley Papers, TSL&A

            29, Skirmish in Shelby County, Dick Davis' Guerrillas ambush Federal scouting party at Pigeon Roost crossing[8]

….the Gurrilla's [sic] ambushed a scouting party of fourteen, at Pigeon Rooste crossing on yesterday, killing the Yankee's three horses-wounding two Yanks and capturing three and one horse, only six out of the crowd got back to Memphis- [emphasis added]they are very much exasperated-the lines have been closed since, and that may have detained the girls-hurrah! for the Dick Davis and his band-I hope they may break into this thieving band of Yanks roving over the Country-both of Helen's little pups died today-

God bless our armies and give us success –

Diary of Belle Edmondson, April 30, 1864

            29, Special Orders No. 4, Instructions for Provost Marshals in the Department and Army of Tennessee


No. 3. OFFICE PROVOST-MARSHAL-GEN., Huntsville, Ala., April 29, 1864.

In accordance with General Orders, No. 4, headquarters Department and Army of the Tennessee, April, 1864, the following instructions are published for the guidance of provost-marshals:

Provost-marshals in this department will be divided into two classes: First, those serving with troops in the field as provost-marshals of corps and divisions; second, those serving at posts or in geographical districts.

The first class are staff officers of the generals commanding their corps and divisions, and accompany the movement of the troops of the several commands to which they belong. When in the field their duties are confined principally to the custody and disposition of prisoners of war and citizens suspected of giving information to the enemy or of other crimes, and to the enforcing of order in such towns as the troops may pass through or be encamped near during the march.

Any property seized by a provost-marshal while on the march, and needed for the use of the army, will at once be turned over to the proper officer entitled to receive the same, as the quartermaster, commissary, ordnance officer, &c., and all other property not belonging to any military department, and which circumstances render it impracticable to turn over to the Treasury agent, will be destroyed or disposed of as the commanding general may direct.

When permanently in camp they are required to enforce the military laws, maintain order in and around their camps, and to perform such other duties of a kindred nature as their commanding officer may direct.

The second class are appointed by the provost-marshal-general, with the approval of the general commanding the department, and will not be considered as upon the staff of the post or district commanders. Their position will not be affected by any change that may occur in such commanders. They will attend to such duties as are usually performed by the magistrates and civil officers of towns, as far as consistent with the military occupation of a place; grant licenses for carrying on such traces and occupations as the post or district commander may decide to establish; maintain order, quiet, and cleanliness; punish those guilty of vice and crime; try all citizens guilty of violation of orders; inflict fines or order imprisonment as the nature of the case may require; decide all cases of dispute as to personal property or question of right arising among citizens; arrest and punish all parties engaged in giving information to the enemy, in smuggling or carrying on illicit trade of any kind; seize and confiscate all goods belonging to such parties; receive and forward to the proper camps prisoners of war; hold in custody other prisoners awaiting trial; dispose of deserters and refugees in accordance with existing orders; give permits to soldiers and citizens to pass from the post, under such restrictions as the post commander or superior headquarters may impose, and enforce such orders as the post or district commander may find it necessary to issue. When prisoners are arrested whose crimes are punishable by long imprisonment or death their cases will be referred to a military commission for trial.

Provost-marshals will make application to post or district commanders for the necessary officers and men to enable them to perform the duties required of them.

By order of Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson:

JAMES WILSON, Lieut.-Col. and Provost-Marshal-Gen.


Reports will be made on the 15th and last day of each month.


Provost-marshal of corps will cause the assistants in their several divisions to make to them true and correct reports of all prisoners of war captured, and to furnish rolls properly made out in alphabetical order, due succession of rank, with company, regiment, when, where, and by whom captured, and in the last column such remarks as may be necessary, stating the disposition made of the prisoners.

These rolls will be made out on the blanks furnished by the Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners. If there are no blanks on hand, then foolsap sheets will be used, opened out and ruled to cover the entire sheets when opened.

When it is not practicable to forward the prisoners North, directly to a camp established for rebel prisoners, they will be sent to the nearest post and placed in charge of the local provost-marshal there, who will consolidate all rolls of prisoners and forward the prisoners to the proper camps under charge of a sufficient guard. The officer placed in charge of the prisoners in transit to such camps will be furnished with two rolls, one of which will be turned over with his prisoners, and the other, when receipted by the officer in command of the camp, will be returned to the provost-marshal who forwarded the prisoners. A full record will be kept of the prisoners thus turned over, and the receipted roll will then be forwarded direct to the Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners at Washington, D. C., with a letter of transmittal, a copy of which will be kept on file.

Officers in charge of prisoners en route to the camps in the North will received written instructions as to what is required of them, and they must be particularly directed to note all changes that may occur among their prisoners until they are turned over; if any die, are left sick in hospital, or escape, the fact must be noted in the column of remarks opposite their names.

When prisoners of war are forwarded from one post to another, a note will be made on the rolls that accompany them that "no copy has been sent to the Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners," and it shall be the duty of the provost-marshal having them in charge last, previous to sending them to the camp for rebel prisoners, to forward the rolls to Washington, and he will be held accountable for any omission. A copy of the roll of prisoners as forwarded to the Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners, with the alterations noted on it, will be sent to this office. No other rolls of prisoners will be required here, but in the letter of transmittal accompanying the semi-monthly reports the number of prisoners passing through their offices will be stated.


The oath of allegiance will be administrated to all deserters from the rebel army as soon as they have been examined by the commander of the division or detached brigade nearest to place of surrender. They will not be permitted to run at large near the lines, but when practicable will be forwarded North, or may be employed in the rear of our lines in the quartermaster or engineer departments as provided for by Gen. Orders, No. 10, headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi, December 12, 1863. Particular attention is called to this order and to General Orders, No. 64, War Department, present series, as covering the whole subject of the disposition to be made of deserters.

Rolls of deserters[9] will be forwarded to this office with the usual semi-monthly reports; in the column of remarks must be stated what disposition was made of the men.


A correct report must be made of all property seized, which will be headed, "Semi-monthly report of property seized by ------- -------, provost-marshal of --, from the ---day of ---to the ---day of ----," and columns as follows: Date, number or quantity, articles, number or marks, weight, from whom seized, why seized, condition, disposition; and the report must be dated at the time of making out the same and signed officially.

All property abandoned, captured, confiscated as belonging to disloyal persons, or seized under military orders, which shall come into possession of any provost-marshal, shall be turned over to the agent of the Treasury Department, excepting arms, munitions of war, forage, horses, mules, wagons, beef-cattle, and supplies which are necessary in military operations, which shall be turned over to the proper officers of the ordnance, or of the quartermaster, or of the commissary departments, respectively, for the use of the army.

When the property is turned over it will be invoiced to the officer receiving it and receipts taken in duplicate, one of which will accompany the report as a voucher.

The attention of provost-marshal is especially called to the Treasury regulations and to General Orders, No. 88, War Department, March 31, 1863, with the requirements of which they will strictly comply.


Money received by local provost-marshals for fines, licenses, &c., will be accounted for semi-monthly. The report will be headed, "Report of cash received by -------- --------, provost-marshal of --------, from the -------- day of ---------- to the --day of ---," and will contain columns headed as follows: Date, from whom received, for what, by whose order, remarks; and in addition a regular cash account will be forwarded. The balance on hand from last accounts will be brought forward. All payments will be accounted for particularly, and duplicated receipts taken for all expenditures, one of which will be forwarded with the account as a voucher. A balance will be struck showing the amount on hand at the date of the report. These balances, when exceeding $100, will be forwarded by local provost-marshals to the district provost-marshal, who will, after making up his accounts and reports, forward the balance on hand to the provost-marshal-general Department of the Tennessee by express. When there is no district provost-marshal the reports and balances will be forwarded directly to this office.

All Confederate money captured will be reported and forwarded separately, and a statement will be made of all the circumstances connected with the seizure, and if any has been paid out state why or by whose order. Confederate money seized is ordered to be reported and sent to the Adjutant-Gen. of the Army, and provost-marshals will be particular to forward all information referring to such seizure, so the order can be fully complied with at this office.

The necessary expenses of local and district offices will be paid out of the funds collected. Whatever is required for the full and complete working of the office will be obtained, but no unnecessary or lavish expenditure will be allowed.

Provost-marshals will use great caution in the employment of detectives. Many abuses have crept into the provost-marshal's department from the employment of worthless and dishonest men. When any such can be convicted of improper conduct, of compromising with persons guilty of violating orders, or concealing or withholding information that may come in their possession, of accepting bribes, or of any other offense, they will be at once arrested and punished by the provost-marshal, or their cases will be brought before a military commission for trial, and they must not be merely sent out of the department, as is too frequently the case. [emphasis added]

Citizens must not be employed as clerks when it is possible to obtained enlisted men. If it is absolutely necessary to hire clerks, preference will be given to soldiers honorably discharged from the service.

General Orders, No. 4, headquarters Department of the Tennessee, April 19, 1864, designate what moneys properly belong to the provost-marshal fund.


In administering the oath of allegiance (as embodied in the President's proclamation of March 26, 1864) to refugees and others, the blanks that have been distributed for that purpose will be used whenever practicable; when such blanks are not on hand, the oath will be written out on the top of a sheet of foolscap, commencing, "We, the undersigned, do solemnly swear," &c., and columns will be ruled, headed date, name, residence; this will be signed by the persons taking the oath, and when the sheet is filled the officer will certify on it that the oath was administered to the parties by him on the date opposite to their names. These lists will be forwarded directly to the Department of State, Washington, with a letter of transmittal.

Persons taking the oath will be furnished with a certificate, and a record will be kept in the office.

A statement of the number of oaths administered will be made to this office at the time of making the usual reports and for the time covered by the reports.

JAMES WILSON, Lieut. Col. and Provost-Marshal-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, pp. 537-541.

            29, Special Orders, No. 120, expulsion of sutlers from the army in the field in East Tennessee


Knoxville, Tenn., April 29, 1864.

I. Until further orders, no sutlers will be allowed with the troops in the field. Division commanders will see that all sutlers with the army in the field are sent to the rear at once.

* * * *

By command of Maj.-Gen. Schofield:

R. MORROW, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 541.

            29, "…subject to bushwhacking  rule…." An entry from the Diary of Eliza Rhea Anderson Fain

Night before last [27th Tuesday] a few minutes before one o'clock I was aroused I suppose by the barking of the dogs. I listened very attentively when one of the dogs make a noise like someone has struck it. I felt alarmed but did not get up A few moments afterward the report of a gun fell upon my ear. My heart rose within me. My first thought was bushwhackers at Sarah's are killing some of our men or being killed. I was soon out of my bed and awakened my praying child. In a short time the report of another gun reached us; we went upstairs to look and see if we could what was going on. We then came back to my room. I dressed myself and with earnest prayer prepared to meet what I felt would soon be our terrible fate, subject to bushwhacking rule, every moment for at least half an hour was one of intense feeling and one of prayer that my father would be a shield of fire by night round about us. Sallie lay down and as did I after awhile; but not to sleep. Sallie, Fannie and Nannie with myself were awake until after three.

This evening I learned the cause of our great alarm. Four [Union] bushwhackers went to Mr. Sensabaugh's and demanded two rebel soldiers who had gone there to stay all night. Mr. Sensabaugh roused the men up, they came down and gave themselves up. They tied them and brought them down the road as far as the lane between Mr. Netherlands and brother Hiram, here they began their murderous work. They had left their horses there and walked to Mr. S's. The names of the two soldiers were Corriger and Southern. Corriger made his escape but Southern fell a victim to their wrath. Two of the bushwhackers left to go in search of a mule. Our men I suppose made some resistance and perhaps were gaining some advantage over the two when one of them knocked Corriger down with a gun. Southern started to run, they took after him and Corriger made his escape getting on his own horse. Southern would also have gotten away but the other two coming up at the time stopped him. They beat him with a pistol on the head bruising him so badly. They also stabbed him and then took him to Mr. Pryors and left telling Mr. P., so I understand, that he must send for a doctor and have him taken care of. If he failed to do it they would come and serve him in the same way.

A scout of some 20 of our men came down on Thursday [28th]. Cousin Bay and Stevens came by and took some supper with us. They intending going over the river but did not, I suppose, why I cannot tell. They took Mr. Southern with them on Friday [29th]. We were so rejoiced to see and know our men were coming back.

Fain Diary.




            29, Continuation of Guerrilla Activities near Mulberry Gap

RUTLEDGE, TENN., April 29, 1865.

Maj.-Gen. STONEMAN, Cmdg. District of East Tennessee:

GEN.: I have the honor to report all quiet as far as my scouts have reached. I hear of guerrillas committing some depredations near Mulberry Gap. I don't think they will remain there. The citizens here express a desire for this place to be permanently garrisoned until the guerrillas are entirely destroyed. [emphasis added] We should like very much to have some small rations here; salt, especially, is very much needed. The men are in good health. If I had all my sick here from Cantonment Springs and Knoxville they would do much better than there.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

J. W. HARRINGTON, Capt. Company G, Ninth Tennessee Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 519-520.

            29, Returning Confederate soldiers required to take the oath of allegiance in East Tennessee

CHATTANOOGA, April 29, 1865.

Brig. Gen. W. D. WHIPPLE, Chief of Staff:

There are large numbers of paroled rebel soldiers from Lee's army and Forrest's here and coming into our lines at all points, who are utterly destitute, and who will inevitably be driven to stealing and robbery, if not bushwhacking, unless they can be permitted to go to their homes or be provided for in some manner. What shall I do with them?



KNOXVILLE, April 29, 1865--12.55 p. m.

Maj.-Gen. THOMAS:

Your telegram received. Numbers of men have come into East Tennessee with authority from Gen. Grant to go to their homes, which are in East Tennessee. Do your instructions include such persons; and if so, shall they be sent without the limits of the State? There are others whose homes are in Georgia, Alabama, and the other Southern States. They are penniless and without food, and must live by begging or stealing. Can I issue such persons a limited amount of rations and send them by rail to Dalton and get rid of them; also obnoxious and troublesome characters?

GEO. STONEMAN, Maj.-Gen. of Volunteers, Cmdg.



Maj.-Gen. STONEMAN, Knoxville:

By decision of the Attorney-Gen., no Confederate is entitled to come into a loyal State on his parole. He will have to take the oath of allegiance to the United States to enable him to remain. You are authorized to give a limited amount of subsistence to such rebel soldiers who have to pass through East Tennessee to get to Georgia and Alabama. They must not be allowed to stop on the way.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army, Cmdg.

Send the above to Gen. Steedman and Gen. R. S. Granger entire. Send the first sentence to Gen. Washburn.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 518-519.








[1] On the 6th of May 1861, the legislature of Tennessee passed an act of secession, subject to a vote of the people on June 8 following; and on the 7th of May 1861, it ratified a military league, offensive and defensive, between the State and the Confederate States. On June 8, 1861, the vote to secede was confirmed by a majority of voters in the Volunteer State.

[2] See also Daily Advocate [Baton Rouge], May 24, 1861, and New Hampshire Sentinel,  June 15, 1861, The Scioto Gazette, (Chillicothe, OH) November 26, 1861, New York Herald, November 26, 1861. for other printings of this story line, which was popular in newspapers and popular literature of the time.  This narrative of was told later and with Parson Brownlow's daughter defending the flag, as told in Major W. D. Reynolds play, Miss Martha Brownlow; or the Heroine of Tennessee-a truthful and graphic account of the many perils and privations endured by Miss Martha Brownlow, the lovely and accomplished daughter of the celebrated Parson Brownlow, during her residence with her father in Knoxville (1864).

[3] Fincastle is a census-designated place and unincorporated community in Campbell County,Tennessee, United States. Its population was 1,618 as of the 2010 census.

[4]A similar action would take place in Nashville in early July 1863. The tactic of mass expulsion of prostitutes worked in neither city, leading to a martial-management strategy characterized by a system of liscenced prostitution and medical inspection, established in Nashville in the summer of 1863 and in Memphis in the fall of 1864. See: James B. Jones, Jr., "A Tale of Two Cities:  The Hidden Battle Against Venereal Disease in Civil War Nashville and Memphis Tennessee," Civil War History, XXXI, No. 3 (September 1985).

[5] That is, given birth.

[6] This is apparently the only document to speak to this particular event which may have taken place on the 29th.

[7] OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 6. This was most likely Perry County; even so, the OR offers no further clues because there was no circumstantial report submitted for this skirmish which could help better correct the error. Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee also references a skirmish at Berry County. It is likewise referenced in OR General Index, Vol. I, p. 73.

[8] This event is not listed in the OR or Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

[9] These rolls are not known to be extant.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Editor, The Courier

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX