Monday, April 4, 2016

Notes from Civil War Tennessee, April 2, 1861-1865

Notes from Civil War Tennessee,

April 2, 1861-1865




2, Obituary for Uncle Sam; a pro-secession argument in Memphis


Died, on the 4th of March, 1861., UNCLE SAM, in the 85th year of his age.

In chronicling the demise of Uncle Sam, we do so with a mixed emotion of sorrow and joy. His death was anticipated for some years, having fallen a victim to an "irrepressible conflict" disease, which combated successfully and rendered ineffectual the expert skill of the most learned Sewardite and prominent physicians of the day, and after a long, protracted suffering, lingering in its progress with a slow, certain and unavoidable end, he departed this life on the day and year named above, leaving behind many to mourn this sad bereavement and others experiencing gratification who desired the agonizing and excruciating pains he endured to cease and be no more.

As he lived, he died, beloved and respected by all nations. We shall, perhaps, never look upon his like again. As a model for example, no copy is now extant and none ordered. His life was frought with many eventful scenes, and the multitudinous vicissitudes through which he struggled and rendered glorious, characterized his indomitable will, honesty and bravery.

Born on the 4th of July, 1776, the last century was signalized by his unprecedented advent, and as the legitimate offspring of the independence of America, his birth was hailed by freedom as a wonderful epoch in the history of the world. His terrestrial career advancing, it became evidently important that a generalisimo was required, and should be employed to superintend and guard his household affairs. George, of revolutionary fame, having established a good character, and being strongly recommended by letters of an innumerable number of brave hearts, was the chosen one. Tradition says he made an excellent and very trustworthy functionary, gained the admiration and confidence of his employer and the respect of all of his obedient servants.

Then when George's term expired, John, Tom, James, Quincy, James the second, Andrew, Martin, William, Henry, John the Second, James the third, Zachariah, Millard and Frank, were employed successively in rotation, and are said to have given partial satisfaction in ruling moderately well over the servants, and conducting the affairs of the White House with a discretion remarkable and peculiar in the times and circumstances. During the latter part of these Administrations however, Uncle Sam, laboring under the debilitating influences of the "irrepressible" contagion prevalent, was confined to his department, private, and being unable, therefore, to give an undivided attention to the things of his Government, advantages were taken, powers usurped, and all matters appertaining to nationality administered by reckless employees, with a keen, discriminating eye toward personal aggrandizement.

At this juncture James, surnamed Buchanan, was called in to preside. Powers extraordinary and plenipotentiary were extended to him, and being an old horse in the harness, he very soon wrought the same privileges enjoyed by his immediate predecessors, into advantages which led him and subordinates to adopt the grab game, and before his term transpired, managed to oust from the treasury all of its contents, and created a debt inconsistent with legal expenditure, precedent and expectation, consisting of nearly one hundred millions to be liquidated by Uncle Sam's dilapidated, disintegrated and moneyless federalism.

It is conjectured, and believed by some who have not thought much upon the subject, and have had less opportunities whereby to form a proper opinion, that this dissolute, corrupt and jealous disposition made manifest in the administration of governmental affairs was the immediate cause of Uncle Sam's demise; but, as investigating committee of thirty-three, representing all parts of the public domain concerned, having been appointed, and detailed to examine into and ferret out the true circumstances surrounding this predicted event, and report the causes which tended to produce such an unhappy result, met in judgment and pronounced as follows: Whereas Uncle Sam had discovered that, during his physical derangement and lamentable sickness, many of his powers were misused, and immunities, never granted constitutionally, were employed by his employees to abuse and subvert the ends of his Government; and, whereas, his union of States was now in a manner disrupted, it became important and absolutely necessary to elect another presiding officer, more trustworthy and faithful in the discharge of incumbent duties, enforcement and execution of his laws. Hence numerous applications were made, and through the counseling of leading and influential contemporaries, conventionally, Stephen, John, John C., and "honest old Abe," received the nominations, and went forth upon the campaign, canvassing for an election to this high, distinguished and responsible position.

Strong recommendations were voted each, but as a greater number appeared, testifying to the sobriety, capacity, and integrity of "Honest Old Abe," his claims were favorably and duly considered. Uncle Sam, however, had never seen him but once, and then casually, while the other candidates were familiar acquaintances, and knowing them well, was cognizant of their many faults. In view of these facts, especially after learning that very impressive, popular, and inviting handle to his name, through the tantalizing importunities of supposed friends, Uncle Sam concluded to select Honest Old Abe. Therefore, a dispatch was forwarded to Springfield, his place of abode, requiring him to repair immediately to the White House at Washington. According to order, "Honest Old Abe," after having delivered himself of the ignorant and insignificant phrase, indicative of his unsound calibre, "No one is hurt," at the time and place designated, arrived to assume the new duties assigned. The moment Uncle Sam beheld him, he was startled, aggravated, and horrified at this emaciated, imbecile, and aboliltionized countenance, and was heard to exclaim: "He is not the right man, in the right place, the handle to his name is a ruse, I am deceived, mortified, and ruined forever." Thus as Uncle Sam's mental and physical ability was already nearly destroyed by the "irrepressible conflict disease," he could not withstand this sudden deception, and mortal shock, so falling prostrate, died.

Let his memory be revered as a monument to self-government, and the star-spangled banner remodeled to comport with the exigencies of the times, as a shibboleth of his glory to enshrine in the hearts of all.

It may be interesting to state that there was found among the archives of Uncle Sam's office, his last will and testament, bequeathing all of his earthly effects, both personal and real or mixed, to be equally divided between his two surviving heirs—the Northern and Southern Confederation.

The will is now being probated and the executors will administer in due time. No apprehensions, therefore, need be had in regard to continued difficulties arising between the legatees, as the property involved must be distributed according to the law of the will. So be it.

Louis Gaznog.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 2, 1861.




          2, "So I say and until it gets too hot. I am living pretty well." Excerpts from the letter of Captain Gershom M. Barber, in Murfreesboro, to his wife Hulda Lovina

Headquarters 1st Battalion O.V.S.S

Murfreesboro Tenn. April 2, 1862

My Dear Wife.

….The weather is spring like. The fields would be green if there were any fields here. But there are none for miles in every direction not our rail can be found on top of another and not a green thing within reach of a mile. Yesterday and last night our division of the Army went out toward Carthage taking with them pontoons….They expected a brush with the enemy. This afternoon heavy firing has been heard in the direction and I suppose they are doing some work. Companies have been passing and repassing to head quarters rapidly all this PM and a battery went out to reinforce them. We have heard no results yet. I have received three papers you have sent me. I sent you a Nashville Union today. The general impression is that the enemy is marching his forces at Chattanooga 119 miles South East of us and that the great battle of the war will be fought there or here. My opinion is a forward movement will soon be made but not to Chattanooga. Most of the Rebs [sic] have been ordered to turn over their extra teams and luggage and tents and drawn shelter tents. By the way the boys call the shelter tents "day tents" They are comprised of two pieces of canvas any left about the size of a rubber blanket. Each man takes a piece on his back and when they bivouac they pull the two together and stretch them over a pole or a grine [sic] and creep under it for they can not stand up in them we have not received such orders yet but probably shall. Officers will be allowed one wall tent to (3.). Our Berea boys are very well. Sergeant Watson appears quite well although he was poorly for a while Lieutenant Stearns messes with us[1], that is myself and my company officers and tents with Lt. Pickard. He is some unwell today but is better tonight nothing but sick headache he thinks….We are still at work on the fortifications. There is at least two months work laid out on the fortifications and when completed all the rebels this side of Richmond could not take it by assault. And we now have six months provisions on hand. I suppose the Rebs [sic] have intended to wait until the Cumberland runs low and then cut off the Somerville Rail Road and starve us out. But old Rosy is to many for them then are is less then a month at the present rate we will have a year supply ahead.

I think my boy George[2] will go back soon. He is not much help to me and a good deal of trouble and expense. I have taken first rate care of him and had him sleep in my bed. By the way would you like to know the content of my room office, house or tent as you may please to call it? It is about eight feet square. Wall high enough so that I can stand erect in almost any part of it. With a good fly to shed rain and sun. In the south west corner I have an old fashioned fire place with the chimney in Free Southern Style built out side all of the brick taken of course from a confiscated reb [sic] house in the north side and to the right of the fireplace is my bed which is quite aristoctive [sic] here in camp. Large enough to make two persons very comfortable. (I wish I could choose my bedfellows) For my bed which is in good style French trundle bed style. I paid $3.25 and got a tick filled with straw army blankets make up the covering…. Coat vest and pants sometimes added back of the bed on the cross beam hangs my sword, pistol and over my head supported by the two upright posts of the tent hang the battalions colors which by military custom can only be taken out by the hands of the battalion commander. On the east side of the room are eight thousand rounds of cartridges ready for use when jeff d [sic] or any of his rebs [sic] see fit to call for them. On the south side and east of the center is the door or entrance which consists in a slit up the middle of the tent. East of that is my desk at which I am writing which by the way is made of whitewood, real poplar and handsomely trimmed withy mahogany. Containing pigeon holes book sides and…must have cost originally not less than forty dollars. All of which I purchased at the grass roots price of one dollar and fifty cents. It too was the property of a Reb [sic]. Besides my desk on a stick supported by crutches drove in the ground hangs my saddle and accouterments. My arrangements for sitting consist of ten good split bottomed chairs for which I paid forty cents. This constitutes the whole of household goods a pretty good setting out given will stay for a soldier. So I say and until it gets too hot. I am living pretty well. That is if I can get enough to eat. But of that I will write again…

…I am yours GM.

Civil War Letters Between Gershom M. & Huldah Lovina Barber[3]

          2, News update from the City of Rocks

Late News from Nashville.

A letter received here by a gentleman (a refugee) from his mother, now in Nashville, has been kindly placed at our disposal. From it we are permitted to make the subjoined extracts, as being interesting to our readers, and which may be given without perpetrating "an outrage," or doing that which sensitive, envious, overwhelming vanity may magnify into being "akin to treason." The letter also contains other matter, which it would be gratifying to the public to be made acquainted with, but having a higher sense of propriety than to "hold that no harm can come of publishing everything that the press can get hold of," we withhold it. The letter is dated at Nashville, March 17th, and writer says:

"We have exciting times here, the Yankees being as numerous as flies in summer time; the river is perfectly alive with boats and ferry boats, and the Yankees pushing everything with desperate energy. The troops that have passed through here could hardly be counted, and there seems to be no end to the trains of artillery and canon. Even while I am writing four cannon are passing with ten horses to each one. Army wagons are also passing continually, and there are hundreds of sick soldiers coming in every day. All other business except that in which the Yankees are engaged is at a perfect stand still. They are busily employed in repairing the Chattanooga railroad, and have an engine running on it.

"A good many deserters are coming every day, and have taken the oath of allegiance, some of them from Hawkins' company. Our old acquaintances J____and Ben_____ have both together deserted and the latter has joined the 15th Ohio regiment.

"The enemy has been encamped about three miles from the city but have advanced to Murfreesboro. Skirmish is going on to a considerable event every night, but with what results I cannot tell. On Friday morning we heard the firing quite plain from which I think the skirmishing was very heavy. Our boys are on the alert, and will keep them busy protecting the exposed points.

"Andy Johnson arrived in town last week, and will be our future Governor. I hear that he is going to call out the militia. Dr. Harris has left us. [Dr. Harris was the Episcopal minister Ed. Com.] He was arrested last Sunday a week ago, and told that he must pray of the President of the United States, and no other, on peril of his life. He said he would suffer death first, so he is gone. All the churches are closed. We have heard that the southerners are pressing men into service, but I hope you may not be compelled to go. My kind love and blessing to you.

Your affectionate mother." Atlanta Commonwealth.

Memphis Daily Appeal, April 2, 1862. [4]

          2, Arrest of Prominent Confederate Civilians in Nashville; Treason and the Oath

Arrests in Nashville.-Last Saturday the Messrs. Brennan, of this city, were arrested by Colonel Matthews, Provost Marshal, and paroled until ten o'clock yesterday morning, when they were again paroled till noon to-day.

Sunday R. B. Cheatham, Esq. Mayor of this city, was arrested and paroled at 12 M. yesterday. He appeared at that hour, and his parole was extended till 12 to-day.

Yesterday Messrs. Shard & Hamilton, of the Nashville Plough Manufactory, were also arrested and put under bonds of $3,000 for their appearance. The charge against these gentlemen is treason.

The Messrs. Brennan, iron founders, are said to have manufactured cannon, shells, and balls for the Confederate States, and upon this, we believe, the charge against them is founded.

Aiding and abetting the enemy-that is, the Confederate States-is the basis for the charge against the Mayor.

Messrs. Sharp & Hamilton, it is reported, instead of turning "swords into plough-shares," converted plough-shares into swords and knives for the Confederates, and thus made themselves amenable to the charge of treason against the United States.

We presume these cases will be handed over to the civil authorities, as we learn a session of the Federal court will soon be held in Nashville.

Nashville Banner, April 1st.

The Nashville Bulletin on Tuesday says in this connect ion that Councilman Wm. Shane has taken the oath of allegiance, as required by Gov. Johnson, and it was reported on the streets that Alderman Wm. S. Cheatham had taken the oath. The following policemen have also taken the oath: John Baugh, Captain John Davis, Wm. Jackson, Wm. Mayor, Joel Philips, N. Davis, John Cavender, Wm. Yarborough, and A. C. Tuckers, of the regular police, and John Joice, Robert Scott, and Wm. Francis, of the assistant police.

Louisville Daily Journal, April 2, 1862. [5]




          2, Skirmish on the Carter Creek Pike

APRIL 2, 1863.-Skirmish on the Carter Creek Pike, Tenn.

Report of Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army.

FRANKLIN, April 2, 1863.

GEN.: Our cavalry made a small haul to-day; two lieutenants, 8 prisoners, and killed 1 captain and private.

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 206.

          2, Guerrilla attack on U. S. ships at Palmyra

NASHVILLE, April 3, 1863.

Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:

Col. Boone telegraphs from Clarksville as follows:

The fleet gunboat St. Clair, and transports Eclipse, Luminary, and Lizzie Martin were fired into at Palmyra. Gunboat and Luminary perhaps taken. The Eclipse arrived here disabled; reports the advance of rebels on this place. We will hold until re-enforced.


NASHVILLE, April 3, 1863.

Gen. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:

I have just received the following dispatch from Clarksville:

Scouts report the gunboat and Luminary escaped capture. The rebels are at Palmyra in force; have there a rifled 6 and smooth 12 pounder, and other caliber not ascertained. We must have the siege guns ordered for this post. Send them at once.


I have ordered the siege guns down.

ROBT. B. MITCHELL, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

APRIL 3, 1863.

Maj.-Gen. GRANGER, Franklin:

The fleet was attacked at Palmyra last night by the rebels, who had six pieces of artillery.

* * * *

There seems to be a considerable force at Palmyra.

J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 205.[6]


Report of J.S. Hurd, Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, commanding gunboat St. Clair, relating to the attack on ships under his convoy at Palmyra, April 2, 1863

U. S. S. St. Clair, Off Smithland, KY., April 4, 1863


I have the honor to report in compliance with Captain Pennock's order...I...arrived at Fort Donelson at 1 o'clock p. m. 1st instant (April) found transports awaiting convoy; proceeded up the river....9 o'clock a. m. 2d instant, arrived at Gower's Island, above which I did not apprehend any danger. I headed downstream to convoy (to Nashville) other transports and towboats due from below.

My reason for doing this was there were two barges loaded with coal being towed up the river which were drawing 7½ feet water. There was water enough on the shoals, but the river was falling and it was very important to get them up before the water became too low. Arrived at Fort Donelson at 4 o'clock p. m., found transports and towboats awaiting convoy. I headed upstream; proceeded up the river. At 10:30 o'clock p. m. arrived at Palmyra, and when off the bluff immediately above the town the enemy opened fire from the top of the bluff upon two transports (lashed together) in the advance. They were then above the enemy's battery, and so far as I know proceeded up the river uninjured. This vessel was next in line, next the Luminary (transport), next the towboats C. Miller and J.W. Kellogg with two barges, then the Fairplay. As soon as the enemy saw their shots aimed at the advance transports were ineffectual, they turned their attention to this vessel with artillery and small arms. The Luminary (next astern), and then off the town, was fired into considerably with small arms. My guns had been run out and prepared for action. I at once returned fire, and the contest was spirited for a short time, when my supply pipe was struck by a 12-pounder shell, which at once let the water out of my back with the current. I hailed the Luminary (Captain Williamson), who came alongside, took my vessel in tow, and towed me down to Fort Donelson.

I am unable to estimate the forces of the enemy, but think them in strong force (a deserter says 12,000). They had from 10 to 12 pieces of artillery, 6 to 12 pounders. This vessel was struck six times with artillery, doing some damage, but not serious, other than cutting my supply pipe. I also received many shots from small arms and some of canister.

When the firing commenced I was not more than 400 feet from the enemy's guns, and they were on the bluff at so great an elevation I could not use my guns to an advantage until I dropped down the river, and the water was then all out of my boilers. The only casualties to my officers or men were Acting Master Foutty, who was struck on the right knee by a 6-pounder rifle elongated shot, and one boy slightly scalded. Acting Master George W. Foutty will lose his right leg, and I fear it will prove fatal. He was sick; had not been out of his bed but once during the day. When the firing commenced he at once got out of bed, went below, and was doing his duty well at the time he received the wound. My officer and men manifested great courage and coolness quite commendable. [sic]

At the request of Mr. Foutty, I called the post surgeon at Fort Donelson on board, an after consultation it was thought best to place him in the hospital at the fort.

I found it unsafe to attempt to run down to Smithland with my supply pipe so imperfectly repaired. Applied to Colonel Lowe, commanding at Fort Donelson, for a towboat to assist me. He readily ordered the J.W. Kellogg to my assistance. At 2:30 p. m. I got underway, stood down the river, and arrived at Smithland at 9:30 o'clock p. m.

The Fairplay, Acting Master Groves, commanding, was not near enough to take part in the engagement, having in charge the towboats and barges, but it affords me pleasure to represent the promptness and efficiency of Mr. Groves while convoying during the entire trip....

* * * *

J.S. Hurd, Acting Volunteer Lieutenant, Commanding

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pp. 65-68.


Excerpt from a Federal soldier's diary relative to the attack at Palmyra

April 3, 1863-We also had a small fracas on the Cumberland River yesterday. One gunboat was considerably disabled and one transport was shot through several times but did not damage her a great deal. They have all fell back on [Fort] Donelson again and they are waiting for more gunboats to guard them through to Nashville. Our cavalry has started out this morning to learn the strength of the enemy at that place. At 3 o'clock p. m. we were ordered in line for battle and threw our tents down. We were then ordered to march up to the fort. We then stacked our guns. The cannons commenced practice to shoot and elevated their pieces on the hills and they all shot excellent. We are not in the old camp again and we have everything fixed up.

Diary of Charles Schreel, Company E, 71st Ohio Infantry[7]

          2, Occupation of Lebanon and Liberty by Federal forces

No circumstantial reports filed.

SMITHVILLE, Saturday Morning, April 3, 1863.

Maj. D. C. REED, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., McMinnville, Tenn.:

SIR: I am ordered by the general to report that the enemy occupied Lebanon yesterday, their force consisting of seven regiments of infantry, three of cavalry, and two batteries. The force which drove our command from Liberty yesterday has retired to that place, and is variously estimated at from 5,000 to 10,000-infantry, cavalry, and artillery. The enemy now occupy Liberty.

Very respectfully, major, your obedient servant,

E. D. WARDER, Capt.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 738.





          2, Major-General William T. Sherman's criticism of "Parson" William G. Brownlow's Knoxville Independent Whig and Rebel Ventilator and other papers


Gen. SCHOFIELD, Knoxville:

Your dispatch is received, and is very satisfactory. I will telegraph its substance to Washington.

The Cincinnati papers of the 1st contain dispatches announcing that Buell is to supersede you. There is no truth in this. The report seems to have originated at Chattanooga, and I have telegraphed to Thomas to punish the operator.

The papers also contain a message from Knoxville giving my movements, and gives a message from Parson Brownlow to the effect that the rebels will certainly invade Kentucky by Pound Gap. Tell Parson Brownlow that he must leave military matters to us, and that he must not chronicle my movements or those of any military body. If he confines his efforts to his own sphere of action he will do himself more credit and his country more good.

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 226.

          2, Confederate cavalry reconnaissance and demonstration near Ducktown, Spring Place, Charleston and Cleveland

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Office Chief Com. Sub., Chattanooga, Tenn., April 12, 1864.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Chattanooga, Tenn., May 2, 1864.

COL.: I have the honor to report the operations of my command for the month of April as follows, viz.,:

On the 2d instant a force of rebels, said to be 1,500 strong, made a demonstration in the direction of Cleveland and Charleston, E. Tenn., approaching to within 8 miles of Cleveland, when they divided into parties; one going out in the direction of Ducktown, through the mountains, the other remaining and falling back toward Dalton on the appearance of a force of our cavalry sent out from Cleveland in command of Col. LaGrange, of the First Wisconsin. A scout, who arrived at Cleveland on the 3d, reported that the above movement on the part of the enemy was for the purpose of covering the approach of a force from Longstreet's army which was on its way to re-enforce Johnston by way of Murphy, N. C. This was afterward ascertained to be Martin's division of cavalry.

* * * *

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 18.


LOUDON, April 2, 1864.


Gen. Stanley reports that a large force rebel cavalry was seen 8 miles east of Cleveland this morning at sunrise moving in the direction of Charleston. The commanding officer at that post is on the alert.

G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 226.


CHATTANOOGA, April 3, 1864--9 p. m.

Maj.-Gen. SHERMAN, Nashville:

Your dispatch of yesterday received. Will watch Johnston as close as possible, but shall only feel perfectly safe when I can get my troops back from East Tennessee. My outposts report no movements of the enemy, except a reconnaissance on the Spring Place and Cleveland road yesterday, which resulted in nothing.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 239.





          2, Mourning for the Confederacy in McMinnville

Little or no change that we know of in the status of our country's fortunes in the past few days. We received some papers yesterday…but beyond the rumor of an engagement said to have taken place between Joe Johnston and a portion of Sherman's forces at Bentonville N.C. [sic] in which the Richmond papers claim a victory for Johnston and all the Yankee press [claim] the same for Sherman….The North is jubilant a the fact (as they regard it,) that the rebellion is at its last gasp – in desperate and final throes – that this Campaign is to finish it, and the subjugated South is to bow at their feet entreating Peace and Pardon on any terms. And God knows it looks that way – our cause seems hopeless enough. We know that God can help us, if it be His will-that He can and perhaps may lead us in a way we have not known – and we still must trust Him thro all things. For my own part I fear we must go down. I cannot see any small clouds like unto a man's hand upon our horizon, indicating that France will see that her true interests in Mexico lie in befriending us – nor do I dare to hope that Lee, great and glorious as he is, can with his little band oppose the two veteran armies under Sherman and Grant. I long – oh! intensely to see Sherman punished – overwhelmed – annihilated in his arrogance, cruelty and assumption – yet I may not see it. The great and good Lee may go down before these arrant pretenders – and if he should it will be a bitter day for us all – God knows. I have built so much upon the success of the South – it was not wise – it was perhaps wrong too,-yet it was my last hope of Independence politically and on independence personally. We all lay our plans, and generally our plans come to nought [sic]. Strange that we should (as it would deem,) so generally set up our will in opposition to His, whose weak children we are! Ho! Our Father make us wiser, in submitting all our ways to Thine! Amen and Amen!…

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.


[1] Eats meals with them.

[2] A contraband slave.

[3] As cited in: [Hereinafter cited as: Barber Correspondence. Used with permission.]

[4] As cited in PQCW.

[5] As cited in PQCW.

[6] Dyer's Battlefield Index for Tennessee does not reference this event.

[7] Edward F. Keuchel and James P. Jones, "Charley Schreel's Book: Diary of a Union Soldier on Garrison Duty in Tennessee," THQ, Vol. XXXVI, No. 2 (Summer, 1977), p. 204. [Hereinafter cited as: Diary of Charles Schreel.]


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Editor, The Courier

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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