28, State of General P.G.T. Beauregard's health
JACKSON, TENN., February 28, 1862.
Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen., Richmond, Va.:
I am in despair about my health-nervous affection of throat. Bragg ought to be sent here at once. I will, when well enough, serve under him rather than not have him here. Re-enforcements are arriving.
G. T. BEAUREGARD.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, p. 912.
28, Excerpts from a letter by Surgeon William M. Eames (U. S.) to his wife in Ohio, relative to conditions in Nashville after a week of occupation
Camp 4 miles beyond Nashville, Tenn. Feb. 28
Friday 11 A. M.
You see by the above date that we have got through the rebel city of Nashville & are now we are encamped on a pleasant hill on the road to Murfreesborough where the rebel army is supposed to be fortifying-about 40 miles from here. It is a very fine spring-like day & the last day of the winter months tho [sic], we have had no weather like winter for a long time. The weather seems like what we get in May & the grass is springing up green & the buds begin to swell. The birds sing gaily among the trees & our camp begins to look cheerful once more. For the past few days we have had very hard times & the men have been sick & discouraged & everything has had a gloomy aspect, owing to rainy weather-want of good ratios & tents to sleep under. It has rained at least half the time & the men have been drenched & soaked, & have had to wade thro, deep water & then lie down on the damp ground with no covering but the cloudy or cold regions above with nothing to cook their scanty food in & I have often been pained to see them toasting their slice of stinking ham on a stick as their only supper or breakfast with sometimes a little parched corn-roasted on the cob. The bridges have all been destroyed by the rascals: our teams of course hindered with all the cooking utensils, provisions -- tents, bedding, etc. The Cumberland River is high above the banks & now fills many cellars &covers the houses even to the eaves. The river runs past the city with a deep angry current but our men are now all carried over & nearly all their teams which have kept along with the Reg[iment] [sic] since we left Bowling Green. Our team with 4 others was sent back from B. to Munfordville for provisions & we have not seen them since consequently we are without means of transportation save what we can carry in the room of two men in one of our ambulances. Our boxed of medicines were left & nearly all our necessary articles but we still keep along. I have not been in Nashville much except to pass through it on our way out here-But I saw enough of it to conclude that it was at least half union in sentiment & that very many were heartily glad to see us come to relieve them from the southern tyranny which has so long ruled over them. I saw the public square in which Amos Dresser received his whipping & the very beautiful State House & many buildings with a yellow flag flying-revealing the fact that they were occupied as Hospitals. I suppose there are many hundreds of poor secession soldiers-sick & wounded now in the city besides 200 of our own soldiers who were wounded at the fight at Fort Donaldson [sic] & then captured & brought here where they were recaptured by our men. We took vast quantities of rebel stores with the city-estimated at more than 2 million dollars worth.-including all kinds of provisions &camp equipage-tents, etc., four steam engines (Locomotives) & several passenger cares & freight cars. Large quantities of rebel arms-some finished & some in their workshops partly done-Cannon in their foundries & tons of shot & shell & other ammunition-medical stores-etc. etc. besides three steamboats-one of which the rebels burned after we had got possession of it.  Our army here is now very large & every day increasing. Nelsons [sic] division came down on the Ohio & up the Cumberland on boats the day we came into the place. He first raised the Stars & Stripes over the capital building. After it had waved a short time a citizen of Nashville came to him & requested that the flag he owned should be raised in its stead. He said he had used his flag to sleep on all the time since the reign of terror commenced & now he wanted the same flag to wave over the State-house-& it does. Long may it wave.
....Two of [General U. S Grant's] gunboats are here & they are ugly looking customers. Not less than a dozen large size Steam boats are lying at the wharves or engaged in carrying over troops & wagons. Several Regts [sic] of Cavalry & Batteries of Artillery are here, but our Division is still ahead of all & we can look out on the enemies [sic] country just beyond us. Their pickets came up close to our lines & two nights ago they commenced firing on our pickets & lost three of their men. We have taken several prisoners & more are being found every day in the city. I am quite well today & have but little diarrhea [sic]. Appetite first rate. Rob is also well & all the rest of my crowd.
* * * *
Yours as ever,
Wm. M. Eames
William Mark Eames Papers
28, A Brief Newspaper Report on the Arrival of the Tennessee Legislature and Nashvillians in Memphis after the Fall of Fort Donelson
On the day they left for Memphis, the Tennessee Legislature arrived, having sojourned to that place from Nashville. They were to convene on the following day to discuss the important question, "What shall we do, considering the circumstances which surround us?" One thousand persons arrived from Nashville on the same day. The gold and silver, or all that could be got, a panic of colossal dimensions had seized the rebels, which was a great consolation to the loyal citizens.
State Confederate Scrip was of no value whatever.
Louisville Daily Journal, February 28, 1862. 
28-April 8, Operations at Island No. 10
FEBRUARY 28-APRIL 8, 1862.-Operations at New Madrid, Mo., and Island No. 10, and descent upon Union City, Tenn.
SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS IN TENNESSEE.
(February 28- March 23, 1862, activities in Missouri.)
March 15-April 7, 1862.-Siege and capture of Island No. 10.
March 30-31, 1862.-Descent upon Union City, Tenn.
April 8, 1862.-Garrison of Island No. 10 surrendered at Tiptonville, Tenn.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 8, pp. 76-77.
FEBRUARY 28--APRIL 8, 1862.-Operation at New Madrid, Mo., and Island No. 10. &c., and descent upon Union City, Tenn.
Report of Col. James D. Morgan, Tenth Illinois Infantry, commanding brigade, of operations March 12-13.
HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, FOURTH DIVISION, Camp near New Madrid, Mo., March 15, 1862.
In compliance with the order of Gen. Stanley of this date, I herewith make report of the part taken by my brigade in the action at the trenches before New Madrid on the night of the 12th and during the 13th instant:
At 5.30 p. m. March 12 I received orders from Gen. Paine, commanding Fourth Division, to report at Gen. Pope's headquarters with my brigade at sundown and there await further orders. Reporting at the hour indicated, I received order from Gen. Pope to march my brigade, consisting of the Tenth Illinois, under Lieut. Col. John Tillson, and six companies of the Sixteenth Illinois Volunteers, commanded by Col. R. F. Smith [and to whom I am much indebted for prompt and efficient aid], under the direction of Col. Bissell, chief of engineers, and Maj. Lothrop, chief of artillery, to such point as they might designate near New Madrid and assist in erecting such works as they thought proper to construct. We arrived near the ground at 9 p. m., when the Tenth Illinois, by order of Col. Bissell, was thrown forward as skirmishers to secure the line of proposed operations, in securing which we reached the outer line of the enemy's pickets, who fired and withdrew. Moving cautiously forward beyond their, abandoned pickets post, two companies, A and B of the Tenth Illinois, were thrown yet farther forward as front and flanking skirmishers and pickets guard, with strict orders to return no fire if fired upon, which order and a similar one to the whole command was implicitly obeyed, although we were repeatedly fired upon during the night by the enemy's pickets, who occupied a line not more than 400 yards from our own line of operations. Six companies of the Sixteenth Illinois and the remaining eight companies of the Tenth Illinois were detailed as working parties, under the direction of Col. Bissell, serving the entire night, officers and men working with a will. By daylight four siege guns had been placed in position and trenches and rifle-pits constructed sufficient to protect the whole command. Soon after daylight our pickets were called in and our first gun fired, which was immediately returned, and thence during the whole day the firing from the rebel fortifications and gun-boats was kept up with spirit and determination. Their guns were well served, aim and range accurate. At sundown the firing ceased, when the men, although wearied with labor and loss of rest, cheerfully and with spirit worked to extend and strengthen the line of defenses. Company E, of the Tenth Illinois, and part of two companies of the Sixteenth Illinois were advanced as pickets with instructions to watch and report the movements of the enemy in front. They reported continued movement and stir of the enemy during the entire night, both in the fort and on the gun--boats and steamers, but whether they were being re-enforced, were strengthening their position, or purposed an evacuation of the place could not be ascertained. A violent rain set in at 11 o' clock, continuing almost without intermission the balance of the night. About 4 a. m. I was relieved by Gen. Stanley, with order to return to camp. In conclusion I will only add that great credit is due to officers and men for the promptness and coolness with which the works were constructed and defended. I have to mourn the loss of a valuable and efficient officer, Capt. Lindsey H. Carr, Company H. Tenth Illinois, who was killed while on the picket-line early on the night of the 12th. Private Blockson, of Company G, Tenth Illinois, was slightly wounded.
I am, with much respect, &c.,
JAMES D. MORGAN, Col., Cmdg. First Brigade, Fourth Division.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 53, pp. 453-454.
28, Uncertainty on how to proceed with three female Federal prisoners
HDQRS. COMMANDANT OF PRISONERS, Camp Chase, Ohio, February 28, 1863.
Capt. H. M. LAZELLE, Assistant to Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners, Washington.
CAPT.: I have the honor of addressing you for the purpose of asking information on several subjects:
* * * * *
2. There are three female prisoners here, sent from Nashville by order of Gen. Rosecrans. They are charged with aiding the rebels and carrying contraband articles across our line. The evidence against them is here. We have poor facilities for female prisoners. What shall be done with them? Shall their cases be turned over to Special Commissioner Galloway for investigation?
Very respectfully, captain, your obedient servant,
EDWIN L. WEBBER, Capt., Cmdg. Prisoners.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 305-306.
28, "These sweet-smelling, kid-glovey [sic], band-boxy [sic], tea-cakey [sic], ottar-of-rose exquisites, are as plentiful as gnats around a vinegar jug." A Confederate war correspondent's observations on the Army of Tennessee in winter camp at Tullahoma and news of Williamson county
.…we whittle away time over stale jokes and stray rumors. Toward the close of the evening we are regaled with a piece of tombstone literature, in Gen. Bragg's happiest style, announcing that some fleet-footed lieutenant's gilt has been torn from his collar, for leaving the battle-field at Murfreesboro before the balance of us. Now and then the Provost Marshal, or as a friend calls him, the Provoke Marshal, [sic] perpetrates a practical joke, by conscripting a camp follower, and commanding him to the graces of a Springfield musket and knapsack.
Our army is again in good fighting trim, and the ranks swell rapidly filling up by the influx of absentees. I suppose it is better clothed, equipped and fed than ever before. The country is bountifully supplied with game, but the boys are forbidden to shoot, for fear of hitting some General's aid. These sweet-smelling, kid-glovey [sic], band-boxy [sic], tea-cakey [sic], ottar-of-rose exquisites, are as plentiful as gnats around a vinegar jug. But you must not construe my expression into any reflection upon the usefulness of this necessary appendage of our Gipsey-life [sic]. It is true they dangle a dress sword gracefully, run handsome horses in dashing stile [sic], and smile most daintily at the ladies, yet is no less true, they can tell the ragged, weather beaten fellow that foots it with his gun and heavy knapsack, exactly what he ought to be. You can thus very readily appreciate the field and scope of their usefulness, and the necessity of taking every precaution to protect them from the weather and disagreeable inconvenience[s] of camp life, and to guard against the rudeness of bringing them in contact with unmannerly soldiers, and everything calculated to grate harshly on their tender sensibilities.
I have conversed with several intelligent and creditable gentlemen from Williams on county in the last few days, and they bring melancholy tidings of the fate of her gallant people. The country is being desolated. The abolitionists are burning and destroying houses razing fences, stealing horses, shooting cattle and hauling off all the provisions in the county, not even leaving many families meat or bread enough for a single meal. They have broken up the wagons, hoes, and plows, and destroyed the harness, and ever thing that can be employed in cultivating the earth. The officers boldly proclaim that the people shall not raise another crop. Citizens are robbed of their money, and their hoses pillaged of every article of wearing apparel, and bed clothing, and their furniture and table were broken and ruined by the heartless scoundrels. I was informed of three instances of my acquaintance, fair, modest, virtuous young women being ruthlessly violated by the hellish ruffians. These are not pictures woven by fancy, nor the creation of vague rumors, but facts attested by authorities that cannot be questioned. If retributive justice is no myth of fancy, it surely is time now for an exhibition of its power. When the men of the country are torn from their homes to fight for the Government, that Government should take some retaliatory steps to protect their helpless families from the hands of the incendiary and ravisher.
"Cry Havock [sic], and let slip the dogs of war."
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, February 28, 1863.
28, "At every step I could see the ruins that followed upon the tracks of the infernal Yankees." An Alabama cavalryman's impressions of Middle Tennessee
Letter from "Horse Marine"
Hd'qrs 51st Ala. Cavalry,
On advance picket near Murfreesboro, Tenn., Feb. 28, 1863.
"Hello mister, whose company do you belong to?"
The voice was sharp and proceeded from an old woman in a cabin on the Shelbyville and Murfreesboro turnpike. Reining in my horse I informed the old lady that I belonged to company ___, Morgan's Reg.
"Well I declare, do you belong to Mr. Morrigan? I'm hearn [sic] of him, but I wanted to know if you had hearn of my son John. He belongs to Mr. Wheeler's company, and seeing you belong to the calvary [sic] thought you must know where he was."
Informing the old lady that I could give her no information as to the whereabouts of her son John, I was about to proceed when she halted me again:
"Well mister, if you see John, or Bill, or Aleck, or Sammy, tell 'em I'm well."
I asked her who John, Bill, Aleck and Sammy was.
Raising her hands in holy horror, she exclaimed: "Why Lor' me, don't you know my boys? Why, I thought every body in the settlement knowed them. Bill he belongs to Mr. Brackenridge's Company; Aleck, he belongs to Mr. Cheatom's Company, and Sammy, he belongs to Mr. Bragg's Company.
Informing the old lady that I would deliver her messages to her sons the first time I met them, I rode on. At every step I could see the ruins that followed upon the tracks of the infernal Yankees. Fences destroyed, houses burned, stables destitute of horses and mules, corn cribs emptied, negro cabins desolate, beautiful yards and gardens laid waste, hogs, sheep, stock of every description, all gone; and all this done by whom? By Western troops! troops from Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois--States that some Southern men advocate taking into an alliance with us! May my bones lay bleached upon the plains when such an alliance takes place! Talk about New England vandalism!--Of all the low down, mean, thieving, unprincipled, cruel vandals in this war, Ohio produces the worst. The men in Congress and out of it at home may desire and advocate any kind of an alliance with such a State as Ohio, will please remain quiet, and stay home or go to Ohio and stay there; and the soldiers in the field, led on by their gallant leaders will fight this war through until our complete independence is won.
Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Georgia], March 5, 1863. 
28, Rounding up contrabands in Nashville: an excerpt from the diary of John Hill Fergusson
the day has been very pleasent [sic] and warm we had inspection and mustered for pay at 9 oc [sic] this morning after we returned from inspection I had orders to start imidieutly [sic] after dinner with 30 men taken 10 from co. G, 10 from co. F, 10 from co. K and gather up all the contribans [sic] we could find without passes showing that they ware [sic] in the service of the governmint [sic] we ware [sic] all over Nashville and brought in 22 darkies [sic] we had a right good time & the boys all seemed to like the business the best kind [sic]….
John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.
28, Confederate news and opinion from Middle Tennessee
Correspondence Mobile Advertiser & Register.
FEDERAL OUTRAGES-ROSENCRANZ'S POSITION AND DANGER-BRAGG'S ARMY.
Knoxville, Tenn., Feb. 28, 1863
Although a stranger to you, I have concluded to give you a short description of the doings of the Federals under Gen. Rosencranz. It seems that officer has utterly forgotten his former courtesy and gentlemanly bearing toward the female sex, and his regard for the rights of private citizens. While at Shelbyville a few days ago, one of our Major Generals informed me that an order had been issued by the Federal General at Murfreesboro, that his soldiers should not take upon themselves the trouble to cut wood for fire use while fence rails could be had. Consequently, the fences for miles round are fast disappearing. The Federal cavalry have orders to visit every citizen's house within Federal lines in Tennessee, to press all the meat and forage they find, and destroy all farming and cooking utensils they can find. They openly proclaim to the citizens that the intention of the Federals is to prevent of Tennessee from raising a crop this year, if not longer. These lawless vagabonds who do not face our cavalry in the fields are thus scouting the country and robbing the people. They set fire to fences, barns, and even the trees in the fields in order to complete their work of desolation. The women are insulted, their wardrobes taken away, and in many instances they are forced to take their persons articles of clothing, which some scoundrel takes a fancy to carry off with him. One instance is mentioned where a highly respectable lady was entirely stript [sic] of all her clothing and forced to march in front of a Yankee regiment while on "dress parade." I could you the lady's name, but will not through respect for her. Her husband is a prominent secessionist, and was away from home when this occurred. He has since that time been fighting Yankees on his own hook, and does not let a day pass without taking the life of at least one Yankee in gratification of his revenge. Gen. Rosencranz is said to be rude and insulting to all ladies who come to him for any redress of grievances.-The Northwestern soldiers in his army are said to be discontented, and their greatest prayer is of "[peace on any terms." The Federals are in a critical situation. They have no railroad facilities from Nashville to the army, and are compelled to transport supplies by wagon trains; the rains have been so heavy and continuous that the turnpike is worthless. A gentleman who passed over that route four days ago says the pike cannot be traced except by the bridges across the creeks and branches. It is all one big mud-hole for two hundred yards wider.
There is no doubt of the fact that thirty thousand reinforcements for Gen. Rosencranz have arrive at Nashville, but it seems he cannot order them forward on account of the state of the roads. It requires all the wagons at his command to haul subsistence for the army now at Murfreesboro. Another reason I suppose why those Regiments at Nashville are not ordered to the front is the thickening aspect of the clouds rising in Kentucky and he Northwestern States. Rosencranz knows that if Kentucky should rise in her might, (and there are now strong symptoms of such an occurrence,) with Van Dorn and Wheeler, and Forrest, Morgan, Wharton and others in his rear, he and his army would be lost to Abraham Lincoln. He is therefore in a position that he no doubt deems a very embarrassing one.
In the present state of the roads he cannot advance. He might go on the turnpike to Shelbyville, but he could not make a decent fight after he got there. Whenever a piece of artillery or a gun carriage would get off the pike it would stick in the mud and be captured. And if he got whipt (as he certainly would be) his army would soon be entirely "gobbled up" by the 20,000 gallant cavalry of Gen. Bragg's army. To give you an idea of the state of the roads in and about Murfreesboro and Tullahoma, I saw empty wagons at Wartrace (between the two armies) with four mules trying in vain to pull them out of the mud. I have been in the army since the war began, and have never yet seen such bad roads.
Gen. Bragg's army is in fine condition, and I know the fact that his army is larger now than when he fought the battle of Murfreesboro. In my judgment there is not prospect of battle on this line for some time, for even if the roads would permit the Federals to advance, I think Rosencranz is too prudent a General to attack such a stronghold as Gen. Bragg has chosen. As to flanking our position the ting is impracticable, even with good weather. Ma. Gen. Donelson, has taken command of this department, and Lieut. Gen. Kirby Smith has gone West.
The conscript law is being enforced in Tennessee. Brig. Gen. Pillow is at the head of the conscript bureau, and is doing the country noble service. You will soon hear of our cavalry, "making a spoon or spoiling a horn"
Macon Daily Telegraph, March 12, 1862.
28, Jefferson Davis advises leniency for East Tennessee Unionists to promote agricultural cultivation
FEBRUARY 28, 1863.
For more than a year the general views expressed have been acted on. Often warned that the clemency shown was unjustified, the hope was still entertained that it would avail. Even now it is not proposed to mete to them a harder measure than is elsewhere provided, but if we are to have the hostility of the class called in East Tennessee Union men, it were better they should be in the ranks of the enemy than living as spies among us and waiting for opportunity to strike.
The commanding general of the department will, I am sure, be as lenient as is proper, and mindful of the need we have that the fields be cultivated.
OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 2, pp. 370-371.
__, Expedition and skirmish on the Cumberland River [no date given]
GALLATIN, February__, 1863.
Lieut. F. S. BOND:
I sent a report, two days ago, about the expedition. Twelve boats were destroyed a skirmish was fought, several horses secured, &c. Today I had the news that seven boats were again collected at Carthage, and that Morgan is to-day passing across his cavalry and artillery. I doubt it, but shall know during the night.
E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt, II, pp. 33-34.
28, Skirmish at Dukedom
Report of Brig. Gen. Hugh T. Reid, U. S. Army, [Cairo] March 1, 1864:
Col. Hawkins telegraphs me that, hearing of a guerrilla party robbing on the Paducah railroad, he sent out a detachment on Saturday [27th] last, which, just before daylight Sunday morning, found a squad of rebels at Dukedom and dispersed them, capturing 1 prisoner, 4 horses, 4 loaded revolvers, 1 carbine, and the hats of perhaps the entire party.
H.T. Reid, Brigadier-General, Commanding
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 485.
28, Federal program of small pox vaccination in Memphis, excerpt from SPECIAL ORDERS, NO. 32
Headquarters, District of Memphis
Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 28, 1864
* * * *
VII. In consequence of the increasing prevalence of Small Pox, through the influx of foreign population and contrabands in the city, it is hereby ordered,
That physicians be appointed in each ward, by the city authorities, whose duty it shall be to visit all of this class, each in their respective wards, and vaccinate all found without well marked scars.
Every contraband shall have the certificate of some one of these physicians thus appointed, that he has been vaccinated, and has a well marked scar otherwise be liable to arrest, until he has been properly vaccinated. The city authorities will see that a proper Pest House will be established without the city limits, for the treatment of all cases sent by the ward physicians thus appointed.
Surgeon Geo. M. Hayes, 2d Iowa cavalry, and Surgeon in Chief, District of Memphis, is charged with the supervision and execution of this order.
By order of Brig. Gen. R. P. Buckland
Memphis Bulletin, March 4, 1864.
28, Enforcement of Enrolled Militia in Memphis, General Orders, No. 6
GENERAL ORDERS [sic] NO. 6
Headquarters 1st Brigade Enrolled Militia, District of Memphis, Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 26, 1864.
The following order is published for the benefit of this command and all whom it may concern:
Headquarters, District of Memphis, Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 26, 1864
Special Order No. 38 [39?]
* * * *
III. Colonel John McDonald, commanding 1st Brigade, Enrolled Militia, District of Memphis, will proceed immediately with the execution of General Orders, No. [2?] from his headquarters of date January 20, 1864, and approved these headquarters the same date, by arresting every male resident of Memphis who has not complied with the requirements of said order.
Colonel McDonald is here by empowered to fine each person whom he adjudges guilty of willful non compliance with said order from ten (10) to one hundred (100) dollars, according to the nature of the delinquent's offense-the moneys so collected from said fines to constitute a fund for the purpose of meeting the contingent expenses of the militia of this district.
Col. McDonald will keep an accurate record of all fined collected by placing in his record the amount of each fine received, with the name of the party paying the same. HE will also make a return on the first day of each month to these headquarters of all fines so collected, and of the source from whence received.
All persons so arrested who refuse to pay the fine imposed upon them by Col. McDonald will cause to be confined in Irving Block Military Prison until their fines are paid.
By order of Brig. Gen. R. P. Buckland.
Memphis Bulletin, March 1, 1864.
28, "Oh, just and merciful Savior, give us peace, and our independence." Belle Edmondson's prayer for the Confederacy
February, Sunday 28, 1864
Cloudy and raining all day, much colder than yesterday. Anna Nelson and myself went to Mrs. Morgan's-I went to take those letters to Cousin Campbell Edmondson, he left for Dixie, and will see that they are safely forwarded. Met a great many persons there, all in fine spirits, topic of conversation our glorious Victory, which was added to this morning by news that Sherman was in full retreat for Vicksburgh-had not reached Canton, and we were confident of ruining the whole army as Lee with his Cavalry force was between him and Vicksburgh-Spare so much bloodshed of the bravest and best of our Sunny South-Enlighten the minds of the miserable Yankees, of their sinfulness-drive them from our south! Oh, just and merciful Savior, give us peace, and our independence-
I received a letter from Dr. Moses and Maj. Price by Mrs. Facklin, through them heard from my friend Maj. Maclean, with Gen. Price.
Laura and I sat up late tonight, I slept all evening. Still raining-12 o'clock sleeting, very cold-
Diary of Belle Edmondson
28, Fire on the mountain
A cloudy day with a little rain, but not cold – the atmosphere, thick with smoke for the mountains have been on fire all around us. The weather has been windy and dry, the valley full of smoke – the sun and moon looking at their rising and setting like globes of blood. Last night the fires were in lines clear across one or two mountains – these running up to the summit – looking like the lines of the army….
War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, February 28, 1864.
28, Some impressions of a Union soldier on the march from Murfreesboro to Shelbyville; excerpts from the correspondence of George F. Cram
….Last Wednesday morning our brigade left Nashville under orders to report to Maj. Genl. Hooker at Lookout Valley….Arriving at Murfreesboro, we took the Shelbyville Pike because it led through the best watered country. Tomorrow we shall reach Tullahoma….
* * * *
Today's march was especially cheering to us as we passed through the most loyal section I have seen in the South. Many of the home we passed were decorated with Union banners and at almost every gate groups of men and women stood waving their handkerchiefs to cheer us on. I remember one little girl in particular, who came out with a beautiful flag and as she unfolded it we gave her three rousing cheers. Passing through S[helbyville] it seemed as though every girl I town was waving her handkerchief to us. I shall long recollect our passage through that loyal town.
* * * *
The country we passed through today is flat and low, good for farming. Many loads of cotton passed by us on their way by Nashville. The rebel fortifications here at Shelbyville amounted to simply a few rifle pits. We have passed by many soldiers' graves in the past two days. It seems almost as though this whole country was covered with the graves of our brave boys. I can never pass lightly by one of them, but always think that there is some Mother mourning a dead soldier boy.
* * * *
Letters of George F. Cram
28, "There is the same old evil disposition among the rebels, the same hate, but they fear more and hide." Report on guerrilla activity near Carthage
Carthage, February 28, 1865.
A band of guerrillas pass quite often from a point on Obey River, some eight miles above Celina, going west. Their track is near the State line. How far they go west I am unable to say, but they generally pass beyond the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. The band numbers from fifteen to sixty men, or that has been the report for the last few months. They have different commanders. Sometimes Capt. Benett, at others Maj. Jones or Magruder. For a long time they have not gone east of the point mentioned on Obey River. Generally on their return to Obey River they bring goods of various kinds and hide them away among the hills. Yesterday I had a long conversation with H. D. Johnson, of Overton. I know he is in communication with Hughes, Gatewood, and others. He has a son with the rebel Col. Dibrell, formerly of Sparta. Johnson says the rebels will be in this section of country in considerable force late in the spring, or so soon as it shall seem the rivers will not rise suddenly and remain full any length of time. There is the same old evil disposition among the rebels, the same hate, but they fear more and hide. If any one doubts, let him become for a time a rebel and go among them, where he is not known to be other than what he seems.
J. D. HALE.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, p. 784.
 The Minna Tonka. See above.
 William Driver.
 The original "Old Glory."
 William Mark Eames Papers, TSL&A Civil War Collection, XI-M- AC. NO. 91-036, MF 1306, mfm 1302. [Hereinafter cited as : William Mark Eames Papers.]
 As cited in PQCW.
 There are a total of forty-four reports on the siege and surrender of Island No. 10. It is not essential to present them all here.
 An abbreviated version of this article is found in: Galveston Weekly News, March 25, 1863
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 Dukedom is located in Weakley County, close to the Tennessee-Kentucky border.
 Not found in the OR.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456