Friday, February 6, 2015

2.5-6.2015 Tennessee CivilWar Notes

        5, "Tennessee -- Which Way, North or South?"

[The following communication we print simply because it presents in very concise form the considerations the actuate the secession party, and we would be pleased to publish as clear a statement of those on which the Union party base their intended action. Let it not be supposed, however, that because our paper is perfectly independent of politics, we are willing to allow its becoming the battle-field of politicians, though we are willing to permit private citizens of known repute and influence to discuss in it the best course for the city and State to adopt in the present crisis. We by no means indorse or condemn the sentiments of any communications on social or political questions, which a sense of the duties of a paper induce us to make room for. To do so would be impossible in us, as our paper is coaduced [sic] by men holding different views on almost every subject now agitating the public mind.]

"Union men" among us claim that they too are for Southern rights, or rather for constitutional rights to the South. They agree that "our rights have been encroached upon, that the spirit of aggression stalks rampant through the Northern States against our institution of slavery, and that those States have willfully, deliberately and knowingly violated, and persist in violating, the compact of union between us and them." They allege that they will boldly and uncompromisingly assert our rights, repel Northern aggression, defend and protect the institution of slavery, resist and overcome the violations of the constitution so persistently continued by the North. They claim the suffrages of Tennesseans for their candidates to the convention, on the pleas that they will be consummate all this "in the Union," peaceably, if they can, forcibly, if they must. They say they will secure our rights "in the Union," even if they had to drive the violating Northern States out of it. This is easily even though so defiantly said, but how is it to be done?

It is a fact that does not admit of question that the North is very largely predominant in numbers, in votes, in political strength. To gain the ends aimed at, "in the Union," peaceably, it will have to be through the ballot box. To do this the Northern people will have to conquer their prejudices, violate their now diseased moral sense, resign their protective system, yield the advantages they have so readily and perseveringly worked to endure, and abdicate the power which they, as well as we, know they possess. Will they do so? Perhaps temporarily, to avert the present storm of Southern indignant resistance, they may make concessions but it is not in human nature long to resist the exercise of power which one adverse section, largely dominant in political strength, has over another. It is evident, therefore, that the view of the Unionists of peaceable attaining then maintaining the rights of the South "in the Union" must fail; for appealing to the ballot box the North will largely outvote us, and then tell us complacently, "the majority rules." It is entirely sectional, we know, but then it is "in the Union."

The next move, then, of our Union friends is to "fight for our rights in the Union." Now, though this is the very thing we all depreciated -- the very thing that secession, if it is possible at all, will prevent -- yet, in adhering to the programme of these loyal Unionists, we must meet it. Civil war -- that horror of horrors -- which with this people, would be an agency of convulsion such as the world has never seen, would be the result. But we must encounter it; "we must have our rights in the Union" -- they cannot be achieved peaceably, therefore, we must fight for the "in the Union" -- that is the sine qua non with our Union friends, and is the reply to all argument, to all circumstances, to all exigencies. Peace or war, whatever betide; success or defeat, advantage of disadvantage, hope or despair, strengthening our enemies and weakening ourselves whether reason approves or condemns, it must be "in the Union!" The Unionists tell us, then, the North must be driven out of the Union -- but they won't go, they are too strong for us to do that; in fact, that majority that defeated us at the polls is again apparent, and in our appealing to arms, they, having the government in possession through that majority, turn our own arms against us and overpower us in the name of the constitution we ourselves have invoked as the aegis of our rights.

But our Union friends are even worse at fault than such poor policy shows. That Union they would cling to so desperately, no longer exists. Separation between the North and South is an accomplished fact. And now the question for every Tennessean to decide is, "which way should Tennessee go; North, in company with those who hate, revile and would destroy slavery or the South, with sister States identified in interest, institutions and feeling?" There is no evading the issue. No reflecting man can evade the issue. No reflecting man can evade the question. It simply is "which way, North or South?"


Memphis Daily Argus, February 5, 1861.

        6, A newspaper notice in favor of Tennessee's secession

Men of Tennessee! will you go with the North or the South?

This question you have to decide. Don't be deceived with the cry that the North will yield. There is not the slightest hope that the dominant party in the aggressive States will yield a single inch. They will not offer the South the benefit of even a paper compromise.

Nashville Daily Gazette, February 6, 1861.

        5, Conditions in Memphis as noted in the Philadelphia Enquirer

Matters in Memphis.

~ ~ ~

From the Cincinnati Gazette:

A gentleman who formerly resided in this city, but has lived in the south for eighteen months past, arrived in town yesterday from Memphis, which place he left on Sunday, January 19th – in an interview with him we learned the following facts: -

Business in Memphis is completely prostrated. Two-thirds of the business houses are closed altogether; the others keep open from 9 o'clock in the morning until 3 in the afternoon. The streets are desolate, and not more than one-half of the dwellings occupied.

Shortly after the breaking out of the war about two thousand men left for the North. Since then nine-tenths of the able-bodied men of the city have enlisted in the Southern army. The women are very zealous in the cause of Secession, and have formed more than twenty societies for the manufacture of wearing apparel for the soldiers. In Memphis flour sells from $9 to $12 per barrel; bacon brings 35 to 40 cents per pound. Fresh pork is sold at 10 cents per pound - the lowness of the price being accounted for by the fact that salt is so scarce as to command $11 per sack. Coffee is sold at from 60 to 75 cents per pound, and would be dearer still but for the plentitude of substance which are so freely used as to make the demand for the genuine article very small.

Unless the blockade be raised very soon the Dixianic [sic] provinces will be resolved into one grand state – a state of Egyptian darkness. Candles are in demand at $1.25 per pound, and these are of very poor quality. The scarcity of coal has compelled the manufactures of gas to mix a great deal of rosin with the black diamonds. Soap is another scarce article. It sells as high as candles – not less than $1.50 per gallon – hardly to be had even at that.

Clothing is very dear. Overcoats such as can be obtained here for $15, are sold in Memphis for $45 to $50. Pantaloons and other articles in proportion. Boots, such as are sold here for $7, command $20 there. In the way of "notions" there is a great dearth also. A paper of needles worth ten cents here, cannot be had for less than $1.25 there.

Confederate notes are taken at par for goods and debts. They constitute the principal circulating medium. Southern bank notes are also taken at par. Shinplasters flood the whole country, and pass [as] curren[cy] everywhere. Gold and silver are scarce, the former at a premium of 45 per cent., the latter at a premium of 35 to 40 per cent.

The Southerners are confident that success will crown their efforts, and they have united to make a bold struggle. One thing that serves partly to keep up their sprits is the unflinching disposition to be evinced by the Secession newspapers. In Memphis they have heard of but one Union victory since the fall of Sumter – the battle of Rich Mountain. In all the other engagements the Unionists, according to the Rebel journals, are routed and killed in numbers ranging from 1,000 to 10,000.

There is a great scarcity of printing paper all through the South. The proprietors of the Memphis Appeal recently visited all the large cities of the Confederacy to buy up what paper of large size they could find for sale. They failed to obtain any of the right dimensions, and were obliged to curtail the "area" of their sheet inconsequence. The telegraph has not operated very well lately, for lack of necessary battery supplies.

A severe censorship is exercised on all papers in the South. A. R. Cazenaw, formerly counted with the Enquirer, of this city, now editor of the Memphis Argus, was before the Military committee on two or three different occasions, for publishing articles condemning the course of the Confederate Government in certain military matters. He was warned each time that unless he moderated his tone, the Argus would be suppressed. A similar sentence has been passed on several other editors and journals.

Our informant, as we have said, left Memphis on the 19th of January. He went by railroad to Clarksville, Tenn., then by stage to Hopkinsville. In order to obtain a pass to leave Memphis, he was obliged to testify before the Military Committee of that city that he was in delicate health, and wished to visit Uniontown, Ky., to see his brother. At Hopkinsville the Confederate commander – General Clark, of Mississippi- refused to pass him beyond his lines until he telegraphed to Memphis to know whether he was "all right." A reply in the affirmative being received, no further difficulty was experienced.

When or informant reached Hopkinsville, on the 22d of January, Gen. Clark was expecting an attack from Gen Crittenden, and feared the worst in case it was made…..

Philadelphia Enquirer, February 5, 1862.

        5, "Flag Presentation."

Wednesday [5th] was quite a gala day in town in virtue of the ceremony of the presentation of a find flag to Col. Qualres' regiment (the 42nd, Tenn.) and one to Capt. Hubbard's company, of that regiment.

The first was made and given to the regiment by the Young Ladies Juvenile Relief Society of this city; the other was the personal gift of Miss Nannie Garland, of our town. In compliment of whom Capt. Hubbard's company is named-the "Garland Greys [sic]"-

Before 11 o'clock a large concourse of ladies and gentlemen had assembled at the Public Square to witness the ceremony, and about 12 o'clock Col. Quarles' regiment came into town-600 or 700 strong-and took position on the Square. After some brief evolutions they opened ranks, and received the ladies composing the Society, and the interesting ceremonies of the day were entered upon.

Hon. G. A. Henry[1] appeared upon the portico of the Bank of Tennessee, and taking the regimental flag in his hands proceeded to present it formally, on behalf of the Society. His speech was chaste, forcible, eloquent -- just such as he makes. He reviewed briefly the animus that incites each party in this contest, the magnitude of the interests involved in the conflict, and the certainty, from all precedent, of our triumph, if we shall prove true to ourselves. In delivering the flag, he appealed to the Tennesseans and Alabamians, by all their past valor and historic glory as soldiers, to stand by, and defend it till the last man had fallen!-This portion of his speech was eloquent and impressive in the extreme, and the loud and prolonged cheers of the soldiers, fully attested their resolve to bring their flag out of battle, covered with glory, or to die under it! [sic]

Lieut.-Col. Walton received the flag, in behalf of the regiment, in one of the neatest and most appropriate little speeches we ever listened to. It was a model effort of the kind-alternating with strains of eloquence and humor, that took the crowd along with every word.

This being over, Company A-the "Garland Greys [sic]"-was marched out of the ranks, and Hon. G. A. Henry proceeded to present them, on Miss Garland's behalf, the beautiful flag that her fair hands had wrought. After a merited compliment to her (and he did not say half enough,) he appealed to both their gallantry towards woman, and their patriotism, toward country, to defend that flag till every arm was rigid, and every heart still, in the palsy of death!

The flag was received by Capt. Hubbard, on behalf of his company, in a brief, but pointed and forcible speech. After a courteous acknowledgment of the compliment paid the company, in the gift of the flag he uttered, for himself and his company, their pledge that it should never trail nor be dishonored till the last man of the Garland Greys had found his final discharge on the field of battle!

These ceremonies were very interesting throughout, and when they were concluded, loud calls were made for Col. Quarles, but he excused himself, saying that notwithstanding his previous calling (i.e. Lawyer) he intended to make no more speeches till this war was over-that till then, action [sic], not words-the sword [sic], not the pen, was the rule of his life. After all the speaking was done, the regiment was put through a pretty severe course of drill by Col. McGinnis, which proved of great interest to the lookers-on, and then took up the line of march for camp.

Clarksville Chronicle, February 7, 1862.

        5, Gideon J. Pillow Arrives in Clarksville

"Gen. Pillow."

This distinguished leader arrived here on Wednesday night, and it was reported that he had come to take command of this post, but we presume that this is not so, since his services would be too valuable at points where active hostilities are imminent, to allow of his remaining here.

The withdrawal by Gen. Pillow of his resignation,[2] which he tendered to the War Department about a month ago, is a source of gratification to every one.

Clarksville Chronicle, February 7, 1862.

        5, Conditions in Memphis as noted in the Philadelphia Enquirer

Matters in Memphis.

~ ~ ~

From the Cincinnati Gazette:

A gentleman who formerly resided in this city, but has lived in the south for eighteen months past, arrived in town yesterday from Memphis, which place he left on Sunday, January 19th – in an interview with him we learned the following facts: -

Business in Memphis is completely prostrated. Two-thirds of the business houses are closed altogether; the others keep open from 9 o'clock in the morning until 3 in the afternoon. The streets are desolate, and not more than one-half of the dwellings occupied.

Shortly after the breaking out of the war about two thousand men left for the North. Since then nine-tenths of the able-bodied men of the city have enlisted in the Southern army. The women are very zealous in the cause of Secession, and have formed more than twenty societies for the manufacture of wearing apparel for the soldiers. In Memphis flour sells from $9 to $12 per barrel; bacon brings 35 to 40 cents per pound. Fresh pork is sold at 10 cents per pound - the lowness of the price being accounted for by the fact that salt is so scarce as to command $11 per sack. Coffee is sold at from 60 to 75 cents per pound, and would be dearer still but for the plentitude of substance which are so freely used as to make the demand for the genuine article very small.

Unless the blockade be raised very soon the Dixianic [sic] provinces will be resolved into one grand state – a state of Egyptian darkness. Candles are in demand at $1.25 per pound, and these are of very poor quality. The scarcity of coal has compelled the manufactures of gas to mix a great deal of rosin with the black diamonds. Soap is another scarce article. It sells as high as candles – not less than $1.50 per gallon – hardly to be had even at that.

Clothing is very dear. Overcoats such as can be obtained here for $15, are sold in Memphis for $45 to $50. Pantaloons and other articles in proportion. Boots, such as are sold here for $7, command $20 there. In the way of "notions" there is a great dearth also. A paper of needles worth ten cents here, cannot be had for less than $1.25 there.

Confederate notes are taken at par for goods and debts. They constitute the principal circulating medium. Southern bank notes are also taken at par. Shinplasters flood the whole country, and pass [as] curren[cy] everywhere. Gold and silver are scarce, the former at a premium of 45 per cent., the latter at a premium of 35 to 40 per cent.

The Southerners are confident that success will crown their efforts, and they have united to make a bold struggle. One thing that serves partly to keep up their sprits is the unflinching disposition to be evinced by the Secession newspapers. In Memphis they have heard of but one Union victory since the fall of Sumter – the battle of Rich Mountain. In all the other engagements the Unionists, according to the Rebel journals, are routed and killed in numbers ranging from 1,000 to 10,000.

There is a great scarcity of printing paper all through the South. The proprietors of the Memphis Appeal recently visited all the large cities of the Confederacy to buy up what paper of large size they could find for sale. They failed to obtain any of the right dimensions, and were obliged to curtail the "area" of their sheet inconsequence. The telegraph has not operated very well lately, for lack of necessary battery supplies.

A severe censorship is exercised on all papers in the South. A. R. Cazenaw, formerly counted with the Enquirer, of this city, now editor of the Memphis Argus, was before the Military committee on two or three different occasions, for publishing articles condemning the course of the Confederate Government in certain military matters. He was warned each time that unless he moderated his tone, the Argus would be suppressed. A similar sentence has been passed on several other editors and journals.

Our informant, as we have said, left Memphis on the 19th of January. He went by railroad to Clarksville, Tenn., then by stage to Hopkinsville. In order to obtain a pass to leave Memphis, he was obliged to testify before the Military Committee of that city that he was in delicate health, and wished to visit Uniontown, Ky., to see his brother. At Hopkinsville the Confederate commander – General Clark, of Mississippi- refused to pass him beyond his lines until he telegraphed to Memphis to know whether he was "all right." A reply in the affirmative being received, no further difficulty was experienced.

When or informant reached Hopkinsville, on the 22d of January, Gen. Clark was expecting an attack from Gen Crittenden, and feared the worst in case it was made…..

Philadelphia Enquirer, February 5, 1862.

        6, Capture of Fort Henry

No. 1

SAINT LOUIS, January 30, 1862.

Brig. Gen. U. S. GRANT, Cairo, Ill.

Make your preparations to take and hold Fort Henry. I will send you written instructions by mail.

H. W. HALLECK, Maj.-Gen.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE MISSOURI, Saint Louis, January 30, 1862.

Brig. Gen. U. S. GRANT, Cairo, Ill.

SIR: You will immediately prepare to send forward to Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, all your available forces from Smithland, Paducah, Cairo, Fort Holt, Bird's Point, &c. Sufficient garrisons must be left to hold these places against an attack from Columbus. As the roads are almost impassable for large forces, and as your command is very deficient in transportation, the troops will be taken in steamers up the Tennessee River as far as practicable. Supplies will also be taken up in steamers as far as possible. Flag-Officer Foote will protect the transports with his gunboats. The Benton and perhaps some others should be left for the defense of Cairo. Fort Henry should be taken and held at all hazards. I shall immediately send you three additional companies of artillery from this place.

The river front of the fort is armed with 20-pounders, and it may be necessary for you to take some guns of large caliber and establish a battery on the opposite side of the river. It is believed that the guns on the land side are of small caliber and can be silenced by our field artillery. It is said that the north side of the river below the fort is favorable for landing. If so, you will land and rapidly occupy the road to Dover and fully invest the place, so as to cut off the retreat of the garrison.

Lieut.-Col. McPherson, U. S. Engineers, will immediately report to you, to act as chief engineer of the expedition. It is very probable that an attempt will be made from Columbus to re-enforce Fort Henry; also from Fort Donelson at Dover. If you can occupy the road to Dover you can prevent the latter. The steamers will give you the means of crossing from one side of the river to the other. It is said that there is a masked battery opposite the island below Fort Henry. If this cannot be avoided or turned it must be taken.

Having invested Fort Henry, a cavalry force will be sent forward to break up the railroad from Paris to Dover. The bridges should be rendered impassable, but not destroyed.

A telegram from Washington says that Beauregard left Manassas four days ago with fifteen regiments for the line of Columbus and Bowling Green. It is therefore of the greatest importance that we cut that line before he arrives. You will move with the least delay possible. You will furnish Commodore Foote with a copy of this letter. A telegraph line will be extended as rapidly as possibly from Paducah, east of the Tennessee River, to Fort Henry. Wires and operators will be sent from Saint Louis.

H. W. HALLECK, Maj.-Gen.

No. 2.

Report of Flag-Officer A. H. Foote, U. S. Navy, commanding naval forces on the Western waters.

CAIRO, ILL., February 7, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report that on the 6th instant, at 12.30 o'clock p. m., I made an attack on Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, with the iron-clad gunboats Cincinnati, Commander Stembel; the flag-ship Essex, Commander Porter; Carondelet, Commander Walke, and St. Louis, Lieut.-Commander Paulding; also taking with me the three old gunboats, Conestoga, Lieut.-Commander Phelps; the Tyler, Lieut.-Commander Gwin, and the Lexington, Lieut.-Commander Shirk, as a second division, in charge of Lieut.-Commander Phelps, which took position astern and inshore of the armed boats, doing good execution there during the action, while the armed boats were placed in the first order of steaming, approaching the fort in a parallel line.

The fire was opened at 1,700 yards' distance from the flag-ship, which was followed by the other gunboats, and responded to by the fort. As we approached the fort under slow steaming till we reached within 600 yards of the rebel batteries the fire both from the gunboats and fort increased in rapidity and accuracy of range. At twenty minutes before the rebel flag was struck the Essex unfortunately received a shot in her boilers, which resulted in wounding, by scalding, 29 officers and men....

The Essex then necessarily dropped out of line astern, entirely disabled, and unable to continue the fight, in which she had so gallantly participated until the sad catastrophe. The firing continued with unabated rapidity and effect upon the three gunboats as they continued still to approach the fort with their destructive fire until the rebel flag was hauled down, after a very severe and closely contested action of one hour and fifteen minutes.

A boat containing the adjutant-general and captain of engineers came alongside after the flag was lowered, and reported that Gen. Lloyd Tilghman, the commander of the fort, wished to communicate with the flag-officer, when I dispatched Commander Stembel and Lieut.-Commander Phelps, with orders to hoist the American flag where the secession ensign had been flying, and to inform Gen. Tilghman that I would see him on board the flag-ship. He came on board soon after the Union had been substituted for the rebel flag by Commander Stembel on the fort and possession taken. I received the general, his staff, and 60 or 70 men as prisoners, and a hospital ship containing 60 invalids, together with the fort and its effects, mounting twenty guns, mostly of heavy caliber, with barracks and tents capable of accommodating 15,000 men, and sundry articles, of which, as I turned the fort and its effects over to Gen. Grant, commanding the Army, on his arrival in an hour after we had made the capture, he will be enabled to give the Government a more correct statement than I am enabled to communicate from the short time I had possession of the fort The plan of the attack, so far as the Army reaching the rear of the fort to make a demonstration simultaneously with the Navy, was prevented by the excessively muddy roads and high stage of water, preventing the arrival of our troops until some time after I had taken possession of the fort.

On securing the prisoners and making necessary preliminary arrangements I dispatched Lieut.-Commander Phelps, with his division, up the Tennessee River, as I had previously directed...and so far render the bridge incapable of railroad transportation and communication between Bowling Green and Columbus, and afterwards to pursue the rebel gunboats and secure their capture, if possible. This being accomplished and the Army in possession of the fort...I left Fort Henry in the evening of the same day, with the Cincinnati and St. Louis, and arrived here this morning.

The armed gunboats resisted effectually the shot of the enemy when striking the casemate. The Cincinnati (flag-ship) received 31 shots, the Essex 15, the St. Louis 7, and the Carondelet 6, killing 1 and wounding 9 in the Cincinnati and killing 1 in the Essex, while the casualties in the latter from steam amounted to 28 in number. The Carondelet and St. Louis met with no casualties. The steamers were admirably handled by their commanders and officers, presenting only their bow guns to the enemy, to avoid exposure of the vulnerable parts of their vessels. Lieut.-Commander Phelps, with his division, also executed my orders very effectually, and promptly proceeded up the river in their further execution after the capture of the fort. In fact, all the officers and men gallantly performed their duty, and, considering the little experience they have had under fire, far more than realized my expectations.

Fort Henry was defended with the most determined gallantry by Gen. Tilghman, worthy of a better cause, who, from his own account, went into the action with eleven guns of heavy caliber bearing upon our boats, which he fought until seven of the number were dismounted or otherwise rendered useless.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

A. H. FOOTE, Flag-Officer, Cmdg. U. S. Naval Forces Western Waters.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE MISSOURI, Saint Louis, February 9, 1862.

I have this moment received the official report of your capture of Fort Henry, and hasten to congratulate you and your command for your brilliant success.


Maj.-Gen., Cmdg. Department.

Flag-Officer A. H. FOOTE, Cairo.

No. 3.

Reports of Brig. Gen. U. S. Grant, U. S. Army, commanding land forces of the expedition.

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF CAIRO, Fort Henry, February 6, 1862.

Fort Henry is ours. The gunboats silenced the batteries before the investment was completed. I think the garrison must have commenced the retreat last night. Our cavalry followed, finding two guns abandoned in the retreat.

I shall take and destroy Fort Donelson on the 8th and return to Fort Henry.

U. S. GRANT, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, pp. 122-124.


U. S. GUNBOAT CONESTOGA, Fort Henry, Tenn., February 6, 1862.

SIR: In conformity with your directions, the division of gunboats under my command, consisting of the Tyler, Lieutenant Commanding Gwin; Lexington, Lieutenant Commanding Shirk, and this vessel, in the attack of this morning on this work, took up a position upon the left bank of the river and opened fire with shells immediately after your first gun was fired and continued firing till the rebel flag was hauled down, having succeeded in throwing shells without firing over your flagship or over the other iron-plated boats in close contest with the fort. There were fired from this vessel 75 32-pounder shells, 14 12-pounder rifled shells, and 2 round shot. No injury was done either of the vessels and no casualties occurred, though we were at times exposed to the ricochet of the close fire upon your vessel, as well as to the direct fire of a 32-pounder rifled piece till it burst. The commanders of the Tyler and Lexington handled their vessels with excellent judgment. I enclose their reports. The officers and crew of this vessel displayed coolness and an admirable spirit in this action.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. L. PHELPS, Lieutenant, Commanding, U. S. Navy.

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 22, pp. 542-543.

R.H. Cutter's account of the Fort Henry fight, pursuit of Confederate steamers up the Tennessee, and the burning of a Confederate camp at Savannah

A Clevelander's Account of the Fight at Fort Henry, and the Expedition up the Tennessee

We have been allowed to make some extracts from a private letter, written by Mr. R. H. Cutter, Master on board the gunboat Conestoga, which gives some additional incidents of the capture of Fort Henry and the expedition on the Tennessee River beyond that Fort. After describing the approach to the Fort, and the commencement of the battle, the letter says:

For a time the enemy's shot fell in showers around the Conestoga, as she was not a particular favorite of the rebels. Our brave boys stood it well and fought like tigers, notwithstanding the "secesh" balls were screaming around and over us. The Conestoga through it all, seemed to bear a charmed life, as she was not once struck. The Essex, when the engagement was about half over, was disabled by a shot which entered one of her ports, cutting of a steam pipe and letting the steam rush upon the poor fellows. Both Pilots were killed, the Captain severely wounded, and a number of the crew killed and wounded. The disabled boat immediately dropped down the stream and a tugboat went to her relief.

The other boats steadily advanced on the enemy, the Flag ship leading off, and poured in a deadly fire upon the Fort. The rebels could not stand this; and although they fought well, they were obliged to surrender. At five minutes past two o'clock, just one hour and twenty minutes after the first gun was fired, the enemy struck their colors; and, when they were seen t be lowered our men sent up such a yell of joy as is seldom ever heard. We then ceased firing and ran up close to the Fort, when the rebel commander cane of in a small boat and surrendered himself and command as prisoner of war. A little while longer and the glorious stars and stripes were run over Fort Henry, to take the place of the one we had caused to be run down. Then such a succession cheers from our boat which went up, you ought to heard - it would have done your heart good. I did my best to swell the grand chorus, and can truly say I did not once flinch during the engagement. The gunboats had it all their own way, as the troops did not arrive upon the scene till all was over.

Tell Mr. Foot that his brother fought nobly, and escaped without injury, though his boat was many times struck by the enemy's shot. Two of his men were instantly killed and two wounded. The effects of our shot and shell upon the rebel works could plainly see from the decks of our boat. The sand bags were scattered in all directions; one of their guns rammed full of "secesh" mud; another broke entirely in two, and their tens and huts fairly riddled, and some of them set on fire. The rebel Colonel said, speaking of our firing, that at first it was very pretty to see our shell pass over their heads and strike in the woods beyond' but, after a while, when we got the right range and our shot came in upon them, it wasn't quite so pretty. Said he, "Your firing was splendid" – and rather think it was. In an hour or two after the fort fell, the Conestoga Lexington and Tyler, under the command of Capt. Phelps, passed up the river, the Conestoga taking the lead; and then such a time we had chasing the rebel steamers. Soon the Conestoga left the other gunboats astern. We went clear into Mississippi and Alabama. But I cannot tell you all that occurred, it would make too long a letter. We captured three and caused the rebels to bur seven of their boats. In fact, we cleaned the river out, with the exception of two boats, which they ran up some creek where we could not get. We were often fired upon long the river, but escaped unharmed. I stood with a Sharp's rifle in the stern port, looking out for a fellow who firing at us. I think he saw me, for he fired almost as soon as I showed myself. Immediately my rifle cracked, and I sent him word to look out for himself. Another time, as I stood upon the quarter –deck (it was in the night) flash went a gun, and the bill passed close to me. I immediately fired at the flash three times in rapid succession. Another time, as we neared two steamers, they were run into the shore and set on fire. One of them had over four thousand pounds of powder on board. This we knew not; and were but a short distance when the explosion took place. I was on duty at the time, being on the spar-deck. The concussion was tremendous; our little boat seemed to lifted bodily up, and she trembled like an aspen. Our sky-lights and lanterns were shivered; the lock torn off the cabin-door, and other damage done. For a long time afterward I felt lame from the effects of the shock. A house, standing near the place, was blown into a heap of ruins, and it was a miracle that we escaped. At Savannah I was ordered to take command of a party of twelve men; took all I could find and then set fire to the camp. There was about fifty log cabins in all, and well built, and they made quite a pretty fire. It was rather a daring operation, but nobody was hurt. We took a large quantity of arms and army clothing, and cooking utensils, together with enough provisions to last a long time; so it won't cost me much to live for some time to come.

I have got the following "secesh" articles, a hat, overcoat, two pairs pants, a snare drum, and two guns (one rifle and one shot-gun.)

We have just landed at Paducah….we intend to have another great fight up the Cumberland River in a day or two. I am fearful that we may be less successful than at Fort Henry, but hope for the best.

The Daily Cleveland Herald, February 17 , 1862.[3]

6, Report of Morphine Laced Quinine in Memphis

Look Out!-The Memphis Appeal reports the detection in that city of a large number of packages of poisoned quinine, smuggled in from the North. Some had enough morphine mixed with the quinine to make them dangerous if taken in quinine doses, and other had both morphine and strychnine! The examination was made by competent chemists, and the facts communicated to the Appeal by the parties engaged in the investigation.

Daily Columbus Enquirer, February 6, 1862.

        6-10, Pursuit of Confederate steamers by U. S. N.

U. S. N. Lt. S. Ledyard Phelps, pursued Confederate steamers destroying Confederate stores on the Tennessee River subsequent to the fall of Fort Henry. U. S. S. Lexington, Tyler, and Conastoga.

Report of Lieutenant S.L. Phelps, to Flag-Officer A.H. Foote, U. S. N., relative to naval operations on the Tennessee River, February 6-10, 1862:

Soon after the surrender of Fort Henry, on the 6th, I proceeded...up the Tennessee River with the Tyler, Lieutenant Commanding Gwin; Lexington, Lieutenant Commanding Shirk, and this vessel (Conestoga), forming a division of the flotilla, and arrived after dark at the railroad crossing, 25 miles above the fort, having on the way destroyed a small amount of camp equipage, abandoned by the fleeing rebels. The draw of the bridge was found closed and the machinery for turning it disabled. About 1 ½ miles above, were several rebel transport streamers escaping upstream. A party was landed in one hour I had the satisfaction to see the draw open. The Tyler being the slowest of the gunboats, Lieutenant Commanding Gwin landed a force to destroy a portion of the railroad track and to secure such military stores as might be found, while I directed Lieutenant Commanding Shirk to follow me with all speed in chase of the fleeing boats. In five hours this boat succeeded in forcing three rebels to abandon and burn three of their boats, loaded with military stores. The first one fired (Samuel Orr) had on board a quantity of submarine batteries, which very soon exploded; the second one was freighted with power, cannon shot, grape, balls, etc. Fearing an explosion from the fired boats (there were two together), I had stopped at a distance of 1,000 yards; but even there our skylights were broken by the concussion; the light upper deck was raised bodily, doors were forced open, and locks fastenings everywhere broken.

The whole river for half a mile around about was completely beaten up by the falling fragments and the shower of shot, grape, balls, etc. The house of a reported Union man was blown to pieces, and it is suspected there was design in landing the boats in front of the doomed home. The Lexington having fallen astern, and without a pilot on board, I concluded to wait for both of the boats to come up. Joined by them we proceeded up the river...Gwin had destroyed some of the trestlework at the end of the bridge, burning with them a lot of camp equipage. I.N. Brown, formerly a lieutenant in the Navy, now signing himself "Lieutenant, C. S.N.," had fled with such precipitation as to leave his papers behind. These Lieutenant Commanding Gwin brought away and I send them to you, as they give an Official history of the rebel floating preparations on the Mississippi, Cumberland, and Tennessee. "Lieutenant" Brown had charge of the construction of gunboats. At night on the 7th we arrived at a landing in Harding County, Tenn., known as Cerro Gordo, where we found the steamer Eastport being converted to a gunboat. Armed boats' crews were immediately sent on board and search made for means of destruction that might have been devised. She had been scuttled and the suction pipes broken. These leaks were soon stopped. A number of rifle shots were fired at our vessels, but a couple of shells dispersed the rebels. On examination I found that there were large quantities of timber and lumber prepared for fitting up the Eastport; that the vessel itself, some 280 feet long, was in excellent condition and already half finished; considerable of the plating designed for her was lying on the bank and everything at hand to complete here. I therefore directed Lieutenant Commanding Gwin to remain with the Tyler to guard the prize, and to load the lumber...while the Lexington and Conestoga should proceed still higher up.

Soon after daylight on the 8th we passed Eastport, Miss, and at Chickasaw, farther up, near the State line, seized two steamers, the Sallie Wood and Muscle....We then proceeded...entering...Alabama and ascending to...the foot of the Mussel Shoals....Some shots were fired from the opposite side of river below....

* * * *

We returned on the night of the 8th to where the Easport lay [Cerro Gordo]. The crew of the Tyler had already gotten on board of the prizes an immense amount of lumber....The crews of the three boats set to work to finish the undertaking, and we have brought away probably 250,000 feet of the best quantity of ship and building lumber, all the iron, machinery, spikes, plating, nails...belong to the rebel gunboat, and I caused the mill to be destroyed where the lumber had been sawed.

Lieutenant Commanding Gwin in our absence had enlisted some 25 Tennesseans, who gave information of the encampment of Colonel Crews' rebel regiment, at Savannah, Tenn. A portion of the 600 or 700 men were known to be "pressed" men, and all were badly armed....I determined to make a land attack upon the encampment. Lieutenant Commanding Shirk, with 30 riflemen, came on board the Conestoga, leaving his vessel to guard the Easport....Gwin took command of this force when landed, but had the mortification to find the camp deserted. The rebels had fled at 1 o'clock in the night....The gunboats were then dropped down to a point where arms gathered under the rebel "press law" had been stored, and an armed party under Second Master Goudy, of the Tyler, succeeded in seizing about 70 rifles and fowling pieces. Returning to Cerro Gordo, we took the Eastport, Sallie Wood, and Muscle in tow, and came down the river to the railroad crossing. The Muscle sprung a lead, and all efforts failed to prevent her sinking, and we were forced to abandon her, and with her a considerable quantity of fine lumber. We are having trouble in getting through the draw of the bridges here.

I now come to the, to me, the most interesting portion of this report....We have met with the most gratifying proofs of loyalty everywhere across Tennessee....Men, women, and children several times gathered in crowds of hundreds, shouted their welcome and hailed their national flag with enthusiasm there was no mistaking. It was genuine and heartfelt. Those people braved everything to go to the river bank, where a sight of their flag might once more be enjoyed, and they had experienced, as they related, every possible form of persecution. Tears flowed freely down the cheeks of men as well as of women, and there were those who had fought under the stars and stripes at Moultrie, who, in this matter testified to their joy. This display of feeling and sense of gladness at our success...I would not have failed to witness....In Tennessee the people generally in their enthusiasm braved secessionists and spoke their views freely...We were told, too, "Bring us a small organized force with arms and ammunition for us, and we can maintain our position and put down rebellion in our midst." There were, it is true, whole communities who, on our approach, fled to the woods, but these were where there was less of the loyal element and where the fleeing steamers in advance had spread tales of our coming with firebrand, burning destroying, ravishing, and plundering.

S.L. Phelps, Lieutenant Commanding, U. S. Navy

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 22, pp. 571-574.[4]

        5, Confederate Secretary of War James A. Seddon reassures General J.E. Johnston concerning command of the Army of Tennessee

WAR DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, Va., February 5, 1863.


DEAR SIR: I take the liberty of addressing you unofficially. It has pained me to find from several of your telegrams to the President, as well as from intimations occasionally dropped in conversation by our mutual friend, Gen. Wigfall, that you consider your position in your present command somewhat anomalous and unsatisfactory. You seem to consider the several armies within your department too far separated by distance, and too distinct in the aims of their operations, to be wielded as a whole, and that, while nominally controlling all, you can really have command of none, and must stand responsible for the failures, without receiving the credit of the successes, of each. Now, with this view, I can well understand your position to be distasteful and vexatious, but I feel assured it was very far from the intention of the President, as it certainly never has been mine, to regard your command in this light. The department placed under you was too remote to have that direct supervision and control of the separate armies in it exercised by the authorities here which they could give to the commands nearer to them in this State, and consequently it was much desired that a general of the largest experience and greatest ability and reputation should be placed there, to have over it something of the same guiding direction and control as war exercised nearer the capital by the Department and President. Besides, it was thought that the armies in your department were not so disunited in ends, or so remote from each other, that combined movements among them might not be mutually supporting, and that in certain contingencies even transfers of troops might not be requisite.

For these purposes you were selected, from the high confidence reposed in you, and certainly from the conviction that an enlarged sphere of usefulness was assigned you.

In another respect great advantage was anticipated from your superior command, which I fear your generous self-abnegation and excessive consideration for the claims of your subordinate generals will prevent from being fully attained. It was contemplated and expected that, besides the general guidance and supervision above referred to, you should, whenever and wherever the exigency seemed most to demand, assume directly the supreme command of the army imperiled, and give to it the benefit of your prestige and superior ability. Thus, when Vicksburg was attacked, I was disappointed that you had not assumed command, and even more did I regret that you had not the direction of movements in the great operations around Murfreesborough. Can you not take this [as I think the true] view of your relation and duties in respect to the several armies in your department? If so, I assure you the anxiety and responsibility I feel in relation to these several fields of action will be greatly relieved.

But if unwilling thus, as occasion may demand, to displace your lieutenants, could you not, while exercising a general supervision, yet establish yourself permanently with the central and leading army in Middle Tennessee, with Gen. Bragg [as I understand, admirably qualified to be] an organizer and administrator under you, and direct all its field operations? Would this condition better suit you, or would you prefer to command separately, and without any such leading subordinate, that army alone? I should really be pleased to learn candidly from you your own preferences, for while I cannot assure their fulfillment, yet, from my appreciation and confidence in you, I should have every disposition to promote and may not be powerless to accomplish them.

I hope the spirit and motives prompting this letter will be understood by you, and your indulgence to them manifested by an early reply.

With the highest esteem, cordially, yours,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 626-627.

        5, Seizure at Island No. 10 of W.A. Knapp by U. S. S. New Era[5]

Report of Acting Rear-Admiral Porter, U. S. Navy, transmitting papers.

[No. 112.] U. S. Mississippi Squadron, February 15, 1863.

Sir: I have the honor to enclose...papers in relation to the seizure of the steamer W.A. Knapp by U. S. S. New Era for having on board contraband goods and munitions of war.

* * * *

David D. Porter, Acting Rear Admiral, Commanding Mississippi Squadron

[Telegram enclosed]

Cairo, Ill., February 5, 1863

Gunboat New Era has captured steamboat W.A. Knapp, with valuable cargo. The captain, crew, and others, calling themselves passengers, have been made prisoners. Come to Cairo in order to take measures in regard to the prize and prisoners immediately, if possible.

A.M. Pennock, Fleet Captain and Commandant of Station.

Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pp. 326-238.

        5, Destruction of flour and mill machinery at New Middleton [see February 3-7, 1863, Expedition from Murfreesborough to Auburn, Liberty, Alexandria, Carthage and Gallatin environs, above]

        5, Major-General Rosecrans requests power of summary hearing and punishment for officers

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, February 5, 1863--7.50 p. m.

Hon. HENRY WILSON, Chairman U. S. Senate Committee on Military Affairs, Washington, D. C.:

Permit me to suggest two measures of vast importance to our future success. The law should provide for the summary hearing and punishment of officers by brigade or division commanders, in a manner similar to that of enlisted men by regimental field officers, for all minor offenses, such as neglect of duty, waste of public property, neglecting the subsistence or clothing of the soldiers under their command, by fines or extra duty. The other is that this Congress should pass a law resuming its control over the militia. We may not be able to do this necessary thing in the next. We must do all we can to economize our troops, and prepare for emergencies.

W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 47.

        5, Major-General Rosecrans tightens security, enforcement of General Orders No. 151, War Department, October 4, 1862

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 12. HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, Tenn., February 5, 1863.

The following extract from General Orders, No. 151, War Department, October 4, 1862, is published for the information of this army:

II. If any officer shall hereafter, without proper authority, permit the publication of any official letter or report, or allow any copy of such document to pass into the hands of persons not authorized to receive it, his name will be submitted to the President for dismissal. This rule applies to all official letters and reports written by an officer himself.

The general commanding has been surprised to observe the frequent violation of this order by officers of this army, and regrets that they should allow any desire thus to ventilate their achievements to lead them to commit so serious a breach of military propriety. He feels that his duty requires him to comply with the terms of the order quoted, and report the names of officers so offending to the President for dismissal.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 48.

        5, Federal cavalry conduct foraging missions in Franklin and Spring Hill environs

No circumstantial reports filed.


Maj. THOMAS M. JACK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

This place is very much threatened by the enemy. A division of infantry, 1,500 cavalry, with fifteen pieces of artillery, are on this side of Franklin, and the cavalry are ravaging and plundering the country as far as the neighborhood of Spring Hill. I have only two small regiments of cavalry; no infantry; no artillery. We have about one hundred and fifty wagon-loads of commissary stores, and no means of transportation; forty wagon-loads of bacon, flour, and wheat-perhaps more. I am removing the ordnance stores to the rear. If I had a battery of artillery, the place might be held until all was removed. If any transportation could be sent for these stores, it might be the means of saving what may otherwise be lost.

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

GID. J. PILLOW, Brig.-Gen. C. S. Army, and Chief of Bureau.

P. S.-Maj. [Henry D.] Bulkley has come, and says he will have 80 wagons here to-morrow. All of our stores of every kind would load, I suppose, 200 wagons. I send forward another lot of volunteers.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 628.

        5, Report of Confederate cavalry and artillery at Island No. 10 revised-guerrilla activity indicated [see February 3,1863, Confederate attack at Island No. 10 above]

        5, A proposal to raise Federal refugee regiments in Wilson, Smith, DeKalb, Macon and Putnam Counties

Gallatin Ten Febry 5th 1863 [sic]

Gov Johnson

Dear Sir

I wrote you some days ago relative to the raising [of] a regiment of independent scouts for United States Service or rather State service; said regiment to be raised from the counties of Wilson, Smith, DeKalb, Macon & Putnam and participate in the war for the restoration of the Union and be confined mainly [sic] in their action to the locality from which [they] were raised. I desire to state in this communication in addition to what I have before said that there are now at least one thousand refugees from the five counties above named who desere [sic] & would take hold if they could be allowed to enter the service for a shorter term than the war & who would take hold if they could be allowed to enter the service for a shorter term than the war & who would prove efficient in ridding the country of guerrillas but who cold [sic] not be influenced to enter the serviced for the war. The state, allow me to suggests [sic], needs the services of a large number of independent mounted men on the Guerrilla order to meet & rid the Country of the robbers that infest in the garb of confederate [sic] soldiers and who from their acquaintance with the country would be most efficient auxillaries [sic] to the main army[.] Such a corps as suggested would be of much benefit in enabling you to set to work the machinery of the civil department of the state and restoring law & order & aid us perhaps in being sooner reprisented [sic] [in] the congress [sic] of the United States. If permission would be given to some man properly vouched for to raise & organise [sic] such a corps as above suggested for a term of, say, nine months I think the thing can be done immediately and would be disposed to try. If in your judgment such a move would be practable [sic] & a commission granted for the purpose, please notify me of the fact. I would ask also if you concur in the proposition before stated that you write me at this place giving particulars &c or if desired I will come to Nashville at your suggestion. Give me an answer as soon as possible.

Respectfully your obt servt

B. F. C. Smith

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, p. 137.

5, Report on Army of the Cumberland Police Proceedings

Army Police Proceedings.

Before the Chief of Police, Army of the Cumberland, Jan. 30.--….

The case of Mrs. T. was brought up. She was charged with attempting to convey important information to the enemy, and, also, with attempting to co-operate with the rebel Quartermaster Department in covering the heels and toes of their soldiers, more particularly, with taking steps to provide a pair of new boots for the feet of Mr. T., her husband. These charges were conclusively shown to be true, thus making Mrs. T. liable to the most severe punishment. The prisoner was astonished that the Chief of Police should object to her providing necessary comforts for her husband, even though a rebel soldiers. Entreaties and tears, however, did not convince the inexorable Chief, and the prisoner received a wholesome lesson as to her future course….

February 3-4….Mrs. R. Higgins was arrested under a charge of concealing Confederate prisoners, and of aiding them to escape through the lines. Much evidence was taken. Case not yet disposed of.

Nashville Dispatch, February 5, 1863.

        5-6, Capture of bushwhackers and Bradley County Confederate renegades in Scott County

Feb. 5.-We came into Scot [sic] County [sic] yesterday. Heavy snow storm last night. The regiment moved direct [sic] to Huntsville today, but our company made an excursion [in] another direction and captured 18 prisoners, all renegades under command of one Captain Early of Bradley County, who is himself among the prisoners. We first found them in a house, and they all took to their heels and made their escape in the mountains, but we followed their tracks in the snow and found them in a cave. We brought them to Huntsville to night [sic], were the regiment is encamped.

Feb. 6.-Our company made another excursion to day and took one prisoner whom we had good reason to believe was a bushwhacker, as we found him running from a house, and it took our best horses to catch him. He denied being a bushwhacker, but a halter around his neck brought out a very humble confession. There was a strong disposition on the part of the boys to hang him, but the officer in command (Lieut. Davis) would not permit it, and as he protested that he had joined the band under coercion, and had never fired a gun, but tried to avoid going with them, and as he had the appearance of an honest, ignorant mountaineer, we therefore sent him back with the other prisoners without registering a bushwhacking charge against him. I am on picket duty to-night. The weather is extremely cold.

Diary of William A. Sloan, February 5-6, 1863.

        6, Scout in the vicinity of Fort Pillow

No circumstantial reports filed.

        6, Bragg issues General Orders, No. 23, relative to suppression of absenteeism in Army of Tennessee

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 23. HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Tullahoma, February 6, 1863.

I. A rigid investigation of the returns and muster-rolls of this army, commenced two months since, and which is still being pursued, has developed the astonishing fact that several thousand officers and men are absent, in violation of the orders of the commanding general, and upon permission granted and details ordered by every grade of commissioned officer from lieutenant up. The parties committing these offenses will be held to a strict accountability for the past, and their Official acts closely scrutinized for the future. The country is full of straggling officers and soldiers holding no other authority than these assumptions, who are hereby required to return to their posts and resume their duties.

II. The authority to grant leaves of absence has been reserved to these headquarters, and no officer can properly order any one of his command beyond his own jurisdiction. When such an order is desirable or necessary, it must be obtained by application to higher authority.

III. Applications for leaves or orders for detached service, approved by subordinate commanders, have frequently been returned to the applicants to be presented personally at headquarters, and have by them been used without confirmation. Commanders and staff officers will send all such correspondence through the proper Official channel, and are notified that applications sent in any other way will be rejected or not considered.

By command of Gen. Bragg:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 629

        6, Newspaper column opinion concerning chances for the success of the Confederacy, written from winter camp in Tullahoma[6]:

"Does the strength of the South consist alone in bone, flesh, thews, sinews and muscle? If so, our cause then is surely hopeless, for beyond question the North out measures us in point of weight and bulk. Our superiority consists in the morale, [sic] the animus. Is this not the creation of intelligence? The Northern people submit tamely to usurpation, but at its first noiseless, stealthy approach the Southern spirit starts like a panther. The difference intelligence and training accounts for this. Why cripple them the medium of supply for this peculiar strength of the South? Could the redoubted warriors, breathing fire along the corridors of the capitol see the throng of ragged soldiers pressing eagerly around the news office at this place daily, for a paper, perhaps a change would come over the spirit of their dreams. These poorly clad soldiers, 'foot sore and weary,' are perhaps [sic] as sincerely devoted to the cause as these sweet-smelling 'Conscript Fathers.' Are the people to be blindfolded in the midst of a revolution when all is at stake? Baron Munchausen tells us of a blind sow he saw...that grasped her pig's tale [sic] with her teeth and was in this manner led from place to place. Do our friends at Richmond require this of us?"[7]

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, February 10, 1863.

        6, Confederate Conscription Circular in East Tennessee

Headquarters Department E. Tennessee

Knoxville, February 6th, 1863


The following Circular is published for the benefit of all concerned:


Adjutant and Inspector General's Office

Richmond, Jan. 8, 1863.

Sir: - Your attention is called to the great necessity that now exists for strengthening exertions in securing men to fill up the various commands of the army in a reasonable time. You are, therefore, desired to detail from you command such suitable officers and men as can be spared, to proceed at once to those sections of country in which their regiments were raised, for the purpose of gathering conscripts and conducting them to their commands, without passing them through camps of instruction in the ordinary manner. Every encouragement will be offered by the officers thus detailed consistent with the law and regulations of the service; and by kind treatment and argument, addressed to the patriotism and sense of duty of citizens to induce them to enter the service of their country. Such persons as are liable to conscription will be allowed to join any particular company and regiment requiring recruits within the command in which the officer may be serving. In like manner, such persons as are within conscript ages, and who may come forward and offer themselves for service will be allowed to volunteer, and will receive all benefits which are secured by law to volunteers. Recruits thus obtained, however, must, in all cases, enter companies already in service, and not be organized into new companies or regiments. The officers and men, detailed by this authority, will be governed generally by the acts of conscription and exemption and the regulations in connexion therewith, published in General Orders No. 82 of 1862 from this office. Copies of this order will be furnished to parties interested in this circular, on application to this office.

Officers sent for the purpose of gathering conscripts are instructed to apprehend all stragglers from the army in their reach.

Very respectfully,

Your ob't. servant

S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector General

By order of the Secretary of War

Lt. Col. E. D. Blake, commandant of Conscripts

In order to carryout the spirit of the above Circular and to avoid any action on the part of the recruiting officers in East Tennessee, which many interfere with a rigid enforcement of the Conscript law, all officers now recruiting in East Tennessee will report immediately to Lt. Col. E. D. Blake, Commandant of Conscripts at Knoxville, and receive from him such instruction, not inconsistent with General Orders No. 82, Adjutant and Inspector General's Office, Richmond, November 3, 1862, as may be calculated to promote the interests of the recruiting service.

By command of

Brig. Gen. H. Heth.

James Benagh, Capt. and A. A. G.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, February 12, 1863.

        6-20, A Kentuckian's change of heart toward the Negro

Went a foraging five miles out and two miles to the left of Lebanon Road. Got a good supply of forage and returned to camp without any casualty. Remained in Camp on the 7th, but on the 8th we were again placed to work on the fortifications – plenty of pop-skull[8] issued to the troops to justify some of the boys to take it into their heads that it would look discent [sic] to take a gentlemanly tight – two of them conclude that each of them "is monarch of all he surveys" and fall out about the originality of their claims when they conclude to decided it – by pugilistic contest. This action seeming to disagree with the peaceful inclination of their Company Commander, he orders them to be separated and tied down.

In the evening some of the boys take it into their heads to annoy a negro [sic] who was peaceable passing by, by pelting him with light sticks and stones (rather small business, I think). The negro [sic], not relishing such treatment, returned these affronts by throwing a stone at the crowd from which most of the offending sticks and stones seemed to mandate and striking one of the members of Co. K with said stone on the neck with such force as to nearly deprive him of life. The negro immediately broke and stumbled to run off, but a hot pursuit and cries of "shoot him", "hang him", "knock out his brains: was immediately commenced from all quarters and soon the negro was in custody and preparations were beingmade for his immediate suspension when his employer came up and demanded that he be allowed a fair trial.

After some hesitation, this was acceded to and the negro [sic] was carried away, I don't know that the negro [sic] was ever tried for this act, but he certainly deserved punishment for the manner in which he attempted to resent these uncalled-for insults. He should not have thrown the stone promiscuously at the guard and thus risked the injuring of an unoffender, and the man whom he came so near killing was not one of his tormentors, but was guilty of attending to his own business or shoveling dirt. But I do think that the men who were so uselessly and provokingly insulting to the negro [sic] deserved at least the contempt of all honorable men.

This is rather a strong assertion of a man who was born and reared in a Southern state, but I have seen so much little meannesses practiced toward the negro race that I cannot help expressing my true feeling on the subject. There was always a class of persons in our Army who were continually croaking about the measures of the administration, and their strongest point they could ever bring up to excuse their disloyalty or opposition to every great and wise action of the lamented President, Abraham Lincoln, the subject upon which they lived principally to discant [sic] was the subject of Negro Equality,[sic] and these same croakers were always first to attempt to bring themselves into this hated (by them) sphere of social equality with the negro [sic]. A negro [sic] could not pass them without eliciting from them some obscene remark, and a shower of hurtful missiles from which there was no excuse in the world, save that the individual at whom they were aimed was a negro [sic].

Many a time has my blood fairly boiled with rage when I have seen some of these poor fellows, whose only fault is a black skin, and the fact they have always been slaves, stunned by a stone thrown by some specimen of the noble and magnanimous Anglo Saxen [sic] race. And as a general thing, the persons who were thus continually despising and insulting the negro [sic], and specially those who were most forward to do so, were generally men, superiors to whom in point of bravery, patriotism, morality, education and natural intelligence could be found among the free Africans and even amount the slaves by the hundred. This is another rather strong assertion, but if I were not prepared to substantiate such an assertion, I would most certainly not make it. But as these columns are not the place for me to go into a defense of the rights off the negro [sic], I will immediately desist from this digression as it is brought out by an incident connected with the relating of my narrative.

There was much excitement in our Regiment while at this place, caused by the passing of an Act by Congress allowing the president to raise corn and equip persons of African descent to serve as soldiers and seamen in the United States Army and Navy. The opposition to this measure was in our Regiment and many others, very great. I had not yet got rid of all the prejudices to the negro race that had been instilled into my mind as a consequence of living in a Southern state[9]and therefore I was violently opposed to having any negro troops in our Army. But the excitement soon universal that I became alarmed for the safety of our Regiment, if not for the whole Army, lest the men would disband themselves and go home.

Thinking that such a dishonorable breaking up of our Regiment, and probably of our Army, would be a greater evil than even millions of negro troops, I began to endeavor to allay the excitement among the members of our Company, but in doing this, to have any effect, I was compelled to take the opposite side of the question (which I willingly did, thinking it no crime to argue against my principle and in favor of the laws for a few days) if it would remove what I feared would lead to a disastrous catastrophe.

I handled the arguments that I could produce in favor of negro troops with all the skill and apparent sincerity that I could assume for a considerable time when almost to my horror I found myself partially convinced of the truth of the arguments that I had been advancing simply from a motive of policy and then by degrees I came to sincerely advocate this, one of the wisest and most prudent acts of the United States Government….

* * * *

Diary of William M Woodcock, 9th Kentucky Infantry[10]

        6, Confederate wounded assigned to the houses of Nashville citizens

Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 6, '63.

Orders—Supplement No. 1.—The following assignments of Confederate wounded are hereby made under the provisions of the order issued from these Headquarters on the 1st inst.:

Fifteen at the house of Mr. Henry Frazier, five at the house of Mrs. Watkins, both on Vauxhall street, and fifteen at the house of Mr. I. C. Nicholson, on Church street, fifteen at the house of Wm. Murphy, Vauxhall street. These new assignments are made in consequence of the deep interest manifested by the parties mentioned in the welfare of these wounded, and their solicitude, lest the sufferers should not be properly cared for in Federal hands.

By order of Brig. Gen. Rob't. B. Mitchell, Commanding.

Nashville Dispatch, February 7, 1863.

        5, Jane's wound and smuggling in Shelby County

February, Friday 5, 1864

Jane doing very well, the ball although passing so near the kidneys, & spine, missed both. Dr. Shaw has examined it by daylight, and thinks she will be up again in five or six weeks-

Peter and I went over to Mrs. Duke's-I went to Memphis in Mr. Armstrong's wagon-got the Morphine & Chloroform. Mr. Armstrong drove me out to Mrs. Duke's-I mounted old McGruder, Peter old Sam, we got home early. Jack ran off this morning, we don't know where to-but expect he has gone to Memphis-

Diary of Belle Edmondson

        5, Scout from Germantown to Hernando, Mississippi

GERMANTOWN, February 5, 1864--11 p. m.

(Received 8.30 a. m., 6th.) Capt. WOODWARD,

Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Cavalry Division:

The 200 men sent out this morning toward Hernando have returned. Went within 4 miles of Hernando. Found pickets at all crossings of the Coldwater. Found 5 rebels at Rodgers' Cross-Roads. No force at Hernando. Fifth Kentucky encamped at Daly's Mill. One Collins is arising a regiment across from Coldwater Station. The ferries destroyed below. The river not fordable. Brought in 1 prisoner. Another patrol brought in 2 prisoners.

W. SCOTT BELDEN, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, p. 331.

        5, New construction in Nashville

Frame buildings are going up rapidly all over the city; eight or nine have been erected on the south side of Church street, opposite the Academy property; on Broad street a large number of stables have been erected, which present a very neat appearance. Large machine and workshops have been built at the Chattanooga depot, and other large frame buildings are being erected by the Quartermaster's Department, for depots, etc.

Nashville Dispatch, February 5, 1864.

        5, "Dead Mules;" Public Health Impediment in Nashville

Large numbers of the carcasses of dead mules and horses are rotting upon the commons close by the corner of Summer and Crawford streets, filling the air with an intolerable stench, which is admirably calculated to increase the business of physicians and undertakers. As all other plans of ridding the city of this nuisance have failed, we beg leave to suggest the building of a large furnace, in which to burn these carcasses. We are of the opinion that not one-tenth part of the amount of wood some people suppose would be required, and even then should a large quantity be needed, the health of the city its worth more than all the wood that could possibly be consumed. If any person has a better idea, or an idea at all, on the subject, we would be glad to hear it; only do not say anything about burying them; that idea played out long ago.

Nashville Dispatch, February 5, 1864.

5, Federal scout along the Wolf River ordered

COLLIERVILLE, TENN., February 5, 1864.

Col. MCCRILLIS, Cmdg. Third Brigade:

You are hereby directed to order one regiment of cavalry across the Wolf River at daylight to-morrow morning to proceed down the north bank of the river, sweeping the country thoroughly to a distance of 8 or 10 miles back from the river, to capture any guerrillas they may meet, and bring in all the serviceable horses and mules they can find; to press all the wagons they can find and bring in all the forage they can procure, returning to-morrow evening. They must not jade their horses. One battalion should proceed to Morning Sun and ascertain if any of our cavalry has passed through, and, if so, what command, and when.

WM. SOOY SMITH, Brig. Gen., Chief of Cavalry, Military Division of the Miss.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, p. 332.

        5, A Sketch of Loudon, its Bridge and Submerged Locomotives

We take the following extract from the Knoxville correspondence of the Cincinnati Gazette of a late date:

Louden [sic].- At Louden, which is at present the head of steamboat navigation on the Tennessee, We drew up to a mud landing on the morning of the 18th. After lugging our baggage a half mile to the railroad, we were informed that a train would not be down from Knoxville before late that evening, there being only one locomotive on the road, and that a very slow one. The train was then above Knoxville sixteen miles, at Strawberry Plains, whither it made on trip per day. Seeing that we were in for about twelve hours' waiting, we entered some wooden tents, which were sufficient to protect us from the rain, and set to making merry as best we could. But meanwhile a north wing blew up and turned the rain into sleet. In one hour's time the weather became most stinging cold. We burn all the rails we could find, and them failed decidedly to keep comfortable. Eating was out of the question, as the neighbors had been foraged clean some time ago. The better to while away the time, I went out and examined the position.

Louden is a village of perhaps four hundred inhabitants, principally women and children, is on the left bank of the river. We were landed on the right. At this place was one of the largest and most costly bridges in the State, and the great piers, thirty-five feet high, yet standing and almost unimpaired, are the monuments of the vandalism of war. This bridge was 1,728 feet long, and its construction cost the State an immense amount of money. At the time our forces, after Chattanooga, had struck this railroad at Cleveland, Longstreet had three trains, thirty cars, at Louden, expecting to send them down to Dalton; but, on hearing that our forces had cut the road, he ordered them to be run into the river. Accordingly the steam was let on, the three trains started, and one after the other leaped into the Tennessee, where they lie to this day. They so completely fill the channel that our lightest draught boats cannot over them; and for this simple boats do not reach Knoxville. Besides this one, there were two other important bridges on this road destroyed by the rebels, the one over the Hiwassee, the over the Chickamauga. Sixteen hundred hands have lately been set to work on the road between Chattanooga and this place; but with all these, it will not be put in running order for some considerable time.

Louisville Daily Journal, February 5, 1864. [11]

        5, Requisite Oath for Voting in Tennessee.


It has been mentioned that the Hon. Andrew Johnson, the Military Governor of Tennessee, has ordered an election for certain officers in that State, with a view to the resumption of its functions as a State of the Union. The proclamation for the purpose is dated the 26th of January, and directs a election to be held on the first Saturday in March, next, in the various counties of the sate, "or wherever it is practicable too do so," for justices of the peace, sheriffs, constables, trustees, circuit and county clerks, registers, and tax collectors. The Qualification required of electors may be leaned by the following extract from Gov. Johnson's proclamation:

"Inasmuch as these elections are ordered in he State of Tennessee as a State of the Union under the Federal Constitution, it is not expected that the enemies of the United States will propose to vote, not is it intended that they be permitted to vote or hold office. In the midst of so much disloyalty and hostility as have existed among the people of this State toward the Government of the United State, and in order to secure the votes of its friend and exclude those of its enemies, I have deemed it proper to make know the requisite qualifications of the electors at said election. To entitle any person to the privilege of voting, he must be a fee white man, of the age of twenty one years, being a citizen of the United States and a citizen of the county where he may offer his vote six months preceding the day of the election, and a competent witness in any court of justice of the State, by the laws thereof, against a white man; and not having been convicted of bribery of the offer to bribe, or larceny or any other offence declared infamous by the laws of the State, unless he has been restored to citizenship in the mode pointed bout by law. And he must take and subscribe before the judges of the election the following oath:

"I solemnly swear that I will hence forth support the Constitution of the United States and defend it against the Constitution of the United States and defend it against the assaults of its enemies; that I will hereafter be and conduct myself as a true and faithful subject to all the duties and obligations, and entitled to all the rights and privileges of such citizenship; that I ardently desire the suppression of the present insurrection and rebellion against the Government of the United States, the success of its armies, and the defeat  of all those who oppose them; and that the Constitution of the United States, and all laws and proclamations made in pursuance thereof, may be speedily and permanently established and enforced over all the people, States, and Territories thereof; and further that I will hereafter heartily aid and assist all loyal people in the accomplishment of these results. So help me God."

This makes three States that were under rebel rule in which Union elections are to take place-in Louisiana on February 22, Tennessee March 5; and Arkansas March 14-thus restoring three Seceded States to the Union.

Daily National Intelligencer, February 5, 1864. [12]

        ca. 5, Burning of the town of Old Columbus, Jackson County, by Federal troops [see January 28-February 8, 1864, Expedition from Gallatin to Cumberland Mountains above]

        ca. 5-6, Scout from Bolivar to Collierville

No circumstantial reports filed.

COLLIERVILLE, February 6, 1864--2 p. m.

Capt. S. L. WOODWARD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:

Scout just returned from Bolivar. Found Col. Waring there. Had not got his train across the Hatchie yesterday morning. Expected to cross yesterday, and start for this place via Macon this morning. Calculates to reach here to-morrow night. Scout left Bolivar yesterday morning about 7 o'clock. Roads tolerably good.

L. F. McCrillis

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, p. 340.

        6, Report on conditions in East Tennessee from Cincinnati Gazette

NASHVILLE, February 6, 1864.

Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:

SIR: I take the liberty of inclosing an article in relation to East Tennessee, to which I beg to call you attention. From all I have been able to learn since my return, I think it gives a fair account of matters in that distressed region of our State.

I have not yet seen Gen. Grant since his arrival here, but shall try to do so as soon as I can. Things are bad enough, God knows, but there is great danger that they will soon get worse.

I am very respectfully, your obedient servant,




(From the Cincinnati Gazette.)

It is time to comment on the real character of the whole management in East Tennessee, and to look beyond the éclat of the first fortunate dash for the evidence of that military ability, foresight, and providence which were requisite to insure success and permanent occupation. The expedition has lacked these from the first. Gen. Burnside's movement was long delayed by the detachment of his corps to aid Grant at Vicksburg, and when it was made, there was not a provident accumulation of supplies for the expedition. It went without such preparation. Unfortunately, Gen. Burnside had made up his mind to withdraw from the service on the prestige of his successful days. He tendered his resignation immediately. Under such expectation a commander would not be likely to take energetic measures for pushing his advantage, gathering supplies for the winter, fortifying and securing his occupation.

Once in possession of East Tennessee with a force as large as his, holding it was a question of supplies and fortifications. He had the mounted troops necessary for securing the supplies the country afforded. The Confederate have found that country of great importance to them for supplies. It has not been made so to us. The result was that our troops have hardly had full rations at any time, and as soon as winter set in they were reduced to half, then quarter rations, and their animals were disabled by want of forage, and died off rapidly.

Besides the misfortunes of a commander who wished to reap his laurels and leave before completing his work, too much time and attention were wasted in politically restoring the Union and giving audience to dubious inhabitants, and too little to military necessities.

It is yet a mystery why, when Gen. Sherman marched his force into East Tennessee and reported it to Gen. Burnside, his ranking officer, something was not done by his adequate force to capture or drive out Longstreet. But Sherman's corps marched up and marched down, and Longstreet, at his leisure, returned to his mutton-the siege of Knoxville. Immediately, we find the enemy in possession of all the good foraging country and our forces confined to a narrow range, growing narrower by the loss of their horses by the loss of the forage.

Under Gen. Foster things have gone from bad to worse. It is probably that we have generals in the West competent for that command, and better adapted to it. The necessity of placing major-generals should not be regarded as a military necessity. By his order it seems the advance was made to Dandridge by troops without artillery or ammunition for a fight, followed by a precipitate retreat, sacrificing stores and clothes which our soldiers were suffering for, and a large number of cattle and hogs, while the army is on part rations.

New management is necessary in East Tennessee. We hope Gen. Schofield is the man wanted. The situation there hardly warrants the apparent ease and complacency in military circles in the West.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, pp. 345-346.

        6, Affair at Bolivar

No circumstantial reports filed.

        6, General Orders No. 4 issued in Nashville, relative to River trade restrictions

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 4. HDQRS. MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Nashville, Tenn., February 6, 1864.

I. The great demand for pilots having rendered this branch of business an unreasonable monopoly, whereby great extortion is practiced, to the detriment of the service, it is therefore ordered:

First. That on and after the 20th day of February every boat doing business on the Mississippi and its tributaries shall at all times carry at least one steersman, who shall have a certificate of the local board, under the direction of the supervising inspector, to whom pilots and other officers shall give every opportunity and facility for learning the business of piloting.

Second. In order to prevent extortion now practiced upon the Government by parties whose licenses are derived from and who are protected by it, pilots shall be divided, under the direction of the U. S. supervising inspectors, into classes, teamed first and second, and the rates of piloting on the Mississippi and its tributaries above Memphis shall be, for pilots of the first class, not exceeding $250 per month and subsistence, and in the trade below Memphis $300 per month, and for single trips less than ten days not exceeding $15 per day while actually in service; and the rates for pilots of the second class not exceeding $200 per month and subsistence above Memphis, and $250 per month below Memphis, and for single trips less than ten days not exceeding $12.50 per day while actually in service.

Third. When it is inconvenient to procure two good pilots on each boat, such boats are proceeding together and cannot conveniently secure pilots for all, they may proceed with good steersman, provided the leading boat or boats have good and safe pilots, in which case they will file with the post commander at the place of departure satisfactory evidence that they could not conveniently procure two good pilots. The masters or owners of boats are prohibited from directly or indirectly paying or seeking to induce pilots to change boats by offering rates above those fixed herein.

Fifth. Any violation or evasion of this order or any refusal to perform service when called upon, or any neglect of pilots or other officers to furnish all the opportunities and facilities to steersmen for learning the business of piloting, shall be regarded as a military offense, and punished, on conviction by a military commission, by confinement in a military prison not exceeding sixty days, or a fine nor exceeding $1,000, or both.

II. For the greater protection of transports from danger of loss by fire, it is ordered:

First. That every steam-boat navigating the waters of the military division (except ferry-boats and boats lying up for repairs) shall at all times keep a watch of at least 4 men on every boat, 2 of whom shall be at all times on duty, 1 on the boiler, 1 on the main decks, and continually passing over their respective decks until relieved; and all boats lying up for repairs shall keep a like watch of at least 3 men. Said watchmen to be carefully selected, and registered as such on the portage book.

Second. That every steam-boat shall at all times, except when actually storing freight in, or discharging it from the hold, or in other cases of actual necessity, keep the hatches and scuttles securely closed and locked, the key to be kept by the captain or first mate, who shall be held responsible for the same, and without whose permission no person shall be allowed to go into the hold, and who shall also at all times when the hold is open place an extra watch therein.

Third. That every boat shall keep at least one barrel of water on each fore and each after guard, and four barrels on the hurricane deck; also, three dozen buckets, and shall also keep its hose constantly attached to its pump and ready for instant service.

Fourth. No candles or open lights shall be allowed in the hold or state-rooms of any boat.

Fifth. That from and after the issuing of this order no skiffs or small row-boats shall be permitted to ply in the harbors of Louisville, Cairo, or Memphis, but every boat, except those belonging to steamboats, shall be taken to such place as the post commander shall direct, and there be kept, except in cases where special permission to the contrary shall be given by the provost-marshal, and that the small boats of all steamers shall be kept on deck or properly drawn out of water.

Sixth. That the officers of steam-boats shall, according to their proper authority, be held strictly accountable for the enforcement of this order on their several boats, and for extraordinary care and watchfulness.

Seventh. The quartermaster's department and post commanders are charged with the general execution of this order, and will detail, if necessary, such men as secret police to accompany transports navigating the river as may be deemed necessary, and will also at once arrest any person and seize any boat failing to comply with this order, the boat to be turned over to the quartermaster's department for the public service, the offender to be tried and punished by military law.

By order of Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant:

T. S. BOWERS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, pp. 346-348.

        6, Daily scouts and reports of Confederate guerrilla activity, Love's Hill and Flat Creek environs

HDQRS. FIRST EAST TENNESSEE BRIGADE, Love's Hill, Tenn., February 6, 1864.

Capt. E. D. SAUNDERS, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Twenty-third Army Corps:

SIR: I have the honor to report the following information, obtained through my scouts, which are constantly kept up from day to day:

There are no rebels this side of the river, excepting in small squads of from 4 to 6, who are prowling through he country robbing and pillaging. For two or three days past 6 rebels have visited daily the mill at Flat Creek bridge and taken grain found there.

There are also 2 rebel soldiers by the name of Epps, and 1 or 2 others by the name of Legg, who are scouting about their homes, and who are supposed to have been the men who shot one of Crawford's scouts near the gap of the mountain. The scout this morning is instructed to obtain all the facts relative to the same.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JAMES G. SPEARS, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, p. 336.

        6, Increase in robbery in Maury County

A greate [sic] many robberies reported in every direction. It appears the roberies [sic] are committed by attacking the house in the dead of night gitting [sic] the doors open & punishing the inmates by partially hanging & choking them until they tell where there [sic] money & valuables are.[13]

Diary of Nimrod Porter.

        6, "The Voluntary Exiles"

Some two weeks ago we gave a list of ladies who left town in charge of some officers, to go beyond the lines. To-day we have the pleasing duty of chronicling their safe arrival. When they reached the extreme outposts of the Federal army, a flag of truce was sent into the Confederate lines, giving notice of the presence of the ladies, and requesting that means of convayance [sic] be sent them. An ambulance, accompanied by several Confederate soldiers, returned with the flag, and after a pleasant exchange of courtesies between the blue and grey coats, and a shower of thanks from the ladies upon the soldiers of the escort who had seen them safely into the hands of their friends, the party proceeded to Dixie.

Nashville Dispatch, February 6, 1864.

        6, Enhancement of the Public Square in Nashville

Military Improvements.The Gazette of yesterday says that the military authorities intend erecting a building on the open lot on the North side of the Public Square, which is to be used for the storage of articles belonging to the Ordnance Department. Two spacious and handsome houses formerly stood upon the open space, and were destroyed by fire, resulting from spontaneous combustion, while occupied as a depot for Quartermaster's stores by the Confederates, before the occupation of the city by the Federal troops. The filling up of this place, known as the burnt district, will add much to the appearance of things in that locality, and situated where it is, the building when completed will be of much benefit and advantage to the Ordnance Department.

Nashville Dispatch, February 6, 1864.

        6,"Small Pox" [see also January 28, 1864, "Small Pox" above]

We regret to say that this dreaded disease is still on the increase, and that the main cause of its spreading, which we pointed out a month ago, is still unattended to, except that an order has been published requiring that cases be reported, which might as well never have been issued, except so far as it relates to the military. A week or more ago we called the attention of the authorities to the fact that houses of ill-fame on College street and Criddle street contained cases of small-pox, and that soldiers frequented these houses in large numbers, day and night; and we told them also that hospital employes or inmates of hospitals frequented these places. It is to be wondered at, then that one hundred and thirty-seven soldiers [sic] were attacked with this disease during the past month, in this city alone. So far as the contrabands are concerned, what has been done to prevent its spread among them? Anything? If there has, we are not aware of it. And what is the consequence? A rapid increase, from 76 in November to 219 in January, besides large numbers are not in [the] hospital.

That the public may judge for themselves concerning the spread of this disease during the past three months, we give below the official report of the Surgeon in charge as to the number of patients admitted in Hospital No. 11, during that time:

Admitted                        Nov.                       Dec.            Jan


Soldiers.........................……..            47.........……............ 86……......…...137

Contraband......................………..   ..173....................……..…..                .219

Total.......................……................... 146.......................... 325.....……....   443

This report presents an alarming appearance, and ought to attract the attention of all in authority. In the early part of December [1863], Mr. Spencer Chandler presented a report to the City Council, making some sensible suggestions, and urging immediate action. The report was referred to the Pest House Committee, but nothing whatever has been done. Almost every street in the city in infected, almost every negro [sic] den has its patient, and yet we hear of no measures for its amelioration-no active, vigorous measures, such as should be put forth for the prevention of its further spreading.

The following is the Pest House report for the month of January:

No. in hospital as per last report                             349

Since admitted-citizens........………………..................….87

 " "  soldiers...........……………………….….….............137

 "  "  contrabands.................…………………………. …219-443


Total number treated...................................……….……792



Escaped........................................................…… ….2-223

Remaining in hospital................................……… ……559


The following buildings are now used as small-pox hospitals and surgeons' quarters: Dr. Watson's house, Langdon's, Beech's, Ed. Smith's, two houses belonging to Whiteman, the old Pest House on the river, and the Bostick house on the Charlotte Pike, as headquarters. J. B. McFerrin's house, in Edgefield, is also used as a pest-house.

Nashville Dispatch, February 6, 1864.

        6, "Cases Tried by the Military Commission."

We are indebted to Captain C. R. Miller, Judge Advocate, for a printed copy of General Orders, No. 47, dated the 9th of December, 1863, containing the action of the military Commission convened in this city on the 2d of November last, on several important cases.

The first is that of John Trainor. The charges against him are as follows:

1st. Obtaining the position of Wagon Master in the army of the United States, and getting control of an ammunition train for the purpose, and with the intent to deliver said train into the hands of the army of the so called Confederate States, and using his position to convey information, and smuggle good, medicines, arms and other articles, contraband of war, to the enemies of the United States.

2d. Smuggling medicines, arms, ammunitions and other articles contraband of war, from the lines of the army of the United States, into the lines of the so called Confederate States, being in rebellion against the lawful authority of the United States.

3d. Acting as a Spy, and of conveying intelligence to the armies of the so called Confederate States on the eve of the battle of Stone [sic] River.

4th. Conspiring to destroy and injure the Government of the United States and the armies thereof.

Trainor was adjudged not guilty of the first and third charges, and guilty of the second and fourth, and the Commission sentenced him "to be confined in such military prison as the General commanding may order, there to be confined at hard labor for the period of one year." The sentence was approved by General Granger, but he added:

The General Commanding considers the sentence in this case gives by a trifling punishment for the offence proven. For a simple citizens to aid in furnishing this rebellion arms and ammunition to wage war against his government, is a heinous crime, but for one employed in the Federal armies, and entrusted with important interests by their commanders, to pervert his opportunities by betraying his government and arming the murderous hands of traitors, is an offence deserving death. The sentence of the Military Commission is however confirmed. The prisoner will be sent to the Military Prison at Nashville, Tennessee, for confinement.

Jacob Bloomstein, a citizen of Nashville, was arraigned and tried on the following charges: 1st. Smuggling; 2d. Violation of his oath of allegiance. He was adjudged guilty of the first, but not of the second charge, and was sentenced to pay three hundred dollars.

Mrs. Francis Chambers, of Davidson county, was arraigned on a charge of violating her oath of allegiance, but was adjudged not guilty of the charge.

Peter Bukharte, of Nashville, was arraigned on the following charges: 1st. Smuggling; 2d. Aiding and abetting the enemies of the United States. He was adjudged guilty of the first and not of the second charge, and sentenced to imprisonment for the period of five days. In approving the action of the Commission, Gen. Granger said:

The General Commanding considers that the Commission have regarded this man's offence in a manner altogether too lenient. The prisoner's own statement shows him to have been connected in this very transaction with a man under charges as SPY and SMUGGLER [sic]. He should have received a sentence commensurate to the crime of which he was convicted.

Wm. Faulkner, a citizen, was arraigned on the following charges:

1st, Conspiring to rob and defraud a loyal citizen of the United States.

2d, Aiding and abetting guerrillas in robbing and plundering a Union citizen of Tennessee and of the United States.

3d, Aiding and abetting the enemies of the United States.

Faulkener [sic] was adjudged not guilty of the first and second, but guilty of the third, and was returned to confinement in the military prison for four months. The sentence was approved.

Nashville Dispatch, February 6, 1864.

        6, Brownlow reports on the Smallpox epidemic in Knoxville

Small-Pox at Knoxville-Brownlow's paper of the 6th [of February] laments over the sanitary condition of that city

The Small-Pox Spell Still Rages.-The scourge of our race, and the hand-maid of the rebellion, still rages around our town. It is all through the town, and has penetrated all classes of society. It is in the army hospitals, in private families, and is even said to be extending into the country. It occurs to us that the matter has been badly managed, though we may not be a judge. Small-pox hospitals and pest houses are in the midst of the town. Persons run up against carcasses in the street. Negroes and others open the front doors of citizens, and run in with the impudence of the devil. In short, every man goes where he pleases. We call for more rigid rule, civil and military, and we must have it, or we are to be overrun, in not driven out of our houses.

Daily Columbus Enquirer, March 3, 1864.[14]

        6-18, Expedition from Memphis to Wyatt, Mississippi[15]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 196-198.

        5, Skirmish near McMinnville

FEBRUARY 5, 1865.-Skirmish near McMinnville, Tenn.

Report of Capt. Howard N. Woley, Forty-second Missouri Infantry. FEBRUARY 5, 1865.

I have the honor to report to you the history of our engagement with some of the Southern chivalry. They were supposed to be the notorious Perdham, together with some other bands of desperadoes, as their combined numbers were full 100. We followed them all day, or until about 3 p. m., when we came on their camp in the mountains. They had picked their position and had made a good selection, and were it not for their condition they might have held their position for a while. They were posted along a gulch running south to the brow of a hill. They were also in line along the hill. As Capt. Lewis came up in the advance they poured a heavy fire into our advance as we ascend the hill where they were posted. Most of our officers being in the front, Capt. M. M. Floyd, of the Fifth Tennessee Cavalry, was severely wounded, also two soldiers belonging to the same regiment. The boys of the Forty-second were uninjured, except by slight scratches and bullet holes in their clothes. The rebels left so rapidly that it was impossible for us, on worn-out horses, to overtake them. On examination we found two dead horses, and from indications two men were killed or severely wounded and taken off the field by their comrades. Capt. Lewis says he can hold the country and scatter the rebels all through. He thinks a few more of the Forty-second would be acceptable, as the home guards will not all do to tie to [sic]. We go to McMinnville from here.

By order of Capt. Lewis, commanding scout.

Your obedient servant,

H. N. WOLEY, Capt.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, p. 34.

        6, Affair at Corn's Farm, Franklin County

FEBRUARY 6, 1865.-Affair at Corn's Farm, Franklin County, Tenn.

Report of Capt. William H. Lewis, Forty-second Missouri Infantry.

HDQRS. IN THE FIELD, Hillsborough, Tenn., February 6, 1865.

SIR: I have the honor to report the capture of 3 horses and bridles, 3 gum blankets, 2 pairs of saddle-bags filled with clothes, 1 revolver, 1 Mississippi rifle, besides the killing of John Raigan at Jack Corn's farm in Franklin County 12 miles from Hillsborough, by Lieut. Haines, of Company K, Forty-second Missouri Infantry Volunteers. At 12 p. m. last night I received information of Perdham and two of his men at Corn's. The lieutenant with three of my men and three of the Hillsborough Home Guards went in pursuit. At Strickland's he dismounted and proceeded to Corn's house. On account of the family stubbornly opposing his sleeping in the house, Perdham went to the barn and all three went to sleep. The lieutenant, in approaching the barn, frightened Perdham's hoses, which aroused Perdham and Stearns, who dashed off barefooted and without coats or hats, and made their escape, but Raigan was shot before he got out of his nest.

WILLIAM H. LEWIS, Capt., Cmdg. Scout in Field.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, p. 34.


[1] Gustavus Adolphus Henry (1804-1880). A Kentuckian by birth and education (Transylvania University 1825) he served in the Kentucky legislature from 1831 to 1833 before moving to Clarksville in 1833. In Clarksville he developed a law practice and several commercial and civic concerns, including the establishment of two insurance firms and aiding as a trustee of two private schools. He served too as a senior warden and vestryman in the Episcopal church in Clarksville.

In politics he was a Whig, and soon became the leader of the Tennessee Whigs. Henry served as a Whig elector in the 1840s and the 1850s and was elected to the state house of representatives in 1851. In 1853 he became the Whig candidate for governor running opposite Democrat Andrew Johnson. Johnson won by a slim 2,000-vote margin.

As the crisis of disunion approached he favored a more rational course than secession. He helped form the Constitutional Union Party and pushed John Bell for President. Bell won his home state and no others.

With secession he followed a characteristic Whig pattern, at first opposing secession but reversed allegiance with the threats of a Northern onslaught of the southland. In May 1861, Governor Isham G. Harris, in an endeavor to solicit other Tennessee Whigs, selected Henry as a commissioner to meet with Confederate leaders and enter the Volunteer State into a so-called "military league" with other southern states. This was prior to secession, and in the ensuing month Tennesseans endorsed by a large majority the coupling of the state and the Confederacy. Henry, the "Eagle Orator," then was chosen by legislators as one of the state's two senators.

As one of Tennessee's Confederate senators Henry was consistent in his presence and tirelessly supported President Davis. Like other Tennesseans in the Congress, he was an "ultra-nationalist," and ironically had little sympathy for the state rights position, said to be a cause for secession, voiced by some from the Deep South. He took an active role in the construction of Fort Henry, possibly to the point of interfering with military activities.

His letter of October 16, 1861, from Nashville to General A. Sidney Johnston in Bowling Green, KY, indicates his interest, perhaps even interference with military matters:

Governor Harris has sent, or rather ordered, today one company of artillery to Fort Donelson. Cannot one regiment be ordered there from Hopkinsville immediately? The distance is about 30 miles, over a turnpike most of the way and a good dirt road the balance. It seems to me there is no part of the whole West so exposed as the valley of the Cumberland. The river is in fine boating order and rising quite fast. If Paducah is not to be attacked, so as to hold the enemy in check, he can, unimpeded, destroy the rolling mills on the river now manufacturing iron for the Confederate States, the railroad bridge at Clarksville, and otherwise do incalculable mischief. I have written to General Polk on this subject, but it occurs to me the army at Hopkinsville is not subject to his order, and therefore I address you.

Dixon has not yet had time to mount his 32-pounder guns, nor has the artillery company ordered from here left Nashville. I suppose it may reach Fort Donelson tomorrow night.

Excuse my anxiety about this matter, for I think the danger is not only great, but that there is no time to be lost to avert it.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 4, pp. 453-454.

Likewise, his letter to Johnston from Clarksville of November 1, 1861:

I returned home last night from Forts Henry and Donelson, where I went in company with Major Gilmer. Fort Henry is in fine condition for defense, the work admirably done, and Major Gilmer thinks, and the first regiment Colonel Heiman, the Tenth Tennessee, the very best I have seen in the service. They are healthy, and in fine discipline. I am glad to make this report, and to say the information I gave you lately was based on an untruthful representation, made by the major of that regiment, who was force to resign his position. I now think from a personal inspection it is one of the best regiments in the Tennessee line.

Fort Donelson is in very bad condition. No work has been done of any account, though Lieutenant Dixon, a young officer of great energy, will soon I hope, have it put in a fine state of defense, unless Major Gilmer shall determine to fortify Line Port instead. He and Dixon were to go to-day to inspect that point and to determine which position would be fortified. I left them last night at 10 o'clock at Dover. Dixon returned yesterday from an expedition down the river, where he had gone to blockade it by sinking old barges in the channel. Two were sunk at Line Island, and six at Ingram's Shoals, some 10 miles below. Captain Harrison, an old steamboat captain, familiar with this river, concurs with Dixon that the work is effectually done. They think it will be impossible for gunboats to pass Ingram's Shoals even when the water is 10 feet higher than it is now. It seems to me the guns at Donelson, if well manned, would be amply sufficient to defend this river against the Lincoln gunboats. Though Donelson is unfortunately located on the river, it certainly possesses great natural advantages against a land attack. A succession of deep ravines nearly surround it, including 10 or 15 acres of land thickly lined with trees in the right place, which, if felled with the tops outward, would protect it against cavalry, the approach of artillery, and almost of infantry. This is my military opinion. I rather think it will be supported by Major Gilmer's.

[P.S.] Dixon reported the gunboats insight when he finished their work at Ingram's Shoals and came up the river.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 4, pp. 496-497.

His letter (most likely to protect his sons) to General Joseph E. Johnston soon after he took command of the Army of Tennessee is illustrative:

December 29, 1863, Richmond, VA Tennessee Confederate Senator Gustavus. A. Henry wrote to General Joseph E. Johnston, in Dalton, Ga.

We are all greatly rejoiced to know that you are in command of the Army of Tennessee.

I discover from my correspondence you posses the entire confidence of this whole country as you do mine. I know you have had some serious annoyances heretofore, and have sympathized with you in your troubles, but I am glad to know they are at an end and look forward to your future career as one of great usefulness to your country and of increased reputation to yourself.

My own opinion is, you acted right in you intercourse with General Bragg, and though at the time I thought you ought to have assumed command of the army, so anxious was I for you to be in that position, I now see the delicacy of you position forbade your ding otherwise than you did. It was not only right but also highly honorable.

Now, general, you are looked to by us all to redeem Tennessee, and whoever does that great service will, in my opinion, have the honor of putting an end to the war. You could in Tennessee increase your army 30,000 men, and at least 20,000, and at least 20,000 of the Kentuckians here. Such at least is the testimony of the Kentuckians here. That being done, the enemy will not send another army to invade Tennessee. I do not believe they can raise another. Of the draft for 300,000 men, only 50,000 were actually sent to the army, and many of these have deserted. Whip the invaders before your, and you will break the power of the enemy and secure the independence of our country.

I have two sons in you army, and I hope and believe you will find them to be good soldiers. One was on General Bragg's staff in the inspection department with the rank of major. The other is on Cheatham's staff with rank of captain. I commit them to you most cheerfully. The country looks to for your great results.

As the war proceeded and Confederate military ranks attenuated, he introduced a bill to draft all able-bodied men between the ages of 16 and 60. He likewise proposed impressing all slaves if military chieftains called for them and in favor of repudiating two-thirds of the paper money. He urged a Confederate offensive into northern turf and, after 1862, that great numbers of Confederate Army forces be sent into Tennessee to recover the state from Federal occupation forces. He favored the idea of appointing Robert E. Lee as the supreme commander of all Confederate forces, an action he believed would help eliminate the tendency to disunity the prevailing. During the war he continued to be heard frequently as the "Eagle Orator." For example, on one occasion, when he spoke in Richmond, President Davis remarked that Henry demonstrated an "eloquence as inspiring as the notes of the bugle sounding the charge when the hosts are about join in battle."

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 878-879.

With the conclusion of the war Henry returned to his law practice in Clarksville. While he was not active in politics he did engage in some organization work with the Democratic party. At the age of 70, in 1874, he was picked as chairman of the state Democratic convention. He died on September 10, 1880, at his Clarksville home, Emerald Hill, and was interred in Greenwood Cemetery.

[2] Pillow was fond of tendering his resignation. His skills at constructing earthenwork fortifications were certainly exceeded by his skills at resigning. See: OR, Ser. I, Vol. 3, pp. 317-318, Vol. 7, pp. 309, 320; Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 256-258.


[4] See also: OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, pp. 153-156.

[5] This was a relatively minor incident, and may have occurred in waters either very near or in Tennessee. Not listed in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

[6] Writing his column for the Chattanooga Daily Rebel (which would be printed on February 10), correspondent "MINT JULEP" described winter camp as "dull as a Sunday evening at a country crossroads." Soldiers spent their time mostly in playing cards, while enterprising local boys sold pies for fifty cents each. "Many an aching void is filled by the simple process of investing fifty cents and the snub-nosed cherub without a tear or farewell, rings his 'Here's your pies!' in other beats. The treadmill routine grinds slowly on." "Mint Julep" was not so happy with the current direction of the war.

[7] "MINT JULEP" might have continued, but as he had noted, it was against Confederate Army regulations for soldiers to speak negatively about Confederate Congressmen.

[8] Comissary whisky.

[9] Kentucky.

[10] Stones River National Battlefield Park Archives, Murfreesboro, TN.

[11] Valley of the Shadow.

[12] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[13] Porter does not tell us if the robberies were committed by Federal soldiers, home guards, Confederate guerrillas, or all three.

[14] See also Ibid., April 27, 1864, and Daily Cleveland Herald, February 29, 1864, as cited from the Knoxville (Tenn.) Whig, February 6, 1864..

[15] All action took place in Mississippi while the expedition originated in Memphis.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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