19, East Tennesseans marched through Nashville as traitors to the Confederacy
Eastern Hotel, N. Y. Feb. 19 
On the 16th [of] September last I went to Nashville on the [Nashville &] Chattanooga R. Rd and on the train with me there were nine East Tennessee Union soldiers prisoners. They were marched through Nashville under military guard and imprisoned as "traitors." Though not mustered into the U. S. service I think the Federal Government would claim them as prisoners of war and demand their exchange.
I can give you no further particulars. Of the date I am positive. From what county they came I have forgotten. Doubtless there are hundreds of your brave East Tennesseans in the same condition.
If you can do any thing for them I know you will.
I again congratulate you on your victories in Tennessee.
Do you spend you Sundays still reading in the lamentations of Job?
But the war is not over yet.
Faithfully Your Friend,
Wm. S. Spear
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 150.
19, Excerpts from Governor Isham G. Harris' proclamation to the people of Tennessee upon his arrival in Memphis after abandoning Nashville after the battle of Fort Donelson
As Governor of your State, and commander in chief of its army, I call upon every able bodied man of the State, without regard to age to enlist in its service. I command him who can obtain a weapon to march with our arms. I ask him who can repair or forge an arm, to make it ready at once for the soldier. I call upon every citizen to open his purse and his storehouses of provision to the brave defenders of our soil. I bid the old and the young, wherever they may be to stand up as pickets to our struggling armies....
To those who have not enlisted for the war I appeal, go cheer your brethren already there. Your native land now calls upon you, you have only waited until you were needed. The Confederate government calls upon me to raise thirty regiments....
Let not a day pass until you are enrolled. Let the volunteer in the field re-enlist. Let him who can, volunteer for the war. Let those of whom imperative obligations demand a shorter term of service muster as a militia man.
Memphis Appeal, February 20, 1862.
19, Governor Isham G. Harris' Proclamation to the People of Tennessee
Executive Department, February 19, 1862
The fall of Fort Donelson, so bravely and so gloriously defended, and accomplished only by vastly superior numbers, opened the approaches to your State, which is not to become the grand theatre wherein a brave people will show to the world, by their heroism and suffering, that they are worthy to be, what they have solemnly declared themselves to be, freemen. [sic]
Tennesseeans [sic], the soil of your state is polluted with the footstep of the invader. Your brethren of the advance guard have fallen-nobly yielding life in the endeavor to secure for you and your children the priceless inheritance of freedom. The tyrant and the usurper marches his hosts upon your homes. They come flushed with temporary success and confident in the numbers, yet relying upon your tame submission, the hour is full of trial and danger, yet it is such, in the providence of God, as will test our manhood and or spirit. Let us, as one man, rally to meet the responsibilities thus cast upon us to repel the invader and maintain the assertion of our independence.
As Governor of your State, and Commander-in-Chief of its army, I call upon every able-bodied man of the State, without regard to age, to enlist in its service. I command him who can obtain a weapon, to march with our armies. I ask him who can repair or forge an arm, to make it ready at once for the soldier. I call upon every citizen to open his purse and his storehouses of provisions to the brave defenders of our soil. I bid the old and the young, wherever they may be, to stand as pickets to our struggling armies.
To our soldiers, the gallant volunteers who are already enlisted in the defence of our cause, I appeal. Your discipline, your skill, and your courage, constitute the hope, the pride, and the reliance of your State. Amid the thickening perils that now environ us, undismayed and undaunted, re-volunteer, and from the ashes of our reverses the fire of faith in the liberty for which we strive will be rekindled. You have done well and nobly, but the work is not yet accomplished. The enemy still flaunts his banner in your face; his foot is upon your native soil; the echo of his drum is heard in your mountains and valleys; hideous desolation will soon mark his felon track, unless he is repelled. To you who are armed, and have looked death in the face, who have been tried and are the "Old Guard," the State appeals to uphold her standard. Encircle that standard with your valor and your heroism, and abide the fortunes of war so long as an enemy of your State shall dare confront you. The enemy relies upon your forfeiture in you want of endurance. Disappoint him!
To those who have not enlisted for the war, I appeal. Go, cheer your brethren already there. Your native land now calls upon you; you have only waited until you were needed. The confederate government calls upon me to raise thirty-two regiments. You will be armed. Come, then, it is for your independence, your homes, your wives, and your children, Tennesseeans [sic], you are to fight. Who will, who can, remain idly at home? Will you stand still and let others pour out their blood for your safety? Patriotism and manhood would alike cry out against you.
Let not a day pass until you are enrolled. Let the volunteer in the field reenlist. Let him who can, volunteer for the war. Let those of whom imperative obligations demand a shorter term of service, muster as militia-men.
Tennesseeans [sic]! you have a name in history; you have a traditional renown; shall these be forfeited in the day of your country's trial? Shall the black banner of subjugation wave in triumph over your altars and your homes? Shall there breathe between you and your God an earthly master, before whom your proud spirit shall quail and you knees be made to tremble? By the memory of our glorious dead-by the sacred names of our wives and children-by our own faith and our own manhood, no! Forbid it, sons of Tennessee; forbid it, men of the plains and of the mountains. I invoke you now to follow me; I am of the army of Tennessee, determined upon the field to stake the honor and name of that army of which you have made me commander-in-chief. It is there that I will meet with you whatever may threaten or imperil the fair fame of either. In view of the exposed condition of your capital, and by authority of a resolution adopted by the General Assembly, I have called the members of the Legislature together at this city.
It was a duty I conceived I owed you to remove, whilst it could be done in perfect safety, the archives of the State. This is not a fit occasion to inquire how your capital became so exposed. A series of reverses, not looked for, made the way to Nashville comparatively easy in the enemy. [sic] Temporarily and until our armies have made a stand, the officers of state will be located in Memphis.
Leaving the officers of state to the immediate discharge of their duties, I repair to the field, and again invoke you to follow me to the battle wherein the fortunes of all are to be lost or won. Orders to the militia will be issued with this proclamation, designating the rendezvous, and giving such other directions as may be necessary and proper. I am pleased to accompany this proclamation with the assurance that active aid and heavy support will be given you by the confederate government.
Isham G. Harris
Rebellion Record, Vol. 4, p. 194.
19, Governor Isham G. Harris' General Orders to the Tennessee Militia
To the Commanders of the Militia:
1. The State of Tennessee has been invaded by an enemy that threatens the destruction of the rights and liberties of her people-to meet and repel which you are required to call at once to the field the whole effective force under your command that is our can be armed, which you command that is or can be armed, which you will immediately organize and march to the rendezvous hereafter designated.
2. You will make vigilant efforts to secure for the troops under your command every available weapon of defence that can be had.
3. The militia in the First division, from the counties above and adjoining Knox County, will rendezvous at the city of Knoxville. The militia from the counties in this division south of Knoxville will rendezvous at Chattanooga. The militia of the second and Third divisions will rendezvous at General A. S. Johnston's headquarters. The militia in the Fourth division, from the counties, from the counties of Henry, Weakley, Gibson, Carroll, Benton, Decatur, Hardin, McNairy, Hardeman and Madison, will rendezvous at Henderson Station, and those from the other counties of this division will rendezvous at Memphis.
4. The general officers will make immediate arrangements for the transportation to and the supply and subsistence of their commands at said rendezvous. All receipts and orders given by them for such purpose will be evidence of indebtedness upon the part of the State. They will, by proper orders, consolidate squads into companies.
5. Thorough and efficient drill and discipline of the forces must be enforced by all commanders.
6. Regular and constant reports must be made by officers commanding divisions, posts and detachments to the Commander-in-Chief.
7. R.C. Foster, of the county of Davidson, is appointed Acting Major-General for the Second division of the Tennessee militia.
8. Edwin H. Ewing, of the county of Rutherford, is appointed Acting Major-General for the Second division of the Tennessee Militia.
9. Lucius J. Polk, of the county of Maury, is appointed Acting Brigadier-General for the Twenty-fourth brigade of Tennessee militia.
10. As rapidly as it can be done after proper arrangements are made, as ordered herein, the forces hereby called out will be removed to their respective rendezvous.
The Commander-in-Chief relies upon your a activity and promptness in the execution of this order. It is your attention to duty that will make efficient soldiers of you commands. By command of
Isham G. Harris
W.C. Whitthorne, Adjutant-General.
Rebellion Record, Vol. 4, p. 193.
19, Foraging and expeditions; Yankee activity in the Fort Henry environs; the account of a member of the 5th Iowa cavalry
Four volunteers were called for from a Co. to form a scouting party, it was said. I was one from our Co. After we reported we found we were for picket guard. Several or the men grumbled at this, vowing that they would not have volunteered if they had not expected a chance for a shot at some rebels. The moon was shining brightly and the stars twinkling merrily as we rode out of camp. The night passed calm [sic] and peaceful. One could hardly feet that within a few miles of here was a hundred thousand men, breathing out threatenings [sic] and slaughter against one another. It was my first night all awake, and I was pretty sleepy towards morning. We were relieved at nine o'clock. Then 120 men started to scour the country. They found no rebels. That morning the attack commenced on fort Donaldson [sic] by our troops. Every once in a while we could hear the booming of the great guns. Our boys went within three miles of the fort. They all wanted to go and join in the melee. The officers said they were afraid to go nearer for fear the men would run off of themselves, they were so eager. In the evening we got orders for our first battalion to hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's notice. Next morning I felt unwell and ate nothing, but said nothing as I though a ride would stir me up, and we all expected to go to the fort. We were kept about one hour on horseback in the bitter cold – and it was cold – and then came orders to cross the river. When we came down the boat was so busy crossing troops to go to the fort we had to stay till near night and then stop on the boat. I don't know when I felt so miserable, could eat no dinner, a cracker for supper. Next day I was better, a cracker and some cold fat meat for breakfast, then ashore. The sun came out warm and we began to feel comfortable, but what a time on our brave men fighting at fort D. I have heard that many wounded froze to death. How horrible, such is war. And still the roaring of cannon can be heard continually. Our Nebraska boys are there, many of my acquaintances from Nemaha Co[unty]. May God watch over them. A number of our men were out at once on a scouting expedition, 1200 rebel cavalry being reported near. They saw none. At night 4 men from a [sic] Co. were detailed as pickets. Yesterday 100 men went on a foraging expedition. They got back at night, bringing in corn fodder, etc., hogs, chickens and so on and very merry merry [sic] over the misfortunes of the search. We heard no firing since morning. At night word was brought that fort D. surrendered at 10 o'clock. Three generals, a large number of officer and 10,000 men captured. So the good cause prospers. Last night it rained, and clouds, water and mud are the order of the day. But the sunny south will, I hope, soon vindicate its rights in this respect.
19, Death of Lilly White, a female Confederate soldier in East Tennessee
Railroad Accident—A Sad Romance.—An accident occurred on Wednesday evening, on the East Tennessee and Georgia railroad, by which several persons were injured, one fatally. The train which was bringing the 23d Alabama regiment to this city, ran off the track a few miles this side of Cleveland, wrecking the train badly. A girl, in uniform, who was with the soldiers without revealing her sex, but who did not belong to this regiment, was sitting on the platform of one of the cars, had her legs so badly crushed that amputation was necessary, and both were taken off, but without avail; and death put an end to her sufferings last night. She gave her name as Lilly White [sic], and told a sad story of woman's wrongs.
She had disguised herself in male attire, and joined this regiment with the expectation of finding her deceiver, who is in the army, and avenging her shame. A few of the soldiers were slightly wounded, but none others seriously. This poor girl's fate is another warning against the danger of sitting on the platforms of railroad cars in traveling.—Knoxville Register.
Memphis Daily Appeal, March 5, 1862.
19-20, Federal occupation of Clarksville by U. S. Navy
FEBRUARY 19, 1862.-Clarksville, Tenn., occupied by United States forces.
No. 1.-Flag-Officer Andrew H. Foote, U. S. Navy.
No. 2.-Brig. Gen. U. S. Grant, U. S. Army.
Report of Flag-Officer Andrews H. Foote, U. S. Navy.
U. S. FLAG-STEAMER CONESTOGA, Fort Donelson, February 20, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to inform the Department that I left Cairo with the Conestoga, Lieut.-Commander Phelps, on the 18th instant, having previously dispatched the gunboat Cairo, Lieut.-Commander Bryant, and six mortar boats, in charge of Lieut. Bishop and Lieut. Lyford as ordnance officer, for Fort Donelson.
Yesterday (on the 19th instant) I came up the river on an armed reconnaissance with the Conestoga and Cairo, having Col. Webster, of the Engineer Corps, and chief of Gen. Grant's staff, on board. On nearing Fort Defiance, near Clarksville, we found a white flag displayed, and on landing found the fort deserted. Lieut.-Commander Phelps and Col. Webster took possession of the fort, the former hoisting the American flag. There were three guns mounted on this fort, three in the fort near the City, and two in a fort a short distance up the Red River.
On reaching Clarksville I sent for the authorities of the City, and soon after the Hon. Cave Johnson, the mayor, and Judge Wisdom came aboard, stating that the rebel soldiers had left the City, and with the portion of the defeated army which had escaped from Fort Donelson, had fled to Nashville, after having wantonly burned the splendid railroad bridge near the City, against the remonstrance of the citizens. I further ascertained that two-thirds of the citizens had fled from the place panic-stricken. In short, the City was in a state of the wildest commotion from the rumors that we would not respect the citizens either in their persons or their property.
I assured those gentleman that we came not to destroy anything but tents, military stores, and many equipments. With this assurance they earnestly importuned me to issue a proclamation embodying my views and intentions to the citizens, that the confidence and quiet of the community might be restored. I was constrained, contrary to my predetermination of never writing such a document, to issue the proclamation of which the inclosed is a copy.
I leave this morning with the Conestoga to bring up one or two ironclad gunboats with the vessel and six mortar boats, and then proceed with all possible dispatch up the Cumberland River to Nashville, and, in conjunction with the army, make an attack on Nashville. The rebels have great terror of the gunboats, as will be seen in their papers. One of them a short distance above Fort Donelson had previously fired an iron-rolling mill belonging to the Hon. John Bell.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. H. FOOTE, Flag-Officer, Cmdg. Naval Forces Western Waters.
P. S.-I write in great hurry, as mail-boat is waiting.
To the Inhabitants of Clarksville, Tenn.:
At the suggestion of the Hon. Cave Johnson, Judge Wisdom, and the mayor of the City, who called upon me yesterday, after our hoisting the Union flag and taking possession of the forts, to ascertain my views and intentions towards the citizens and private property, I hereby announce to all peaceably-disposed persons that neither on their persons nor in their property shall they suffer molestation by me or the naval force under my command, and that they may in safety resume their business avocations with the assurance of my protection.
At the same time I require that all military stores and army equipments shall surrendered, no part being withheld or destroyed; and, further, that no secession flag or manifestation of secession feeling shall be exhibited; and for the faithful observance of these conditions I shall hold the authorities of the City responsible.
A. H. FOOTE, Flag-Officer, Cmdg. Naval Forces Western Waters.
U. S. FLAG-STEAMER CONESTOGA,
Clarksville, Tenn., February 20, 1862.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, pp. 422-423.
19-22, "Rain, sunshine and frost alternate here." Iowa cavalryman Charles Alley's impressions of Tennessee in the Fort Henry environs.
Rain, sunshine and frost alternate here. Monday we staid in camp. Tuesday [18th] we went out on a foraging expedition, Uncle Sam footing the bills, orders having been given not to take anything without paying for it. The country is rolling, most of the hills are very steep and rocky. The soil looks to me very poor, and none of that scarcely except on creek bottoms. The roads miserable, streams not bridged, and in some places the roads following their courses. Log houses and very poor ones at that, the people about as mean looking as their dwellings and nothing looking well, only the slaves, who generally look pleased and happy. [emphasis added] Wednesday [19th], rain cold and chilly, at night, frost. Thursday [20th] cold and disagreeable. Friday [21st] fine. Another foraging expedition. Took a different road. Country worse than before, nothing good about it that I can see except the timber and maybe the stone if the latter was not so abundant as to be a plague. Got back to about bed time and then it commenced to rain. Kept it all night and all day, til now (two o'clock). When there seems a chance for sunshine, a great many of our men are sick. Thank God I still keep well. May I praise Him for his Goodness to me. A few negros [sic] came into camp yesterday and day before. I trust they may soon be all free. No other union about [sic].
Alley Diary, entry for February 22, 1862
19, Skirmish near Rover
FEBRUARY 19, 1863.-Skirmish near Rover, Tenn.
Report of Brig. Gen. E. C. Walthall, C. S. Army.
HDQRS. WALTHALL'S BRIGADE, On Triune Pike, February 19, 1863--11 p. m.
MAJ.: I learn from Lieut.-Col. [John S.] Prather, commanding cavalry in my front, that he had a skirmish with the enemy this evening near Rover, and that the enemy encamped at night in sight of his position. He reports that the enemy has two of the regiments of infantry and one cavalry, and also artillery-perhaps as many as four pieces, with wagons; number not stated. He desires me to move up to his support, and I shall move at 1 o'clock in the morning-at least to the neighborhood of Unionville or a little beyond, and, if deemed advisable under the circumstances, as far as Rover.
Should the lieutenant-general commanding deem this course inexpedient, the courier who bears this can reach me at any early hour to-morrow.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
E. C. WALTHALL, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 59.
19, "Stones's [sic] River" to be inscribed on national colors of each regiment in the Army of the Cumberland that participated in that battle of Stones River
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 24. HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, Tenn., February 19, 1863.
The following extract from General Orders, No. 19, War Department, February 22, 1862, is published for the information of this army:
It is ordered that there shall be inscribed on the colors or guidons of all regiments and batteries in the service of the United States the names of the battles in which they have borne a meritorious part.
* * * *
It is expected that troops so distinguished will regard their colors as representing the honor of their corps, to be lost only with their lives; and that those who are not yet entitled to such a distinction will not rest satisfied until they have won it by their discipline and valor.
In accordance with this order, the general commanding directs that the name of "Stone's [sic] River" be inscribed on the national colors of each regiment and the guidon of each battery that was engaged in the recent battle in front of this city. The general is proud to know that there was not a single regiment or battery which did not, in that memorable conflict, bear a meritorious part.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:
C. GODDARD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 77.
19, Colonel Beatty on John Hunt Morgan
* * * *
The expeditions sent out to capture John Morgan have all been failures. His own knowledge of the country is thorough, and besides, he has in his command men from every neighborhood, who know not only every road and cow-path in the locality, but every man, woman and child. The people serve him also, by advising him of all our movements. They guide him to our detachments when they are weak, and warn him away when strong. Were the rebel army in Ohio, and as bitterly hated by the people of that State as the Nationals are by those of Kentucky and Tennessee, it would be an easy matter indeed to hang upon the skirts of that army, pick up stragglers, burn bridges, attack wagon trains, and now and then pounce down on an outlying picket and take it in.
Beatty, Citizen Soldier, pp. 221-222.
19, "...the cuncussion is so greate [sic] that they cannot stand it...." Frank M. Guernsey's letter home to Fannie
Camp in the Navy Yard Memphis
Tenn Feby 19th, 1863.
My Dear Fannie:
Uncle Sam's mail has finally succeeded in bringing me a letter from you dated Feby. 4th, and I sincerely hope that the exertion he has made may not prove too much for him, as I hope for more in the future. I began to think the old fellow a very weak backed individual if he could bring me only one letter in the course of one or two months, and am waiting now very patiently to see if my fears proove [sic] groundless.
I suppose ere this reaches you you will have seen Sergeant Clendenning and have heard more of the news and more concerning us than I can write in a week, he promised me to see you and tell you of my evil doings, etc. I should have sent a note and some little fixins [sic] from Dixie, but I was not aware that he was going home until about ten minutes before he started and then it was to late. I don't thing Glen knew that he was going until a little while before he started. You know that such movements are kept very still in the army. I suppose there is no harm now in telling their object, they are after deserters some of which never joined the Regmt. [sic] there was a greater number of deserters from Glens Company than from any other one Company in the Regiment. Oh! wouldn't I liked to have gone north with him. I would have given almost anything for the privilege, but my position in the Regmt. [sic], is such that it would be very difficult for me to get a furlough even for a new days unless I was sick, but I hope I may never have occasion to get a furlough on that ground. I had rather be well and do my duty like a soldier, than to be in the Surgeons care. I have pictured out in my mind what glorious times we would have had, had I been there with G. what sleigh-rides, sings, etc., it is enough to make a soldiers mouth water to think of it, but I do not envy G. the pleasure he will take, he is deserving of some favor of that kind, he is a good fellow and does his duty as well as any Soldier in the Regiment.
We are having quite an interesting time with the Rebels on the opposit [sic] side of the river, they come down on the Arkansas shore to make observations of our movements and as often as they show themselves, they are sure to have a lively time, our troops immediately open fire with shell, and in a very short time they are not to be seen, day before yesterday they fired three shells from those enormous Mortars which you read so much about at the storming of Island No. 10, they make a noise as loud as seven thunders, when they are fired the men all leave the boat except the man who pulls it off and he steps into a skiff beside the mortar-boat, the cuncussion [sic] is so greate [sic] that they cannot stand it, there was a little town named Hopefield on the opposite side of the River which the rebels used to occupy, they burned a Steam boat a few days ago for us, and that with numerous other acts of a similar kind finally brought upon them a judgment the penalty of which they suffered yesterday, about noon yesterday a gun boat accompanied by a boat with troops steamed across the river and very deliberately set the Town on fire, a few of the Rebels showed themselves but four or five shell from the Gun boat made them skedaddle mighty quick. The town was about as large as "Weyaumega" and there is not a house or any building left standing, the work of destruction was complete, some of the buildings burned splendidly, it done [sic] me good to see them burn, I tell you, it seemed like righteous punishment for them.
I began this letter yesterday but had not time to finish it as I am very busy now most of the time, last evening the adjutant was fencing with a man and received a Super thrust in his right arm which will disable him for the present from doing duty, consequently I have both his and my own work to do, it has been a very busy day up town. Genl. Logans [sic] division embarked for Vicksburg. I wish you could have been here Fanny and seen the sight, you could have formed some faint idea of the magnitude and grandeur of our army. There were about thirty very large steamers to transport the troops and the men were as thick as bees on them, the soldiers most of them seemed to be in good spirits, and eager for the campaign, though many poor fellows will never return again, it is reported very sickly at Vicksburg and probably will be until the rainy season is over which will not be very long now.
Then Fanny you began to fear that I doubted your love and constancy did you? You can releave [sic] yourself of all such fears dear Fanny for my faith in you is unbounded. it seemed strange to be sure that I got no letters for so long a time, but I knew [sic] that it was not fault of yours, for you had promised to write me and I knew you would. No Fanny however cynical I may have been I assure you there is nothing of the kind in my affections for you and I never expect there will be, You seem to think that this war is a bad thing, and so do I, the prospects are very fair for our staying our regular three years, though I am in hopes that it may be closed before that time, it is hard to be separated from friends and loved ones so long, but you know Fanny that if our country demands the sacrifice we must submit without a murmur or complaint. I received a letter from Mother and sister been a few days since, they thought from the way I wrote that I was getting discouraged with the prospects of things, it was quite amusing to see how they tryed [sic] to cheer me up. They are mistaken in me if they expect me to show the whole feather.
Fanny please tell Clen that Corpl. Smith of Co. "F" is dead and was buryed [sic] yesterday with military honors, he was shot a few days ago while doing duty, it is not very uncommon thing to hear of shooting and murder in this city but they have to keep pretty straight when our boys are around. I came very near getting in a scrape the other night myself, all of the Non commissioned staff (myself included) borrowed Commissioned officers coats and went up town to the theatre, the guards arrested all non Commissioned officers and privates found on the street after dark, but we trusted to our shoulder strapes [sic] to take us through, when we were passing one of the streets lamps the Sergeant of the guard recognized us and arrested us, well we went before the Capt. of the Provost Guard who by the way is a particular friend of mine, I gave him the wink and he ordered the guard to let us pass as we were all right, if he had been some Captain we would all have gone to the lockup to spend the night, the Col. gave us a little talking too and told us not to do it again. Glen laughed at me a good deal for getting caught in such a scrape but it is half to own it [sic] aint it Fanny.
I don't see but what I have written a pretty lone letter, but you must excuse all deficiencys [sic] for I have written it be odd spels [sic] when I could get time. I received the circular you sent. I am much obliged, should like to have been there very much and heard those two Miss Dotys [sic] sing.
But I must close please give my love to all and accept much yourself, please write soon.
Yours affectionaly [sic]
F. M. Guernsey
P.S. Tell your mother if she will send that cat down here I will extract her teeth so that she will do no more injury.
I am afraid Fanny that you need an overseer. You must be careful of your health.
19, Negro Laws relative to a slave's living arrangements
The Negro Laws.—In our brief abstract of laws for the government of slaves and their masters, we stated that the former were not permitted to live on the premises of any one but their owner or employer without the owner's or employer's consent. By an act passed subsequent to that in our mind's eye, neither the owner nor employer can give such consent. In other words, slaves must reside upon the premises of their owner or employer, and any other person allowing them upon their premises are subject to prosecution.
Nashville Dispatch, February 19, 1863.
19, Entry in Alice Williamson's Diary, Sumner County
What a negligent creature I am I should have been keeping a journal all this time to show to my rebel brothers. I have been studying all the morning and talking all the evening seeking & sighing for rebels. Our king (Old Payne) has just passed. I suppose he has killed every rebel in twenty miles of Gallatin and burned every town. Poor fellow! you had better be praying old Sinner! His Lordship left Tuesday. Wednesday three wagons loaded with furniture came over. I do not pretend to say that he sent them. No! I indeed, I would not. I would not slander our king. Any old citizen can see by going to his (Paynes) [sic] palace that his furniture was not taken from Archie Miller's house & other places near by. He always goes for rebels but invariably brings furniture. [sic] I suppose his task is to furnish the contraband camp, i.e. the camp of his angels (colored)
Alice Williamson Journal
19, Federal medical report relative to wounds suffered at the battle of Lookout Valley
Report of Surg. Daniel G. Brinton, U. S. Army, Medical Director.
OFFICE OF MEDICAL DIRECTOR, ELEVENTH CORPS, ARMY OF THE CUMBERLAND, February 19, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report on the action of the medical department of the Eleventh Army Corps at the battle of Lookout Valley, or Wauhatchie:
On the morning of the 28th October, 1863, the Second and Third Divisions of the Eleventh Corps broke camp at Whiteside's Station, on the Chattanooga and Nashville Railroad, and followed slowly and cautiously the wagon road that leads over a spur of Raccoon Mountain into the Valley of Lookout Creek. At any moment the enemy might appear and an engagement commence. At any moment the medical officers might be called on to provide for the wounded. Accordingly, the acting medical director, Surg. Robert Hubbard, Seventeenth Connecticut Volunteers, was engaged with the surgeon-in-chief of the two divisions in looking for favorable locations for a field hospital, and in providing for the most economical employment of the medical and hospital stores on hand. There was urgent need of such economy. The command had left Bridgeport with no other transportation than the ambulances. No hospital tents were taken, and not only was there a very limited amount of medical stores, especially stimulants, on hand when they marched, but a portion of these, through an error of the ambulance officers, had been left behind.
No enemy was seen until well on in the afternoon, when the troops had passed the junction of the Trenton and Chattanooga Railroad, and entered a dense belt of woods that at this point stretched across Lookout Valley.
Here we came upon the enemy's outposts, and an irregular picket firing ensued. Our cavalry was withdrawn; the Second Brigade of the Second Division deployed in skirmish line and ordered to advance, while a portion of the First Brigade followed the railroad track on the right. The enemy made no resistance, but fired their guns toward the advancing line and hastened to make good their escape.
The casualties, from their irregular fire, amounted to 1 killed and 3 slightly wounded. A frame house, with spacious verandas, about 2 miles in the rear, had been chosen for a provisional field hospital, but only 1 of the wounded was sent there.
Before sunset the troops had reached their destined camping grounds, the Third Division being located in the valley, opposite what has since been called Tyndale's Hill, and the Second about half a mile nearer the river, on the main road. Near Wauhatchie Station, Gen. Geary, with the Second Division of the Twelfth Corps, was encamped. The ambulances of the Eleventh Corps were parked with the ammunition train, near the Second Division. The night was clear and the moon almost full. Shortly after midnight our slumbers were disturbed by rapid musketry in the direction of Geary's command.
The Third Division of our corps was immediately ordered to move at double-quick to their assistance; but hardly were they fairly under way when a volley from the two hills which [are] on either side of the road leading over Lookout Mountain to Chattanooga, showed that the enemy were upon our flank. The Third Division was immediately ordered to stop, face toward the hills, and take the one on the south of the pass, while the Second Brigade of the Second Division was directed to take by assault the hill north of the road. These orders were at once executed, the enemy making but little resistance at the former, but so much the more determined and obstinate opposition at the latter point. Here was where we had our principal loss, and here the battle was decided, as the enemy was aware that this was the key to the position. This position lost, they at once retired and the firing ceased. This was 2.30 a.m.
In the meantime, a site had been chosen in a woods about a mile north of Tyndale's Hill, close to and on the right of the road to Brown's Ferry, convenient to wood and water, for a field hospital; fires built, candles procured, straw collected from a neighboring barn for beds, amputating tables knocked together, and all the stores of the different regiments deposited there, the whole under charge of Surg. W. H. Gunkle, Seventy-third Pennsylvania Volunteers. The moment the firing ceased the ambulances were put in motion for the scene of action, and plied to and for until daylight.
At earliest dawn I rode over the field of the Second Division, and so well had the ambulance corps performed its duty that I found only 3 wounded still on the field. One of these was a Confederate, shot in the knee, in whom the collapse was so marked that the ambulance men had supposed him dying. A second had received a musket ball in the head, which entered posteriorly, carrying away a large fragment of the left parietal bone and much of the corresponding lobe of the brain. The man was senseless, but groaning piteously. He was laid in an adjacent cabin, and lived until toward evening.
At the hospital 109 wounded were received, and entered upon the list. Of these, 3 were Confederates. Four amputations were performed, two of thigh, one of the upper third of humerus, and one of three fingers. Eight died at the hospital. The whole number of deaths are not received in this office. Those who died at the hospital were buried in the field across the road, while those who were killed outright were interred at the foot of Smith's Hill. All these were subsequently exhumed, and the remains transferred to the national cemetery at Chattanooga. At that time (February, 1864), there were 30 bodies found, but a number had been taken North by their friends.
As soon as it was clear that we should have a number of wounded, the acting medical director sent to Chattanooga for a barrel of whisky and other supplies. We had hardly received them ere orders came to send all the wounded at once to the general field hospital over the river. By the middle of the afternoon few were left on this bank. In consequence of this the statistics above given are not correct. Many of the wounded were never entered on the records of the hospital.
Some primary operations were not performed there. The results of all are unknown. I shall not offer guesses, but conclude with some observations of a general character.
All the wounds recorder were by small-arms, except some contusions, and one shell wound. The latter must have been from the battery on Point Lookout, as we used no artillery during the affair,
while the artillerists on the mountain dropped their shells with the greatest impartiality over the field.
In such an action as this, if anywhere, we would look for bayonet wounds. Here was a charge--a hand-to-hand contest literally; some of the contusions were given by clubbed muskets. Not a bayonet wounds is recorder. I looked for them, but neither saw nor heard of any. There was none.
The case of Col. (now Brig.-Gen.) Underwood Thirty-third Massachusetts Volunteers, merits especial mention. A conical ball entered externally a few inches below the great trochanter, passed through the soft parts horizontally, fractured the upper third of the femur, passed out and into the dorsum of the penis, whence it, together with a piece of bone the size of a half pea, which it had carried with it, was extracted by Surgeon Hubbard. A few days after the affair he was taken to Nashville, and at the present writing, I am informed, the bone has united, the wound closed, and the general health good, though the injured leg is 4 inches shorter than before. The treatment was perfect rest, good diet, and an unmovable position of the wounded extremity. [emphasis added]
I have the honor, sir, to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
D. G. BRINTON, Surgeon, U. S. Volunteers, Medical Director, Eleventh Corps.
Surg. GLOVER PERIN, U. S. Army, Medical Director.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, pp. 99-101.
19, Description of London, East Tennessee
Special Correspondence of the Inquirer:
Chattanooga, Ten., Feb. 11.
The Town of London, E. T.
London (London and Cumberland are the only names of purely English origin still retained in Tennessee), is a small, straggling, dirty town, situated upon the west bank of the Tennessee river, and was named after the Earl of London, who "commanded the King's troops in America" in 1756. I can find out very little about the surrounding country, but should say that it might produce, abundantly, corn, wheat, oats and grass. Just now this place presents a fearful appearance, and but very low really respectable families hold forth in town. While here I enjoyed the hospitality of General Sheridan, who commands at this point, most of his division being stretched along the railroad from here to Knoxville. The first day I arrived the Provost Marshal of the division, Captain Ransom, "took me around." London is, in my estimation, the Five Points of Creation. Such nimble depravity, from sheer poverty, on the part of whole families, married women and little girls, and such a carnival of filth and disease would shock the community of Bayard street, New York, alarm the denizens of Ann street, Boston, and carry horror and dismay into the localities of Shippen street and Fine alley, Philadelphia. Just before I left General Sheridan issued an order removing all the above named outside the lines, somewhere, bag and baggage. And yet, prior to the Rebellion, this was a flourishing place. The vote at the June election when Tennessee seceded stood two hundred and seven, only eight of which were cast for separation. But these voters, old and young, have all gone into one army or the other; there are but seven male citizens in the place, and these very much resemble "the last run of shad." One tall, cadaverous-looking individual "keeps a hotel, and his brother runs a grist mill. These are the institutions of the town, especially the "hotel."
A Tennessee Host and Hostess.
The elegant landlord of the "City," by the way, when I recollect, is a funny fellow. For instance: -I asked him, "Do you keep the hotel?" Says he, with a tremendous horselaugh, accompanies with a sneeze upon the sprinkling-pot order, "Wall, yes, but not exactly, I recon the tavern keeps me." "Yes, it keeps you wet when it rains," I answered. This was too good, for after nearly laughing himself into a collapse, he doubled himself up, made his exit, and gave room to his daughter, who was the most lymphatic looking shrimp I ever saw in the female line. She had come to the door to spit, but before doing so, she unloaded her mouth of stuff enough to make the noses of all the old spinsters in Newport run during the fashion season. I told the female that I wanted to see Mr. Cone, a friend of mine, who had stopped there night before, and she reckoned haeow [sic] her mam cud tell me ef I'd gittin [sic] the kitchen. I proceeded to the "culinary department," where her "mam," as she called her mother, was cleaning chickens, the entrails of which she jammed through a crack in the floor with her bare foot. I soon got out of the institution, thanking my stars that I had somewhere else to stay.
Philadelphia Inquirer, February 19, 1864.
19, The Needs of Post Confederate East Tennessee
What Tennessee Wants.-Parson Brownlow states the wants of Tennessee, as follows:-
"We want tin and stove shops, with stock to carry on business. We want house-carpenters and cabinet makers, with materials to carry on. We want boot and shoe shops. We want tanneries, for we have the bark and hides. We want tailors, blacksmiths, machinists, and all manner of laborers. Union mechanics, to take the place of a vile set of rebel lickspittles [emphasis added] who have had their day, and whose proscriptive course and persecution of loyal men forbids that they should ever do business here again. We want school-teachers, physicians, and preachers who are loyal to the government of the United States. All such men, and many of them, should settle now in this country of fine scenery, productive soil, pure water and a salubrious atmosphere.
Boston Daily Advertiser, February 19, 1864. 
19, "I love to hear them sing …." Observations on Slave Religious Services. An Extract from the Diary of Eliza Rhea Anderson Fain
~ ~ ~
On the Sabbath evening I attended the services for the blacks. I felt great interest and we had a pleasant meeting and I trust a profitable one. I do hope some soul was brought to feel its need of the cleansing blood of Jesus. Mr. Robinson sang a verse of two of that beautiful hymn Jesus I my Cross have taken. After the sermon the communicants were invited to come forward. Some 12 or 15 came forward and took their seats. To me it was peculiarly solemn having been permitted that morning the refreshing of my own heart at the table of the Lord and I felt here are our servants whom God in his infinite wisdom and for purposes known alone to him as bond servants can come and know of the love of Jesus.
I think the blacks sung Alas and did my Savior bleed. [sic] They sung that evening with greater spirit Jesus my all to Heaven is gone. I love to hear them sing on earth and I know I shall love to hear them in heaven when the spirit shall be disrobed of the clay tenements which they now inhabit and we shall all see Jesus upon the throne. Christ will them make all free. To me this is a delightful thought to meet with the members of my dear family-my husband, by children, my servants at the right hand of God.
 On this date, Joel W. Jarvis, John W. Thornburgh, John W. Smith and Joel W. Jarvis suspected as leaders in the Unionist resistance in East Tennessee arrived in Nashville a prisoners with an escort. At a preliminary hearing in Knoxville, Judge West. H. Humphreys, ruling that they should stand trial for treason before the Confederate district court, at the October term. He sent them to Nashville because the Knox County sheriff refused to take the oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, thus the chances of their remaining in jail were slim. Charles L. Barton, a fifth prisoner, jumped out of the window of the car's water closet. Thornburgh gained his release through the intervention of a friend with Jefferson Davis and returned to his home; Barton made his way to Kentucky and joined the 1st Tennessee [U. S.]. Jarvis joined Co. B., First Tennessee Cavalry on March 16, 1862, but soon thereafter died of measles. The Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 150, n. 1.
 As this and the following two governor's proclamations indicate, Harris was adept at rhetoric and exercised that ability all he could to avoid being cast as blameworthy for the fall of Fort Donelson and Nashville.
 See also Daily Morning News [Savannah GA], March 7, 1862; Knoxville Register, February 25, 1862,
 See: Nashville Dispatch, February 17, 1863.
 Alice Williamson Diary, Special Collections Library, Duke University, a Digital Scriptorium project, May 1996, http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu. [Hereinafter Williamson Diary.] Ms Williamson was a sixteen year old school girl living near Gallatin. She kept a diary from February 19, 1864 to September 27, 1864.
 TSL&A, 19th CN.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456