Wednesday, August 31, 2011

August 31 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

31, Progress in the Printing of Bibles for Confederate Soldiers

The Word of God is Not Bound.

The first set of plates for printing pocket Bibles and Testaments ever owned and worked in the South were laid upon the press of the Southwestern Publishing House last Wednesday, and it can now be said for the first time that the South is independent of the North for the Word of God. Lincoln no longer binds the Word of God.

These plates for the Bible and Testament have cost, including tariff, ($150), freight and other expenses connected with them, some $1250. More than one-half of this sum was contributed by the brethren and citizens of West Tennessee and North Alabama to us personally—to enable the Publishing House to print cheap Bibles and Testaments for the Confederate soldiers. There is not another set of plates on which a pocket Bible or pocket Testament can be printed in the Southern Confederacy to-day.

Believing that the balance for the plates will be contributed as a voluntary offering to the enterprise, the Southwestern Publishing House offers to print Bibles and Testaments for the Confederate army at the following rates:

Pocket Testaments.—Plain $12.50 per 100—15 cts. retail; Gilt Sides $15 per 100—20 cts. retail.

Pocket Bibles.--$7.50 to $12 per dozen, according to style and binding. Fine bound copies, with name in gilt letters, from $2 to $5 per copy. Let every community that has sent out a company forward each soldier a Bible or Testament, and a package of religious tracts—price 25 cents per package of 300 pages.

Will all our exchanges in the South call attention to this enterprise, and to the fact that the Southwestern Publishing House offers to supply 100,000 Bibles and Testaments for the Confederate army at cost of material and labor?

Tennessee Baptist, August 31, 1861.



31, Camp Meetings in East Tennessee

But a few Camp Meetings are being held this season, in our country, and the few that have been held have been failures. Indeed, we think it advisable to call in such as they may have been appointed. The state of feeling in the country, is by no means favorable to religious meetings of any sort. The people are arrayed against each other, and all are on one side or the other. This might be, and produce no mischief it the people would refrain from heated discussions, and govern their temper, as they might do, and as they really ought to do. But, as a general thing, the Preachers have acted so badly, as to destroy confidence in them, or kill off all respect for them. No class of Church members have been as intemperate, as proscriptive as those Preachers who have entered into this contest. The result is, that in all the congregations of the country, there is a division in sentiment, and a portion of the congregation are  unwilling to hear these men preach. Others, who may not have entered into angry disputations, have aspired to be Chaplains in the army, and whether the people are just or unjust in their reflections upon them or not they nevertheless incline to the opinion that it is the eighty or ninety dollars per month that they are after. Believing this, though it may be uncharitable, these men can't preach profitably to the people. Upon the whole, we think it most advisable to hold as few camp meetings as possible this season.

We cannot but think that the following prophetic language from the book of Jeremiah (chap. 10th) was intended for this country and generations:

"My tabernacle is spoiled, and all my cords broken, my children are gone forth of me, and they are not: there is none to stretch forth my ten any more, and to set up my curtains. For the pastors are become brutish, and have not sough the Lord; therefore they shall not prosper, and all their flocks shall be scattered."

This is rapidly fulfilling. The Pastors are becoming brutish, advising bloodshed and death, and the flocks are scattering - Churches are breaking up - men and women are refusing to attend religious services. They say that they hear no prayers for peace - no sermons favorable to practical Christianity - no exhortations to repentance and faith - but they are annoyed with prayers against the blockade - sermons favorable to war - and exhortations making assaults upon private character. To be a member of the Church, is no longer a passport to any one, but he who can make it appear that he has no connection with any Church, is less liable to be suspected of villainy than the Church-going man. This s a sad picture of affairs, but it is nevertheless a true one!

Brownlow's Knoxville Whig, August 31, 1861.


31, "Divine Worship."

Nearly all the churches in the city, which have been occupied as military hospitals, are restored to their congregations. We were glad to notice yesterday that divine services were held in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The Sabbath School teachers of this and the McKendree Church also held meeting, yesterday morning, for the purposes of reorganization. It is hoped that the renovation of all the churches lately given up will soon be accomplished, that our Sabbath days may again present the holy appearance, and our people reinstate the religious influences which should ever distinguish a Christian land.

Nashville Daily Press, August 31, 1863.


31-September 2, 1863, Federal scout from Smith's Cross Roads to Kingston
HDQRS. FIRST Brig. SECOND CAVALRY DIVISION, Smith's Cross-Roads, Tenn., Valley, September 2, 1863.
Lieut.-Col. GODDARD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Dept. of the Cumberland:
SIR: In compliance with the requirements of paragraph 1, General Orders, No. 53, current Series, from headquarters Department of the Cumberland, I have the honor to make the following report:
I am encamped between Smith's Cross-Roads and Morganton with 1, 100 men Fourth U. S. Regular Cavalry, Fourth Michigan, and Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, with two pieces of artillery. My scouts traverse the country between Sulphur Springs, above Washington, and Thatcher's Ferry, below Sale Creek, daily, and constant visits are paid to the innumerable ford and ferries between these points.
A scout of 200 men which I sent to Kingston night before last [August 31] has this moment returned, bringing in 12 prisoners. We lost 1 man mortally wounded. Some of Gen. Burnside's men entered Kingston with my men, and last night there was a large force of them there.
Forrest has fallen back across the Tennessee, having first destroyed a large portion of his wagon train. The night before last three steam-boats, the Tennessee, the Holston, and the James Glover, towing six barges, came down from Loudon, and are now up the Hiwassee; the boats were all light. All the boats, barges, &c., left t Loudon were collected together for the purpose of being burned. A large fire was seen at Loudon on Sunday evening-by some supposed to be the boats, by others the bridge.
The river between here and Kingston is strongly guarded. At Blythe's and Doughty's Ferries intrenchments have been thrown up, but I think the guns have been removed within the last couple of days; the force at Blythe's Ferry is now the Twenty-eight [Thirty-second] and Forty-third [forty-fifth] Mississippi, under Col. Lowrey. Gen. Clayton's brigade arrived on the 22d from below, but on Saturday, the 29th, they moved again in the direction of the railroad.
A deserter form the Twenty-sixth Tennessee, at Loudon, states that Buckner's command has crossed the Tennessee River at that place, and are now being pushed forward as fast as possible toward Chattanooga. Eighty-seven men deserted from the Twenty-sixth Tennessee within the last ten days.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
R. H. G. MINTY, Col., Comdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. III, p. 316.


31, Contingents of Wheeler's cavalry skirmish near Murfreesboro and Smyrna

Our squadron (Capt. Rheagan's) was ordered to move on to Murfreesboro and drive in the yankee pickets, but when we arrive we found no pickets outside the fortifications. We could see the sentinels on the breastworks, walking their beats. We remained about two hours on picket duty, within a few hundred yards of the works, and then we discovered a body of the enemy's cavalry attempting to get in our rear and cut us off. We fell back and avoided a collision. During this time our command was moving on Smyrna to destroy the railroad. We followed it up, and rejoined our regiment to night. The command captured one stockade to night. We are camped nine miles from Nashville.

Diary of William A. Sloan, August 31, 1864.



 "We fought till one o'clock when the Rebel General fired twelve pound cannon six times at us …"an account of an encounter with Wheeler's cavalry on Blockhouse No. 6 on the N&C Railroad.

Nashville, Tenn.

Sept. 9th, 1864

Dear parents, brothers and sisters,

I was sorry not to get a letter from you for so long. You perhaps heard that the Rebel General Wheeler destroyed and burned 30 miles of track.

This Rebel General with 6 or 8,000 men encountered us just as we had torn down ¼ of our headquarters, because we wanted to use the wood or material for our new blockhouse. He came at night and at seven in the morning we already shot at his cavalry which destroyed and burned the railroad. I fired the second shot and I am sure I didn't miss. We fought till one o'clock when the Rebel General fired twelve pound cannon six times at us, but he only hit the blockhouse once. [emphasis added.] Since we have lost all ground we had to give ourselves up. He burned down the blockhouse containing everything that he didn't want. He took us with him and let us go after forty miles. We did not get anything to eat except twice fat bacon or bread. I had two ears of corn and an apple besides which were very good and I wouldn't have sold them for ten dollars. The corn I had stolen from a donkey at night. Now there are 31 of us in Nashville in a very big house which belonged to the Rebel General Zollicaffer [sic].

Here now we get enough to eat. Perhaps today or tomorrow we go back to our old place. The Rebels too us with them 2½ days till [sic] our artillery and infantry were on their heels, then they let us go. But the Rebels got beaten up pretty much. Black soldier took from them 3 cannon and some 100 soldiers and horses. On our way back [to Murfreesboro] we met the ninth Ohio Cavalry….They were after Wheeler.

Will close now and write you a longer letter next time.

Miller Correspondence.


Murfreesboro, Tenn.

Sept. 11, 1864

Dear parents,

Arrived safe and sound in Murfreesboro today. We were all in the blockhouse on Aug. 31 when at 7:00 o'clock we saw about 50 men on horseback about ½ mile behind our house marching to the railroad. Then a fellow named Martin Stimmel and I went to see what they were doing and saw them start to tear up the railroad ties – we each fired 5 or 6 shots and they feet after four or five ties were torn up. As we turned to go back to our blockhouse their pistols shots rang out and we had to jump back. When be got back we saw 6,000 around our house about 1000 [sic] yards, so that we couldn't do very much with them. 8 or 10 of us went to the railroad bridge which they were trying to set afire and we made them jump. Several fell and we cold see them as they raised their hand before they fell. I am sure that I ht one of them because as soon as I shot at him, he fell. This was about noon – then five men came with a white flag and they wanted us to give up the blockhouse or they would put a cannon on it -- which later did happen. We said we wouldn't give it up and they left. In five minutes we saw that they had a 12 lb. Cannon brought out of the woods and they put it behind a little rise where we couldn't do anything to them and it was too far for our rifles. Then came shell after shell over our blockhouse -- two of them it a beam and shattered it. They shot at us six times and only hit twice -- then our Sergeant put up a white flag and they quit. You should have seen the Rebels coming out of the woods from every angle. They plundered out house and we had to stand in ranks. We burned our rifles (or twisted) so that they couldn't use them. They made us go with them for two days and two nights about 40-50 miles. Then they lest us go -- we had to leave everything behind – my pretty cane, and the picture frame I broke in two – I cut some of the design off the cane so they couldn't use it. When we were 1 1/3 miles away from the blockhouse we could see the smoke as they burned it down and they had hacked down the railroad bridge….If they would have arrived one day later, they could have taken us with one cannon shot. The log house where the other 30 men were was shot into twice, and from these 30 men there were 3 dead and 8 or 10 wounded. If we could have had an officer there instead of a sergeant there would have been more dead. The battle really went hot there. We are all very happy that we are back here again. If the Rebels come back later we will show them how Yankees can fight. They held back their Cavalry until the big dog which is a big cannon was used on us. We were very hungry on our trip but I made it well. I had to laugh when the others showed long faces and talked bad. They kept us in a house in Nashville and we walked back to our regiment in Murfreesboro some 30 miles away.

Miller Correspondence.


Tuesday, August 30, 2011

August 30 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

30, Confederate recruit S. T. Williams at camp of instruction; letter to his uncle
August 30, 1861
Camp Brown near Union City, Tennessee
Dear Uncle,
According to promises I will try to drop you a line which inform you I am now in Tennessee and in the enjoyment of very good health. I have been a little sick since I land here but one dose of medicine cured me. All the boys in this company that left Ouachita are well except John Fuller & Charles Worley. Worley has been at death's door and verry low now improving slowly though. John's sickness is produced mostly from the thoughts of home, something I thought he would be far from. I left Monroe the morning of the 22nd and landed at Camp Moore on the 23 at four o'clock. My regiment was packed at the Depot to leave for this place and did so…so I stayed at Camp Moore only an hour which met with my approbation precisely. Camp Moore is evidently a verry unhealthy place. I found a great man sick there and they were burying from one to six per day so I learned. I enjoyed my trip to that place verry well I got in company with the Moorehouse Southerns at Monroe and found Bela McCloud in the company. They are now in Camp Moore in the Thirteenth Regiment, which I suppose will soon be compleeted  .
From Camp Moore to this place was a tolerable hard road to travil  . We had to take old box cars with planks layed across for seats and no place to lie down, no place to lean on. This is the way we had to travil   for forty-eight long hours. I was verry well entertained in [the] day time looking at the country from Jackson to Camp Moore is the poorest country I ever saw. From Jackson to Holly Springs is poor yet they have tolerable crops. They cultivate the vallies entirely. The hills washed red and in Gullies. They all have beautiful residences and [are] fine looking people. I saw some of as fine looking ladys as I ever saw who waved us on top to the border to defend them from danger. This was very encouraging to us. I would like to live about Holly Springs rite well I think. It seems to be a place of considerable manufacture it is a poor country that is the lands. Also the cotton-growing part of Tennessee. We are out of the land of cotton now. Union City is about twenty two miles south of Caro  . Eleven east of the river four miles south of the Kentucky line and sixty north of Jackson, Tennessee. The Railway bridge at Jackson was burned down the night after we past   which you know doubt have seen an account of. They have take   one man on suspistion   for the offence. There is a spy cant   occassionly   there were two brought to town yesterday. It is supposed they will be put to death….I am verry well please with our encampment. It is on a beautiful poplar ridge good water and verry well prepared for camp. This is a very good country. The land is Rich but suitable to nothing but Grain. The weather is getting cool up hear  . We shall soon neede   woolin   cloths. Colonel Morrison proposed to send us such clothing as we may need he has been appyed   too far them  . I wrote to Father a few Days since but said nothing of cloths. Tell him to attend to this as all the boys will want flannel shirts etc. Winter clothing of all kinds in fact you will know better what we will want than I do. I am better pleased with camp life than I thought I would but what a contrast between this and the pleasures and quietude of home. For the sake of our country we can stand camps find but anything else would be no enducement.
I have written all I can think. I hope you will give me a long letter excuse bat writing, spelling, etc. For there is so much fuss hear   a man can't keep his mind on one thing too long. Give my love to all. Tell them to write. William joins me in Love.
By the protecting land of almighty Providence I expect to meet you all face to face. I remain your nephew….Goodby  S. T. Williams
TSLA Confederate Collection, Box 11, Letter, folder 41, Williams, S. T.


30, Depredations on the Cartmell farm
This regiment about as hungry as other, roaming about digging potatoes &c. Those that left yesterday killed 2 of my cattle and I don't know how many hogs....
Robert H. Cartmell Diary, August 30, 1862


 30, A Confederate newspaper editor's opinion of the Union bombardment of Chattanooga
At this writing, 12 o'clock M. [Noon], the enemy are shelling the town vigorously. Our sanctum and our solitaire printer, with his 'case' and composing stick, are removed to the basement of the Bank of Tennessee [where he can] be heard frantically imploring our neighbor Haskell to open his door. The voice is evidently that of a 'dry' soldier. At least we judge so from the huskiness of his throat. Possibly wants a drink. Probably won't get it, as Haskell has retired to his earthworks.
Boom! Whiz-z-z!! Goes another angry shell.
'Oh, Mr. Haskell!' goes [the] voice outside.
Fooroom-BOOM! Ker-gip!
'HASKELL! open the door!'
Crash came a shell over the roof, struck a Chattanooga hog in the side, and sent him squeaking to the happy hunting grounds.
[The] soldier couldn't stand it any longer. He broke. We can hear the retreating echoes of his footsteps. Haskell has at length opened the door and calls after him: 'What do you want?'
Reply in the dim distance: 'Oh, d__n it, you're too late. 'Spect a man to have nine lives like a cat, and get murdered for o­ne drink?'
Drama closes. Scene shifts! Suthin'   rumbles. Exeunt, at a double quick.

Also in this o­ne-page number of the Daily Rebel was a defiant answer to a rumor circulating in Atlanta, Georgia, and Montgomery, Alabama newspapers that the Chattanooga paper had fled the City. The rumor:
is...altogether incorrect. The Rebel  lives. Its 'heavy bronze' [press?] has been moved to the rear, with that of the whole army, out of the way of active operations; but both of its editors, with a sufficient quantity of material and typographical force to print a daily war bulletin, remain, and will remain to the last hour. Whilst we are penning these lines, shells from the enemy's batteries are falling within our rear premises, and exploding in the street in front. If any citizen of Chattanooga has seen an evidence of a 'change of base' o­n our part, his imagination has led him far astray of the mark. Chattanooga maybe burnt to the ground, but the position will not be lost; and so long as our army is here to defend it, we shall share whatever befalls its gallant soldiers, many of whom are fellow comrades of war in past campaigns, and nearly all of whom are our friends and patrons.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, August 30, 1863.


30, Skirmish at Tracy City and destruction of railroad
No circumstantial reports filed.
TULLAHOMA, August 31, 1864.
Wheeler's forces captured a company of Tennessee cavalry at Lebanon yesterday morning. They were skirmished by Gen. Van Cleve's scouts near Woodbury. A cavalry scout sent out from Duck River bridge drove in pickets of a heavy force of the enemy six miles east of that place yesterday evening. On yesterday the enemy attacked and drove in small force stationed at Tracy City, and destroyed a railroad bridge. Col. Krzyzanowski reports the enemy at Jasper yesterday. The telegraph all north of Duck River was cut last night. I know not what damage, if any, has been done to the railroad north of that place, but will soon know. No trains from Nashville since 6 p. m. last night.
R. H. MILROY, Maj.-Gen.
P. S.--Later: Fighting reported at Decherd at 10.45 a. m.
R. H. M.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 38, pt. V, p. 739.
BRIDGEPORT, August 31, 1864.
A member of the detachment of the Fifth Tennessee Cavalry has brought the following communication:
TRACY CITY, August 31, 1864.
We had a fight yesterday [30] with a detachment of Wheeler's brigade, and repulsed him. They claim to have had about 300 men. The enemy is reported to be about three-quarters of a mile from here, waiting for a piece of artillery. We can hold this place until we are re-enforced, unless they get artillery. We cannot get away without being captured by their cavalry. We have about thirty-five men and want help.
Gen., I am unable to send any re-enforcements from here. Can I request you for help for the troops at Tracy City? I have a pilot who can conduct the troops on a road about sixteen miles from this place.
An immediate answer most respectfully requested.
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF THE ETOWAH, Chattanooga, August 31, 1864.
Col. KRZYZANOWSKI, Bridgeport:
I sent a strong force of cavalry to the enemy's rear this morning, who will drive them from the vicinity of Tracy City to-morrow, if they do not leave sooner. I think they will hear of them, and leave to-night.
J. B. STEEDMAN, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 38, pt. V, pp. 739-740.


Monday, August 29, 2011

August 29 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

29, Excerpt from a Letter to Mrs. U. G. Owen
Jacksboro Tenn
Augt the 29th 61
Mrs. U. G. Owen.
Dear Beloved Wife,
* * * *
Next Saturday will be the last day of Sept & two years will have expired since we joined out Right hands in the holy bonds of Wedlock. My love your married life is now & has been a miserable one. Poor unfortunate little woman it seems that the fates have consigned you to a very unhappy life, but should I ever live to get back with you again I will do everything on earth I can to comfort my sweet lovely wife. God knows that it is not flattery for me to say that she is my sweet lovely wife for she is the dearest, the most lovely creature on earth to me.
Laura I have seen a solder drove off out of the Regiment today. He was a bad case--would not do right, &c. & we drove him off. Made him pull off his shoes, Roll up his breeches & covered his head with tar & feathers, put him in front of a guard, made him walk through town. No news to write this time....
Please write to me
Dr. U. G. Owen, 20th Tennessee, to his wife, Laura, August 29, 1861.


29-30, Skirmishes at Short Mountain Cross-Roads (29th) and Little Pond (30th), near McMinnville, Tenn.
No. 1.--Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood, U. S. Army, of skirmish at Little Pond.
No. 2.--Capt. Henry R. Miller, Eighteenth Ohio Infantry, of skirmish at Short Mountain Cross-Roads.
No. 3.--Col. Edward P. Fyffe, Twenty-sixth Ohio Infantry, of skirmish at Little Pond.
No. 4.--Col. George P. Buell, Fifty-eighth Indiana Infantry, of skirmish at Little Pond.

[There are no Confederate reports concerning these combat events.]
No. 1.
Reports of Brig. Gen. . Thomas J. Wood,
U. S. Army, of skirmish at Little Pond.
HDQRS. SIXTH DIVISION, In Camp, near McMinnville, Tenn., August 31, 1862.
MAJ.: Immediately after my return to camp yesterday from the mountain expedition, on which I had been absent two days, I heard that Forrest's command was crossing the railroad 3 miles west of my camp, going northward. I at once sent out three regiments of infantry and four pieces of artillery, under Col. Fyffe, Twenty-sixth Ohio, to cross to the north side of Barren Fork, near to my camp, move out to the Murfreesborough road, take the road to that place, and try to cut Forrest off. By a very rapid forced march (part of it at the double-quick) of 9 miles Col. Fyffe reached the junction of the cross-road by which Forrest was moving and the Murfreesborough road just as about one half of the enemy had got onto the latter road. Col. Fyffe deployed a part of his command, immediately ordered up the artillery, and opened a fire of shell and musketry. He divided the enemy, forced a portion back on the cross-road, and utterly routed and scattered him in all directions. The pursuit was continued for 1 1/2 miles, till it was too dark to see.
Col. Fyffe captured a number of horses, mules, shot-guns, sabers, revolvers, carbines, saddles, bridles, cartridge-boxes, &c. He captured Gen. Forrest's light spring wagon, riding-horse, and the riding-horse and body servant of Capt. Forrest, brother to the general.
The rebels fled in the utmost consternation and confusion. Forrest's forces numbered between 1,400 and 1,500.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
TH. J. WOOD, Brig.-Gen. of Volunteers, Cmdg.
P. S.--A cavalry scout, sent out by me early this morning, reports, from information received of citizens, that several of Forrest's command were killed and wounded.
HDQRS. SIXTH DIVISION, August 31, 1862.
MAJ.: My people captured last evening a very intelligent negro who belonged to a Texan Ranger who was killed in the attack on the stockade on the 29th. This negro gives a very intelligent account of Gen. Forrest's movements for the last two weeks. He says Forrest left his train at Decatur, in Meigs County, on the Tennessee River, two weeks ago, since which time he has been roaming around, hunting for small parties and trains to capture, and subsisting on the country; that when he came down on the 29th he was on his way back to Decatur to his train, intending to cross the mountains by the way of Altamont; that after the repulse at the stockade he moved on toward the foot of the mountains and halted for the night. There he learned that our forces were at Altamont. He probably learned also that troops were moving to Hillsborough (Crittenden's), though the negro does not say so. But he says Forrest made a speech to his men yesterday, telling them they were surrounded and would be caught if they did not get out of the trap at once. Hence the rapid movement northward, across the railroad, yesterday afternoon. Doubtless Forrest will try to make his way around by Sparta or Rock Island, crossing, to get into the valley, and make his way down to Pikeville, Washington, &c., or from Pikeville, beyond Spencer, to cut him off? I think it might be done. The negro says Forrest was repulsed in an attack on a train at Woodbury a few days since.
Respectfully, &c.,
TH. J. WOOD, Brig.-Gen. Volunteers, Cmdg.
HDQRS. SIXTH DIVISION, August 31, 1862.
MAJ.: The more information I obtain the more certain I am that an attempt ought to be made to cut up, capture, or at all events prevent Forrest from joining Bragg. I am still more certain that the object of Forrest's movement down this way was to cross the mountains and effect a junction with Bragg, and having been disappointed in this movement, he will attempt to effect the same purpose by the way of Sparta and down the Sequatchie Valley. The junction should by all means be prevented, as Forrest's command would be of the greatest advantage to Bragg in his advance. That the advance will be made sooner or later I am quite certain. The attempt will be made to sweep everything to Nashville, retake it, and then invade Kentucky. I have got hold of some information to-day on this point. I think Gen. Thomas is mistaken in not believing Bragg to be on this side of the Tennessee River. I am satisfied the advance will be made by one of two roads--by the road by which I went out the other day, the Hills' Truce road to Dunlap, or up the valley and around by Sparta, or perhaps by both roads at once. The general, I think, ought to have both roads watched clear to the other side of the mountains.
I sent out a party of cavalry this morning beyond where my people encountered Forrest yesterday evening, which has just returned, with information that as late as 11 o'clock to-day Forrest, with he bulk of his command, was near to Short Mountain. I understanding Short Mountain is near and a little to the right of the McMinnville and Lebanon road. Cannot the general sent out a force there to rout him out? He probably halted there to collect his scattered forces.
TH. J. WOOD, Cmdg.
No. 2.
Reports of Capt. Henry R. Miller, Eighteenth Ohio Infantry, of skirmish at Short Mountain Cross-Roads.
Yesterday at 1 p.m. we were attacked in our position, 8 miles west, on the Manchester and McMinnville Railroad, by Gen. Forrest's rebel cavalry, consisting of one regiment Texas Rangers, Col. Wharton; one battalion Alabama Cavalry, Capt. Bacot; one battalion Tennessee Cavalry, Maj. Smith, and one battalion Kentucky Cavalry. We repulsed the enemy, with a loss of 9 killed and 40 wounded, several mortally. Among the killed, Capt. Houston; among the mortally wounded, Lieut. Butler, who died this morning. Our loss, 9 wounded, 5 severely. The rout complete, the rebels throwing away arms and fleeing, leaving on the field their dead and several of their wounded. They set on fire a small trestle between us and Manchester, half a mile distant from us, which we put out, and have now repaired the damage. The enemy have gone in the direction of Sparta.
H. R. MILLER, Capt., Cmdg.
COL.: On Friday, August 29, the troops under my command, numbering 100 effective men, of Company A, Eighteenth Ohio Volunteers; Company I, Eighteenth Ohio Volunteers, Capt. Charles C. Ross, and Company D, Ninth Michigan Volunteers, Lieut. Wallace, had just completed the inclosure of a stockade at this place 30 by 40 feet square, of round timber, 12 feet high. The men were eating dinner at about 1 o'clock p.m. in a grove, distant from the stockade about 100 yards, and in which also we had the ammunition belonging to the command, except such as was in boxes, when the enemy, 1,500 strong, made his appearance, formed in line of battle along the skirt of woods extending from the railroad along the south side of the stockade at the distance of about 200 yards, and rapidly extended his line on east and west sides. My men ran rapidly to the stockade, and at the same time the enemy, with a terrific yell, fired a volley and rushed to cut us off from the stockade. The attacking force consisted of 900 dismounted cavalry, commanded by Gen. Forrest, and led to the charge by him. My men kept up a sharp running fire on the way to the stockade, checking the impetuosity of the enemy, and all but some 10 of Company I and the men on picket got inside the fort before the enemy. The men cut off kept up a constant fire from the railroad and woods during the engagement and got in safety. The race to the stockade was a desperate one. On getting within the stockade I at once sent three parties of 6 men each, one from each company, to bring in the ammunition. These squads were commanded by Sergeant [Edward] McLaren, Company A; Sergeant [James K.] Williams, Company I, and I regret that I do not know who from Ninth Michigan company. They ran to the thicket under a terrible fire from the enemy's skirmishers and succeeded in bringing in the ammunition.
The enemy now made an attack from three directions with great desperation, approaching within 50 feet of the stockade. I kept up a constant and well-directed fire upon him for ten minutes, when, finding it impossible to dislodge us or seriously injure our men and his own falling rapidly around, he made a rapid retreat to the woods in great confusion. His men ran in every direction before our fire, throwing down their arms, and immediately fell back out of range. Soon after an attempt was made to destroy the railroad above us. I went out with a party and drove then away.
I at once sent messengers to Manchester and McMinnville on foot through the enemy's lines with information. To do this dangerous duty I called for volunteers, and from those offering to go I sent Clinton L. Lee, private Company A, to McMinnville, and Henry F. Thayer, private Company D, Ninth Michigan, to Manchester. They both got safely through and gave information of our situation.
The enemy's forces consisted of Col. Wharton's Texas Rangers; one battalion Alabama Cavalry, Capt. Bacot's; one battalion Tennessee Cavalry, Maj. Smith, and one battalion Kentucky Cavalry, numbering, as I learn from Dr. Houston, surgeon Texas Cavalry, 1,500 strong. I have also the same information from Lieut. Butler and other prisoners.
We buried 12 of the enemy left dead and dying on the field, and have 41 of his wounded in our hands and scattered among the houses of citizens in the vicinity. Among the dead are Capt. W. Y. Houston and Lieut. Butler, Texas Rangers. Our loss is 9 wounded, to wit: Seven of Company I, Eighteenth Ohio Volunteers; 1 of Company A, Eighteenth Ohio Volunteers, and 1 of Company D, Ninth Michigan Volunteers. Two are wounded dangerously and the others slightly. I send list of wounded.
Drs. Johnson and Mills, surgeons Eighteenth Ohio Volunteers, arrived at midnight and at once proceeded to give all possible attention to the wounded. At daylight Drs. Stimmel and Sabine, Twenty-sixth Ohio Volunteers, arrived from McMinnville, and assisted in attentions to the wounded and suffering. To all the gentlemen my thanks are due for their promptness, industry, and skill in ministering to the wounded.
We captured 8 horses, 3 saddles, and 30 guns.
The conduct of all the officers and men of the command was such as to compel my administration. They fought from the first with great coolness, bravery, and determination. The enemy outnumbered us as nine to one.
I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
H. R. MILLER, Capt. Eighteenth Ohio Volunteers, Cmdg.
No. 3.
Report of Col. Edward P. Fyffe, Twenty-sixth Ohio Infantry, of skirmish at Little Pond.
HDQRS. FIFTEENTH BRIGADE, Near McMinnville, Tenn., August 31, 1862.
SIR: In pursuance to orders from Brig.-Gen. Wood to cut off Gen. Forrest and his command, who was passing to the westward and within 2 miles of this camp, making his way northward, and upon five minutes' notice, after procuring a guide, I marched in a circuitous route through the woods to the Murfreesborough and McMinnville road, a distance of 6 miles from camp. I pushed forward in the direction of Murfreesborough in quick-time until I came to an open country, where at some distance across the fields I discovered the column of Gen. Forrest, consisting entirely of cavalry.
The enemy having become aware of my presence at this time there commenced an exciting race between his command of cavalry and my column of infantry for the intersection of the two roads. I ordered my command forward at a double-quick, which they obeyed cheerfully, although they had marched several miles at quick-time without water. I discovered when about 400 or 500 yards distant from the junction of the roads that Gen. Forrest had formed his command in line of battle to receive my attack. I immediately ordered Lieut. Estep, commanding Eighth Indiana Battery, to take up a position on an elevated piece of ground in the field to the left of the road, with instructions to commence firing, and the advance guard (Companies A and F, Capt.'s James and Peatman, of the Twenty-sixth Ohio), under Maj. Degenfeld, to deploy in front of the artillery on the low ground, advance, and commence firing. In the mean time Lieut.-Col. Young, commanding the Twenty-sixth Ohio Regiment, agreeably to instructions, formed his regiment in rear of the advance guard and followed it closely in line of battle. After firing a few rounds the enemy's lines gave way in the center. His right wing (the Texan Rangers and some Alabama troops) were forced to take the back track to our left, while Gen. Forrest, with his left wing, scampered off in the direction of Murfreesborough. I ordered Lieut. Jervis forward on the main road with one section of artillery to fire on Gen. Forrest's detachment, and gave instructions to Lieut.-Col. Gorman, commanding Seventeenth Indiana, to support him with his regiment. I then ordered Lieut. Voris, with the other section, supported by the Fifty-eighth Indiana, Col. Buell commanding, to follow up and to fire on the Texan Rangers, leaving the Twenty-sixth Ohio to occupy the center.
In a very short time the enemy were entirely dispersed in every direction; so much so that it was with were entirely difficulty I could determine on which road it would be must profitable to pursue him. I immediately concluded to follow him on the Murfreesborough road, but it had grown so dark that I was enabled to pursue him but about 2 miles, when I was forced to abandon the chase in consequence of the men and animals suffering for water. I returned to camp the same night, arriving about 11 o'clock.
The ground over which we fought presented every indication of the utmost confusion and consternation on the part of the enemy, the woods and roads being strewn with arms, wearing apparel, &c. Accompanying this I have the honor to present a list of the property that fell into our hands.
The actual loss of the enemy I had no means of ascertaining, but from the statements of citizens subsequently received and from his own admissions his loss must have been from 18 to 20 in killed and wounded.
It is with pleasure that I inform you that these fine regiments of your division never came into line in better order at their battalion drills than they did upon this occasion. The artillery, commanded by Lieut. Estep, was well handled, quickly got into position, fired rapidly and with precision.
The command of that portion of the brigade that accompanied the expedition devolved upon me in consequence of the severe illness of Brig.-Gen. Hascall, who was at the time confined to his room.
It is proper to state that the Third Kentucky Regt. did not participate, in consequence of just having returned from a severe march of two days' duration, thus entirely incapacitating them for further immediate service.
I cannot speak too highly in praise of the members of the general staff. Capt. Ed. R. Kerstetter, assistant adjutant-general, and Lieuts. James R. Hume, Jules J. Montagnier, and Charles H. Bruce, aides-de-camp, were active in conveying my commands to every part of the field. I would respectfully commend them to your favorable notice.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, you obedient servant,
E. P. FYFFE, Col. Twenty-sixth Ohio Volunteers, Cmdg.
No. 4.
Report of Col. George P. Buell, Fifty-eighth Indiana Infantry, of skirmish at Little Pond.
ON THE ROAD, August 31, 1862--11 a.m.
This armed body was commanded in person by Gen. Forrest. He has passed north, via Sparta, to avoid our troops, and thus join Bragg on the other side of the mountains. He also expects to join Morgan soon, who will also join Bragg. Can they not be cut off somewhere northeast of McMinnville? He went toward Short Mountain from here, thence via Sparta. If we had deployed along this road last night it would have been better. We entirely cut off 500 Texas Rangers, who fell back into the woods, and after we left they went on north.
GEO. P. BUELL, Col., Cmdg.
P. S.--I start immediately. The wagons captured at Murfreesborough are at Pikeville, and very little force there-two pieces of artillery and a little cavalry.
OR, Ser. I. Vol. 16, pt. I, pp. 901-906.

HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, ARMY OF THE OHIO, McMinnville, Tenn., August 30, 1862.
Capt. HENRY R. MILLER, Cmdg. Eighteenth Ohio Volunteers:
Maj.-Gen. Thomas, commanding the United States forces at this place, takes pleasure in commending your gallantry and the heroism of the men under your command in so nobly repulsing the superior force of the enemy brought against you yesterday.
Examples like Capt. Attkisson's at the Edgafield Junction and the brilliant achievement from your stockade on the 29th day of August, 1862, gives inspiration to our troops and fresh confidence in their leaders. The example so nobly set is commended for imitation.
Very respectfully,
[GEO. E. FLYNT,] Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 454.


1864, in Smithville after marching from Sparta during Wheeler's raid, Commissary Sergeant John Coffee Williamson, with Company E, 5th Tennessee Cavalry (C.S.A.), wrote in his diary that the women of Sparta were "very glad to see us." Most of them cheered in the true lady like style. Most of Sparta has been burnt by the Yanks." Sergeant Williamson and his company got to Smithville at nightfall and camped on the Lebanon Road. The Sergeant commented in part in his journal: "I have been very sick all day, and a night I was perfectly worn out. We got up no rations. I took a dose of morphine and slept soundly."


Saturday, August 27, 2011

August 26 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

26, Skirmish at Cumberland Iron Works
AUGUST 26, 1862.--Skirmish at Cumberland Iron Works, Tenn.
Reports of Col. William W. Lowe, Fifth Iowa Cavalry.
SIR: On the 25th instant, at about 1. 30 p. m., I received a dispatch from Maj. Hart, commanding at Fort Donelson, stating that he was being attacked. I immediately started over with all the cavalry force I could collect without delay and arrived at the fort about sunset. I found that the enemy had been repulsed by Maj. Hart's command, as stated in his report, to which I beg leave to refer you. It then being too late to make any move that night I immediately took steps to make everything secure and awaited the movements of the enemy. Nothing being heard from him during the night I started the next morning at daylight with 120 men of my regiment to ascertain his whereabouts and strength. At a point known as the Cumberland Iron Works he was found to be in strong position. I at once had a few men dismounted to act as skirmishers, who speedily drove in the pickets, and, following up with two companies, it was soon ascertained that most of the enemy's force were dismounted, and using, at a distance of from 10 to 20 yards, the muskets recently captured at Clarksville. A 6-pounder was also brought to bear upon us, and finding it somewhat annoying I ordered Company B, under Lieut.s Summers and McNeely, to charge and take the piece. This was done in the most gallant style, the piece being upset and the Carriage broken to pieces and rendered perfectly useless. Parts of Companies A and L, under Capt. Lower and Lieut. Gallagher, were started forward to the support of Company B, while Company D, under Capt. Baird, was held in reserve. The enemy's cavalry was at once put to flight, but finding that with cavalry alone the infantry could not be dislodged from their hiding places, I reformed my command in an open space and waited for more than an hour for his appearance. Failing to draw him out, and both men and horses suffering much from fatigue and want of food, I returned to Fort Donelson. During the skirmish all behaved with the utmost coolness.
I lost in killed 1 officer [Lieut. Summers] and 3 men; wounded, 1 officer [Lieut. McNeely] and 13 men, of whom 6 were captured, and 5 men captured who were not wounded. The enemy's loss is not known.
I am, sir, your obedient servant,
FORT DONELSON, September 2, 1862.
I now have reliable information that the loss of the enemy in fight of Tuesday, 26th, at Cumberland Iron Works, was 35 killed and wounded. I have twice made a reconnaissance beyond the Iron Works. All is going well; am almost ready. Can I be furnished with a small amount of secret-service money? I have some valuable spies who ought to be paid. Answer at once.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. I, p.39.
Ed. note - Cumberland Furnace is the subject of Tennessee Historical Commission historical marker no. 3 E 4, in Dickson County. It was established in 1790 and was operated during the Civil War by A. W. Van Leer.


26, Skirmish at Harrison's Landing and skirmish at Thatcher's Landing

HDQRS. U. S. FORCES, Poe's Tavern, August 26, 1863--8 p. m.
Capt. J. R. MUHLEMAN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
Col. Funkhouser met 30 of the enemy at Harrison's Landing this morning, this side of the river; attacked them, killing 3 (1 of them a lieutenant) and capturing 2 privates. The prisoners report that the Chattanooga Rebel of this morning reports the fall of Charleston. They say further that it reports the defeat of Lee by Meade. I give these as prisoners' reports. May God grant their truth. They report further what, if true, is important to us: that the enemy opposed to us are all moving toward Atlanta.
This morning I sent a forage train to Thatcher's Landing, and with the escort a section of artillery. A few shots were fired across at their works, when a general stampede took place. All the fords and crossings are occupied by a few regiments of the enemy with a few guns, with light works. They have for the past few nights sent small parties across to capture some of our men, to gain information. They are reported to be poorly informed of our purposes and force.
A very reliable report reached me this evening that on yesterday the advance of Burnside's forces reached Kingston, and after a short engagement thrashed Forrest. I am now making 2,000 pounds of flour per day. The condition of the command was never better.
Very truly,
W. B. HAZEN, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. III, p 176.


24, "SOMETHING ABOUT RATS;" A public health issue in Memphis
A good many foolish people hate rats. We do not. We rather like them. We mention this not to be considered exceptional members of the class of foolish people, or as a proof of superior sagacity, but as an apology for saying something about a species of very useful animals that are abused both verbally and in print, a great deal more than they deserve. There are a half a dozen sorts of rats, all belonging to the family of rodents, a class of mammals distinguished by the chisel shape of the incisor teeth. The largest rats in the world are found in Bengal and on the Cormandel coast. They have a body thirteen or fourteen inches long, a tail from fourteen to eighteen inches long, and full grown one of them will weigh three or four pounds. In this country there are found six varieties of rats. The black rats, poor fellow, now nearly extinct, with their short, soft fur, dark backs, lead colored bellies and brown feet; they came to this country in the 16th century, from Europe and are pretty, timid, and active. The grey or Norway rat, which was brought to this country about the time of the Declaration of Independence, and is now the most common variety, was originally brought from Central Asia to Europe, through Russia. It is larger, fiercer, and more voracious than the black rat. The Chinese rats, which are colored black, white and brown, like guinea pigs, and have bluntish [sic] heads, large ears and long black whiskers, are now common in South America and Mexico. They are the prettiest and most easily tamed of the rat kind. On wealthy rat fancier in New York has several hundred pets of this sort. They are so tame that they will come at his call and like to be fondled.
The wood rat of the Gulf States is a very mild and docile variety, living mostly on fruits, roots and grain. The bush rat of the far west is a light brown chap with white feet. The cotton rat is of reddish brown the side being lined with dark brown. It is very pretty, active and easily tames. The common grey rat is so powerful and fierce and prolific, that it drives out all other sorts from its vicinity. It is intelligent and can be trained to perform many tricks, but its quarrelsome disposition makes it difficult to tame. A gentleman of our acquaintance has a female rat that he carries about in his coat pocket, and it is so thoroughly domesticated that it makes no efforts to escape. He has trained it to defend his pocket, and no watch dog can more faithfully guard his master's premises than it does the contents of the pocket.
Through frequently living in filthy localities, rats take great pains t keep themselves clean and their fur smooth. Their prehensile tails can be used for almost all the purposes of hands, and this makes them, when tame, very amusing. Rates are wonderfully prolific. They have young when they are six months old, and produce five or six litter of 12 or 13 ratlets [sic] each every year. The progeny of a pair of rats will thus be much over a million within three years. This prolificness [sic] would make them a great scourge, if their lives were not devoted to useful labor, but rats are very useful. They are the only scavengers we have in Memphis. Even in cities where thorough sewerage removed a vast amount of the decomposing matter that would other wise case disease – rats are indispensable. If there are only one hundred thousand rats in Memphis, and this is a very low estimate, then it take at least two hundred and fifty bushels of food every day to support them, and this food is almost wholly of such vegetable and animal matter as would otherwise be decomposed and generate disease.
Memphis Bulletin, August 26, 1864.

Thursday, August 25, 2011

August 25 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

25, Life on an occupied Madison County farm
Putting up fences, turning stock out of corn, has been the work of the negroes today. One field, right hand road, had a number of cavalry horses in it. The negroes were threatened if they turned them out they would be shot. I don't know whether they will leave me enough corn to get along with. One fellow this morning was very calmly leading off Sam's mule. I made him turn him loose. He said he only wanted to borrow [sic] him, said I was not disposed to accommodate a soldier [sic].
Robert H. Cartmell Diary, August 25, 1862.


25, Cerification of Loyalty to the United States for one Giles County resident
State of Tennessee
Executive Department
Nashville Augt. 25th 1862 [sic]
The bearor [sic] of this Mr. T.T. Burgess of Cornersville Giles County Tenn is a Loyal Citizen and it is therefore hoped that all Federal troops passing in that Vicinity will avoid Committing depredations on his property and that he will be protected against the Same[.]
Andrew Johnson, Military Governor
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 632.


25, "Chatanooga [sic] Before the Evacuation. From the Chattanooga Rebel of Aug. 25."
A friend just down from Athens, Tenn., reports a rumor current at that place of a fight at Washington, Tenn., a small village on the river, on Saturday last (22nd) between General Forrest's command and a large force of the enemy, in which the latter were repulsed and driven back seven miles. Loss on both sides heavy. Subsequently another fight occurred at Poor Hook, and the Yankees were again repulsed. No particulars received yet.
The reported advance of Burnside on Knoxville is confirmed. Operations for the moment are enveloped in obscurity.
Chattanooga, so long a hospital and baggage room, is now a camp. Almost every vestige of what is technically known as the rear is gone; all sighs of domesticity have faded away. It is true, the ***** still crows the coming dawn from many a yard and roost, but the households, beneath whose glimmering roof-trees they were wont to make their matins, are removed. The place has been literally cleared for action, and nothing may not be seen in the streets but the rude paraphernalia of war. It is well.
These initials to vigorous and bloody operations have transpired without confusion or alarm. The warning which awoke the army and the town on Friday (21st) was not neglected for a moment. All men seemed to understand, by that tacit intuition which sometimes moves large masses of people as in single impulse that a battle was impending, and citizen and soldier at once began to prepare for it. By dusk on Sunday evening, private families had retired beyond the range of danger, in the event either of a direct assault upon the city, or other perils incident to active operations in its vicinity. The military hastened heavy baggage to the rear, and the several commands received orders, which suddenly electrified them from the torpor of camp life to the animation of the field.
The sights that now fill they eyes are very different from the careless pictures of a few days ago. There is little pomp or circumstance, for the gilt and the tassel are faded from the military coat of arms: but there is that which passes show - deep earnestness and desperate activity. The crowded thoroughfares, with ladies strolling hither and thither, with market wagons vending fruit and fish, and ambulances, drays, and private vehicles coming and going, with officers and soldiers quite listless to everything but ease and idleness, with Jews and Gentiles, unbleached domestics, dogs and cats, all jostled in one rolling current of humanity, have passed from view like the magic castle of Aladdin [sic] of old. In their stead, officers are riding in every direction, squads of cavalry gallop through the streets, and ordnance trains lumber along from post to post.
Now and then, as we look out upon the scene, a[n artillery] battery rolls by in a cloud of dust, its brass pieces shining mysteriously through the sandy mist, and the wheels and gear muttering and growling for the foe. At all time the distant ring of the rifle or rattle of musketry, or deeper bass of the cannonade, rolls up to the quite skies, where the summer clouds play like one mass of fleece around the craigs [sic] at Lookout Peak.
And here we sit, quite as rebellious as ever, dropping our ink-drops in the car of our foeman, as he drops his shells into, we were almost about to say, our own. Howbeit, we shall stand our ground as best we may; therefore, as the man said in the play "have at ye all." Rack on and do your worst, Rosecrans and gang, mongrel, puppy, whelp, and hound. The mountains are on fire! There are freemen in the crags. There are rifles among the pines. Come on, therefore, thou canine epitome
"And we will cudgel the
Like to a jelly that cats refuse to lick."
The Rebel, at this writing, is about the only public institution left in the almost deserted and once proud martial-city of Chattanooga. Every other is on the wing, and probably still fancy that the shells are still hot after them. We are left alone in our glory. Alone with our types that "silent myriad army, whose true metal ne'er flinched nor blenched before the despot wrong." The indulgent reader will excuse our scantiness of costume and material, and will, of course, applaud our temerity in flaunting a few more rebel sheets in the very face of the foe. Like the mouse in the fable, we shall continue to sport our diminutive proportions in the lair of the Abolition lion, and tickle his ears with a few of our opinions about himself and his master, Lincoln, generally.
Nashville Daily Press, September 18, 1863.


25, Skirmish near Fort Donelson
No. 1.
Report of Col. William W. Lowe, Fifth Iowa Cavalry.
FORT DONELSON, August 25, 1862-10 p. m. (Via Fort Henry, August 26, 1862.)
This post was attacked to-day by a force under Col. Woodward. They were repulsed by the command at this post at one by the remnant of the Seventy-first Ohio, under Maj. Hart. A flag of truce was sent in before the attack, demanding the surrender a la Clarksville. This was promptly refused by Maj. Hart. Soon after, they made the attack. I started for this point as soon as the news of the attack reached me with all the force I could bring, but the affair was ended before my command got in--about sundown. We are now fixed for them, and I start at daylight in pursuit of them. None of the re-enforcements have arrived.
I had an interview with Col. Woodward. No one hurt on our side. Ten or a dozen of the rebels killed and wounded.
W. W. LOWE, Col., Comdg.
No. 2.
Report of Maj. James H. Hart, Seventy-first Ohio Infantry.
COL.: I have the honor to report that on Monday, the 25th instant, the forces under my command at this post, consisting of parts of Companies A, B, G, and H, of the Seventy-first Regt. Ohio Volunteer Infantry, were attacked by the rebel forces, under command of Col. Woodward, at about 1. 30 p. m. Before an attack was made a flag of truce was sent in to us, demanding a surrender of the post. I demanded time to consider the proposition, and thirty minutes were given me. I immediately called my commissioned officers into council, submitted the proposition of Col. Woodward, and put the question: "Shall we fight?" The unanimous vote was, "Fight them," and this vote of the officers was but the reflected sentiment, purpose, and determination of the entire command. After negotiations had ended between Col. Woodward [who bore himself as a gentleman] and myself they made a charge with their cavalry. We repulsed and drove them off, with a loss to them of 5 to 10 men, killed and wounded, and 4 horses killed. On our part we met with no loss in killed or wounded. After about half an hour's fighting the enemy retreated in confusion, and were no more seen during the day or night.
I cannot close this brief and hasty report without expressing to you, colonel, and through you to the commanding general, the warmest and most earnest approval of the conduct of all officers and men engaged in the battle. Each and every one of them did his duty and did it well.
I have the honor further to report that when I found a battle inevitable I directed several buildings to be set on fire, to prevent the enemy's taking cover behind them or in them. Of the prudence of this course I have no doubt. It in my judgment contributed greatly to the confusion of the enemy's cavalry, which was represented to be 335 strong, supported by 450 infantry and one 6-pounder. Neither infantry nor cannon were brought into action.
I am, colonel, with sentiments of regard, yours,
JAS. H. HART, Maj., Comdg.
Respectfully forwarded.
The attacking force at Donelson, it should be remembered, was the same (increased) [sic] to which Clarksville was surrendered. In justice to Maj. Hart and his command I respectfully suggest that his report be made public. The remnant of the Seventy-first Ohio and its gallant commander deserves, under all the circumstances, more than a passing notice.
W. W. LOWE, Col. Fifth Iowa Cavalry, Comdg.
OR, Ser. I. Vol. 17. pt. I, p. 38.


Tuesday, August 23, 2011

August 23 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

23, 1861, "The Concert;" a benefit in Clarksville for sick soldiers
The concert, given on Tuesday-evening by the ladies of this city, for the benefit of the sick soldiers at Camp Boone (KY), and elsewhere was a decided success. The large hall of the Female Academy was filled at an early hour, with an audience in which the female persuasion largely predominated, and which, under the brilliant gals-light, presented a magnificent coup d'oeil [sic]. Clarksville may justly feel proud of being able to muster such an audience, as graced that hall, on this occasion. As to the young ladies who so generously volunteered their talent for the noble object in views, -- they formed a galaxy of resplendent [sic] beauties; and it was well remarked, by a connoisseur [sic] in such matters of female loveliness, that another bevy, so perfectly unexceptional in personelle [sic], could scarcely be found, even in Tennessee. This may be truly said of them, en tout [sic], and as truly may we say that two or three of them [sic] were nature's perfection, in her happiest moments of creating the beautiful! -- But to the concert. We feel much more at home in a critique of live beauty, than of intricate music; and it is certainly a far pleasanter theme, -- but as it was generally believed that there was "a chief among them taking notes [sic]," and, too that he was print 'em [sic] -- we must not entirely disappoint that expectation however poorly we may fill it. So, now, a word or two about the music.
The opening chorus -- "Cheer, Boys, Cheer!" -- was given by a party of gentlemen from Camp Boone, with piano accompaniment, and this was followed by a piano solo by Mr. Wetherell of Memphis, which was executed very finely.
The first on, on the porgramme, was the Valley of Camous, by Mrs. G____k, but for some reason or other she substituted another in place to it. This Mrs. G. sang in a fine manner, though did not appear to us to be in much voice on this occasion, as she is known to possess.
After this came a duett [sic] by Miss [illegible]....
* * * *
Another piano solo by Mr. Wetherell, and then a duet by Mrs. A_____k and her sister Mrs. G_____k. This latter piece was finely sung and the audience testified their gratification in loud applause.
Following this was La Manole [?] Miss Marion S_____t, a piece of more than ordinary difficulty, yet which she sang with an ease and grace which surprised, almost as much as they pleased, those who heard it. Another storm of applause, and rain of flowers, met the blushing young cantatrice, as she retired from the stage. Part first of the entertainment was concluded by a brilliant quartette which fairly bought down the house; ;and, after a recess of some fifteen minutes, --
Part second was opened, by Mr. Wetherell, with beautiful piece of dream music -- magic Bells [sic]. In his rendering of this piece, Mr. W. displayed high cultivation and skill, as a pianist, and won grateful acknowledgment from the audience of the pleasure he had afforded them. The second item of part two was -- "I've left my snow-clad hills [sic] --
a song by Miss Nannie G____d; who, though suffering from a cold, which made her somewhat hoarse, sand it smoothly; and the popular taste for simple ballad music was amply testified in the reception of this song. Number three was a duett -- "All things are beautiful" [sic] -- sung by Misses Mary and Julliet McD_____l. Both of these young ladies have a fine voice, and sing well, but when two are united, and blend in that remarkable harmony, of which they are capable, the effect is doubly pleasing. In this duett they took the house by storm, and when it was concluded, a persistent and irresistable encore [sic] impelled them to reappear, when they sang, with happy adaptation to the moment, a pretty goodnight song. This was followed by a song by Mrs. A____k, which she had substituted for the Southern Marsaillaise [sic], which was on the programme, much to the disappointment of the audience who were anxious to hear the latter. They were in no humor to pout, though, after they heard the song.
One of the decidedly noticeable features of the evening followed, not, in the execution, by Miss Eunice D_____s, of Nashville, of a most brilliant and difficult piece, on the piano -- a kind of fantasia, full of beauty and harmony and melody; now soft and gentle, then wild and thrilling -- a piece certainly not to be attempted by any 'prentice [sic] hand. It Ws a piece of brilliant execution, and though played without notes, if there was any skip or slip in it, we failed to detect it. It elicited most rapturous applause.
The next piece was a selection from Traviata -- Je suis sauve enfinne -- sung by Mrs. C____n. The singular power and fine cultivation of this lady's voice were so well known in musical circle, here, that the audience were prepared to expect a rich treat in her singing, and they were not disappointed. The case with which she compassed the highest notes, the wonderful command of voice that was displayed, and its melody, all combined to astonish, and to charm. Such indeed are Mrs. G's powers, as a vocalist, that she would win merited applause before any [sic] audience -- even the most critical.
Following this rich morceau [sic] was a piece to our liking; -- a piece perhaps better appreciated than any other on the programme. It was "The Minute Gun at Sea," sung by Misses Nannie and Bettie G_____d. It is a favorite with us. True it's an old piece, but like wine and friends it's all the better for that. It was long since we had heard the old familiar strains, and they touched chords in our heart that that not vibrated in years. They led us back to day when we listened to music with less care upon our hearts than weighs there now, and when we hung upon the music of lips whose strains now are those of angels! Memories so blessed are not wakened often in life, -- but, when they are, like ripples on a wave of ocean, they stretch away to an eternal shore.
The singing of this duett was very fine; the blending of the two sweet voices, in the touching strains, the imagery of the storm, and the wrecked ship, and the distant solemn booming of the 'minute gun at sea" -- all come home to the heart of every listener, in the plain English of feeling [sic]. It needed not the flowers that fell at the fair sisters' feet, at the close of the song, to tell how well they had done -- how much they had pleased. A better testimony was in the [illegible]....
The last piece on the programme was another aria from Traviata -- Sempre Libre -- a composition evidently involving a severe test of the vocal powers, and requiring extraordinary capacity both in compass and command of voice. It was sung by Miss Marion S____t, and her execution of it, we believe, was faultless -- wonderful it certainly was, for one young as she ill. She may well feel proud of such a success, and of the natural endowment, and added cultivation that enabled her to accomplish it.
We can add but a few words now. The entire Concert was worthy of all praise -- all did well -- the gentlemen none the less [sic] because we have said so little of them. Our only regret is that such entertainments can not be more frequently enjoyed.
Clarksville Chronicle, August 23, 1861.


23, 1862,  "Our town is now a wreck." A fire in Pulaski.
On the night of the 20th, I was aroused from slumber, by the cry of fire, & upon rushing into the street I saw the flames shooting forth from the top of Mrs. Wosely's Hotel. I addressed the Sentinel in front of my door & inquired if he knew the origin of the fire, when he replies, "we suspect the confederates have fired it to make a light to fight us by" – I said, seeing the stillness which pervaded the streets & the total desertion of these streets, "why is it that there is no attempt being made to arrest the flames?" Said he, "we have orders to stand to our posts ready for the approach of the enemy, consequently we can render no assistance." The citizens were fearful of arrest for some time if they attempted to even go to the fire, however, in a short time the fire became so terrific that ladies flocked to see it, then the gentlemen became desperate & determined to do all in their power to save the business houses. Mr. Martine made every effort by working his little [fire] engine & by urging lookers on to work diligently, but their efforts were of no avail. The block was consumed except Mr. Luther McCord's house. By constant efforts he saved his house which fortunate circumstance has given all his friends great pleasure. He is a worthy young man & a favorite. Entreaties were of no avail in getting the negroes [sic] to work, very few offering to work as to carry water, consequently Mrs. Carter's cistern was emptied of water. Great indignation was felt toward the negro population, seeing their utter indifference in regard to the unfortunate fire. Twenty-one houses were consumed & 14 men thrown out of employment. Our town is now a wreck. What will be the feelings of our brave – hearted Southerners, whose homes are in this town & country, when they return & witness the works of a hostile foe in our midst. Do not think I mean to accuse the soldiery directly, perhaps I'd be wrong, but indirectly I think they are to blame by allowing negros [sic] to go where they please by deterring white men from even going from house to house within the corporation. If a negro [sic] wished to avenge himself for any wrong he had (by the license allowed him) every chance. Citizens have appealed to the Provost Martial [sic] of the garrison now in command being two companies of Jewell's Regiment to enforce orders in regard to the negros [sic] prowling at night, which I trust will prevent further conflagrations. He has issue d them but whether subordinates will obey strictly his injunction I cannot tell. They are in power, we are their slaves. Giles County subjugated by 160 Pennsylvanians! Think of it & see how our hopes have been blighted in regard to the Southern Confederacy retaining Tennessee! The Cotton states are free from invasion but we have the reality to taste. Now I cannot see how we are to be relieved. We are shut in from communication with any section of country, even from the country & of course we have everything to depress us. Then in addition to immediate surrounding the confiscation act will sweep over us on the 25th of September, taking from us all our means of support. The men who are at home will take the Oath [sic] of allegiance to the United States to save their property, the men in the Southern Army will have to fight for theirs if they get it. The wives & children of those in the Army will have to suffer intensely [sic] – deprived of every means of support & their husbands sworn to serve the Confederacy. The men will have to come home and see their children begging bread. The picture is dark, & if things present [sic] now, I cannot find a ray to lighten it. Hopeful ones say all will right soon, while those less sanguine believe the worst must come [sic]. God help us & save us from utter destruction.
Diary of Martha Abernathy.


August 23, 1862, Confederate draft dodgers form Federal unit in Humboldt environs.
We have observed a number of ragged fellows about the village lately and wondered what their business might be, thinking it might mean treachery, but were very agreeable disappointed to find that they were loyal Tennesseans, forming a company for service under the "Stars and Stripes." These poor fellows have been compelled to lay out in the bush to preserve their lives from their traitorous neighbors, for days and weeks but have finally gathered here to offer their services to they [sic] country. We welcome you, loyal men, and are proud of your patriotism. It is not the counterfeit that stays at home, trying to preserve neutrality, but the genuine that says, "be that strikes my country, strikes me.' Would to God there were more such.
Soldier Budget [Humboldt], August 23, 1862.


Another Fight. – We are informed that Company C. 2nd Ills. Cavalry, overtook 150 guerrillas from Kentucky as they were crossing the ford of the Obion river, near Troy, where our Regiment crossed o­n its way here. The rebels tried to cross, and overloaded the boat, causing it sink, where by many were drowned. Co. C lost both Lieutenants and some three or four men killed and nine wounded, killing and drowning forty of the guerillas [sic], took ten prisoners, with horses, arms & c. The rest of the gang are making their way towards the Hatchie river bottom, which seems to be the rendezvous of all scallywags in Kentucky and Tennessee.
Soldier's Budget [Humboldt], August 23, 1862



23, "Theatre;" the Carter Zouave Troupe appears in Nashville
This house will open for the season tonight, with the Carter Zouave troupe, a company of twenty-two charming children, who have created a perfect furore wherever they have appeared, filling the house night after night with the elite of the city, and delighting every person who has had the good fortune to witness their performances. We are informed that the oldest of the twenty-two is only about thirteen years, while the youngest is about six. We expect to be in our old seat at the opening, and will report our impressions to-morrow.
Nashville Dispatch, August 23 1864

Monday, August 22, 2011

August 22 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

August 22, 1862
Confederate Manner of Guerrilla Recruitment in Tennessee
New Southern Mode of Enlistment.
In Shelby and other counties of Tennessee, the rebel authorities have hit upon the honorable plan of enlisting en for home duty, giving the following interpretation and definition of that duty. The recruit is regularly sworn but not [sic] uniformed, mustered into service, but detailed to special duty o­n his own farm to act in concert with his neighbors similarly enrolled and detailed. When these bucolic legionnaires see a chance to shoot a picket, burn a bridge or run out a Union man, they remember they are soldiers of the Confederate States Army, or Confederate Stealing Association and do the job. When a Federal detachment comes along to hunt the rebels, the "soldiers" remember they are farmers, and come to the office with demands for protection or answer all inquiries with – "don't know a thing about it." Now this may be a very convenient thing for the framers, but it is rather exasperating to the detachment of undisguised solders of the nation; and gives them a clear and palpable right to treat such men as their crimes deserve. Our troops are fast discovering the guile and seeing through the flimsy veil; and for the sake of humanity and justice we do trust they will treat such men as their duplicity, cowardice and crimes deserve.
Where lurk guerrillas long, there the people are their coadjutors and deserve the punishment due to all accessories to crime.
Memphis Union Appeal, August 22, 1862


Editor Appeal: The editor of the Bulletin and the bankers and brokers of Memphis are having a good time tinkering with the Memphis currency. As the bankers and brokers have entered the ring to enlighten the public in regard to finance over the signatures of "Truth" and "Common Sense," it is to be hoped they will keep pecking [sic] at this knotty problem until some light is given to the public. "Truth" says "that the money is depreciated, and disposed to the lower, is a fact known to most here." Doubtless he was thinking of buying uncurrent [sic] money, and imagined himself talking to a customer over the counter [sic] when he penned this sentence, for further on he says: "I believe most fully that southern money, as a general thing, is equal to or better than Tennessee bank paper, and as such; your citizens ought to up hold it until it can go alone." "Truth," having invested by buying at 15 per cent. discount, is perhaps willing to sell at par, especially as southern is better (to shave) than Tennessee bank notes. If Tennessee paper be good, how happens it that the same banker or shaver, correcting the money quotations for both papers, has Tennessee quoted at par in the Bulletin and 25 per cent. discount in the Union Appeal? Peradventure "Truth" of "Common Sense" can explain this discrepancy; or why is it that southern paper, quoted at 10 per cent., is bought at 15 per cent. over the counter? Is this the patriotism [sic] that "Common Sense" refers to or is this the broker that has tried hard to keep the southern money up?
As to the strangers who arrive here, having a "peculiar distrust for anything South," it should be borne that the people who held cotton and sugar here since the Yankees came have also shown a "peculiar distrust for anything South." Hence, between the patriotic exertions of these people and the bankers and brokers, the balance of the community have suffered until the ting is past endurance. The balance of "Truth's" communication, though readable, is barren of fact or interest.
"Common Sense" seems to labor like a Mississippi pilot in a "fog;" he makes the discovery "that the business of our city is not in the hands of Memphis merchants, but in the hands of strangers, who know nothing of the value of Southern currency." The Memphis bankers and brokers knew its value, though they quote it at 10 percent. and shave it at 15 percent. for Tennessee, and then shave Tennessee for 25 percent. Where is the use of inserting in the newspapers that the Southern money is good and at the same time shaving over the counter at 15 percent.[?] "Common Sense," thee [sic] must be more consistent. The remedy for this evil has been pointed out. Let the brokers send hence the Southern money they have bought, at a ruinous discount, dur[ing] the last sixty days; let them cease to publish unfair quotations of the money market, for if the Tennessee banks are not insolvent, their paper is equal to any other suspended bank paper; if we must have money quotations, give Tennessee money a fair show, or give the public a reason for its discredit. How long will the patriotism of bankers and brokers suffer Yankees to twit [sic] our people for preferring Northern paper to their own. [sic]
Memphis Union Appeal, August 22, 1862.


"Negro Soldiers in Tennessee."
The Decherd correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette writes:
A few days ago an order was issued from department headquarters at Winchester, ordering the immediate organization of the negroes [sic] in the army into regiments, to be armed and equipped and mustered into the service.  This work is now being done as rapidly as possible, and will shortly have about seven or eight regiments of contrabands in the field. At Nashville two regiments are being organized out of the men who have been for two years at work o­n the defenses of that city. About 1800 men have thus been mustered into service at Nashville, and o­ne or two parades have been had. Here at the front the regiments are yet skeletons, but are rapidly growing to be strong and important reinforcements to this army.  All contrabands in the army not personal servants of officers, are being gathered together for these regiments. The men go in willingly. There is no necessity for impressing them.
These negroes [sic] will fight much more willingly for the Union than they would for King Isham.
Nashville Daily Union, August 22, 1863


22, A night in Smoky Row, Nashville
The women of Smoky Row got on a big spree last night; three of them -- Laura Hickman, Jane Johnson, and Liz. Adcock, were on a jolly drunk in a hack, while Belle Wallace and Fanny Ames were running a race on horseback. The Carson and Morgan war resumed last night, particulars of which will be developed in the Recorder's Court this morning. [Further reference to the "Carson and Morgan war" has not been found. It may have related to some sort of altercation at Smoky Row.]
Nashville Dispatch, August 23, 1864.


Friday, August 19, 2011

August 19 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

19, "Tennessee Refugees in the Army."
A letter in the New York Herald says:
"I called today on Colonel Alvan C. Gillem, Adjutant-General of the State of Tennessee, and had a brief but interesting conversation with him on various subjects. He states in regard to the Tennessee force that there are not eighteen regiments and two batteries of artillery in the field and that there're are several more in process of formation. All these regiments are very large, and many of them muster at this time as many as eight hundred men for duty. Colonel Hurst, of West Tennessee, has the largest in the field, numbering at a late date thirteen hundred men. Other regimens – Rays', Johnson's, and Gilliam's – muster as many as eight hundred men for duty. I suppose the State has at least fifteen thousand men under arms at this time. Many of the Kentucky regiments were nearly filled with Tennessee refugees; in some instances organized battalions of four and five companies going into Kentucky regiments. Of the eighteen regiments raised, in West Tennessee, has furnished four, Middle Tennessee, two; and the remaining twelve are from East Tennessee. This fact will give us some idea of the number of men, women, and children who have been forced by the cruelty of the rebel power to leave their homes and flee t Kentucky. The twelve thousand who filled up these regimens cannot have been more than a third of the number. I have never seen a calculation made; but even the small number of the twelve thousand alone sounds impossible, and the idea that such a number have been so cruelly expelled from their homes is too horrible to be willingly or readily believed."
Memphis Daily Bulletin, August 19, 1863.

19, "Cool"
H.A. Russell of the Eleventh (rebel) Tennessee cavalry, came into the city on Wednesday last, called at the Provost Marshal's office, told the Colonel that he was a good rebel, believed in Jeff. Davis, the Southern Confederacy and the greyback and starvation, and modestly asked to be paroled, that he might cease fighting against the old flag for a while, and retire to the bosom of his family. The Colonel responded to his wishes so far as to order a guard to escort him to the Penitentiary, where he will vegetate on "the vapors of a dungeon" until called for to be duly exchanged.
Nashville Daily Press, August 21, 1863

19, Skirmishes near Sweet Water, Philadelphia
LOUDON, TENN., August 24, 1864
GEN.: I have the honor to make you acquainted with the following account of the proceedings of the raiding party from the south, in this vicinity for your information: On Saturday last [19th] a detachment from this place had a skirmish with the enemy near Sweet Water early in the morning, and finding their strength too great fell back. In the afternoon, near Philadelphia, had another skirmish, and 3 men captured, I of whom made his escape, but no one killed or wounded. The loss of the enemy in killed and wounded in these two skirmishes was 6 or more. We captured 1 from the Sixth Georgia Cavalry. That day the enemy moved to the south of this place and crossed the Little Tennessee at different fords the 20th and 21st. The 22d some crossed the Holston at Louisville and cut the telegraph at Concord, and did a little damage to railroad, and then returned to the south side of the river the next day. Railroad and telegraph to Knoxville now repaired.
* * * *
I am, general, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. AMMEN, Brig. Gen., U. S. Vols., Comdg. Fourth Division, 23d Army Corps.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 38, pt. V, p. 658.