Wednesday, September 28, 2011


Allegations of Confederate Postal Service Discrimination against the Knoxville Whig
The Mails and the Whig.
The following correspondence will explain itself, and is deemed by us of sufficient importance to be published. Our motives for addressing a note to our city Post Master were, to give him an opportunity to acquit himself and deputies of blame.  Our belief was, when we wrote the note to him, that justice was done us in this office, but we wanted his evidence to aid in fixing blame elsewhere, which it does.
It occurs to us, that if Attorney Ramsey, and Judge Humphreys, would devote a part of the time they spend in arresting Union men, in such cases of abuse and corruption, as are disclosed in this correspondence, they should render the people real service:
Knoxville, August 7th, 1861
C. W. Charlton, Post Master: - As my subscribers at various points in East Tennessee, no greater distance from here than Union, Blount, Roane, Anderson and Sevier counties, adjoining, inform me that they have not received a copy of my paper for three weeks past, while the Register is regular in its arrival, the object of this note is to ask you if the Whig is started out from your office in the mails, regularly? Next, I desire to know if the Confederate authorities, at Richmond have forbid [sic] the transmission of my paper through their mails.  Your prompt answer will much oblige.
W. G Brownlow.

Post Office,
Knoxville, Aug. 7 1861
Rev. W. G. Brownlow: - Dear Sir – Your note, just received. I have had no authority, from Richmond to "forbid the transmission of my (your) paper through their mails." – It is certainly remarkable that your paper does not reach your subscribers in East Tennessee, for, this far, I have tried to do my whole duty in properly distributing your paper. It has been done in no office, and  [I] challenge proof to the contrary.
Respectfully, &c,
C. W. Charlton, P.M.

Knoxville, August 20, 1861
Hon. Mr. Regan, P. M. General, & c. – The Route Agent on the Road from here to Bristol, has stated in one of our principal Stores, that he would throw my newspaper packages out of the car as the train might be passing, on the ground of its being an incendiary sheet. The Packages have been seen cast out of the window as the train was crossing the Bridge at Loudon, on the Road below this, floating and sinking. In various instances the Post Masters refuse to hand them out, and, suppress them, contrary to the wishes of the people they reside among, and profess to serve.
I respectfully enquire of you, if there is no remedy for these evils? There are nine [sic] newspapers published in East Tennessee, and claim to have more subscribers than the other eight, all put together.  M subscribers all pay postage, and pay the Confederate rates. – Is it fair that they should be treated in this way? Are these up-starts, Route Agents, Deputy Post Masters, to decide what papers are incendiary in their character? – rather, should the not the Authorities of Tennessee determine this grave question, under or laws, which are ample?  Here the paper is published, and here it proposed to circulate.
It is late for me to publish a paper if I am denied the facilities of the mails for its circulation. And if these are refused by the employees of the Department, it is idle to talk about the freedom of the Press.
I write to you in no captious spirit, but having been thus treated for months, I would like to have your views on the subject, and know the purposes of the Department. –
Meanwhile, I am
Your obliged servant,
W. G Brownlow

Appointment Bureau
Richmond, September 10th, 1861
Sir: - Your favor of the 30th ult., complaining that Post Masters have refused to deliver the "Knoxville Whig" to its subscribers and that a Route Agent has declared that he would throw all packages of the paper from the Mail Car while in motion – is received.
The Post-Master General desires me to say to you that, deeming it to be entirely within the province of State authorities to suppress incendiary matter published or circulated within their limits, has, though frequently urged to do so with reference to the "Knoxville Whig": and other journals, invariably refused to authorize any Agent or Officer of the Post Office Department to decide what shall or shall not pass through the mails, or interfere with the circulation of any newspaper in any way whatever.
If you will give to the Department the name of any person so offending, the matter shall be investigated, and the party dealt with according to his guilt; the terms of your letter being of such a general character that a charge is not made against any particular Officer.
I am, sir,
Respectfully yours,
B. N. Clement, Chief Appointment Bureau.

KNOXVILLE, September 17, 1864
Hon. B. N. Clement: - Your letter of the 10th inst., is before me, and is satisfactory as to the course of your Department.  The instances in which Post Masters refuse to hand out my newspaper, and numerous, are dispersed throughout the country. The one at Red Clay, on the State line, has obstinately refused to hand out m y paper for some time, and boasted that he took the responsibility to suppress it. The one at Wytheville, Va., has done the same thing.  The one at Murphey, N. C., has been doing so, and been opening other men's letters.  His name is Stewart [sic]. The one at Ringgold, Ga., is doing so at this time.  The one at Memphis, in this State, has been doing so for months.  And gentlemen tell me who have at Bristol, that my packages were thrown aside there, and suffered to lie over when they should have been sent forward. The citizens of Sevier county, have been sending a special messenger for many weeks, after my paper, because it could not get through by mail. The distance is some thirty miles, and I am unable to say which of the several Post Masters on the route commits the outrage of destroying my packages.
On the Railroad going south from here, there are m ore Route Agents than one, and I am not able to say who was on the train at the time the packages were thrown over board from the Loudon bridge. The Agent on the Road leading to Bristol, who boasted of his purpose to throw packages over board, while the cars were in motion is a Mr. Cawood [sic].
I will add, that the pretended letters of Andrew Johnson [sic], address to Amos A. Lawrence of Boston, were forgeries of the most base and palpable character, and the forgery was committed in this town, and is susceptible of proof, if our city Post Master and Deputies will tell to whom they handed out the letters, addressed by Lawrence to Johnson. [sic]  This they must do before they can exonerate themselves.  Let Gov. Johnson be what he may I consider an investigation of this abuse of the Confederate mails, alike due to him, and to the Government of the Confederate States. It is a very bas case and of palpable corruption, and is so regarded by all honest men, of all parties, familiar with the case.
I am, sir,
Your obliged servant,
W. G. Brownlow.
Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal, September 28, 1861.


28, Conditions inside the Confederate hospital in Chattanooga; an entry from the diary of Kate Cummings
Have been very busy all week, too much so to write in my journal. Three men died in the course of the week. On the 26th, John Wilkinson, a member of the Fifth Mississippi Regiment, from Neshobo [sic] County; on the 27th, D. W. Jarvis, from Coffeeville, Alabama, a member of the Thirty-second Alabama Regiment; same date, John Cotton, member of Sixteenth Louisiana Regiment, of Rappee Parish, La. These men were in a very low state when first brought in from the camps.
Diarrhea [sic] is the prevailing disease among the patients. I have been so busy that I have not taken time to visit Mrs. M's ward. She has many sick men, as has also Mrs. WS. They both have a great deal of trouble. The stove smokes as badly ever. I have the use of one that belongs to the surgeons. (They all mess together; their kitchen and dining-room are near my ward.) It answered for what little I have to cook -- beef-tea, toast, sago, and arrow-root. I have a nice little distributing room in the ward, which the head nurse, George Bean, has fixed up very neatly.
The great cry of our sick is for milk. We could buy plenty, but have no money. We get a little every day for the worst cases, at our own expense. I intend letting the folks at home know how many are suffering for want of nourishment, for I feel confident that if they knew of it they would lend us means.
Last week, in despair, I went to Dr. Young, the medical purveyor, and begged him to give me some wine; in fact, any little thing, I told him, would be acceptable. I did not come away empty-handed. He gave me arrow-root, sago, wine and several kinds of spices, and many things in the way of clothing.
In every hospital there is invariable a fund, there is not at present in this [one]. The reason, we have been told, is because the hospitals at this point are in debt to the government, by drawing more money from it than their due, and until it is paid we will get no more. The fund consists so money drawn instead of the soldiers['] rations.
Mrs. W. and myself went to the Episcopal Church this morning. There were very few present. The pastor's, Rev. Mr. Denniston, sermon was a political one.
I went to give my sick men their dinners, and found that the food I had cooked for them was spoiled. I asked Huldah, the negro woman who cooks for the surgeons, who had ruined everything. She told me the steward's wife had bee over there and put handfuls of salt into the beef-tea and other things. She had done the same before, but I did not know who did it. My poor men had to go that day dinnerless. I do not know when I have felt so badly about any thing [sic]. I am afraid the next thing she does will be to attempt my life. We had made up our minds, if Dr. Hunter did not put an end to these persecutions, it would be impossible for us to remain here. One of the assistant surgeons came to me, and told me that if Dr. Hunter did not put a stop to them, he and the other assistant surgeons would do so. But I have been informed that Dr. H. has told the steward, that if his wife comes over to this side of the hospital he will then her out altogether. It seems we will never get rid of troubles of this sort.
When we first came here Dr. H. told us that there was another lady coming to assist us; we found out who she was, and concluded if she came we would not remain. We told Dr. H. what we knew of her, and he said that was strange, as he had certificates from our first surgeons. I told him there were some of them whose certificates I did not value as much as the paper they were written on. He said on no account would he have her come.
Had a visit a few days ago from Dr. Flewellen, he congratulated us on our admission to the hospitals. He is one of those surgeons who approves of ladies being in hospitals. We went to see him when visiting this place, and he told us the ladies did good in may; ways; the principle good was, that where they were the surgeons and nurses were more apt to attend to the patients than they would otherwise be.
We have a good deal of trouble about servants; the soldiers do the coking, in fact all the domestic work. We have a few free Negroes, and they give us no little trouble. For this reason the slaves here are not near so respectful as they are with us; although they seem to have great contempt for the free Negroes. The other day I heard the doctor's servant indignantly say that some one had spoken to her as if she was free, and had no master to care for her.
There are quite number of soldiers in the place who can not get on to their commands, as the country is filled with bushwhackers, and it is dangerous for them to go through it unless in very large bodies.
I am a good deal worried about my brother, as I have not heard from him since the army went into Kentucky.
Cumming, A Journal of Hospital Life, pp. 46-47.


28, Confederate sharpshooters' targets near Chattanooga
No circumstantial reports filed.
HDQRS. THIRD DIVISION, TWENTY-FIRST ARMY CORPS, Chattanooga, September 28, 1863.
Capt. E. A. OTIS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
SIR: Our picket line has been undisturbed within the last twenty-four hours, except by a few sharpshooters at a house and in trees; as is usual, they fire at officers and bodies of men only. Two pieces of artillery were seen moving through the woods yesterday. Last night about tattoo two bands were playing and there was a great deal of cheering in the enemy's, convincing me that the force was not so insignificant as I at first supposed. The pickets report that speeches were made and caused the cheering.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
P. T. SWAINE, Col., 99th Ohio Vol. Infantry, Comdg. Advance Forces.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. III, pp. 916-917.


28, "Nashville Refugee Hospital."
To the Editor of the Nashville Dispatch
This institution call loudly upon the flourishing community for help. Help for the friendless, dejected, despairing females and helpless infancy [sic], prostrated by sickness and infirmities, caused by privations incident to war, with scarcely a hope, but in the dark silence of the grave. Few are aware that hundreds of this class are daily to be cared for, or left to sufferings to horrible for contemplation.
How striking the works of One, who said; "I was a stranger and ye took me in, naked and ye clothed me, sick and in prison, and ye ministered unto me; inasmuch as ye have done it unto the last of these, ye have done it unto me.
Some contributions have been received from the North; Government has kindly done, and is doing, but this institution must fail in its Heavenly mission unless this community extend its timely assistance. Ladies, gentlemen, you and old, can you not, will you not spare something for those who are ready to perish that their blessings may fall on you? The "Nashville Ladies' Aid" -- which about one year ago ran into existence at Mercy's call -- has done what she could; and now, with exhausted treasury, calls through her committee upon our citizens for contributions of money or clothing, all of which will be thankfully received and duly acknowledged through the daily papers.
Collecting Committee
Mrs. H. G. Scovel, Residence, Summer st.
" Dr. Fletcher " "
" Capt. Allen No 75 North Market st
" Rev. R. H. Allen "
" Major Hopkins No. 6 North Vine st.
"" A. P. Shankland " 9 " "
" James Cameron " 85 North College st.
" Perrine South College st
" Rev. Goodfellow 162 South Cherry st.
" E. A. McGinnis S.W. corner College and Line sts
Nashville Dispatch, September 28, 1864.


28, Confederate raiders destroy telegraph lines and railroad track near Tullahoma
Report of Maj. Gen. Robert H. Milroy, U. S. Army.
HDQRS. DEFENSES NASHVILLE AND CHATTANOOGA, R. R., Tullahoma, Tenn., October 20, 1864.
MAJ.: In obedience to the telegraph order this day received from the major-general commanding the District of Tennessee to furnish a report of the operations of the troops under my command during recent movements of the enemy against our railroads, I respectfully submit the following brief statement of the very brief operations of my command during recent movements of the enemy against our railroads:
I learned on the 28th [ultimo] [September] that the rebel forces under Forrest were moving east from Pulaski in the direction of this railroad. I kept cavalry scouting parties well out on the various roads leading west, to ascertain at what point he aimed to strike. On the night of the 28th ultimo, a small scouting party of rebels cut the telegraph wire, tore up and burned the railroad track to a small extent three miles north of this place. I sent out a construction train early in the morning of the 29th, with a guard, and soon repaired the break in the track and wire. In the afternoon of the same day a scouting party of the Twelfth Indiana Cavalry met Forrest's advance eleven miles out, a short distance from Lynchburg, and had a sharp skirmish with them. I confidently expected an attack at this place the next morning, the 30th ultimo, but to my great disappointment and disgust they failed to come, and my preparations for meeting them were useless, and my expected opportunity for wiping off the trust of fourteen months' comparative inactivity was lost.
Forrest turned back immediately after the skirmish above mentioned, and this railroad has not since been disturbed by his or any other rebel forces.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
R. H. MILROY, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 512


Saturday, September 24, 2011

September 23 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

1862, Randolph, Tipton County.
The Union river packet the EUGENE arrived at Memphis from St. Louis. A band of Confederate guerrillas fired o­n the boat, which was carrying supplies destined for the relief of families in Union occupied Memphis. The attack, carried out from the Tennessee bank of the Mississippi River, was unsuccessful, yet enraged General William T. Sherman. 
As retribution Sherman issued orders to burn the town of Randolph to the ground. The orders were carried out on the 25th.


23, An excerpt from George Hovey Cadman's letter home, his opinion of feminine pulchritude in Memphis
As for pretty girls in Memphis there are very few to be seen, what with Chawing Snuff and tight Lacing the women are all more or less ugly. I have heard and read a great deal of the beautiful daughters of the South, but must confess that I have not seen them yet, they are mostly sallow Complestion [sic] and to remedy this they lay paint on so thick that to me it appears disgusting. I have had a good chance of seeing the Ladies since we have been here at Church on the Public Roads and at their dwellilng, and there is the same mark of listlessness. I believe Tight-Lacing is the principal cause for that seems to be carried on to a greater extent here, than at any place I was ever at.
Correspondence of George Hovey Cadman, TSLA,


Tuesday, September 20, 2011

September 20 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

20-22, Expedition, Bolivar to Grand Junction & La Grange, and skirmish*
SEPTEMBER 20-22, 1862.--Expedition from Bolivar to Grand Junction and La Grange, Tenn., and skirmish
Brig. Gen. Jacob G. Lauman, U. S. Army, First Brigade, Fourth Division, District of West Tennessee
Bolivar, Tenn., September 22, 1862.
GEN.: We left our camp, 5 miles north of Grand Junction, on Sunday morning, between 7 and 8 o'clock, having previously sent forward the cavalry to Grand Junction and La Grange, and proceeded slowly until we arrived within 2 miles of the Junction, where I halted the column to let it close up. While resting here Maj. Mudd came in from La Grange with information that he saw there a large body of infantry and cavalry moving on the La Grange road toward our rear with the evident intention of cutting off our train. Having previously received information that a large force was at Davis' Mills, I without a moment's delay ordered the train to fall back, following it closely with my main column. We passed the railroad crossing where we encamped the previous night and where the road forks to Grand Junction and La Grange about twenty minutes before the rebel cavalry, closely followed, as I have since learned, by their infantry and artillery. They hung upon our rear until about 1 o'clock, when, arriving near the creek, about 2 miles north of Van Buren, where, finding it necessary to halt my train for rest and water, I placed my command in position so as fully to command the approaches and sent out a small force of cavalry to see whether the rebels were still on our track. They soon returned, with the rebel cavalry at their heels. Letting them approach to within easy range, Mann's battery (Lieut. Brotzmann commanding) opened on them and sent them flying back. My train by this time having rested and watered we continued our progress, and arrived in camp at dusk.
Our casualties were few, for which I refer you to the accompanying reports.
I have the honor to be, general, your most obedient servant,
J. G. LAUMAN, Brig.-Gen.
No. 2.
Report of Col. Silas Noble, Second Illinois Cavalry.
HDQRS. SECOND ILLINOIS CAVALRY, Bolivar, Tenn., September 22, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report that in compliance with Orders, No. 200, I marched with 350 men of my command as the advance of the forces under command of Gen. Lauman, and entered Grand Junction about 5 p. m. of the 20th; found everything quiet at that place and but very few inhabitants left there. From all the information I could gather the force of the enemy near Davis' Mills was about 8,000. Having accomplished the reconnaissance of the place and vicinity I returned about 4 miles to the camp of Gen. Lauman and bivouacked for the night.
On the morning of the 21st, in accordance with orders from Gen. Lauman, I went again to Grand Junction, sending two companies, under command of Maj. Mudd, to La Grange, to examine that place and the country around it. At Grand Junction all was in the same condition in which I found it the evening previous. I was directed to hold this place until the arrival of Gen. Lauman with the main force. But, upon learning from Maj. Mudd that the enemy in large force was making a movement to pass to the rear of our army through La Grange, I at once retired and joined Gen. Lauman, and with him returned to this place, the cavalry under my command being employed as flankers and reconnoitering parties.
Maj. Mudd was active in ascertaining the position and force of the enemy. I have the honor to inclose his report.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
S. NOBLE, Col., Comdg. Second Illinois Cavalry.
No. 3.
Report of Maj. John J. Mudd, Second Illinois Cavalry.
BOLIVAR, TENN., September 22, 1862.
COL.: I have the honor to report the following as the part performed by the detachment of Second Illinois Cavalry, under my command, in the recent movement on Grand Junction and La Grange:
When on Saturday evening you moved forward from the main body I took command of the advance, being Company K, Capt. Jones, and 20 men of Company H, under Capt. Higgins, and moved rapidly to Grand Junction, dispersing a squad of rebel soldiers on our way. Finding no enemy at that place, I had just pressed a guide and started Capt. Jones with his company in direction of Davis' Mills when you arrived and recalled him.
On Sunday morning, in accordance with your order, I, with Companies H, Capt. Higgins; K, Capt. Jones; M, Orderly Sergeant Webb, commanding, and C, Capt. Fullerton, moved toward La Grange, arriving within half a mile of that place at 8 a. m. On the way we had noticed persons at distant points in several places across fields, but were not able to decide whether soldiers or citizens. We also arrested some citizens, but could gain no information from them. My extreme advance now reported a large body of cavalry half a mile in front of the head of our column. I ordered the fences pulled down and preparations made for battle, while with a few men I went forward to view their movements. I found it to be a large body of infantry moving to the north diagonally across the road occupied by me. They moved with celerity and paid no attention to us, except to place pickets on the road to watch us. A citizen brought in by pickets reported that the whole rebel army had been passing through La Grange for an hour and a half, and that their design was to fall on our rear and cut off our rain. This was evident from their movement, to which I was now a witness. I immediately dispatched couriers to notify Gen. Lauman and yourself of the state of affairs, called in my pickets and advance guard, and moved with haste to the main body of the army, being during the march watched but not disturbed by the rebel cavalry on our left. Under Gen. Lauman's direction I dispatched a squad of men from Company I to reconnoiter on the left. They soon reported the enemy's cavalry and artillery a little to the rear and a half mile to the left. Fearing they might be moving on our left on parallel roads with us, I, without orders (being without communication with yourself or Gen. Lauman), called out Companies H and K, and with them moved north 4 or 5 miles, until satisfied that none has passed. Returning, I had just got well into the road when I discovered the enemy in hailing distance on our last night's camp ground. I directed Capt. Higgins to move forward, while with a small squad of men from Companies I and K I kept the enemy at bay until my command had reached a safer position. Finding that no rear guard was following I assumed to perform that duty, and followed at a good distance from the army, keeping the enemy at bay and picking up and urging forward stragglers until I came up with Gen. Lauman, with his command in order of battle, 1 mile this side of Van Buren. At his suggestion I dispatched Capt. Vieregg with a squad of men to watch the movements about the village. He soon returned, followed by a large body of rebel cavalry, who followed within range of our artillery, when a few rounds from Capt. Mann's battery dispersed them.
When the column next moved I occupied the ground for half an hour after the whole train had passed out of sight, during which time we could see the rebel forces slowly advancing across the field to the southwest of the point of timber on our right flank when in line. Finding they had all passed into the timber, and deeming the position no longer safe, I withdrew my little force and again took my place in the rear of the column. After crossing Spring Creek, in obedience to orders from Gen. Lauman I dispatched Capt. Higgins, with 40 men, to reconnoiter to the left, and myself, with a small squad of men, watched the road at the edge of the timber. Capt. Higgins reported all clear for 2 miles west. I sent my company to a suitable point to feed, and remained in the rear for an hour and a half...seeing no signs of the enemy, when I received your orders to follow, which I did, bringing up the rear, and arriving in camp at 9 p. m. without the loss of a man.
To the admirable order preserved by the commanders of companies we are indebted for the safety of the men for so long a time in the immediate presence of an advancing enemy. No stragglers were out. With such officers straggling would go out of fashion, and to them I am much indebted for their promptness in carrying out my orders; also to my men for the cheerful alacrity with which every command was obeyed.
I have to report the loss of two horses by Company M; one killed by a fall and the other disabled and left.
I wish to report the carbine cartridges now furnished us as being of very poor quality. They shake to pieces in riding, and at the end of each day's march many of the men find instead of cartridges only a mixed mass of powder, ball, and paper.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Your obedient servant,
JOHN J. MUDD, Maj., Second Illinois Cavalry.
OR, Ser. I. Vol. 17, pt. I, pp. 140-143.

* Ed. note - This skirmish illustrates the make up of a forage train and the power of artillery against cavalry.



20, A Yankee attends a Baptist service

….Today went to town to church for my first time in McMinnville – to the Baptist church – hand only a prayer meeting – a good deal of lamenting over their calamities, but not a word to say about their wicked rebellion. Grief for their fallen friends, none apparently for the course that led to their fall. I was almost angry at them, but I felt I ought to make a good deal of allowance for people who have suffered in the persons of these most dear to them.

Reports of rebel receiving reinforcements are becoming thicker and appear to be well authenticated. Rosecrans is said to be concentrating his troops rapidly. May the good Lord give him good success, and may confusion and defeat attend the footsteps of rebel enemies everywhere. Lord God defend the just cause for Jesus Christ's sake.[1]

Alley Diary
20, Skirmish between guerrillas and U. S. C. T. in Robertson county*
"Colored Troops After Guerrillas."
"Old Robertson" is famous for good whisky and bad guerrillas. On last Tuesday [20th] a party of five bushwhackers caught a young man near Springfield, and robbed him of all his valuables. Colonel Downey, of the United States Colored Troops, stationed at Springfield, heard of the robbery and immediately sent out a squad of his men, who came upon the guerrillas about ten miles from Springfield, towards the Kentucky line. The colored chivalry immediately opened fire on the rebels, and stiffened three of them as cold as a lump of ice. The other two, squealing with fright, looked over their shoulders, and with hair standing on end, eyes as wide as saucers, cheeks as pale as their dirty shirts, and chattering teeth, fled as if the everlasting devil was after them. The guerrillas made as good time as ever a Tennessee race-horse did. Of course the soldiers had to give up the chase, as there was no use trying to compete with Jeff. Davis's chivalry in a foot-race.
Nashville Daily Times and True Union, September 20, 1864.
[* Ed. note - this event is referenced neither in the OR, nor in Dyer's Index.]


Monday, September 19, 2011

September 19 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

19, How to Pay for a Year's Subscription to the Tennessee Baptist in War Time

What a Woman Can Do.

Jenkins Depot, Tenn., Sept. 16th, 1861.

Dear Bro. Graves:--Inclosed [sic] you will find two dollars, which is to pay you for the Tennessee Baptist for the present year.

Mr. Grace has been very hard run in his financial affairs this year, and I concluded that I could make money and pay you myself, so I went to work and soon found that it was not so hard a task as I had expected. A few pounds of butter, a few chickens, potatoes, or anything of this kind, will secure the amount for any one, and I think any one who is in arrears for the Tennessee Baptist could spare enough of poultry to pay for it. I do not miss what I have sold, and I would not be without the Tennessee Baptist for twice the amount. It is but little to us, but if all would do this it would amount to a considerable sum with you.

Yours in Christian love,

R. A. Grace,

for J. M. Grace.

Tennessee Baptist, October 19, 1861.[1]



19, A view from the inside of the Confederate hospital in Chattanooga; an entry from Kate Cumming's diary

I have been kept quite busy ever since I came here; in fact, we all have been. We have a good deal to try us, but our minds were made up to expect that before we came. The stove smokes badly, and we find it almost impossible to do any thing [sic] with it; besides it is so small that we scarcely have room to cook on it what little we have. The surgeon, Dr. Hunter, like many other men, is totally ignorant of domestic arrangements, and also like many others, wholly unaware of his ignorance. The only consolation we get from him is a fabulous tale about a woman (a "Mrs. Harris") who cooked for five hundred people on the same kind of a stove.

One of our greatest trials is want of proper diet for sick men. We do the best we can with what we have -- toast the bread and make beef-tea; and we have a little butter -- bad at that.

There are no changes of clothing for the men; but we have cloth, and after our day's work is done, we each make a shirt, which is a great help. The last, though by no means the least, of our troubles is the steward who has taken a dislike to us, and annoys us in every little petty way possible. His wife has charge of the wards across the street from us. The assistant surgeon complains of her inattention to her duties in waiting on the sick.

A man, by the name of Watt Jones, died in my ward to-day [sic]; another, by the name of Allen Jones, yesterday -- both members of the Fourth Florida Regiment.

Our room is in the third story, facing the west; the view from it is really grand, and when worn out physically and mental, I derive great pleasure from looking out. On the north of us runs the Tennessee River; opposite that is a range of hills -- one rising above the other -- dotted with beautiful residences, surrounded by prettily laid out gardens. On the southwest is Lookout Mountain, its peak frowning down on the river which winds around its base -- looking like a lion couchant, ready to spring on its pray.

Cumming, A Journal of Hospital Life, p. 46.


19, "A Contraband Funeral."
We were forcibly reminded on Saturday last [19th] of the uncertainties of life by observing a contraband funeral passing solemnly down Front Row. The hearse was a light spring wagon, the body just long enough for half of the body in the coffin, on one end of which was the driver. Behind the hearse walked seven men, and in their rear, seven women. We could scarcely forbear quoting the lines of Horace, so appropriate[:] Eheu Posthume, Posthume!" as the lugubrious procession moved on. "There is no hard work for poor Uncle Ned."
Memphis Bulletin, September 22, 1863


19, Confederate conscript sweep in Madison, Decatur, McNairy and Henderson counties
LA GRANGE, September, 19, 1863.
Lieut.-Col. BINMORE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
Information just received that Col. Wilson with 400 to 600 cavalry, also Newson with 200 cavalry, crossed the Tennessee at Saltillo on Tuesday, supposed to be on a conscription tour in McNairy and Henderson Counties.
T. W. SWEENY, Brig.-Gen., Comdg. Second Div., 16th Army Corps.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. III, p. 737.

LA GRANGE, September 19, 1863.
Brig.-Gen. GRIERSON:
A citizen, K. M. Harden, who lives 6 miles east of Purdy, reports this afternoon that Col. Wilson, rebel, crossed the Tennessee River at Saltillo on Tuesday, the 15th instant, with about 500 men; swam their horses. On Wednesday Col. Wilson passed near Purdy, going toward Jackson. His avowed purpose is to conscript.
They shot the father of one of the officers of the Sixth Tennessee Cavalry. That regiment asks permission to go after Wilson.
Your obedient servant,
L. F. McCRILLIS, Col., Comdg. Cavalry Brigade.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. III, p. 738


19, Skirmish at and occupation of Bristol by Federal troops
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the Itinerary of the 23d Army Corps, August 1-September 30, 1863.
* * * *
September 19.--Wolford moved to Knoxville. White from Morristown, toward Knoxville. The Second Brigade, Fourth Division, drove the enemy, 700 strong, out of Bristol. Cut the railroad and bridge. Destroyed large amount of subsistence stores and returned to Blountsville. Hascall is in Jonesborough. Carter left Knoxville for Carter's Station.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. II, p. 579.

NEAR BLOUNTSVILLE, September 19, [1863.]
GEN.: I arrived at Bristol to-day and occupied the town without resistance, except by a force of 400 cavalry, which were driven out of town after a severe skirmish. I tore up the railroad, and burned the bridges, 2 miles above town. A large force of rebels is stationed at Zollicoffer. They are reported as about 6,000 strong, and are commanded by Maj.-Gen. Jones. Gen.'s Williams and Jackson are also there. From best information, I am satisfied their force is about as reported, mostly infantry. I will attack to-morrow unless the force is greater than reported. I think I can hold them till you can send sufficient force to capture them. Please bring up re-enforcements as speedily as possible. Communicate with me via Jonesborough. Give me orders as to my movements.
I will try to hold the railroad and rear till re-enforcements arrive. No time should be lost.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. II, p. 592.


Thursday, September 15, 2011

September 15 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

15, Life in a Confederate camp of instruction [boot camp]; a letter from Sergeant Fayette McDowell at Camp Myers [Overton County, Tenn.] to his sisters at home in the Cherry Creek community in White County
Camp Myers
September 15th, 1861
Dear Sisters:
I will send you a letter if I get it done in time. I write letters for the boys in my idle time, which is not much; until I don't have time to write to you as often as I want to. I will explain to you what I have to do in a day. The drum taps at five in the morning, which is before day, you know. Well I have to get up, wake up the company, call them into line, call the roll, [and] dismiss them. I have then to go to every tent and enquire who is sick. Set their names o­n paper to hand to the surgeons. I have also to look over the list and count those who were absent, those able for duty, those absent o­n account of sickness, et. Set it all down to hand to the adjutant of the regiment. I then go to headquarters to hand in my reports. Next I eat breakfast; next I call the company into line to go o­n drill. Number them off and march them to the drill front.
Sometimes I drill them. They ought to set me over them every day, for I am the best in our company, so they say, and it is so by odds.
When the drill is over, I march the company to the tents. Next I go to officers' drill, not obligated to attend their drill but go o­nly to be up with any o­ne. I get in from all drill at half past ten. I then detail the guard, which has to be mounted at 12 o'clock. Hand the list to another sergeant, and sit down, rest sometimes, at other times I write for myself or others, at 12 o'clock I eat dinner. at 1 o'clock I take back the guard list, call up the guard and march them to headquarters or get some other sergeant to take them.
I then go to the commissary and draw provisions for the company, every other day lately, this takes me about 1 hour. The other sergeants divide the rations among the messes. Six men in a mess in o­ne tent. I have a mess to myself if I choose. I have four others with me. Choosing to sleep with them to help keep my mess in order [sic]. This takes me two hours. We then call the company o­n the street and drill them in the manual of arms (I have drilled them nearly every day at this drill) till 3 o'clock. We then rest till 4 and then call up the company to go to the field for regimental drill. They put the whole regiment together and drill 1 1/2 hours, sometimes in a run, or, as we say, o­n double-quick time. We then come to camps, put o­n our coats and caps and uniforms, and go o­n dress parade, takes half an hour. I then march the company to camps, call the roll, dismiss the company and set them to getting supper. I have a negro to cook for me. We drafted three free negroes, and for close attention to duties and not asking for a furlough, the Captain gave [one negro] to me. You know I feel big. He don't cost me anything. At seven I eat supper. Between seven and nine I write letters, love letters sometimes, for the boys. I gave give away about 4 quire of paper and wrote letters o­n about half of it.
The drum taps at nine. I have to see that all the lights in the company are put out. Then if I am ready, I go to bed. If not, I sit up. Sometimes I post my commissary book. I have to keep strict account of everything I draw from the commissary.
Outside of all this I take the sick to the hospital, be always in my place to detail men to perform the different duties. I have to oversee the cleaning of the streets, front and back streets, tents and all.
See to having the guns put in order and many other things that I forgot. You know I am busy. But I stand it very well. I suffer for sleep sometimes. I get to rest o­n wash day as I pay for my washing. That is I don't drill, o­nly officers drill. Have other things to attend to. I have Sunday [fee] from drill entirely.
Yours, etc.
L. L. McDowell
Diary of Amanda McDowell, pp. 65-66.
 15, "On the Shores of Tennessee."
"Move my arm chair, faithful Pompey,
In the sunshine bright and strong,
For this world is fading, Pompey -
Massa won't be with you long;
And I fain would hear the South wind
Bring o­nce more the sound to me,
Of the wavelets softly breaking
On the shores of Tennessee.

"Mournful though the ripples murmur,
As they still the story tell,
How no vessels float the banner
That I've loved so long and well.
I shall listen to their music,
Dreaming that again I see
Stars and Stripes o­n sloop and shallop
Sailing up the Tennessee.

"And Pompey, while o­n Massa waiting
For Death's last Dispatch to come,
If that exiled starry banner
Should come proudly sailing home,
You shall greet it, slave no longer -
Voice and hand shall both be free,
That shout and point to Union colors
On the waves of Tennessee."

"Massa's berry kind to Pompey;
But ole darkey's happy here,
Where he's tended corn and cotton
For dese many a long gone year.
Over yonder Missis sleeping -
No o­ne tends her grave like me;
Mebbe she would miss the flowers
She used to love in Tennessee.

"'Pears like she was watching, Massa -
If Pompey should beside him stay,
Mebbe she'd remember better
How for him she used to pray;
Telling him that away up yonder
White as snow his soul would be,
If he served the Lord of Heaven,
While he lived in Tennessee."

Silently the tears were rolling
Down the poor old dusky face,
As he stopped behind his master,
In his long accustomed place.
Then a silence fell around them
As they gazed o­n rock and tree
Pictured in the placid waters,
Of the rolling Tennessee.

Master, dreaming of the battle
Where he fought by Marion's side,
When he bid the haughty Tarleton
Stop his lordly crest of pride.
Man, remembering how you sleeper
Once he held upon his knee,
Ere she loved the gallant soldier,
Ralph Vevair,[1]  of Tennessee.

Still the South wind fondly lingers
'Mid the veterans silver hair;
Still the bondman closed beside him
Stand behind the old arm chair,
With his dark-hued hand uplifted,
Shading eyes, he bends to see
Where the woodland boldly jutting
Turns aside the Tennessee.

Thus he watches cloud-born shadows
Glide from tree to mountain crest,
Softly creeping, aye and ever
To the river's yielding breast.
Ha! Above the foliage yonder
Something flutters wild and free!
"Massa, Massa! Hallelujah!
The flag's come back to Tennessee!"

"Pompey, hold me o­n your shoulder,
Help me to stand o­n feet o­nce more,
That I may salute the colors
As they pass my cabin door.
Here's the paper signed that frees you,
Give a freeman's shout with me -
"God and Union!" be our watchword
Evermore in Tennessee."
Then the trembling voice grew fainter;
And the limbs refused to stand,
One prayer to Jesus - and the soldier
Glided to that better land.
When the flag went down the fiver
Man and master both were free,
While the ring-dove's note was mingled,
With the rippling Tennessee.
Soldier's Budget [Humboldt], September 15, 1862.
[1] Not identified.
 15, "That Little Coffin."
The world is full of interesting scenes from which the moralist and philanthropist may draw lessons of instruction. "We witnessed tow episode in he city o­n Saturday [12th] in startling juxtaposition with each other. The first was the sight. of all others most revolting to us, of a lewd woman carried o­n a dray, an officer vainly striving in behalf of public decency to keep her from the gaze of the troop of vile boys shouting and throwing dust upon her as she passed. The other was a hearse containing a little coffin. Oh, the tenderness awakened within us at that sight! The view of solemn and diminitive [sic] chamber of the dead aroused every sensibility of our nature. We followed it for a square and observed how the soldiers stopped and looked longingly after it. Did a vision arise in their minds as in our's or of a dear son or daughter, brother or sister clay cold in some distant home? Did they seem to hear, as we did, the mother's wails as the lid was laid for the last time o­n it, and that dear face that idolized form were hidden from by our eyes forever. But o­ne sight of all others gave us pleasure in that connection. An officer riding quietly with his orderly following met the hearse, reined in his horse, and actually took off his hat before that symbol of departed Youth! It was o­ne of the most touching sights our eyes ever witnessed. Need we say that that officer honored himself and the distant darlings who were in his mind as much by that touching salute as he has upon more than o­ne battlefield in which is prowess has been vindicated and his country's honor enhanced,
Memphis Bulletin, September 15, 1863.
15, "Vengeance."
A terrible and tragic scene was enacted near Bell's Bend, on the spot where the late Dr. Moore was murdered a few days ago. We have been unable to obtain full and authentic particulars, but learn that on Thursday last, Major Moore, son of Surgeon Moore, went with a detachment of men belonging to the 10th Tennessee cavalry, to Bell's Bend, and executed summary vengeance upon the inhabitants for the murder of his father. It appears that Major Moore met Mr. McWhirter about three miles this side of his home, when the party made him prisoner, took him back to the spot, where Dr. Moore was murdered, and there killed him without trial or form of trial. The same party then seized Mr. Matt Anderson, and would have killed him, we are informed, but for the interference of one of the party, who knew him well, and interceded for him. E. W. Hyde was also seized, and, as we learn, treated with every indignity; but they spared his life. They then proceeded to burn the houses, barn, etc., of the person residing in the neighborhood. Among the sufferers are the widow of Jerome B. Hyde, whose house and furniture were totally destroyed; William RT. Hyde, whose dwelling, barns, furniture, everything but his land was consumed; the family of J. M. McWhirter, two of the Abernathys, Matt. Anderson, J. M. Howington, and others, The two latter were brought in prisoners. We are not informed by whose authority all this was done, or whether by any authority, or whether there were any palliating circumstances attending it, bit we trust an investigation will be made of the circumstances.
Nashville Dispatch, September 17, 1864.

Wednesday, September 14, 2011

September 14 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

14, "High Rents" in Confederate Knoxville

In view of the times, the war, and the suspension of business, tenants are required to pay too high rents in this city, and its surroundings, and there should at once be a reduction. The laboring classes, dependent upon their daily labor for money to meet their unavoidable expenses, cannot make enough to pay the high rents demanded of them, these dull and trying times. The impossibility of making collections -- the utter impossibility of getting new and additional stocks of goods, forbid that merchants should be required to pay their former high rents. And all things considered, men renting dwelling houses should not be charged, as heretofore two and three hundred dollars for ordinary dwellings. The owners of property should have a meeting, and agree upon a reduction in rents. To exact extravagant rents, and take the advantage of men's necessities, at this time, is swindling under a pretense of renting out property!
Brownlow's Knoxville Whig, September 14, 1861.



14, "Coffee! Coffee!! Coffee!!!"
In these days of blockades, when coffee is scarce, prices high, and in many places none to be had at any price, many substitutes are tried.
I am glad to have it in my power to recommend a substitute which is so nearly like the genuine article as to satisfy the most delicate taste and deceive the oldest coffee drinkers. It is as follows:
Take the common Red Garden Beet [sic], pulled fresh from the ground, wash clean, cut into small squares the size of as coffee grain or a little larger, toast till thoroughly parched, but not burned, transfer to the mill and grind. -- The mill should be clean. Put from one pint to one and a half, to a gallon of water, and settle within an egg as in common coffee, make and bring to the table hot -- with nice, fresh cream [sic] (not milk) and sugar. I will defy you or anybody else to tell the difference between it and the best Java.
I drank this substitute at the hospitable mansion of Col. Wm. D.W. Weaver, of Greensboro' [GA], and who has adopted it from his recollection of the war of 1812, when his mother used it. I would say in connection that much depends on the skill of the coffee maker. Some people cannot make good coffee out of the best article. I have tried the above and know that it will satisfy the public if properly used.
W.C. Bass, Greensboro, Ga., Aug. 29th, 1861
Brownlow's Knoxville Whig, September 14, 1861.


Thought Police in Confederate Knoxville
Arrest of John B. Brownlow
As the eldest of our two sons has been arrested and held as a prisoner, for several days and nights together, in the Military Camp near this city, and as this occurrence has been trumpeted abroad, and published in various Southern papers, for our benefit [sic], we will give the whole case just as it is.  We have a small office, in our yard, a considerable variety of books, which have been accumulating for a quarter of a century.  A Mr. Reed [sic], stopped into the office, where he found our son reading.  He forthwith asked, "what are you reading?" Our son replied, "THE IMPENDING CRISIS OF THE SOUTH" by Helper. Reed then insisted upon borrowing the book, which John B. Brownlow loaned to him to peruse, upon his promise to return it soon.  Mr. Reed took the book home, and upon exhibiting it, was arrested, and brought into camps as a prisoner. Mr. Reed stated to the authorities arresting him, that he borrowed the booked of JOHN B. BROWNLOW, and thereupon he was arrested.  He stated, and stated correctly, that the book was the property of W. G. MCADOO, Esq., of whom we had borrowed it. The prisoners were, very properly, as we think, turned over to the Confederate Court, being held by JUDGE HUMPHREYS, and o­n Saturday [7th], they were discharged.  Mr. Reed took the oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, and J. B. Brownlow was dismissed without any ceremony or conditions whatever. It was found upon inquiry, that W. B. REESE, Jr., a paymaster in the Confederate Army owned the same work, and was accustomed to lend it to particular friends.  Mr. McAdoo is also a Secessionist.  Beside there being nothing in the thing, and the prominent Secessionists owning what few copies of the work are here, the court could but discharge the prisoners.  We should not now allude to it, but for the fact, that it will be published far and wide, that our family are circulating incendiary documents. Nay, smuggling the, through the blockade by the box full! And not o­ne paper in ten that circulates the slander, will have the magnanimity to correct it.
We own Helper's first book, written in favor of slavery and of the South [sic], and published after his return from California.  Having stolen some money from his employer in North Carolina [sic], he turned abolitionist – escaped to the North – and there published his "IMPENDING CRISIS," a mischievous work, but nevertheless of ability. Desiring to read him after his change [sic] and his thieving exploits in a store [sic], we borrowed it. It is a work, which, together with its Author, he have, o­n more occasions than o­ne, through the columns of our paper, denounced as infamous [sic]. We regard Tom Paine's Age of Reason as infamous sick, but o­n account of its talents and style, we have perused it.
We own "Uncle Tom's Cabin," the joint production of Harriet Beecher Stowe, her husband, and he brother Henry Ward Beecher. It is an infamous compound of falsehood, and we have so represented it to the public, o­n more occasions than o­ne.  We have directed our family not to lend it to any o­ne, as we have no desire to go before the Confederate authorities.  We also own copy of the Constitution of the United States [sic], and the Declaration of American Independence [sic], and as they are both incendiary documents [sic], we have charged the members of our family not to lend them out! Last, but not least, we have in our family, five copies of the Holy Bible, the ancient Book of God, but as they will be found to be incendiary [sic] books, upon examination, we have directed that none of them be loaned out. That old-fashioned book calls upon all men to be subject to the Government under which they live, and declares that "whosoever resisteth the Governance of God, and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation!" This antediluvian [sic] doctrine might do to preach to the Rebels in the Garden of Eden – to the Egyptians who tried to force the passage of the Red Sea – or to the murders of Christ, who perished in the siege at Jerusalem – but to preach in 1861, a man will be denounced as a sumbissionist! [sic]
Here we might close this article, but we choose to copy from the Nashville Gazette, o­ne of the many dispatches going the rounds of Southern papers:
Arrest of Brownlow. – We received the following dispatch last nigh:
Knoxville, Sept. 4
To Editor Daily Gazette:
Brownlow and son arrested to-day by order of General Zollicoffer.
Lieut. J. K, McCall
Gen. Zollicoffer has ordered no arrest of us, but o­n the contrary, upon learning o­n the authority of Military men, that certain troops stationed here, had threatened to demolish out office and dwelling, he promptly ordered all troops within their lines through their officers; and dispatched as many as two hundred armed troops to town to guard our property, patrol the town, and close all liquor shops.  His conduct is spoken of in the highest terms by gentlemen of all classes, save o­nly a few cowardly citizens [sic], and assassins [sic], who desire the troops stationed here, to take up their old personal quarrels [sic], and commit outrages [sic] which they have the black hearts [sic] to prompt, but not the personal courage [sic] to execute. Union men and others feel, that under the command of GEN ZOLLICOFFER, their persons and property will be protected from mob violence. And in no spirit of flattery, we can say that he acts with dignity, promptness and impartiality,
Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal, September 14, 1861.


14, Letter from John Bachman to his wife Rachel Bachmen in Sullivan County
Knoxville Sept 14 1863. [sic]
Dear wife, I have an opportunity of writing a few lines by Mr. Patton . I am well except my ancle[.] [I]t is better[.] the [sic] doctor said it will be some time before it is well[.] I forgot to write you about my Boots[.] the morning I left you I lond [sic] them to Roly Chace Esq. and I have gott [sic] his old Shoes[.] Pleas [sic] send Lafayett [sic] over with my best Shoes if you can get them in time[.] take care of the children[.] Kiss little Ann for me[.] I think that you had abetter take Mandy & Elen [sic] from School til I get home[.] if [sic] you have an opertuity [sic] write me how you are getting along and how the boys is do [sic]
I have no more paper[.] send [sic] 1 or 2 shets to rite [sic] on
Your most affectionate
John Bachman
Pleas [sic] send $75 dollars [sic] in Tennessee money
P.S. pleas send $75 dollars [sic] in Tennessee bank nots [sic] to Richard Jobe Soes that he wants his wife to get Willilam Perry[,] John Depue and David Hunt to vouch for him and send it down by Willilam Munix[.] copy [sic] this and send to Mrs. Jobe.
WPA Civil War Records, Vol. 1, p. 128.


14, "The Enemy."
Yes the enemy is upon us; are even here now marching up our streets in solid columns, garrisoning our fortifications and throwing a guard into each farm and many of our houses; binding with chains not easily to be broken, a large potion of the residents, both citizens and soldiers; binding with chains not easily to be broken, a large portion of the residents, both citizens and soldiers; slaughtering without remorse, the old and young; the strong mat at arms and the feeble woman; even the little child does not escape his power. Lawrence is invaded at our very doors. Yes, more than invaded, in awful distress, in panic, in these consequences death.
But, strange to say, no long roll is beating, no warning voice is heard, no strong men march out to meet the foe, and drive him from our midst; men walk along with hands in pockets whistling snatches from some gay opera, women spend their time in the social visit and friendly chat, till the destroyer is upon their own homes; no one cares no one even deigns to notice till his [sic] house is struck. It reminds one of the madness of the Babylonian sitting at Bellshazzar's feast, while the Great One had written "Mene, mene, Tekil, Upharsin," on the wall. It is worse with us, for the enemy was but thundering at their gates; he is in our very midst. Are we mad or only drunken?
Let us examine the array of the foemen. Terrible indeed, under the banner of their invincible King Death, they are bound to conquer wherever they can gain admittance.
Old "Malaria" leas the van, and has thrown out a strong body of skirmishers along the river banks, who have constructed powerful and complete shell-places from the material found in such abundance there -- drying mud of the river, decaying vegetables, and dead animals, both great and small. It has also been stated, on the authority of our best scouts, that a company has similarly entrenched itself at the reservoir, and have turned their weapons on us most effectually. A large force has been guarding the N.&C.R.R., but I am told, that this has been removed, and thrown out as skirmishers on the suburbs of the city.
The main command is under the control of Maj. Gen. Fever, whose headquarters are at Barracks No. 1. His brigade commands may be found: Typhoid on the Public Square; Typhus, Water street; Variola, Smoky Row; Pyemia and Gangrene, at the vacant lost near Hospital No. 14, and back of the depot; from whence they are ready to send their emissaries at the shortest notice.
That patrolling streets and guarding of private houses devolves on Brig. Gen. Dysentery, whose agents are abroad every where, only waiting for a pretext to enter every house and home. And where they do enter, woe to those found within. They have an eagle eye on every camp and ;hospital, and no day passes but some unwary victims fall by their hands. It is even said that they are watching the market and improving every chance to put poison in all that is sold there; and where shall we turn that we may; not see an enemy surrounding us?
Who is responsible for this? Yes, I repeat, in God's name show us the man, if he be high or low, civil or military.
It is useless to try to equivocate, when no persons can pass up Church street, on the sidewalk, buy the barracks, without holding his breath -- when even old boatmen are sickened by the horrid stench of the river -- when the streets are the filthiest of any in the world, Constantinople not excepted -- when men will beg the privilege of standing all night by the windows of our military prison, and rather than wait for a legal discharge, although they have the necessary papers in their pockets, stake and lose their lives in attempting to run the guard. No paltry excuse will answer to stave off public investigation.
Dose this work belong to our military or municipal authorities? Let the responsible parties see to it. If they do not the people will see to them.
A former communication of mine was so unfortunate as to raise the ire of the Louisville Journal, and a bitter tirade of personalities came down on our defenseless head; but my duties in the field left me no time to answer it. I stated only facts, which are, every one of them capable of proof by parties whose integrity is undoubted.
I have not had any desire to place Col. Mundy in [a] false position. An order, published in the Same paper, admits "gross abuses" ] had crept into the "pass system" and provides for their removal. His subordinates have not, perhaps, always been the best in the army, and recent investigations of the great army police brings to light enough to place the load of guilt some where [sic] else, but on one who seems to be a gentleman and a soldier. In regard to the writer, if it is necessary, I can give to the world the history of the Murfreesboro' contract; the fawning and going down on the marrow bones, with the whole history of various transactions in this department, and their fate, which will account for the reason that the name of "Grainger" has no angelic sweetness to his ear. I do this simply as a compliment to his sharpness, of which quality he justly considers the writer destitute. But as for entering into a wordy war with him, he must excuse me, for long since I formed a resolution (for the safety of my clothing) never to trouble with a tarred stick.
Nashville Daily Press, September 14, 18


Tuesday, September 13, 2011

September 13 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

13, "Confederate School Books"
Dr. J. B. McFerrin, Agent of the Southern Methodist Publishing House, has placed upon our table several specimens of school books now being printed at that establishment. They are entitled "The Confederate Primer," "The First Confederate Speller," and "The Second Confederate Speller. The matter was arranged by an association of Southern Teachers, and the casual examination we have been able to give it, impresses us with the opinion that the work could not have been better done. The printing is clear, near and precise.
It affords us much pleasure to chronicle the fact that an effort is now being made in this city to supply a want long felt in Southern schools, and we hope to see the enterprise meet with the proper kind of encouragement.
Nashville Daily Gazette, September 13, 1861




13, "The Public Schools;" education in Memphis
Editor, Bulletin:
Since Monday morning, it has been a pleasant night to see so many youths of both sexes, with bright faces, light footsteps and lighter hearts, carrying armfuls of new books, wending their way to the schools newly opened.
Never did the public schools of Memphis open under better auspices. Many families that have hitherto patronized, private schools, and opposed those of the city, have taken down their colors, discontinued their opposition, and enrolled their children during the past week.
The Superintendent and sixteen teachers are daily engaged in the great and good work of instruction. Already, about one thousand youths, varying in age from six to sixteen years, are crowding daily to our city schools, and the teachers have taken hold with both hands and all their hears, and the work move bravely on. Here they are taught without money and without price, whether rich or poor, of high or low degree! May God bless the city schools.
The writer begs leave to suggest to the teachers the propriety of forming an association, and meeting regularly at stated times, to advise and assist and encourage each other in the noble work in which they are engaged. I am just from Cincinnati, and know that, there is such an association there, and that it is productive of much good. Why not enjoy the benefits here? Let all the teachers unite, both male and female, and have their regular meetings, admit members, lecture, read essays, discuss the merits of school books, etc., etc.. I am in favor of this, who will second the effort?
Gentlemen of the Board of School Visitors: Your title implies something of your duty, that is, to visit the schools. IF you will visit them all, and often, much good will result. Let all see that you feel a deep interest in the schools, for, rest assured, much depends upon you.
Finally I would say to parents, that the teachers need their cooperation. Without [it]. little good can be effected. See that your children attend regularly. Encourage them to be studious and obedient. Show that you feel some interest in the success of those who labor through winter's cold, and summer's scorching heat, to prepare the rising youth for usefulness in life. Visit the schools, speak kind words to the teachers, and let us all labor to promote the good cause.
A.M.S., Memphis, September 13, 1863.
Memphis Bulletin, September 13, 1863.



13, "Terrible Accident at Fort Pickering."
A terrible accident, by which two men were instantly killed, and four badly wounded, occurred at Fort Pickering, between nine and ten o'clock yesterday morning. The magazine of Battery A, 3d United States Colored Heavy Artillery, located immediately on the river bank, at the foot of the bluffs, suddenly exploded for some unknown cause, producing a concussion that was felt throughout the greater portion of the city. A dense volume of smoke arose, that was seen from all points, and attracted hundreds to the levee, who supposed that the noise was caused by the explosion of some steamboat. Some were so foolish as to think that Forrest was again thundering at the city gates, and bethought themselves of secure hiding places, while the professor traveled homeward to shove his "millish" uniform up the chimney, as on a former occasion.
The origin of the explosion is unknown. The door of the magazine which was of wood, had not been opened since the day previous, and sentries are always upon guard. About thirty yards from the scene of the explosion is a steam saw mill, which was fronted by the door of the magazine, and it was the general impression among the officers yesterday, that sparks from the mill entered through crevices in the door, and ignited the powder, of which there were abut 800 pounds, besides a number of shell. It is estimated that about 150 shells exploded; fragments wee found scattered in all directions of the fort. There is not a vestige of the magazine left standing, and the ground in the immediate vicinity is ploughed up to the depth of several feet. The saw mill was only slightly damaged on the roof by exploding shells. The residence of Lieutenant Colonel Harper, commanding the 3d United States colored heavy artillery [sic] which forms a portion of the garrison of [the] fort was violently shaken by the concussion all the windows (sashes and all) in the house being broken, the plastering displaced, and the furniture generally demolished. Some articles were thrown from one side of rooms to the other. Mrs. Harper, one or two children and a gentleman, beside servants, were in the house at the time, but, fortunately, none of them we in the least injured. When we visited the premises a half hour after the explosion, Mrs. Harper was busily engaged getting things to rights, as calmly and coolly as if nothing unusual had happened, not showing the least peturbation [sic] or nervousness as peculiar to her sex under similar circumstances. So much for a solder's wife. The house is situated on the bluffs, about one hundred feet above the spot where the magazine stood, and some thirty feet back from the edge. Numerous pieces of shell and fragments of the magazine were picked up in the yard. A little boy was playing in the yard when they fell, and was uninjured.
The casualties were as follows: Killed-- Private Geo. Washington, co. A, 3d U.S. C.H.A., and Thos. Knevals (white) Government employee; Wounded: -- Sergeant Rice, co. A., 3d U.S.C.H.A., David Macklin, co. C, 3d U.S.C.H.A.; Sam Rice, co. A, 3d U.S.C.H.A. and Pat Smidy (white) Government employee.
There were about twelve or fifteen soldiers and Government employees standing near when the accident occurred, who, with the exception of the above, are supposed to have escaped. It was thought that one or two more were blown into the river, but is generally discredited. Private Washington was on guard at the magazine. He was blown over a hundred feet into the air, and descended a shapeless mass, minus a leg, which could not be found. Thomas Kneavals, who was engaged repairing the railroad in the fort, in front of the magazine with several other laborers, had his head blown to atoms by a shell. His brains were scattered over the persons of his co-laborers. Smidy was wounded in both legs, and my have to supper amputation. Private Macklin was wounded in the back by a shell, and cannot possibly survive. Sergeant Rice was also wounded in the back, seriously, but it is thought, not fatally. The other is seriously wounded, but is expected to recover. The others standing near were only prostrated by the concussion. No injury was done to the armament of the fort, and the damages otherwise, can speedily be repaired.
Since writing the above we learn that it has been discovered that the explosion was caused by the accidental discharge of a musket in the hands of the sentry, the charge lodging in a box of catridges [sic].
Memphis Bulletin, September 14, 1864.



September 12 - 14 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

12-14, Federal recruiting at Athens and capture of president and several directors of the State Bank of Tennessee
HDQRS. FIRST BRIG., FOURTH DIV., 23d ARMY CORPS, Athens, Tenn., September 14, 1863.
Lieut. Col. GEORGE B. DRAKE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
I have the honor to report that citizens have just come in from Cleveland reporting that 2,000 rebels are advancing on that town with a battery of artillery.
I have sworn in 276 men to-day, most of them soldiers. They are flocking in by the hundred....
* * * *
I have sworn in, in the last three days,[12th-14th] 462. Three hundred and sixty-two of these were soldiers. I have in custody the president and several of the directors of the State Bank of Tennessee at this place, holding them responsible for the bank funds.
Respectfully, &c.,
R. K. BYRD, Col., Comdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. III, pp. 639-640.



12, "Those Who Dance Must Pay the Piper."
Just as we go to press, observing the street blockaded in front of the Irving Prison, we gather the following items of a "big thing." It seems that a sort of barn dance was going on, on Main street, near Beal, in which ladies of easy virtue bore a prominent part. The uproar had become so tremendous that word was sent to Gen. Hurlbut. A word and a blow; and the blow first. The General ordered the whole audience arrested; the result is that sixty one are walking solemnly inside that bourne from whence no traveler returns -- before morning. We could moralize on this. Late as it is, we could overhaul our Soloman and make a note on it. Sancho Panza would assist us with old saws, and even Shakespeare might yield a thought upon such varieties as incipient manhood is prone to indulge in and their tremendous consequences. But spare, friends. We drop a tear at the thought of these three score convivants without musquito bars[1], ice, or other comforters wearing out the night under charge of Capt. Emerson.
Memphis Bulletin, September 12, 1863.


12, "Murder of Surgeon Moore."
The friends of Dr. Moore were shocked yesterday at hearing a report that he had been waylaid and brutally murdered, Monday night [12th], while riding home from the city. His residence is eight miles from the city, and the cold-blooded, unprovoked murder was committed within one mile of his house. The cause of Dr. Moore's assassination was the Surgeon of the 5th Tennessee cavalry, (Col. Stokes) a fact which gave great offence and scandal to the rebels, and sympathizers in his neighborhood. We have no doubt that the deed was done by some of his own neighbors, or at least instigated by the wretches. It is idle for them to disclaim any knowledge of or connection with the transaction, for the blood of Dr. Moore, as well as of hundreds of other loyal men is on their skirts. The murderers who prowl along our public roads to shoot down any straggling Union soldiers, or unarmed citizens whom they may chance to meet, do so from the belief that they are acting in accordance with the wishes of the rebellious people around them. We learn that a cavalry company has gone out in pursuit of the murderers, and we ardently hope they may lay hands on the murderers, beside making their ineffaceable mark in that neighborhood. Tennessee belonged to the loyal, and loyal men must be permitted to ride and walk alone, by day or night, without danger of being shot or stabbed.
Nashville Daily Times and True Union, September 14, 1864

[1] Mosquito netting, or possibly window screens.

Friday, September 9, 2011

Tennessee Civil War Notes

9, Citizens of Sneedville request protection from Unionists in Hancock and Hawkins counties
SNEEDVILLE, September 9, 1861.
Brig. Gen. F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Cmdg., Knoxville, Tenn.
DEAR SIR: We, the undersigned citizens of Sneedville, &c., would respectfully represent to you that we are threatened with immediate invasion from the Union party of Hancock and Hawkins and perhaps other counties in East Tennessee in connection with Union and Northern men from some of the mountain counties of Kentucky. We have the proof showing these facts from men who have heretofore belonged to and acted with the Union party of our own county. One gentleman, the sheriff of our county, revealed the following facts to a citizen of our town this morning, viz; that in a few days there would be a strong force from Kentucky escorted here through the mountains by a force of union men from this county and Hawkins who have lately gone from here to Kentucky. There have been crowds within the past ten days from this county and Hawkins numbering from the best information 500 men who we understand are determined to bring back with them from Kentucky a sufficient force to overrun Southern men in Hancock and in this portion of East Tennessee generally, and from thence to the railroad with a view to tear it up so as to stop any transportation upon the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad. We have abundant proof clear to our minds that there exists a great necessity for having force stationed here. There is no appearance of Union hostilities having abated. We do not feel that the lives of ourselves and our families are by any means safe.
* * * *
We are, dear sir, most respectfully, yours,
(Forwarded to Secretary of War same date.)
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, p. 833.


9, Chattanooga occupied by Federal forces
From a position five mile south of Chattanooga on September 10, 1863 General Braxton Bragg telegraphed the Adjutant and Inspector General of the Confederate Army, S. Cooper, with the painful intelligence that: "The enemy entered Chattanooga yesterday in force, driving out the small garrison I could leave behind."
OR , Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. II, p. 22.

No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the September 27, 1863 report of Colonel George P. BUELL, Fifty-eighth Indiana Infantry, 21st Brigade, 1st Division, 21st Army Corps relating to the Union occupation of Chattanooga.
* * * *
My brigade remained until the morning of the 9th instant, when, by order of Gen. Wood, it led the advance on Chattanooga. At the point of Lookout Mountain we met a small picket force of the enemy which we soon dislodged, and marching on entering Chattanooga about 12 o'clock of the 9th instant. My brigade was the first that entered the City.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. I, p. 653.

HDQRS. FOURTH DIVISION, FOURTEENTH CORPS, Cureton's Mill, September 9, 1863--6.30 p. m.
Col. FLYNT, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
We are in receipt of two dispatches from Col. Atkins, commanding Ninety-second Illinois (by special couriers from his regiment), within a few minutes of each other. Find copy of the first received inclosed; the other reads as follows (written first):
HDQRS. NINETY-SECOND ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS, Chattanooga, September 9, 1863--11 a. m.
Maj. LEVERING, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
Maj.: We had a little skirmishing on the mountain, but now hold Chattanooga. My stand of colors was the first to float over the town. A complete evacuation. Columns of dust showed them going south. Two companies of my regiment are pressing after them, and I will likely take my command up the river to gobble a little squad said to be there.
Very respectfully,
SMITH D. ATKINS, Col. Ninety-second Illinois.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. I, p.247.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Trenton, September 9, 1863--3.30 a. m.
Maj.-Gen. THOMAS, Comdg. Fourteenth Army Corps:
A dispatch is just received from Gen. Wagner, dated 8.30 p. m. yesterday, stating that Chattanooga is evacuated by the rebels and he will occupy it in the morning. The general commanding desires you to call on him at once to consult in regard to arrangements for the pursuit.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. A. GARFIELD, Brig.-Gen., Chief of Staff.
OPPOSITE CHATTANOOGA, September 9, 1863.
Capt. SEITER, Fourteenth Army Corps:
Gen. Wagner occupies Chattanooga to-day. The Stars and Stripes were raised on Mound Fort at 11 a. m. The last of the enemy left as our men entered, without firing a gun. Gen.'s Crittenden and Wood are in Chattanooga.
G. W. LANDRUM, Lieut. and Acting Signal Officer.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. III, pp. 481-482.

CAMP NEAR TRENTON, GA., September 9, 1863--8.30 p. m.
(Received 6.40 p. m., 10th.)
Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief:
Chattanooga is ours without a struggle, and East Tennessee is free. Our move on the enemy's flank and rear progresses, while the tail of his retreating column will not escape unmolested. Our troops from this side entered Chattanooga about noon. Those north of the river are crossing. Messengers go to Burnside to-night, urging him to push his cavalry down. No news from him or his cavalry.
W. S. ROSECRANS, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. III, p. 479.
The fall of Chattanooga was described this way by Henry Campbell, bugler with the 19th Indiana Battery:
Wednesday Sep [sic] 9th. Chattanooga Evacuated!!  Today the Union Troops entered the boasted stronghold of the West without the loss of a man....The 92d belongs to our Brigade and they had the honor of first planting the stars & stripes on the works of the deserted town. At about 11 o'clock the flag was hoisted on the Crutchfield House. Soon after the 92d had entered the town Capt. Lilly and Colonel. of the 97th Ohio crossed the river in a boat and planted the flag of the 97th on the parapet of the large fort, which was greeted by a salute from the Battery. The town has a dirty, dreary appearance, almost deserted by the citizens - very few nice housed and all old ones, besides.
The "Chattanooga Rebel" was printed in the vault of the Chattanooga Bank to keep out of the way of our shells. Depot and Crutchfield house in particular. The owner of the latter said we ventilated his smoke hose to such an extent that he was unable to smoke his meant. Our Brigade had the honor of first opening out on Chattanooga also the first to enter it. Our Battery fired the first and last gun at the town - fired over 600 rounds altogether - put 2 shots into the Depot at a distance of 2 1/2  miles. We were here from the 21st Aug. til [sic] to day with Wilders Brigade and Wagoners  for our support...nearly three weeks opposed to the whole of Bragg's Army. Old "Rosey" has completely outwitted Bragg....
About 3 o'clock we pulled out up the river and camped about dark at Friar's Island.
Three Years in the Saddle*

*[Ed. note - Henry Campbell, Three Years in the Saddle. A Journal of Events, Facts, and Incidents connected with the 19th Ind. Battery. Typescript copy from Chickamauga National Military Park Library, Ft. Oglethorpe, GA., pp. 69-70.]



9, An account of the occupation of Chattanooga.
Gen. Rosecrans' Campaign.
The Occupation of Chattanooga -- Where Bragg Will Make His Next Stand.
Correspondence of the Cincinnati Commercial.
Look-Out Valley, Ga., Twelve Miles South of Trenton, Sept. 9, 1863.
Chattanooga has fallen! Such is the tenor of a dispatch just brought in by a courier. Crittenden occupied the stronghold to-day. Bragg evidently dreaded a repetition of the Vicksburg disaster, if he remained and attempted to defend Chattanooga, after our army had occupied a position directly threatening his rear. He could not leave a garrison to hold the works, while he opposed our right with his main force, with Burnside on the way to reinforce our left. With Burnside it would have been easy to isolate Chattanooga, and give it its own good time to accept the fate of the "Virgin City."
The evacuation was not completed too soon. This morning Stanley was on the road with a heavy cavalry force, supported part of the way by two brigades of infantry, to strike the line of railway in Bragg's rear, in the vicinity of Rome. As soon as the evacuation was discovered, the expedition was overtaken and ordered back to camp. From the front, where Stanley started, it was but a day's march, for horsemen, to Rome, and the raid would, doubtless, have been successful if Bragg's army had not been promptly withdrawn from Chattanooga to oppose just such a movement.
Rosecrans strategy has proved a splendid success. Crossing a broad and dangerous river, and an extremely rough chain of mountains, he throws his army in four days forty miles almost directly in the rear of the rebel stronghold. That he was not bitterly challenged by the enemy proves a weakness almost startling in the size and morale [sic] of Bragg's army. Can it afford to fight us on any terms in its present condition?
There has been no more brilliant movement during the war, if we expect the wonderful exploit of Gen. Grant in marching to the rear of Pemberton. It has been carried on with the loss of two men killed and two wounded in a slight cavalry skirmish, the only occasion we were made aware that an opposing army was near.
* * * *
New York Times, September 20, 1863




9, "Coffee"
When will the days of good old-fashioned aromatic coffee return? When will the green berry, worth now almost a cent a grain,  get down to the standard of 1850 -- "eight pounds for one dollar?" When will our housekeepers cease to buy that abominable cheat, the cheat of cheats, called "prepared coffee," of which the grain is cornmeal and the coloring liquorice, and put it beside our plate, a stench to destroy our enjoyment of the goodly viands she has heaped upon it? Have we not -- hear us, of Jupiter -- have we not resorted to tea, to mild, yea, even to water itself, to assist masticulation, and the digestion, and many other things the doctors call it? Why are we thus famished? Give us, o, give us back our old drink, the brown-colored, rich, delicious decoction, sweetened, (not too much) whitened with cream and drank, of, father of the gods, with a grateful smack that was next to religious. Is there any real imitation of coffee? Is there, can there be, do the laws of nature justify us in believing, that anything outside of the "blissful fields of Eden" can be made to taste, smell and stimulate like coffee? No, nature indignantly replies, not. Coffee is coffee, and there is none of it set forth on the table where we board.
Memphis Bulletin, September 9, 1863.


9, "Sunday Walk Among the Churches."
Our reporter made a little circuit last Sabbath among the city churches, and reports that the most of them are open, at least one a day to divine service, and that the audience for the most part are fair. A considerable preponderance of the military are found in some of the, which speaks to the praise of the profession.
On Second street, corner of Adams, the Episcopal church was served by Rev. Dr. White. Our reporter observed with regret that the beautiful and effective service of the church is mutilated by him, in the omission of prayers for the rulers of the land. This is the first time, he declares, that he ever heard that passage omitted from the service of the Episcopal church. The Baptist church, a little further north, is used as the Gangrene Hospital, and of course, not in a condition for religious services. Yet the solemn faces of the sufferers upon their neat whit beds, and the knowledge that one or their number had just a moment before gone out into the great unknown, afforded for reflection, equal to many a service. This hospital is under the skillful charge of Dr. Weeks, and has 50 beds. The Methodist church, corner of Poplar and Second, was about half full of hearers, earnest upon the discourse of Rev. Mr. Knott, who seemed to be himself deeply in earnest in the delivery of his pious message. The First Presbyterian church, corner of Poplar and Third streets, was rather better filled. The preacher is the Rev. Mr. Steadman. St. Mary's chapel on Poplar, beyond the market was empty, but our reporter learned that the rector, Mr. Hines, was that morning occupying the pulpit of Grace church in South Memphis and would fill his own at 3 P. M. This is a snug little church, about as bit as a parlor, and looks cozy and pleasant. A colored church about a square south of this was in full blast. Just as our reporter got there, a squad of some twenty soldiers came running up with arms in hand. They had learned than an attempt was making to break up the service, and looked wrathfully upon our reporter, one of the most peaceful men ever born, for an explanation. Our reports solemnly denied having broken up anything, or attempted to break up anything; said he got broke himself in his last speculation. He pointed to the window, nearly every one of which had been smashed, and to a colored auditor, who had evidently been cracked, of not broken by a missile and then asked in a tone of [pleased?] conviction, "do you think, corporal, that I look like a man who could do such things?" It was enough. The Cumberland Presbyterian church is closed, but he learned that this is owing to the sickness and absence of Rev. Mr. Davis, the pastor. St. Peter and St. Paul's church on Adams street were crowed with visitors, who were pouring out as our reporter passed, resembling an active swarm of bees. This denomination of christians always keeps its churches open. Union church, corner of Beal and Main streets, had service morning and evening, besides a colored charitable society in the basement. Our reporter got there in time to attend the latter for a moment, and was gratified to learn that the benevolent enterprise has been a success. Grace church had morning service by Rev. Mr. Hines. Upon the whole, the religious facilities of Memphis, considering the season, are encouraging. We hope our religious friends will increase and multiply these means of grace, give every opportunity to saint and sinner to come nearer to God, and let the world know that however divided the people of Memphis are upon the principles of government, yet there is among them but "one Lord, one faith, one baptism."

Memphis Bulletin, September 9, 1863.