Tuesday, May 27, 2014

5.28.14 Tennessee Civil War Notes

28, Difficulties and disarray in recruiting for Tennessee's Confederate Volunteer ranks, Isham G. Harris to L. P. Walker, Isham G. Harris to L. P. Walker


Hon. L. P. WALKER, War Department, Montgomery:

SIR: When I had the honor of addressing you on the 25th instant[1] I flattered myself with the hope that I should experience no difficulty in inducing some four of our volunteer regiments already organized to muster into the service of the Confederate States at once, and by that means secure the use of the 4,000 guns you had the kindness to send me; but upon submitting the proposition to any one of our regiments or companies I find many members ready to be mustered into the service at once, but others objecting, and to attempt to carry out the policy is to disorganize regiments and companies and to a great extent demoralize the force now so necessary to the service of the State and the Confederate States. This I am unwilling to do. Hence the regiments-for the Confederate States must be raised for that especial purpose, which will take some time, during which, under your order, the guns you sent me are lying idle, while I have several thousand men organized and ready for the field [already mustered into the service of the State], but unarmed, with a powerful enemy menacing us every moment. If you can, consistent with your sense of duty, relax the rule laid down in your dispatch of the 20th instant so far as to allow me to put these guns into the hands of our State troops, I assure you that they shall be withdrawn from them and placed in the hands of the regiments raised for the Confederate States the moment these regiments are raised and mustered in. Nothing short of the imperative necessity of the case before me would induce me to trouble you with this request; but believing as I do that it is a matter of the highest importance to the successful defense of the Confederate States, as well as the State of Tennessee, I feel that it is a duty to urge it.



Have the kindness to answer by telegraph.

I. G. H.

OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 1, pp. 358-359.



        28, Descent on bagnios in Confederate Memphis

Last night the police made a descent on several bagnios, from which quite a number of persons of both sexes were removed to the calaboose to appear for trial this morning in police court. Many were fined in sums ranging from five to twenty five dollars.

Memphis Argus, May 29, 1862.


        28,Cases before Nashville's Police Court

Police Court.

Thursday, May 28…Jane Gray and Eliza Miller were fined $6 each for discussing their private affairs on the public streets. Patrick Carr was arrested, on the complaint of his wife, for disorderly conduct, and abusing her in a manner so severe as to endanger her life. On being called upon for her testimony, she refused to be sworn, alleging as a reason a fact which none who saw her could doubt. The Recorder reprimanded her for troubling the officers with her complaints, and then refusing to give her evidence, and at length ordered a fine of $20 against her. Our good natured friend Smiley, being in court, took her case in hand, and finally induced her to consent to be sworn and give her evidence, and by great exertion kept her comparatively quiet. Patrick was fined $22.75, and not having the money, will be taken care of in the Work-house until the bill is settled. The fine imposed upon Mrs. Carr was remitted.

Nashville Dispatch, May 30, 1862



        28, "…if you kiss any you must kiss them all round…." John Fremantle's first impressions of Confederate Tennessee

28th May, Thursday. – I arrived at Chattanooga, Tennessee, at 4.30 A. M., and fell in with Captain Brown again; his negro [sic] recognized me, and immediately rushed up to shake hands.

After breakfasting at [Chattanooga], I started again at 7.30, by train, for Shelbyville, General Bragg's headquarters. This train was crammed to repletion with soldiers rejoining their regiments, so I was constrained to sit in the aisle on the floor of one of the cars. I thought myself lucky even then, for so great was the number of military, that all "citizens" were ordered out to way for the soldiers; but my gray-shooting jacket and youthful appearance saved me from the imputation of being a "citizen." Two hours later the passport officer, seeing who I was, procured me a similar situation in the ladies' car, where I was a little better off. After leaving Chattanooga the railroad winds alongside of the Tennessee river, the banks of which are high, and beautifully covered with trees--the river itself is wide, and very pretty; but from my position in the tobacco juice I was unable to do justice to the scenery. I saw stockades at intervals all along the railroad, which were constructed by the Federals, who occupied all this country last year.

On arriving at Wartrace at 4 P. M., I determined to remain there, and ask for hospitality from General Hardee, as I saw no prospect of reaching Shelbyville in decent time. Leaving my baggage with the Provost Marshal at Wartrace, I walked on to General Hardee's headquarters, which were distant about two miles from the railroad. They were situated in a beautiful country, green, undulating, full of magnificent trees, principally beeches, and the scenery was by far the finest I had seen in America as yet.

When I arrived, I found that General Hardee was in company with General Polk and Bishop Elliott of Georgia, and also with Mr. Vallandigham. The latter (called the Apostle of Liberty) is a good looking man, apparently not much over forty, and had been turned out of the North three days before. Rosecrans had wished to hand him over to Bragg by flag of truce; but as the latter declined to receive him in that manner, he was, as General Hardee expressed it, "dumped down" in the neutral ground between the lines and left there. He then received hospitality from the Confederates in the capacity of a destitute stranger. They do not in any way receive him officially, and it does not suit the policy of either party to be identified with one another. He is now living at a private house in Shelbyville, and had come over for the day with General Polk, on a visit to Hardee. He told the generals, that if Grant was severely beaten in Mississippi by Johnston, he did not think the war could be continued on its present great scale.

When I presented my letters of introduction, General Hardee received me with the unvarying kindness and hospitality which I had experienced from all other Confederate officers. He is a fine, soldierlike man, broad shouldered and tall. He looks rather like a French officer, and is a Georgian by birth. He bears the reputation of being a thoroughly good soldier, and he is the author of the drill book still in use by both armies. Until quite lately, he was commanding officer of the military college at West Point. He distinguished himself at the battles of Corinth and Murfreesboro', and now commands the 2d corps d'armée of Bragg's army. He is a widower, and has the character of being a great admirer of the fair sex. During the Kentucky campaign last year, he was in the habit of availing himself of the privilege of his rank and years, and insisted upon kissing the wives and daughters of all the Kentuckian farmers. And although he is supposed to have converted many of the ladies to the Southern cause, yet in many instances their male relatives remained either neutral or undecided. On one occasion Gen. Hardee had conferred the "accolade" upon a very pretty Kentuckian, to their mutual satisfaction, when to his intense disgust, the proprietor produced two very ugly old females, saying, now then, General, if you kiss any you must kiss them all round," which the discomfited general was forced to do, to the great amusement of his officers, who often allude to thiscontretemps.

Another rebuff which he received, and about which he is often chafed by General Polk, was when an old lady told him he ought really to "leave off fighting at his age." "Indeed, madam," replied Hardee, "and how old do you take me for?" "Why, about the same age as myself--seventy-five." The chagrin of the stalwart and gallant general, at having twenty years added to his age, may be imagined.

Lieutenant General Leonidas Polk, Bishop of Louisiana, who commands the other corps d'armée, is a good-looking, gentlemanlike man, with all the manners and affability of a "grand seigneur. He is fifty-seven years of age--tall, upright, and looks much more the soldier than the clergyman. He is very rich; and I am told he owns seven hundred negroes [sic]. He is much beloved by the soldiers on account of his great personal courage and agreeable manners. I had already heard no end of anecdotes of him told me by my traveling companions, who always alluded to him with affection and admiration. In his clerical capacity I had always heard him spoken of with the greatest respect. When I was introduced to him he immediately invited me to come and stay at his headquarters at Shelbyville. He told me that he was educated at West Point, and was at that institution with the President, the two Johnstons, Lee, Magruder, &c., and that, after serving a short time in the artillery, he had entered the church.

Bishop Elliott, of Georgia, is a nice old man of venerable appearance and very courteous manners. He is here at the request of General Polk, for the purpose of confirming some officers and soldiers. He speaks English exactly like an English gentleman, and so, in fact, does General Polk, and all the well-bred Southerners, much more so than the ladies, whose American accent can always be detected. General Polk and Mr. Vallandigham returned to Shelbyville in an ambulance at 6.30 P. M.

General Hardee's headquarters were on the estate of Mrs.---, a very hospitable lady. The two daughters of the General were staying with her, and also a Mrs. --, who is a very pretty woman. These ladies are more violent against the Yankees than it is possible for a European to conceive; they beat their male relations hollow in their denunciations and hopes of vengeance. It was quite depressing to hear their innumerable stories of Yankee brutality, and I was much relieved when, at a later period of the evening they subsided into music. After Bishop Elliott had read prayers, I slept in the same room with General Hardee.

Lieut.-Col. Arthur James Lyon Fremantle, Lieut.-Col. Coldstream Guards,Three Months in the Southern States: April, June, 1863, pp. 70-73.[2]



        28, The price of flour

Tumbling Down.

We are glad to hear that here, as elsewhere, the prices of articles of Necessity are coming down rapidly. Good flour, we are told, has been offered during the past week, at a greatly reduced rate in Confederate money. The price has been too high, and ought to be broken down to such a rate as will allow poor folks and soldiers' families to live. The reduction, as our columns have shown, has not been peculiar to this market. The Cleveland (East Tenn) Banner says:

Tumbling – Flour is advancing backwards in this market. It is drawing out of the garrets and pushing itself upon the market at considerably less figures than heretofore, but few buyers.

So in Atlanta, Ga. The Commonwealth says:

Down! Down!! Down!!! – We are glad to perceive that the news from the country in all directions continues to be good, giving assurances of low prices for provisions being close at hand. In this market no bid can be had for corn for future delivery.

Fayetteville Observer May 28, 1863



        28, "Watering the Streets"

This should be a general and not an exceptional practice. Several streets are well watered daily; others are not watered at all. This is not right. We do not see the propriety of watering Jefferson street, and neglecting Poplar street. If the property holders are to bear the expense of sprinkling we do not but doubt but those on Poplar street will do it as readily and cheerfully as those on Jefferson. Have those who make it a business to water the streets applied to the residents on Poplar as they have on Jefferson? They have not; but why have they not? The injury done every season to furniture and clothing by the dust, to say nothing of the unpleasantness of it would more than cover the expense of keeping the streets properly watered. Let this subject be thought of and acted upon.

Memphis Bulletin, May 28, 1864.


        28, "Something for the Young Folks"

We have received from F. Katzenbach, 270 Main street, a little library for little people which is for sale at his store, consisting of Poems, for Little Folks, Tales of the Great and Brave, Stories of Animals, Christmas Stories, Stories of Natural History, the Rabbit's Bride, Tales of Adventure, Stories of Foreign Lands, Casper's Adventures, Fairy Stories, Fables in Verse and History of Birds. These books are of convenient size for little hands, beautifully printed, handsomely bound, and illustrated plentifully with engraving. We have dipped into one or two of them, especially the fairy stories, and for a while realized the poet's wish, "Would I were a boy again." The cruel princess, the heartless magician, the cross old grandmother, the kind fairy, the brave adventurer, the lucky little fellow that blundered into fortune, how they passed before us as we knew them long, long, before we became the possessor of bray hairs and the tiresome amounts of wisdom we get with them, as a matter of course. Wisdom here is wisdom in these little books that can make young eyes sparkle and young hearts thrill with an ecstasy our nature seldom fails to impart. Those who would make the young people happy with a gift should call at Katzenbach's store. They are published by Carobs & Nichols, Boston

Memphis Bulletin, May 28, 1864.



29, Minor patrols from White's Station

MEMPHIS, TENN., May 29, 1864.

Col. G. E. WARING, Jr., Cmdg. First Brigade, White's Station:

Your inspection reports show that your horses are fast running down. You will concentrate your entire command at White's Station, and you will send out no expeditions, except small patrols of twenty-five men each, until you receive orders from these headquarters.

B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 55.



28, Federal army cautiously authorized to provide provisions to the destitute to prevent starvation in Chattanooga

NASHVILLE, May 28, 1865.

Brig. Gen. H. M. JUDAH, Chattanooga:

You are authorized to issue sufficient provisions to the destitute people within your command to prevent starvation. Be cautious, however, that the issue does not become unnecessarily large and an extravagant waste of the public stores, as has been the case generally with such issues.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Thomas:

WM. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 924.


28, ET&VRR returned to civilian hands, repairs made to railroad line and bridges

The Nashville Union, of the 28th ult., states that the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad is to be turned over to the Stockholders. The road is in running order from Knoxville to Carter's depot, twelve miles beyond Jonesboro. The government has withdrawn the construction corps and transferred them to Georgia. The bridges over the Watauga at Carter's Depot, and the Holston at Zollicoffer, have not been rebuilt. It is to be hoped that this important road will soon be thoroughly repaired.

Macon Daily Telegraph, June 7, 1865.


[1] See OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p.108.

[2] Lieut.-Col. Arthur James Lyon Fremantle, Lieut.-Col. Coldstream Guards, Three Months in the Southern States: April, June, 1863, (Mobile: S. H. Goetzel,1864), pp. 70-73. [Hereinafter cited as: Fremantle, Three Months, etc.]

This could be the last time....

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-532-1550  x115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


Monday, May 26, 2014

5.26.14 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        26, Assessing aid to the poor in Memphis
Aid to the Poor.—Mr. Underwood, city almoner, had several applications at his office on Second street near Madison yesterday, for assistance. Nine persons received articles of food for which they appeared very grateful. Three were refused, having revealed that they were not in necessitous circumstances. One woman, on being offered a piece of bacon, turned up her nose with the remark that she did not eat the article. She was informed that she might call again when real necessity had made her less delicate. Mr. Underwood will evidently make a good almoner. He is kind without credulity, and firm without harshness.
Memphis Daily Appeal, May 26, 1861.

        26, Excerpt from the Diary of Lucy Virginia French
....The Federals visited this place [i.e., McMinnville environs] again on Friday last [23d]-came, I presume, to look up resigned officers and disbanded men-but they found none. Contented themselves with stealing horses, watches, etc., and paying for forage etc. in counterfeit money. They did not molest us, however. There are informers among us who keep them thoroughly "posted"-as it is quite plain for us to see from their actions and inquiries every time they come....
Diary of Lucy Virginia French, May 26, 1862.

        26, Expedition from Memphis toward Hernando, Mississippi
MAY 26, 1863.-Expedition from Memphis, Tenn., toward Hernando, Miss.
Report of Maj. George N. Richmond, Second Wisconsin Cavalry.
CAMP SECOND WISCONSIN CAVALRY, Memphis, Tenn., May 26, 1863.
CAPT.: In accordance with instructions, I left camp with my command, 200 men strong, composed as follows: One hundred men from the Second Wisconsin Cavalry, 50 men from the Fifth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, and 50 men from the First Missouri Cavalry. I proceeded, as directed, on Horn Lake road without encountering aught worthy of notice until I reached Nonconnah Creek, at which point the advance guard captured a member of Capt. Manning's company. About 3 miles south of Nonconnah Creek, on Horn Lake road, I turned from the main road to the left, in the direction of Hernando plank-road, governing my course so as to pass the plantations of Col. Blythe and Capt. Manning.
Nothing occurred of importance at either of these plantations. At what is called Horn Lake Crossing, on Hernando plank-road, I captured a man who had in his possession a discharge from the Confederate service, and who is now in charge of the provost-marshal, together with the first-named prisoner. At this point I also ascertained from citizens direct from Hernando that Col. Hatch visited that place yesterday with a cavalry force, and that an infantry force had arrived there today, 26th instant. I believe this information to be reliable. Judging from intelligence received from all parties with whom I conversed, I do not think it possible that any rebel force is north of Coldwater, except Capt. Manning's company, about 30 strong.
I captured several horses, mules, and some arms, but have received no report of precise number from detachment commanders. I will report all captured property as soon as possible. I arrived at camp at 5 p. m., after enjoying quite a pleasant scout.
I have the honor to be, respectfully, yours, &c.,
G. N. RICHMOND, Maj., Commanding Expedition.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24,t. II, p. 432.

        26, Confederate guerrilla challenge in the Strawberry Plains, Bristol, Greeneville and Rogersville environs
Knoxville 26th May 1864
Govr Johnson,
Dear Sir
The forces of the Government, as you know, have for sometime, been withdrawn from the upper part of Eastern Tennessee. We now, have no troops above Strawberry Plains, leaving all the country from that point to Bristol in the hands of about Two Hundred and fifty Rebels [sic], who are ravaging the country at pleasure, committing daily robberies, and occasional murders. I learn to day, that they are pasturing our wheat fields. This is to be the ruin of the people, as our people in a great measure, depend on their harvest for the means of living –
I mention these things to you, as I trust you will do something to releive [sic] our part of the country. There are two squads of Rebels, who stay about Greeneville, and Rogersville. They do not exceed 150. men.
If you will have one good [sic] Regiment of East Tennesseans, sent to the upper country, you will releive [sic] us, and get the lasting gratitude of the people of that section. Unless you [sic] do something I feel that there is no hope, and therefore, in the name of your old neighbors, and in my own, I earnestly call on you, for prompt [sic] action. We want our own men, who know the roads [sic] & the fords [sic], & who feel an interest in the country and its inhabitants.
Please answer.
Truly Yr Friend
J Netherland
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, p. 707.

        27, "A Disgraceful Affair."
A soldier, whose name we prefer to withhold, entered a saloon on Jefferson street yesterday morning, and after bargaining for a cigar, presented a mutilated treasury note of a large denomination from which to have the price taken out. The proprietor naturally enough refused to take the bill in its mutilated condition, when the military gentleman became exceeding wrath, [sic] indulged in epithets profane and vulgar, called the gentleman a "secesh" and a d_____d rebel, and to further take revenge went out to scare up a guard who should shut up his [sic] (the saloon keeper's) establishment, and put him in the [Irving]"Block." Sure enough, a guard was brought and was, in connection with the bad-bill gentleman, about to take possession of the saloon, when they were prevented by certain officers present, and the would-be swindler reported to Captain Williams. According to Gen. Washburn's recent order, the guilty party will doubtless receive the proper punishment for his most inexcusable offense.
Memphis Bulletin, May 28, 1864.

James B. Jones, Jr.
Public Historian
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN  37214
(615)-532-1550  x115
(615)-532-1549  FAX

Saturday, May 24, 2014

5.24.14 Tennessee Civil War Notes

 24, Major-General Gideon J. Pillow on expected attack by River upon Fort Randolph
The major-general in command of the Army of Tennessee is in possession of the purpose of the enemy to attempt, within the next ten days, a descent of the Mississippi River. The plan is to approach the batteries at Randolph in the night. When signaled to come in the enemy will be slow to answer by whistle, but will answer and continue to answer; will keep well on the opposite shore, and with a heavy head of ream will aim to run by the batteries above Memphis, expecting to reach the city and take it by surprise, believing that we have no forces here. This information is brought to the major-general commanding by a special dispatch from a source evidently well informed of the purposes of the enemy, and directly from the camp at Cairo. The boats in which the descent will be attempted to be made are the City of Memphis, Mound City, Iatan, Swallow, Swan, and probably others. Their present plan does not seem to contemplate an attack by land, but this may be changed or we may not be in possession of all the propose. It is the purpose of the enemy, it seems, in this way to take possession of the city of Memphis, open the river again by running the blockade here, and hold this place. The movement is an exceedingly hazardous one for them, but they believe we have but few guns at Randolph and that those there are of light caliber. They therefore think they can succeed in passing down. They are further informed that we have no forces here, but that all our troops are at Jackson, Tenn. This information may cause a movement to be made which will enable us to send the whole force embarked to the bottom of the river. The major-general therefore directs that Brig.-Gen. Sneed keep constant and vigilant watch; that he be well prepared with guns in battery for action at all times; that he keep out picket guards of mounted men at the bridges crossing Hatchie River, and at such other points as may be deemed advisable; that he give orders for the proper disposition of the supporting force in the event of an attack by night. Brig.-Gen. Sneed will have the orders read to the troops. Upon the appearance of any steamer downward bound, after the signal of one blank cartridge, give her shot as soon as she is in reach of your guns, and if no prompt evidence of approach to your shore, open with all batteries and sink her or them. The major-general commanding wishes every possible energy thrown into the work of field intrenchment and completing the work on the batteries. The sentinels at night should be well instructed as to their duty.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Pillow, commanding Provisional Army of Tennessee:
JNO. C. BURCH, Aide-de-Camp.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 107-108.

The tocsin of war has sounded throughout
The land, and you country calls upon
You, in this, her hour of peril
Go forth, then, with bold-fronts, and
Brave hearts, and God speed you,
In your great and glorious cause.
And like the illustrious Washington,
The "Father of his Country," be "first in
"The hearts of your countrymen."
"Strike! 'till the last armed foe expires --
"Strike! for your altars and your fires-
"Strike! for the green graves of your sires,
"God, and your native land."
Fight, like brave and gallant men,
Strew the ground with the enemies slain;
Conquer, and return again,
With laurel wreaths of fame.
Montgomery County, May 20, 1861.
Clarksville Chronicle, May 24, 1861.

        24, "Tennessee's Battle-Song"
By Henry Weber
Awake, take up the arms! prepare for battle!
Our country's honor calls on your her sons!
Arise! arise! ye warriors, from your slumbers!
There is not one of you who fighting shuns,
The Lord of hosts your hearts and arm will strengthen;
The prayers of wives and sisters, filled with woe,
Plead at his throne your cause, the cause of freedom!
Success to you! Confusion to the foe!

Form! form! in proud array, ye Tennesseans!
March onward-charge-break down the seried [sic] line
That now invades the South, hallowed to freedom,
Where happiness-religion-culture shine,
Amidst the storm of war and cannon roaring,
Think of your pass-word, "Death or victory?"
Renown and love the conqueror awaiting,
And glory those who in the battle die.

Fight manly! Shame on all who will be branded,
When the fight is o'er, with wounds on back or heel,
Where'er may be the "Valley of decision" --
Thus saith the Lord, decide it with the steel,
Let all your priests uphold their arms in prayer,
That God, the God of battle, be your stay;
While his strong aid the en'my is confounding;
Yours is the crown, the vict'ry of the day.
From the Nashville Patriot
Clarksville Chronicle, May 24, 1861.

        24, "The very idea, I hope I will die before I am found receiving a Yankee." Unwelcome visitors at the Carney residence in Murfreesboro.
Bettie and I were sitting out on the front steps when we saw some men coming up, but it was so dark we could not distinguish who they were, but when we found it was not Pa coming from Mr. Camp's, run in and shut the door. Ma stepped to the door, and on finding it was strangers stepped back & got a light, & lo & behold it was that little Yankee from the convalescent hospital that came up, and told Ma when Pa was arrested that it was negro news, & wanted to know about her money, & I firmly believe if he had thought that Ma had had money in the house he would have robbed her. He wanted Ma to pay him to get Pa out of jail, said he was a Pittsburgh lawyer. He wanted Mr. Tally to make out a bill and receipt it, so he could go to the government officer & make him pay it, & when Mr. Tally refused, he swore he would get as much money out of that old government as possible meaning the U. S. It was he and two others (I guess of the same stamp). One was a Capt. & the other had some office, I don't know what, Pa came after awhile, & still they staid on, & when supper was announced they went in, although they said they had taken theirs before the came. I suppose they thought they would get to see us & go off, and report that we had received them, but only Pa, Ma, & Cousin Ann went in to supper. They asked for music, both before and after supper, but I would cut my hands off before I would play for Yanks. I thought it was a great piece of impertinence in that little chap bringing those others up here to hear music, as he said just as if we dare not refuse to see them. The very idea, I hope I will die before I am found receiving a Yankee. They said they had never received a single kind word from any one in Murfreesboro, & had no sympathy for secession. How can they look for kindness when they have come to take every thing away from the citizens down South, & ruin every thing we hold dear.
Kate Carney Diary, May 24, 1862.

        24, "The County Jail;" press description and defense of a public institution in Nashville.
As we consider ourselves in a manner, at least, so far as our ability and influence extends-the guardians of the poor, the imprisoned, the sick and the distressed generally of our city, we pay occasional visits to such places of confinement as we can obtain access to, and when we find anything wrong, expression our mind freely to the persons in charge, with a view to having everything as nearly right as possible. When our objections are reasonable, and it is possible to remove them, we have always found a willingness displayed to ameliorate the condition of the imprisoned as far as possible, and when we find such disposition put in practical operation, we invariably award the praise justly due the parties concerned. In this spirit we gave, a short time ago, a commendatory notice of the County Jail, and did then, and do now, consider it well merited by the Sheriff and the officers in charge.
Yesterday morning we read a grave charge against "the authorities, both civil and military," about "the wretched condition of the jail, and the manner in which the prisoners are kept," which caused us immediately to repairer to the jail, before some of the prisoners were up, and before any one had attempted even to use a broom in the premises. Without the slightest hesitation we were permitted to inspect every nook and corner, inside and out, upstairs and down, and in the cells, and can say with truth that the jail is in good condition, and that the prisoners are far better fed than half our working population. The jail is clean, and not even a musty or disagreeable smell of any kind assailed our nostrils. The prisoners are fed upon good beef, pork, rice, beans, potatoes, bread, coffee, etc., luxuries which few enjoy at present time, and abundant of it. So much we say for the persons in charge. Now of the real [sic] cause of the complaint:
There are too many prisoners for the space at command. On the upper floor of the building are five cells, each eight feet wide, 22 feet 4 inches long, and 9 feet 2 inches high; and one cell 18 feet by 22 feet. The light and ventilation in these cells are good as may be in such a place, when security demands massive walls and small windows. The floors are dry and clean as can be expected -- nay, cleaner than we expected to find them, as early in the morning. On the lower floor there are seven cells, much darker than those above, the windows being more securely barred, the doors double, and the light from the halls not being so clear as that one the second story. But in the darkest recess we failed to detect any unpleasant smell, or see anything opposed to health and cleanliness. When we consider that they are now in this jail about one hundred and eighty prisoners [sic], averaging nearly thirteen to each cell (counting the double cell as two), does it not display a degree of attention and industry on the part of those in charge, worthy of commendation rather than of censure?
We would before this have suggested to the military authorities the propriety of separating the civil and military prisoners, and those guilty of heinous offenses are those of a different character, but we thought we might considered impertinent and therefore confined our efforts to endeavoring to see that our civil officer performed their duty faithfully toward the prisoners committed to their charge. This we are satisfied they have done, and in their name repeat the invitation given through our columns some time ago, to the Jail Commissioners and to proper officers, to visit the jail frequently and at any time of the day.
Nashville Dispatch, May 24, 1863.

        24, "The Rules of War."[1]
The Government has officially promulgated a code of "Instructions for the Government of the Armies of the United States in the Field," prepared by Francis Leiber, [2] [sic] L. L. D., of New York, a gentleman who for many years has devoted much time to the study and analysis of the customs pertaining to military affairs, as gathered from the history of various campaigns in all countries, and revised by a board of competent officers of the army, of which Maj. Gen. E. Hitchcock was president. The faithful observance of these instructions will remove many difficulties and embarrassments that have presented themselves in the execution of military law, because of the want of uniformity of policy, by which the different commanders could be guided. Since a line of conduct for the government of the troops has been thus authoritatively marked out, it will behoove every person connected with the army to perfectly familiarize himself, with the rule laid down. While students of the military art and observers of universal military usages may not concur in all the propositions submitted by Dr. Leiber [sic], and accepted by the Commander-in-Chief, we presume it will not be denied that, as a general thing, the principles of modern warfare are correctly set forth in this code.
Concerning martial law and military jurisdiction, the instruction are quite elaborate. The presence of an army in the enemy's country is itself a proclamation of martial law over the district occupied, and the commander of the forces may elect whether or not the administration of civil law may continue, either wholly or in part. But military oppression is not martial law; it is the abuse of the power which law confers. As military law is executed by military force it is incumbent upon those who administer to be strictly guided by the principles of justice, honor and humanity -- virtues adorning a soldier even more than other men, for the very reason that he possesses the power of his arms against the unarmed, its exercise extending to property and to persons, whether they are subjects of the enemy or aliens. The law of war "disclaims all extortions and other transaction for individual gain, all acts of private revenge or connivance with such acts," and offences to the contrary, particularly if committed by officers, are to be severely punished. Military jurisdiction is of two kinds only-one exercised by courts-martial, and the other (in cases which do not come within that jurisdiction conferred by statute) by military commission.
Military necessity consists in the necessity of measures indispensable to the ends of war, and which are lawful according to the modern rules and customs of war. Besides the direct destruction of the enemy, it admits of the withholding of the means of life from him, and if the appropriation of the supplies in an enemy's country; but it forbids the inflicting of suffering for revenge or any wanton destruction, and, in general, military necessity does not include any act of hostility which makes the return to peace unnecessarily difficult. The unarmed citizen is to be spared in person, property, and honor, as much as the exigencies of war will admit, protection of the inoffensive citizen of the hostile country being the rule, and privation and disturbance of private relations the exceptions. Commanders may compel the civil officers of the hostile country to take an oath of fidelity to the Government of the occupying army, and my expel all who decline to do so; but, in any case, the people and their civil officers owe strict obedience on peril of their lives, to the Generals holding the districts in which they reside. Unjust or inconsiderate retaliation only exasperates and leads nearer to savage warfare.
Classical works of art, libraries, scientific collections or precious instruments, such as astronomical telescopes, as well as hospitals, must be secured against all avoidable injury, even when they are contained in fortified places whilst besiege or bombarded; and in no case shall they be sold or given away, if captured by the armies of the United States, nor shall they ever be privately appropriated, or wantonly destroyed or injured.
The United States acknowledge and protect, in hostile countries occupied by them, religion and morality; strictly private property; the persons of the inhabitants, especially those of women, and the sacredness of domestic relations. Offenses to the contrary shall be rigorously punished. This rule does not interfere with the right of the victorious invader to tax the people or their property, especially houses, lands, boats or ships, and churches, for temporary or military uses. Private property, unless forfeited by crimes or by offenses of the owner, can be seized only by way of military necessity, for the support or other benefit of the United States. If the owner has not fled, the commanding officer will cause receipts to be given, which may serve the spoilated [sic] owner to obtain indemnity.
That ground is taken, in the instructions under notice, that an invading army may suspend or abolish, so far as its martial power extends, the relations arising from the services due one person to another, leaving the permanency of the change to the final settlement. The following is the wording of the instructions on this point:
Slavery, complicating and confounding the ideas of property, (that is of a thing,) and of personality (that is of humanity,) exists according to municipal or local law only. The law of nature and nations has never acknowledged it. The digest of the Roman law enacts the early dictum of the pagan jurist, that "so far as the law of nature is concerned, all men are equal." Fugitives escaping from a county in which they were slaves, villains or serfs, into another country, have, for centuries past, been held free and acknowledged free by judicial decisions of European countries, even though the municipal law of the country in which they had taken refuge acknowledged slavery within its own dominions.
Therefore, in a war between the United States and a belligerent which admits of slavery, if a person held in bondage by that belligerent be captured by or come as fugitive under the protection of the military forces of the United States, such person is immediately entitled to the rights and privileges of a freeman. To return to such person into slavery would amount to enslaving a free person, and neither the United States, nor any officer under their authority, can enslave any human being. Moreover, a person so made free by the law of war is under the shield of the law of nations, and the former owner or State can have, by the law of post-liminy, no belligerent lien or claim of service.
All captures belong exclusively to the Government. Wanton violence to property or persons, robbery, pillage, rape, etc., are prohibited under penalty of death, or other severe punishment. Officers and soldiers are alike forbidden to use their positions for private gain, "not even for commercial transactions otherwise legitimate." Offenses to the contrary committed by commissioned officers will be punished with cashiering or such other punishment as the nature of the offence may require; if by soldiers, they shall be punished according to the nature of the offence.
That portion of the instructions relating to insurrection, civil war, and rebellion, we give in full, as follows:
        142. Insurrection is the rising of people I arms against their Government, or a portion of it, or against one or more of its laws, or against an officer or officers of the Government. It may be confined to mere armed resistance, or it may have greater ends in view.
        150. Civil war is war between two or more portions of a county or State, each contending for the mastery of the whole and each claiming to be the legitimate Government. The term is also sometimes applied to war of rebellion, when the rebellious provinces or portions of the State are contiguous to those containing the seat of Government.
        151. The term rebellion is applied to an insurrection of large extent, and is usually a war between the legitimate Government of a country and portions or provinces of the same who seek to throw off their allegiance to it, and set up a Government of their own.
        152. When humanity induces the adoption of the rules of regular war towards rebels, whether the adoption is partial or entire, it does in no way whatever imply a partial or complete acknowledgment of their Government, if they have set up one, or of them as an independent or sovereign power. Neutrals have no right to make the adoption of the rules of war by the assailed Government toward rebels on the ground of their own acknowledgment of the revolted people or as an independent power.
        153. Treating captured rebels as prisoners of war, exchanging them, concluding of cartels, capitulation, and other warlike agreements with them; addressing officers of the rebel army by the rank they may have in the same; accepting flags of truce, or on the other hand, proclaiming martial law in their territory, or levying war taxes or forced loans, or doing any other act sanctioned and demanded by the law and usages of public war, between sovereign belligerents, neither proves nor established an acknowledgment of the rebellious people, or of the Government which they may have erected, as a public or sovereign power. Nor does the adoption of the rules of war towards rebels imply an engagement with those extending beyond the limits of these rules, it is victory in the field that ends the strife and settles the future relations between the contending parties.
        154. Treating, in the field, the rebellious enemy according to the laws and usages of the war, has never prevented the legitimate Government from trying the leaders of the rebellion or chief rebels for high treason, and from treating them accordingly, unless they are included in a general amnesty.
        155. All enemies in regular war are divided into two general classes; that is to say, into combatants and noncombatants, or unarmed citizens of the hostile Government.
The military commander of the legitimate Government, in a war of rebellion, distinguishes between the loyal citizen in the revolted portion of the country and the disloyal citizen. The disloyal citizens may further be classified into those citizens known to sympathize with the rebellion, without positively aiding it, and those who, without taking up arms, give positive aid and comfort the rebellious enemy, without being bodily force thereto.
        156. Common justice and plain expediency require that the military commander protect the manifestly loyal citizens, in revolted territories, against the hardships of war as much as the common misfortune of all war admits.
        The commander will throw the burden of the war, as much as lies within his power, on the disloyal citizens of the revolted portion or province, subjecting them to a stricter police than the non-combatant enemies have to suffer in regular war; and if he deems it appropriate, of if his Government demands of him that every citizen shall, by an oath of allegiance, or by some other manifest act, declare his fidelity to the legitimate Government, he may expel, transfer, imprison, or fine the revolted citizens who refuse to pledge themselves anew as citizens obedient to the lay and loyal to the Government.
        Whether it is expedient to do so, and whether and whether reliance can be placed upon such oaths, the commander of his Government have the right to decide.
        157. Armed or unarmed resistance by citizens of the United States against the lawful movements of their troops is levying war against the United States and is therefore treason.
Nashville Dispatch, May 24, 1863.

        24, M. E. Lacy, in Jackson County, to her husband, Lieutenant A. J. Lacy
Stat [sic] of Tenn [sic] Ja [sic] Co [sic] May the 24 [sic], 1863
Mi der [sic] and most affection husband
I set down to writ [sic] you a few line to let you now [sic] that I am well at this time and I hoop [sic] when these few lines com [sic] to hand that it will find you well.
I has nothen [sic] strang [sic] to writ [sic] to you. I want to see you but I fer [sic] that I [illegible] will see you in life. I was in hopes that I wood [sic] see you a while sick but now I hav lost all hope of see you. [sic] Now I wish tha [sic] I had more time to writ [sic] to you.
I want you to writ [sic] to me evry [sic] chance you get. I love to get a letter from you if you cood [sic] get anything by me. Wish you had it. I wood [sic] wish you something [sic] good evry [sic] day.
I must clos [sic] for the present. I still remain your most affection [sic] wife.
from M E Lacy to A J Lacy [sic]
Lacy Correspondence.

        24, "The Yankees comes to our country every onste [sic] and a while [sic] and takes Negros [sic] and horses. Where ever [sic] they go [they] burn mills and some citizens [sic] houses …." Lieutenant A. J. Lacy's letter from his father in Jackson County
State of Tennessee Jackson County May the 24th 1863
Very dear and affectionate son,
I am again this Sabath [sic] morning permited [sic] through the mearces [sic] of a cind [sic] providence to take my pen in hand to wright [sic] to you a fiew [sic] lines to let you know that we are well except for your Mother. She is not in as good health as she was before warm weather commenced but she is able to go about. But we hope when these fiew [sic] lines comes to your hand they will find you in good health.
We have noting strang [sic] or interesting to wright [sic] but we have wrote [sic] several letters since you rote [sic] of getting [sic] a letter and this time I was at a log roling [sic] yesterday and heard of this Mr [sic] Williams going to start to day, to your Redgment [sic] and as he is going to start today and I have to meete [sic] him out on the Sparty[3] [sic] Road with this letter.
The Yankees comes to our country every onste [sic] and a while [sic] and takes Negros [sic] and horses. Where ever they go [they] burn mills and some citizens [sic] houses but they have not got to Gainsborough yet but I was at Gainesboro [sic] a while back and the Yankies [sic] was at the river opposite to town while I was thare [sic]. Tha [sic] was thought to be about 150 cavrely [sic] but they soon left and I was a feard [sic] that they would come to our settlement and I have sold our oxen and young horse. I got 200 dollars for the steers and 232 dollars for ben [sic] as I am a bliege [sic] to close.
Wright [sic] every chance you have. So fairwell [sic] for the present.
Wm &: Kezia Lacy to A. J. Lacy
Lacy Correspondence.

        24, Johnson the Canadian vs. Rochester Bardwell; bare-knuckle boxing in Nashville
"Great Battle in Germantown."
Considerable maneuvering and chaffering has been going on in the neighborhood of the mule pens, between the friends of J. W. Johnson, the Canadian bruiser, on the one part, and those of Lewis P. Bardwell, of Rochester, New York, on the other, concerning the respective merits of their champions. To settle the dispute amicably, we are informed that a fight was agreed upon, to take place on Tuesday, the 24th inst., in the northern part of Germantown, when and where those in the secret assembled to witness the sport, of which a looker-on gives the following account:
Round 1. Johnson squared off for the first blow, but Bardwell dodged him, and put in a well-directed left hander [sic].
2. Bardwell came up in fine style, and gave his opponent some heavy blows, but struck too high.
3. Johnson tapped Bardwell's claret, which flowed freely from his sneezing apparatus.
4. Bardwell got the advantage, and kept it to the finish, notwithstanding Johnson showed himself game, and made a good fight. In the tenth round the seconds separated them, they having clinched, and the eleventh was so severe that both parties were thoroughly blown. In the 12th and 13th rounds Johnson put in some heavy licks, but in the 14th Johnson showed evident signs of weakness, Bardwell keeping cool, and getting in a few smart blows, two or three of which Johnson returned.
In the fifteenth round Johnson came up to the scratch in good style, though very tired, and put in several well directed blows, one of which peeled Bardwell's nozzle; but it was plain that the fight was up, Bardwell being quite fresh still; and length B. got the opportunity, and throwing out a stunning blow from the shoulder, knocked Johnson out of time.
Chicago Jack seconded the Canadian, and Bridgeport Jerry did the honors for Bardwell.
Nashville Dispatch, May 26, 1864.

        24, A Request to South Carolinians to Assist Tennessee's Confederate Soldiers
Editors Carolinian: The citizens of this beautiful place and of its vicinity are proverbial, throughout or sunny land, for their generous hospitality to the soldier. The success of their "way side home" and "relief associations" attests how constantly and earnestly the mother, wife, daughter, sister and sweetheart have toiled to lighten the burden of the willing but often sorely tried men who are confronting the advancing hosts of Grant in the east and Sherman in the West.
I well know that the generous spirit of these "ministering angels" yet burns as brightly as ever, but I am almost induced to pause before asking aid for the soldiers of another State, for there is a limit to even the best impulses. Yet, it may be, there are many among your wealthy and chivalrous sons and daughters who think that the gallant men of the glorious "Volunteer State" have some claim upon South Carolinians.
Look at Tennessee but for a moment, and read the bright page which the future historians will record in her behalf. She entered into this contest deliberately. She used every honorable means to aver it, well knowing that, from her geographic position, her citizens must suffer all the horrors of a border war. Yet, when the guns flashed from around Fort Sumter, she sprang into the warrior's ring; and her sons have nobly done their duty on every battle field of the West. Her muster roll is next to that of Virginia, being upwards of 118,000 men before Forrest went into West Tennessee, in March last. To her credit, too, be it said, her soldiers are all volunteers; for, unfortunately, her soil has been held by the enemy ever since the Conscript Act was passed, and hence that law could not be enforced within her limits. The two most sanguinary battles of the war yet fought – Shiloh and Murfreesboro – were fought on her soil; the deaths and casualties in each, among both Confederates and Federals, largely exceeding those of any other field, considering the numbers engaged; and in each her brave troops were the principal because [they were] the most numerous actors. At Chickamauga, they again fought in sight of their mountains and beautiful river and with that success that always marks their onset. At Dalton, they again stand ready to meet the foe and avert from Georgia and South Carolina the sad fate which chains their own loved homes to slavery. Can South Carolinians imagine what would be the fate of Columbia if Johnson's [sic] army were defeated? Most of that army is composed of Tennesseans, and many of them have not seen home for two years. Step by step they have seen their State given up to the foe till we can claim none of it as ours. All, all – property, homes, and yet worse still, wives and children and aged parents are under the rude, barbarous grasp of the greedy and vindictive Yankees.
Am I wrong, Mr. Editor, in asking South Carolina's sons and daughters to remember the exiled soldiers of Tennessee? Here you have known nothing of plunder, spoils, rapine and devastation. You have known nothing of actual invasion. Your people do not (may they never) know what it is to flee their quiet homes; at night the flames of their burning dwellings often lighting up the "old familiar paths," yet leaving them wanderers, without means and almost without hope. Tennesseans had drank of this cup to the bitter dregs, and yet their sons, brothers, fathers are in your front, side by side with the brave men of your own State impatiently waiting the hour when, in saving Georgia and Carolina, they may also move forward to the redemption of their own loved homes. From these homes, now, they seldom hear, save by the enemy's papers or by stealth. Tokens of kind remembrances from mother, wife or sister seldom reach them. How can they do so? Thus cut off for long weary months from all those at home who could or would aid them, am I presumptuous, Mr. Editor, in asking if South Carolina will not remember the Tennessee soldier in this hour? Georgia is nobly doing her part in this matter. Will South Carolina fail to give of her abundance?
The soldiers of Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama and Mississippi are all in front of their friends as well as their foes. Tennessee soldiers, unfortunately, find the enemy between them, and their homes and their situation is peculiar. Will this appeal in their behalf be in vain?
May 16, 1864
The Daily South Carolinian (Columbus SC) May 24, 1864

        24, 1865 - Observations made by an ex-Confederate soldier from the Army of Tennessee while on his way home to his home in Dyersburgh environs
....All were ordered aboard and the Boat [sic] rounded out and left the wharf about 5 oclk [sic]. [sic] escorted by the Gun Boat [No.] 17. we [sic] got along finely arriving at Smithland [Kentucky] a little after dark having run 200 miles-We landed and lay over all night[.]
Arthur Tyler Fielder Diaries.

[1] A fuller version of the text of "the rules of war" is found in OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 671-682. This brief treatment was obviously printed to justify the actions already taken by the Federal army in Tennessee.
[2] "Lieber" according to OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, p. 671.
[3] Sparta.

James B. Jones, Jr.
Public Historian
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN  37214
(615)-532-1550  x115
(615)-532-1549  FAX