14, "That is their post, one of inferiority, not of citizen soldiers." Anxieties about free Negroes in Memphis
Our Free Colored Men—What Shall Be Done With Them?—Editors Appeal: The proposition of the committee of safety, to enlist companies of our free colored men, is not relished by our citizens generally; and the question comes up, "what must be done with them?" Let me suggest to that committee that they confer with major-General Pillow as to the policy of placing four or five of our free negroes in each company from Memphis, for cooking, washing, etc. That is their post, one of inferiority, not of citizen soldiers. They understand that sort of work better than any boys who are called to do battle. Let them be made useful in that way.
Memphis Daily Appeal, May 14, 1861.
14, Excerpts from School Master Milford Clark Butler's Letter to His Sister "America" in Oregon, relative to the Confederate transformation in Knoxville
~ ~ ~
….I fear provisions will be bought at a dear rate in the South before the civil war, now upon us, is brought to a close, for all previsions of every kind from the North are prohibited. I shall not attempt to tell you much about matters political for you will get fuller and better information on this point from the papers. It is my opinion that there will not be much fighting; that the US government will retake the arsenals and forts, and then gradually hem in and shut off the CSA, and let them sting themselves to death; but all surmises [?] may be very much of the truth, certain I am the government will not maintain itself and whatever cost of money and men. The North, since the Sumpter [sic] affair, is a unit and the border slave states much divided; home the most trouble sees are likely to occur in the border states. Parties in this city are nearly equally divided, hence we have many street fights & much angry contention. About 1000 troops are encamped near the city, much to the annoyance of our people Some five or six thousand have passed through here by RR within he last ten days; inflammatory speeches were made at the depot, amid the wildest excitement; all class of our people & both sexes turning out en masse. Some of our students have left to join the CSA army and the most have formed themselves into a military company for drill for recreation, they are even in front of my window going through their evolutions. I write this at the morning recess.
You may wish to know if we Yankees are safe here; thus far we are, though I am informed that the vigilance committee have decided that some of them must leave. I do not expect that I shall be allowed to retain my post in this institution after this term which expires the first of June, but I may: where I shall go if I lose I have no idea. I could not sell my effects for anything hardly as times are here now. But amid all these troubles I am perfectly calm, and as dangers thicken find my courage and faith rise.
Letter of Milford Clark Butler, May 14, 1861.
14, The case of William Galbraith and J. M. Meek, et al, East Tennessee loyalists sent to Confederate prison in Alabama; Confederate correspondence regarding a skirmish and capture of 400 East Tennessee Unionists in Campbell county
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF EAST TENNESSEE, OFFICE PROVOST-MARSHAL, Knoxville, Tenn., May 14, 1862.
Capt. J. F. BELTON, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
By direction of the major-general commanding allow me respectfully to report the circumstances attending the arrest of William Galbraith and J. M. Meek who with others were sent to Tuscaloosa, Ala. A short time before their arrest a large number of deluded citizens mostly young men from the neighborhood of Galbraith and Meek (New Market, Jefferson County, East Tenn.) stampeded and started to Kentucky to join the enemy. They were intercepted by Capt. Ashby's cavalry (Campbell County) and after a fight 400 were captured. From some of those prisoners information was obtained corroborating other statements orally made that caused the arrest of Galbraith and Meek with others. Inclosed marked A is a copy of statements on file in this officer showing the immediate cause of the arrests, and B and C since their arrests, and also statements in their favor marked [illegible.] [sic]
A letter from two of Mr. Galbraith's friends inclosing one from his wife asks his release and makes the following statement in their letter: "We know that he (Galbraith) has been a Union man and perhaps in many instances disloyal to the Confederate Government." They then go on to state that they do not believe he had anything to do with the late stampede. Many responsible men have indorsed verbally the charges against Galbraith and Meek. That they are disloyal citizens none I believe pretend to deny and while some are fearless enough to commit themselves on paper as you will see by the inclosed original letter marked B it may be well to remark that in this disaffected section of the country it is difficult to obtain tangible proof such as is desirable, but circumstantial evidence almost equal to a demonstration may be had to convict the leaders who are solely to blame for the disloyalty of the masses. Having been for years their political leaders in whom they were in the habit of confiding it is not strange they will readily hear and believe what is said to them, the edicts of those leaders being their only means of communication. The masses generally are not well informed and really excite pity more than blame for their course of conduct. A change can hardly be effected without removing or destroying the influence of those well-known, unsound leaders throughout East Tennessee who are responsible for the deep disaffection. It has been the aim of the provost-marshal as he understood it to be the desire of the major-general commanding to make the masses and their leaders understand that the Government has power to enforce its laws and at the same time to conciliate as far as the interest of the Government would allow to use the power discreetly, justly but firmly.
I am, captain, very respectfully,
[W. M. CHURCHWELL,] Col. and Provost-Marshal.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 1, pp. 887-888.
14, "Not one of the repudiated officers enlisted, but all went home." Election of officers, Co. C, 3rd (Lillard's) Infantry, at Big Creek Gap
Our regiment [was] reorganized today by the election of a new set of officers. Col. J. C. Vaughn was re-elected colonel, but nearly all the other officers, both field and company, were changed, and I think the changes were generally for the better. One year of service taught us how to choose officers, which we did not understand when we first enlisted. Our first sergeant, John Fender, was elected Captain of our company, to succeed Capt. E. P. Douglas, and we got clear of our drunken first lieutenant, John Hodge, whom I preferred charged against while we were in Virginia. A very small number of officers were promoted, and a still smaller number were re-elected to their former positions. Even Col. Vaughn lacked only a few votes of being dismissed. Not one of the repudiated offices enlisted, but all went home.
Diary of William E. Sloan.
14, "SMART BOY."
The Patrols, yesterday, captured inside the city, and took to Col. Martin, quite an interesting young gentleman, aged about twelve, named Martin H. Fogarty. He appeared to be so smart, and withal, so inscrutable, that Col. Martin sent him to Col. Trueusdail [sic], who retuned him to the Provost Marshal, with an order to send him to the Penitentiary, adding, "we have been hunting him for the last three days." It seems that young Fogarty, who is a native of Kentucky, joined our army last fall, while it was after Bragg, and subsequently fell into the hands of Jno. Morgan. Gen. Morgan discovered, notwithstanding his youth, that he was smart and wily, and immediately set him to work. His last trick, it seems, was to bear dispatches to Jno. Morgan's sister-in-law at Murfreesboro'. While entering our lines, however, he was ordered to be searched. But what was the astonishment of the vedettes to see young Fogarty pull out of his pockets papers and letters, which he destroyed by burning. Immediately he started to run, but was fired upon by the pickets, but with no effect. The same night he made his way into Murfreesboro', and the next day started to Nashville, and arrived safely, riding all the way under the car. He has been placed in confinement. He has the appearance of being very intelligent, and has no doubt been serviceable to Morgan, having generally evaded suspicion, probably on account of his youth.
Nashville Daily Press, May 14, 1863.
At the Nashville Theatre, this evening, the favorite French adaptation of "Vitorine, or I'll Sleep On't" will be presented, to be followed by a grand skating scene, by Mr. W. H. Fuller, and a favorite Irish song, by Mr. Steward, concluding with the roaring farce of "Paddy Miles Boy." A most excellent bill.
The Management to the New Theatre will, to-night, present the favorite comedy of "Serious Family," with the afterpiece of "The Limerick Boy." Two such pieces cannot fail to draw a full house.
Nashville Daily Press, May 14, 1863.
14, "Something That Should Be Attended To"
Opposite Court Square, from early in the morning until quite late at night, there is a line of hacks strung along Main street, the drivers of which (mostly negroes [sic]) spend their time upon the sidewalk, soliciting patronage from the passers by, and especially since the Square has become a resort for disreputable women (as it sadly has of late) and as these characters are in the habit of engaging carriages to convey them to and from their various haunts and hiding places throughout the city, this spot has become an excellent stand for the hackmen, and consequently, is improved by them as such. Let one of these depraved women make here appearance at the gate and she is immediately surrounded by a possy [sic] of these emulating drivers, and her patronage solicited, nor unfrequently does it occur that she has a dispute upon the walk with her solicitors, as to their respective charges, etc., profanity and obscenity seldom being wanting in the confab. This of itself is a most noticeable matter, yet were none but the unchaste subject to these attacks from the hackmen, it might be endured, but when-as we have frequently noticed it to be-a lady is necessitated to suffer the insult of having a whip thrust into her face, and her passage along the street retarded by these ungentlemanly fellows, we think the matter certainly should be attended to. Late in the evening it is really difficult to pass by the square, without receiving some direct insult from a hackman or having one's modesty shocked by the conversation going on between him and some lewd woman. Shall this be allowed? Shall our principal street be infested in such a manner and no attention be paid to it? According to the city ordinance a hackman renders himself subject to fine by the simple act of leaving his carriage, and when, in addition to this, is the misdemeanor we have alluded to shall he not be arraigned and dealt with as he deserves?
Memphis Bulletin, May 14, 1864.
14, Juvenile Tobacco Use in the Normandy Environs
Tennessee and Some of Its People.
An intelligent war correspondent, writing from Normandy, Tennessee, gives an exceedingly interesting account of things as he finds them there. Everything in that region from a plow to a horse is greatly behind the age, and it carries back the Yankee at least a century. Not one in ten of the whites can write their own names, and one man was found who had never seen the stars and stripes—though he knew his State flag as well as that of the Confederates. The writer continues as follows:
The use of tobacco by the native population here is astonishing even to a Northerner; especially when we see the other sex chew Navy Plug, smoke and rub snuff on their gums. A boy from back in the country stayed with us one night, who called himself thirteen years old. As we sat around the fire in the evening, he asked for a 'chew.' After one had been given him, and he had placed it in the 'aching void,' we asked him how long he has used the article. 'Wal' said he 'I reckon as how I've used it at least ten years!' Tobacco juice must have been mixed with his milk before he had teeth to manage a 'chew.' Let no one hereafter call nicotine a poison."
Fort Smith New Era, May 14, 1864.
14, "It is perfect folly for us to sit down here and let circumstanced grind on – unless we make new conditions with fortune, we will find ourselves ground exceedingly small before many years." Comments on the end of the war by Lucy Virginia French.
….But little has passed since I last wrote – and nothing has yet transpired as to the final settlement of our affairs. We understand that trade restrictions are being removed – and the Federal army is being reduced, by resignations of officers, mustering out of men – cutting down Quartermaster's Departments etc. None of our boys have yet returned from their regiments, some of Lee's paroled soldiers who lived up in the counties north of us have passed – but none of those belonging to this town or vicinity have as yet come in. Probably they will be in by the 22nd of this month – which was the day they all started out in 1861. Poor fellows – four long years of service – hardship and suffering, and all for what? And some are sleeping here in our crowded graveyard – and many will never even be so near even in death – they sleep among strangers in unknown graves, on dreary battle-fields. Oh! for what? for what? did God permit this war? Shall we ever find out why it was allowed? I have had my plan matured – and talked it over with the Col. I feel sure I could do something, but of course I will never be allowed the opportunity. It is perfect folly for us to sit down here and let circumstanced grind on – unless we make new conditions with fortune, we will find ourselves ground exceedingly small before many years. I think the Col. has too much of the Micawber disposition in him. There is no use in waiting for things to turn up now – we ought to put our shoulders to the wheel and turn them up. I do not suppose I will ever learn to be patient – not being everlasting. I don't see how I can well afford to be so. Our time here will be short – what we do we ought now to be doing with our might – but I suppose we will sit here our time out and drop into the grave like thousands around us – having done no more – or being no better than they. Oh! for a nature like Russell Aubrey's – Beulah's hero. But do such strong men live in reality – no. I expect they only exist in books. One thing I am fully certain of – we will never make anything here – and I want an independence [sic]. We have lost one here – but we will never make another. They are making a great to do about Petroleum here, but I don't imagine it will amount to much. At all events if the river run[s] Petroleum – and it was saleable – our part of the river would be something else that wouldn't sell. Two companies of Saint Louis troops left town this morning, and the other co. is to go shortly we are told. Heaven send that they do go it may be forever, as I know it will be for good. I don't think I should be half so Southern if it were not for these stupid troops. I begin sometimes to feel quite charitable towards the North but the moment I catch sight of these blue things I am full of resistance and rebellion. How I hate them and how I want to let 'em know it to the full!
War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.
14. Arrangements for the captured Jefferson C. Davis and Governor Brown of Georgia upon their Arrival in Chattanooga
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND,
Nashville, May 14, 1865.
COMDG. OFFICER, Chattanooga:
When Governor Brown, of Georgia, and Jeff. Davis, Southern Confederacy, reach Chattanooga, a strong guard will be placed over the cars to prevent any communication whatever with the prisoners, except in case of sickness, when Surgeon Jones will attend them in person.
Their meals, if they desire any from the hotel, must be taken by some trusty member of the guard which accompanied them from Georgia. They will be placed in a passenger car provided with privy arrangements, and sentinels so posted that none of the party can possibly escape, and they are to be treated with the utmost courtesy consistent with perfect security, and protected alike from insult and the annoyance of curiosity hunters. Telegraph me when they leave Chattanooga. Governor Brown will not be detained to await the arrival of Jeff. Davis, but will be forwarded by the first passenger train that leaves after his arrival. Jeff. Davis will be forwarded by a special train sufficient to accommodate the guard and prisoners only, and no person whatever will be allowed on the train except the guard and prisoners. Acknowledge receipt.
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p.767.
 Milford Clark Butler Letter, MS-2794. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Special Collections Library.
 These statements apparently were not found by the compilers of the OR.
 Not found in OR.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 See March 1, 1865, "Yankee economic imperialism in Middle Tennessee, an excerpt from a letter by Major – General R. H. Milroy to his wife in Rensselaer, Indiana."
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214