20, Brigadier-General John B. Floyd's report concerning Clarksville
NASHVILLE, February 20, 1862.
The gunboats landed at Clarksville yesterday at 3 o'clock. The bridges here were destroyed this morning. I am still attempting to get trains off, but the difficulties are immense. The troops will all leave here to-day.
JOHN B. FLOYD, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, p. 894.
20, Letter from William Epps Newell in Clarksville to his daughter Sallie Ann Newell then visiting friends in Mississippi
Feby. 20th, 1862
The day after the arrival of the Federal Gun Boat at this place
My dear Daughter-
I write by Mr. T. D. Leonard of this place, who has charge of the remains of an officer of the Confederate Army, who was killed at the Battle at Fort Donaldson, [sic] on the Cumberland River, two miles below Dover. He is taking it to Marshall County in this state. The wife of the officer is also in attendance. I do not recollect their names. This letter is directed to be mailed at some place where the mails are being carries South. I do not know when the mails will be rec'd. [sic] again at this place from any direction.
At the commensement [sic] of the Battle at Fort Donaldson [sic] the Citizens of this place commensed [sic] moving from Town in every direction and are keeping it up to this time. Not more than half of the Families [sic] have remained. (Mrs. Jones is here and probably will remain.)
Many amasing [sic] insidents [sic] and so many sad, has transpired during the excitement. Majr. [sic] Bailey's, Mr. Faulks and Judge Kimbles's families have moved to the Country.
As to a correct statement of the Battle, [sic] as yet it is impossible to arrive at the facts. The fighting commensed [sic] on Thursday and was kept up until Sunday morning almost without ceasing. From the best information I can get, our killed does not exceed 300 and the wounded from 700 to 1,000 whilst the enemy's top in killed must reach several thousand, probably 7,000 and their wounded as many as many in proportion to ours. Our force was 15 or 20,000 and that of the enemy at least 75 or 80,000 according to their own report, and from the best calculation we can make they have in the field, at all their posts and in their navy, between 6 and 700,000 men, but with all the advantages they had in the fight at Dover, our forces drove them back and wound up each day's fight with a victory until Saturday night, when the demonstration of their overwhelming numbers were known to our Generals. At 2 o'clock Sunday morning they held a Counsel of War [sic] and in consequence of our soldiers being worn out for want of sleep and nourishment, they agreed to surrender, Floid [sic] and the most of his birggade [sic] making their escape. Pillow and his Staff [sic] also escaped.
The number of our officers and soldiers taken prisoners are between 8 and 10,000, among whom are Jas. E. Bailey, & W. A. Quarles, both of whom are Col's. [sic] and a great many other of our town and county. Mr. A. Robb was mortally wounded and brought home and died in a fiew [sic] hours after his arrival.
You can't imagine the sad appearance of our City. All the dry goods merchants have left except the Coulters. Goods are enormously high and very scarce, Calico [sic] selling at $1.00 per yard. Brown sugar is selling today at 20 [cents] pr. pound, and all other Southern products about in proportion.
(Soph is just recovering from the measels [sic] and Rosie, Lela, Jonnie and Tommie are just takin [sic] it and are quite sick and fretful. The balance of us are well.)
Enclosed you will find Commander Foote's proclamation to the Citizens of our City. You can judge of the grace we take it. (Your Mama and the children send their love to you, Uncle and his family.) If I meet with an opportunity I will send you some money. Nearly all we have is in Southern tind. [sic] and I fear will be of little or no use to us here much longer. I will try and make the best disposition of it I can. I do not know when if ever I can leave Tennessee, nor do I know but that it is about as good a place as we could find at present. We will write to you every opportunity. Say to your Uncle Henry I will write to him soon.
My love to him and the children and for your self the affection of your Father.
W. E. Newell
W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 3, pp. 116-117.
20, Report concerning Federal possession of Clarksville and status of Confederate Army
Report of Flag-Officer Foote, U. S. Navy.
U. S. Flag-Steamer CONESTOGA, Clarksville, Tenn., February 20, 1862.
We have possession of Clarksville. The citizens being alarmed, two-thirds of them have fled, and having expressed my views and intentions to the mayor and Hon. Cave Johnson, at their request I have issued a proclamation, assuring all peaceably disposed persons that they may with safety resume their business avocations, requiring only the military stores and equipments to be given up, and holding the authorities responsible that this shall be done without reservation.
I left Fort Donelson yesterday with the Conestoga, Lieutenant Commanding Phelps, and Cairo, Lieutenant Commanding Bryant, on an armed reconnaissance, bringing with me Colonel Webster, of the Engineer Corps, and chief of General Grant's staff, who, with Lieutenant Commanding Phelps, took possession of the principal fort and hoisted the Union flag. A Union sentiment manifested itself as we came up the river. The rebels have retreated to Nashville, having set fire, against the remonstrance of the citizens, to the splendid railroad bridge across the Cumberland River.
I returned to Fort Donelson to-day for another gunboat and six or eight mortar boats, with which I propose to proceed up the Cumberland. The rebels all have a terror of the gunboats. One of them, a short distance above Fort Donelson, had previously fired an iron-rolling mill belonging to Hon. John Bell, which had been used by the rebels.
ANDREW H. FOOTE, Flag-Officer, Commanding Naval Forces, Western Waters.
Hon GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy.
HEADQUARTERS, Cairo, Ill., February 28, 1862.
Respectfully forwarded to the Hon. Secretary of the Navy.
GEORGE W. CULLUM, Brigadier-General, Chief of Staff and Engineer.
[FEBRUARY 20, 1862.]
From information gleaned in Clarksville, we believe the panic in Nashville is very great and that the city will be surrendered without a fight if a force proceeds at once against it. General Johnston is reported to be gathering his scattered forces at Columbia.
S. L. PHELPS.
CLARKSVILLE, February 19, 1862.
Gunboats coming; they are just below point; can see steamer here. Will try and see how many troops they have before I leave. Lieutenant Brady set bridge on fire, but it is burning very slowly and will probably go out before it falls.
W. H. ALLEN.
General J. B. FLOYD.
Any orders for me? Answer me promptly, if you please, for next ten minutes, as I will have to go in a hurry when I go.
NASHVILLE, February 19, 1862.
The enemy landed at Clarksville from three gunboats at half past 4 o'clock to-day.
JOHN B. FLOYD, Brigadier-General.
MURFREESBORO, February 20, 1862.
The gunboats landed at Clarksville yesterday at 3 o'clock. The bridges here were destroyed this morning. I am still attempting to get trains off, but the difficulties are immense. The troops will all leave here to-day.
JOHN B. FLOYD, Brigadier-General, Commanding.
Navy OR, Ser. I, Vol. 22, pp. 618-621.
20, Message of Tennessee Governor Isham G. Harris to the General Assembly in Memphis; Placing the blame for the fall of Nashville
Executive Office, Memphis, February 20, 1862
Gentlemen of the Senate and House of Representatives: Under your joint resolution, adopted the tenth of Februarys, inst. providing "That the Governor and heads of Executive Departments may at any time during the present war, by proclamation of the Governor, temporarily change the seat of government, remove the papers and records in the Executive Departments, and the Governor, by proclamation, shall convene the Legislature, when he deems it necessary, at the place determined upon as the temporary seat of government," and the report of a Legislative Committee from the House, which called upon me upon the sixteenth inst. to inform me that the Legislature was ready to meet at such a time and place as I might designate, I deemed it my duty to remove the records of the government to and convene the Legislature at this city, for the following reasons: The disaster to our arms at Fishing Creek had turned the right flank of our army, and left the country from Cumberland Gap to Nashville exposed to the advance of the Union army.
The fall of Fort Henry had given the enemy the free navigation of the Tennessee River, through which channel he had reached the southern boundary of the Tennessee, and the fall of Fort Donelson left the Cumberland River open to his gunboats and transports, enabling him to penetrate the heart of the State, and reach its capital at any time within a few hours, when he should see proper to move upon it.
Immediately upon hearing of the fall of Fort Donelson, I called upon Gen. Johnston and rendered to him all the resources of the State which could be made available, with my full cooperation in any and all measures of defence for our State and capital. Gen. Johnston informed me that, under the circumstances which surrounded in, with the small force then under, he regarded it as his duty to the army he commanded and the government he represented, to fall back with his army south of Nashville, making no defence of the city, and that he would, and that he old do so immediately upon the arrival of the army from Bowling Green. The necessity for this retrograde movement, I am certain, was deeply regretted by Gen. Johnston. None could have deplored it more seriously than myself.
You have for months past witnessed the constant and earnest efforts which I have made to raise troops, collect arms, and prepare them for the defence of our long line of frontier, but it is evident that the country has not been sufficiently aroused to a full sense of the dangers with which it was menaced. While it is true that Tennessee has sent large numbers of her sons to the field who are performing their duty nobly, and her people have shown a high degree of energy in developing all the resources of the State, which could aid the government in this struggle, it is equally true that is scarcely a locality within our limits which could not have done, and which cannot now do, more. Many weeks before this crisis in our affairs, Gen. Johnston sent a highly accomplished and able engineer, Major Gilmer, to Nashville, to construct fortifications for the defence of the city. Laborers were needed for their construction. I joined Major Gilmer in an earnest appeal to the people to send in their laborers for the purpose, offering full and fair compensation. This appeal was so feebly responded to that I advised Gen. Johnston to impress the necessary labor; but owing to the difficulty in obtaining the laborers, the worse were not completed-indeed, some of them but little more than commenced-when Fort Donelson fell.  [emphasis added]
Under the act of May sixth, 1861, I raised, organized, and equipped a large volunteer force, but under the Military League and the act of the General Assembly, it was made my duty to transfer that army, with all of our munitions, to the government of the confederate [sic] States, which I did on the thirty-first day of July, 1861.
Since that time I have had no authority to raise or means of subsisting a State army, being only authorized to raise, organize, and put into the field such troops as were demanded of the State by the government of the confederate [sic] States, that government having control of the defences of the State, as well as our munitions and means of defence .
Since the passage of the act of May, 1861, I have organized and put into the field for the confederate service, fifty-nine regiments of infantry, one regiment of cavalry, eleven-cavalry battalions, and over twenty independent companies, mostly artillery. The confederate government has armed about fifteen thousand of these troops, but to arm the remainder of this large force, I have had to draw heavily upon the sporting guns of our citizens.
Having bent every energy to fill the requisitions made upon me by the confederate States for troops, when Fort Donelson fell there was not a single organized and armed company in the State, subject to my command, the only force under my control being an undisciplined, unarmed militia, which, under our inefficient and sadly defective militia system, I have had no power to discipline, drill and prepare for service in the field. Under these circumstances, when the confederate army fell back from the capital, leaving it exposed to the assault of a large army of the enemy, it would have been worse than folly in me to have attempted its defence.
There was no alternative left but for the officers of the government to remove the public records to a place of greater security, or allow themselves and those records to fall into the hands of the union army, resulting in the subversion of the State government and the establishment of a military despotism or a provisional government, under Federal authority, over the people of the State. I could not doubt or hesitate as to do my duty under such circumstances.
Having assembled here, at a time when a part of our territory is overrun, and other portions seriously threatened by the invader, the one great duty which devolves upon us is the immediate adoption of such measures as will concentrate every possible energy and all the resources of the State in a determined effort to drive back the invader, redeem every inch of our soil, and maintain the independence of the State.
By a majority approximating unanimity, we have voted ourselves a free and independent people. Shall we falter now in maintaining that declaration any cost or at any sacrifice? The alternative presented to us is the maintenance of our independence, however long or bloody the struggle, or subjugation, dishonor, or political slavery. I trust there are very few Tennesseeans [sic] "who can long debate which of the two to choose."
The apprehensions which I expressed, and the dangers of which I warned you, in my special message of the first instant, have been fully realized by the country, and the necessity for prompt, energetic, and decided action is even more imperative now than at that time.
I now respectfully repeat to you the recommendation of that message, and earnestly urge that you so amend our militia system as will not only enable the Executive to fill promptly all requisitions made by the confederate government upon Tennessee for he just proportion of troops, but also give full power to discipline and prepare for efficient service in the field the whole military strength of the State, classifying the militia so that the burdens of our defence will fall upon the young and vigorous, who are best able to bear them. I also recommend that you authorize the organization of a part of the militia into cavalry and artillery corps, as well as infantry, and in all instances where it is deemed proper to call out the militia, authorize the reception of volunteers in lieu of the militia, so far as they may present themselves; and for the present defence of the State, I recommend the passage of a bill authorizing the raising, arming, and equipping of a provisional army of volunteers, appropriating ample means for this purpose.
Believing that at least one fourth of the present militia strength of the State can be armed by collecting all the sporting-guns in the country, I have ordered that proportion be placed in camp immediately. [emphasis added] Appropriations to equip, pay, subsist, and clothe this force while engaged in the public defence will be necessary.
While there is much to regret in the past, there is much to hope in the future. Our fathers in the first revolution experienced more serious reverses and many darker hours than any we have known, yet they did not falter until their independence was achieved. Tennessee holds her fate in her own hands; a fixed an unalterable resolve, a bold, firm and united effort to maintain our independence at any and all hazards, gives us the means of repelling the invader at once. The confederate government is sending her legions to our aid, our sister States of the South are rallying their gallant sons to the rescue.
Let Tennessee remember that the invader is on her soil; that the independence and freedom of her people from tyranny and oppression are involved in this struggle, and, putting forth her whole strength, act as becomes the high character for her on other fields.
Isham G. Harris
Rebellion Record, Vol. 4, pp. 202-204.
20, Loyalty in the Dover Environs after the fall of Fort Donelson; an Excerpt from a War Correspondent's Report
Correspondence of the Cincinnati Commercial
Dover, Tenn., February 20, 1862
….I have for two days been in search of the aborigines of this God-forsaken land, and have rode about thirty miles for that purpose. I have been quite successful, having discovered at least twenty. The first one was a man by the name of J. B. Bates, who says he has been a resident of Dover since 1836. I said to him, Mr. Bates, please tell me candidly whether you think the majority of your population are glad to see that old flag again, (pointing to the stars and stripes on the Fort). Sir, said he, there is not a man, woman or child in all this county but that is shouting for joy because it has come back again. They would do anything in the world to have an end of this bloody strife. Others who have been fighting in the rebel army told me of the ways and means they had used to get a discharge from a service they never liked. One man told me that for two months he ate barely enough of his rations to keep him alive, till he created the belief that he was getting the consumption when he received a written discharge from his Surgeon. The natives for two days have been coming up to the opposite side of the river in considerable numbers, and General Grant has given out word that all loyal citizens are at liberty to return again to their occupations, and pursue them unmolested. The facts about the population here are these: They will be about the loudest for and work the hardest for the party who will first put an end to the war. Their mental calibre [sic], as a general thing, is not quite equal to a ten inch Columbiad. Mr. Briggs tells me that when Pillow made his escape, he swam the river with his horse, and that some of his own men shot at him. Alas for poor Pillow! "Who so base as to do him honor?"
Daily Missouri Republican, February 27, 1862.
20, Modish Memphis
Stylish Memphis.—A correspondent of the New Orleans Crescent writes to that paper as follows: Visiting Memphis a few days ago, for the first time in ten years, I was greatly surprised at the expansion of the place and its stylish improvements, as well as at the great amount of military and civic business transacting. The quantity of sugar and molasses there is positively tremendous; the whole landing is covered, and the streets and warehouses fairly glutted with the saccharine. Of course, you understand this—the blockade and the gorge of the railroads [are responsible]. The draymen of Memphis are getting rich under the sweet pressure. They get five and sometimes as high as ten dollars a load for hauling sugar from the landing to the Charleston depot, such is the anxiety of shippers to get ahead of each other. The shinplasters and checks of Memphis are various as those of New Orleans. Brass dray checks appear to be the favorite circulating medium. The Planters' Bank shinplasters it from five dollars down to five cents. And you will smile to hear that the clipped bills and checks and the omnibus tickets of New Orleans are as good currency as any in Memphis. At least I took them and passed them without trouble. These are bully times. From the Crescent City to the Bluff City, and even up to the very gates of Cairo, every man appears to be his own banker.
Memphis Daily Appeal, February 20, 1862
20, "By this time (3 to 4 A.M.) the suspension and railroad bridges were all in flames. I have never witnessed a more strikingly beautiful scene than that which met my eyes while standing on the platform at the door of the college mess hall, about 4 A.M. The Wire Bridge was a line or flooring of fire, the Rail Road Bridge a perfect frame work of flame; the whole lit up brilliantly the quiet sleeping city and suburbs." An entry from the Journal of Dr. John Berrien Lindsley
Thursday. About1 AM Nelson waked me up saying that Carroll was at the door anxious to see me. So I dressed in a hurry and went out. I had placed two guards in his stable for protection, but it so happened that a party of fifteen armed men had come to impress himself and carriage for some official, and there was likely to be a fight between them & my two men; when Carroll bethought him of my certificate as Post Surgeon, which he showed them, stating that he would call me in person to confirm it. When we reached the stable they had departed, being doubtless satisfied with the paper. A guard of three men at the stable opposite, of Morehead's Mounted Kentucky Rifles, who were watching their officers' horses, had given their countenance to mine. So I treated them all to a good lunch and drink of whiskey furnished me by Nelson.
At 2 A.M. Nelson gave me a nice breakfast, hot coffee &c, which was shared by Dr. Bowlecock & Mr. Colvin both from Memphis; whom I met at the Corner of Cherry & Deadrick inquiring for a coffee house. Had a good chat with them. The Dr. was with Walker in Nicaragua. They told me that they belonged to a company of artillery stationed at Fort Zollicoffer were moving their guns and ammunition and would be off about daylight – the last train on the Chattanooga railroad.
After breakfast went back to the stables & got young Rogers, one of the Kentuckians, to accompany me to the University. He had previously informed me that the Clothing Depot was opened for soldiers, who were allowed to get as much made-up clothing as they could carry. Reached the University about 3 A.M., found the guards about the stores awake. Sent for Dr. Wheeler to see that all was right at my home (where he had been stationed for the night). Then had all my sick folks aroused – those who were well enough formed into a line, and so marched down to the Quartermaster's to get their share. They needed clothing, and when I made the announcement they prepared eagerly for the march. By this time (3 to 4 A.M.) the suspension and railroad bridges were all in flames. I have never witnessed a more strikingly beautiful scene than that which met my eyes while standing on the platform at the door of the college mess hall, about 4 A.M. The Wire Bridge was a line or flooring of fire, the Rail Road Bridge a perfect frame work of flame; the whole lit up brilliantly the quiet sleeping city and suburbs.
The men now being collected by Dr. Wheeler we marched down Market street. By the Rutledge lot I met Major John Sehon, Quartermaster, on his way from Nashville. Bade him farewell. Asked his opinion as to my mode of paying hospital debts; which he approved. On reaching the Clothing Stores, corner of the Square and Front street, I showed the men how to proceed, and took a walk up to the Capitol for the fire-lit view. The Ordnance works just west of the State Prison [which was on Church Street, between 16th and 18th Avenues] were now in full blaze and added to the brightness of the illumination. Passing by Aunt Felicia Porter's found the house lit up and the children at the window. Went in and chatted a few minutes.
At 5 A.M. Carroll's carriage was at Pa's. Took Nelson and returned to the Quartermaster's stores. Set Nelson to getting shirts, drawers and pants, of which he brought several carriage loads to Mr. McGavock's office, to save distance. Before dusk these were removed to the University Hospital.
About 7 A.M. had another breakfast. Then drove to University. Found breakfast not ready, although all concerned were notified to have it very early as all hands were needed for the grand campaign for Quartermaster's & Commissary's stores. This was no trifling backset.
Found Mr. Hogg, and went back to town: Met Mr. Brigham at Sehon's official quarters: he joined us. Passing A.V.S. Lindsley's office, saw a negro man coming out of the cellar. It proved to be Bradley, Van's waiter. Told him that if he would open the office for us and attend on us all day he should have one hundred dollars. He went along at once. Mr. Brigham got Mr. Forest to assign us the side-basement entrance on Front street. Stationed Lawson to guard it. Hogg went regularly to work selecting the most valuable unwrought goods, and sending them down to our door. No small task as these goods were in the upper stories of a floored warehouse. So we got up a corps of some twenty assistants who were admitted on my password. (Post Surgeons Lindsley) Hogg, Brigham, a McGowie accompanied each carriage full to my brother's office where they were deposited, and the door locked up.
We had not been long at work before the Mayor R.B. Cheatham, & John M. Lea came to get my carriage to convey the commissioners on behalf of the Corporation to the place of conference with the Federal authorities. They could procure a vehicle no where else. So I willingly obliged them by letting James Napier [inserted note in different hand: "Carroll son"] go. After a while Carroll came up with the other carriage and continued the transfer of goods. About 11 A.M. Mr. Hogg told me that a wagon or two was now indispensable for moving bales of rough & heavy cheap articles. So I went to Dr. Atchison's office and got his buggy and driver which were of essential service for the next three hours – Drove out to Garthan's & the University and all about the city in this buggy. Dr. Mayfield went out to Mr. Litton's with me. Thus succeeded in getting a couple or more of vehicles by means of which we carried away as much as was thought desirable of the Quartermaster's goods before 4 P.M.
As I was driving down Market street [Second Avenue] below the Medical College, Capt. Hawkins company of Home Guards were marching up the hill on their way to the army. The company was quite full & I recognized many familiar faces. They gave in response to my bows a hearty farewell cheer. It was very sad indeed to see these poor fellows in obedience to stern military rule, leaving their homes and families just on the eve of the enemy's advance.
The scenes of confusion, pillage, and pilfering at the various Government storehouses this day to be witnessed baffle all description. At the Commissary warehouses as on Monday bacon and other stores were freely given away. This occasioned a promiscuous rush after provisions which interfered very much with the details of soldiers, horsemen mainly, occupied with getting supplies for the last Confederate troops leaving for the South. At the Quartermaster's corner large crowds were attracted by the hopes of a similar distribution of the clothing &c. Here however little was given out except for the moving army, the hospitals, and to individual soldiers who were allowed to take away made up clothing. Very many persons however went in dressed as soldiers & helped themselves liberally.
The Irish women made themselves very troublesome at these store houses. Frequently the horsemen would charge upon them
with brandished swords to make way for their wagons. Yet they did no Feb. damage, and intended none. Considering the pressing wants of the retreating army, and the great annoyance and hindrance occasioned by the mob of beggars, it is surprising that the soldiers exhibited so much patient forbearance. An officer whom I met about Mid-day told me that he had thirty, sick, starving men to feed near the Chattanooga Depot; and could get neither conveyance nor food. I told him to press a small contraption which was hauling bacon for a citizen, and went with him to Broad street where we got flour &c.; he then went on his way happy enough.
Dr. J.W. Hoyte during this day added largely to our commissary stores.
At night we paid off all our impressed wagoners quite to their satisfaction.
Dr. John Berrien Lindsley's Journal, February 20, 1862, TSLA, ed. Kathy Lauder.
20, Skirmish on Shelbyville Pike
No circumstantial reports filed.
20, Scout of Wright's Island, Tennessee River, and destruction of Confederate boats [see February 17-21, Expedition from Lexington to Clifton above]
20, General Bragg issues General Orders No. 39, relative to health care for white and black employees of the Army of Tennessee
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 39. HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Tullahoma, February 20, 1863.
Hereafter proper medical attention will be given to all employes of this army, white and black, and suitable accommodations will immediately be provided for them.
By command of Gen. Bragg:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 642.
20, Andrew Johnson's Confiscation Proclamation
February 20, 1863
Whereas, Many persons owing and possessing real and personal estate, situate in that portion of the State of Tennessee within the jurisdiction of the Government of the United States, come within the provisions of sections fifth and sixth of an act of Congress, approved July 17, 1862, and have failed and refused to avail themselves for the provision of the fifth section within sixty days, which expired under the Proclamation of the President of the United States on the 23d day of September, 1862; and, whereas many, such persons are now within the so-called confederate [sic] States, having left such property in charge of agents, who collect the rents, issues, and profits thereof, and forward the same to the parties, or retain and invest if for their benefit, therefore, in pursuance of said Act of Congress, I, Andrew Johnson, Military Governor of the State of Tennessee, do hereby warn all persons holding, renting, occupying, or using any such real or personal estates, or the rents, issues, and profits thereof, belonging to such any such parties, as well as all agents, not to pay the same over to said parities or their agents, but to retain the same until some person suitable has been appointed in the name and behalf of the United States to receive the same, and hold it subject to the order of the said Government of the United States.
Military Governor of Tennessee
February 20, 1862
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, pp. 145-146.
20, Skirmishing on the Sevierville road
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the Itinerary of the Army of the Ohio, January 1-April 30 .
TWENTY-THIRD ARMY CORPS.
First Division, commanded by Col. George W. Gallup, Fourteenth Kentucky Infantry.
* * * *
February 20, the Fourth Tennessee moved out 3 miles on the Sevierville road, to support cavalry skirmishing with the enemy; returned same evening.
* * * *
OR Ser. I, Vol. 42, pt. I, p. 52.
20, Anti-guerrilla gun control in Memphis
Excerpt from the Report of Maj. Gen. Stephen A. Hurlbut, U. S. Army, commanding Sixteenth Army Corps.
HDQRS. SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Memphis, Tenn., February 20, 1863.
* * * *
I have sure information that [R. V.] Richardson's guerrillas have been supplied with revolvers from this city. I propose, to-day, to forbid any arms whatever being exposed or kept for sale in the command.
* * * *
S. A. HURLBUT, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 22, pt. I, p. 230.
20. Lewis county guerrilla chief Lewis Kirk's conscript sweep in Maury county
A Guerrilla Brute.
Refugees from Maury County report that a most deplorable state of affairs exist in that county. A band of rebel cavalry is scouring the country, led by one Capt. Lewis Kirk, of Lawrence county. He has forced numbers of gray-headed Union men, fifty and sixty years of age, into the rebel army, and now holds in confinement several of the oldest and most estimable citizens of the county, because they refuse to take up arms. One brave old man told him that if he would give him a chance, he would take up arms for the Federal Government. This Kirk was formerly a blacksmith, we are informed, and a noted bully in Lawrence county. He was in jail at Columbia for near three years, for murdering Mr. Westmoreland of Giles county, without provocation, and in cold blood. When the rebellion broke out, he sent word to Governor Harris that if he would get him out of jail he would join the rebel army, and he was let loose. He is now fighting for "Southern Rights" against "Lincoln's myrmidons."
Nashville Daily Union, February 20, 1863.
20, Nashville Fire Company No. 1 sells "Rough and Ready" to Cairo, Illinois Fire Department
Engine No. 1.—Some of the old members of Nashville Fire Company, No. 1, yesterday parted with their old machine with many regrets, having sold it to "Rough and Ready" fire company of Cairo, Illinois, for the paltry sum of $800. This, we believe, is among the last remnants of the old Volunteer Department. The machine should be followed to the boat by a procession of mourners over the happy past, and on returning from the funeral, the members should wet their whistles and dry their eyes in the old hall—the scene of so much jollity and discussion, merry dances and social parties.
Nashville Dispatch, February 20, 1863.
20, Juvenile gangs in Germantown, Nashville
The Juvenile Warriors.—We are informed that the juveniles of Germantown have organized two parties who have frequent fights though these seem to be of a more harmless character than some of the others. They have some cavalry, and we are informed that the rebel commander has recently captured a number of prisoners, three horses, and several wooden guns and bayonets. The prisoners were paroled, the horses placed in hospital, and the guns handed over to the ordnance department.
Nashville Dispatch, February 20, 1863.
20, "…it is the abolisionisht and niger lovers which is keeping up the war." Letter from Joel Watters, 10th Volunteer Illinois Infantry Regiment, to His Brother, Samuel T. Watters
7th Division 2nd Brigade, 14th Army Corps department of the Cumberland, Nashville, Feb. 20th, 1863
Dear Brother I again take the present time to write you a few lines in answer to your letter from Louisville which has come to hand.. I am truly sory that you went to so much trouble on my account excuse me for not writing sooner for I almost forget home while thins floes smoothly and I don apprehend any danger[.] I wrote a letter about the first of this month renovating my good health and safety from the battle field which you got by this time if it was sent misplaced[.] I am well at this time and hope this may find you all the same. I havent got much news to write this time about 40 miles from Nashville is a huge monster which makes the rebs stand agast for Gen Rosecrans is a fighting man on wheels and everything looks gloomy in the future for the rebs. there has been about 40000 reenforcements added to our side since they been at Murfreesburough and large pontoon trains is going out which indicates a forward movement soon which will drive the rest out of Tenn I hope the rebs get awfuly whipped at Ft. Donaldson since I last wrote of which you have heard. the prospect of taking Vicksburg is still progressing and I hope before long the rebs here will be routed from all their strong holds. there is considerable axcitement here amongst the souldiers on account of the niger question there is a great many opposed to old Abes policy but I think it will blow ever without any evil consiquences. I don't think they will arm the darkeys and put them to fight with us if they do it will be a good way to get rid of them for wat the rebs don't shoot we will if they put them with us to fight. if they do arm them the must send them off to South Carolina or some other sea port where there is no white souldier except…it is the abolisionisht and niger lovers which is keeping up the war. I think when Lincoln arms the nigers he is over steping the bounds and giving the rebs a good platform to fight on I believe if this niger question had never been agitated this war would be over I go in for using the darks to work on our forts while the war lasts but not to fight in the ranks with us. after the war is over sell them to the highest bidder to help pay expenses they had beter be in slavery that turned loose in the north which will cause trouble if they are but we have got war in our country and we must clean out the rebels in the south and then I think it will be a small job to rout the copperheads in the north which is liking out their toungs at us. While we are trying to save the country the abolitions and peace makers is like small purps when big dogs is fighting they are back in the rear barking if they get to savage you must lean them out. I hope the time will soon come when peace will be restored once more never to be disturbed again.
From your affectionate brother Joel Watters
Joel Watters Correspondence
20, Skirmish on the Sevierville Road, near Knoxville
FEBRUARY 20, 1864.-Skirmish on the Sevierville Road, near Knoxville, Tenn.
No. 1.-Brig. Gen. Milo S. Hascall, U. S. Army.
No. 2.-Lieut. Col. Robert Klein, Third Indiana Cavalry.
Report of Brig. Gen. Milo S. Hascall, U. S. Army.
HDQRS. THIRD DIVISION, TWENTY-THIRD ARMY CORPS, Knoxville, Tenn., February 21, 1864.
MAJ.: While I was visiting my command on the other side of the river yesterday the enemy attacked my picket-post on the Sevierville road, and showed themselves rather prominently on all the roads. I thought it best to ascertain what was in our front, and accordingly took the Fourth Tennessee Infantry, under Maj. Patterson, about 150 to 175 men, and the left wing of the Third Indiana Cavalry, under Lieut. Col. Robert Klein, about 200 men in ranks, and started out on the Sevierville road, the infantry in advance. About a mile out we encountered the enemy's outpost, which was promptly driven away by the infantry. As soon as we had the rebels fairly started in retreat I directed Col. Klein to go forward with his men and press the enemy vigorously till he ascertained how much force they had. He at once obeyed the order and fell upon them with great vigor, pushing them back about 2 or 3 miles farther. Finally, with two companies, he charged upon the Fourth and Eighth Tennessee [rebel] Cavalry, and succeeded in cutting off some 200 of them, but could only bring off 10 of them, 1 of whom was the adjutant of the Eighth Tennessee. Having now ascertained from citizens and the prisoners taken that it was two brigades of Martin's [rebel] cavalry that we were contending with, and not deeming it prudent to push any farther with my small force, as compared with theirs, I directed them to withdraw. Col. Klein lost 6 men wounded, 1 of whom will die. The whole affair was very well executed by Col. Klein, and proves him to be a remarkably efficient officer. His men behaved themselves also in the most creditable manner.
There were no casualties in the infantry force.
I forward the report of Col. Klein.
All which is respectfully submitted.
MILO S. HASCALL, Brig. Gen. of Vols., Cmdg. Division.
Report of Lieut. Col. Robert Klein, Third Indiana Cavalry.
HDQRS. LEFT WING THIRD INDIANA CAVALRY, Near Knoxville, Tenn., February 21, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to report the following as the part taken by my command in the affair of yesterday on the Sevierville road:
After the enemy's outposts were driven in beyond our vedette station, by Gen. Hascall's order I passed to the front with four companies. Leaving one company to guard against a movement around to our rear. I soon met the enemy in considerable force and skirmished [both mounted and dismounted] with them, driving them slowly, until by a charge we drove in the Fourth and Eighth Tennessee Cavalry to where the remainder of their force was dismounted and in line. Here I had every man in hotly engaged, when finding the odds too great against us, I thought it prudent to withdraw, which was done in good order.
As fruits of the engagement I brought off 1 adjutant [Eighth Tennessee] and 9 men, 10 horses, some arms, &c. My loss was 6 men wounded [1 mortally], 12 horses left on the field, 6 stand of arms. The enemy's loss was greater; so far as could be observed, 5 known to be killed. We had at once as many as 200 men cut off, but were too weak to hold them.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
ROBERT KLEIN, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 409-410.
20, Skirmish on Holston River
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
20, Skirmish at Flat Creek
No circumstantial reports filed.
20, Skirmish at Strawberry Plains
No circumstantial reports filed.
20, Newspaper report on life in Knoxville environs during Longstreet's campaign
AFFAIRS AT KNOXVILLE.
Knoxville, E. T., Feb. 9, 1864.-The Rebels sent in a flag of truce on Saturday evening from Strawberry Plains, asking permission to remove four or five families from Knoxville within the Rebel lines eastward.
A person well informed as to the conditions of affairs in Central and East Tennessee states that there will be some two or three thousand families which will be liable to be sent out of the Rebel lines, provided a retaliatory measures are adopted for the sending away of obnoxious families from Knoxville. The mind recoils from a contemplation of the suffering which must fall upon so many women and children….
The latest news direct from the Rebel lines by a deserting citizen prisoner from Jonesboro' represents the Rebels as very busy, and as relentless as death in carrying on conscription in that region. All persons from sixteen to fifty-five or sixty-in other words, any who can stand and go-are forced into the Rebel ranks. Provisions are very scarce among residents and a kind of distribution of what remains, or leveling process, has been adopted, those having anything left in their smoke-house or corn-crib having it distributed to those who have none. [emphasis added] The railroad is fast repairing and a large party is employed upon it as far down as Greenville [sic]. They are reoccupying the old saltpeter caves, and hunting up all the old hands capable of working them.
Philadelphia Inquirer, February 20, 1864
20, Public health initiative taken by the U. S. Army in Memphis
SPECIAL ORDERS [sic] NO. 83
Office of the District Provost Marshal
Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 20th, 1864
It is hereby ordered that after Monday the 1st of March, 1864, persons occupying premises in the city of Memphis, or in case of vacant lots, the owners thereof will be held strictly responsible that the streets adjacent to their property or the premises occupied by them, shall as far as the middle of said street, are by 7 o'clock of every Wednesday afternoon, swept and cleaned. The dirt [is to be] placed in heaps convenient for removal, under a penalty of a fine of not less than $25.00 for each breach of this order. The city authorities are hereby charged with the duty of having the heaps of dirt removed by 7 p. m. of each Thursday.
Geo. A. Williams
Capt. 1st U. S. Inf. and Provost Marshal
R. P. Buckland, Brig. Gen. Comd'g. Dist.
Memphis Bulletin, March 4, 1864.
20, U. S. N. Reports Illegal Cotton Speculation by U. S. Army Officers
U. S. S. PEOSTA, CAIRO, February 20, 1864.
SIR: When I stopped at Clifton, Tenn., on my way up the Tennessee River, on the evening of February 16, 1864, the commanding officer at that place, Major Murphy, of the (I think) Fifth Tennessee Cavalry, informed me that some of his captains owned cotton near the Tennessee River in the neighborhood of Florence and Waterloo, Ala.
The impression left upon my mind by the conversation between us was that some of his officers were taking advantage of their position and power to speculate in cotton, in direct violation of the laws of Congress and the General Order No. 88 of the War Department, issued March 31, 1863.
I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant,
JAMES W. SHIRK, Lieutenant-Commander, Commanding Seventh District.
Rear-Admiral DAVID D. PORTER, U. S. Navy,
Commanding U. S. Mississippi Squadron.
NOR, Ser. I, Vol. 25, p. 768.
20, Negotiations for exchange of prisoners of state in East Tennessee
HDQRS. CAVALRY, DEPT. OF EAST TENNESSEE AND SOUTHEEST VIRGINIA,
Bristol, February 20, 1865.
Brig. Gen. L. S. TROWBRIDGE, Provost-Marshal-Gen., Department of East Tennessee:
GEN.: I have the honor to acknowledge the reception of your communication of 8th instant, forwarding list of citizens who had been released in compliance with the agreement entered into by Gen. Carter and myself.
You state that "A. C. Plumlee and Wm. Hall are held by the civil authorities and not as hostages." The names of these parties were on the list given me by Gen. Carter at our interview in November last. They had been in prison, in a distant State for nearly eighteen months, in military confinement, in a military prison, and under the control of the military authorities. They were not then, and I have every reason to believe never were at any time, in the custody of the civil authorities either of the State of Tennessee or of the United States. If they are now held as prisoners of state, it can only be an afterthought, and I hold that good faith on the part of the military authorities at Knoxville requires that these parties should be released under the cartel of Gen. Carter and myself. I would also beg leave to call your attention to the fact that W. W. Wallace was one of the parties whose name was given me by Gen. Carter, who has long been in military confinement, and who, I am informed, was some months since brought to Knoxville for the purpose of being released, from some cause is still in custody at Knoxville. You make no allusion to him in your communication. I have understood, unofficially, that he is held as a hostage for one Seth Lea, in our custody. Why Mr. Wallace was not released and sent forward with those whose names you forward me I do not understand. If he is held for the especial purpose of being exchanged for Lea, I would remark that this is not in accordance with either the spirit or letter of Gen. Carter's and my agreement. I would beg leave respectfully to call your attention to the fact that our agreement in no manner contemplates an exchange; for to that, we had invariably, on previous occasions, and on the occasion of Gen. Carter's meeting myself in November, refused to accede. The arrangement contemplated and provided for only an unconditional release. You may not be aware of the fact, but of that Gen. Carter had full information, that on the basis of exchange, in consequence of the condition of things between the general agents of the two Governments, no general or special arrangements could be made concerning the prisoners of this department. The consequence has been that I have not been able to effect the release of Lea from confinement, in order that I might return him to your authorities. I can accomplish his release and that of others only on the ground of the release contemplated and provided for by Gen. Carter and myself. Whenever Wallace and others thus held by you for special exchange are permitted to enjoy the benefits of the general release will I be able to forward such prisoners as we hold, coming within the purview of the agreement of November last.
Permit me also to call your attention to the fact that James Vaughn, my father, was also, under the agreement of your predecessor and myself, to have been released from confinement at Louisville, Ky., and permitted to return to his home in Monroe City. He is a citizen, an aged and infirm man, and with no charges of any character against him.
I have reliable information that the reported death of Judge Van Dyke is not true, and that he is still in confinement at Camp Chase. I would also refer you to the fact that you are laboring under mistake as to the release of Crouch, Scruggs, Lindsay, and Biltenton. They are still in prison at Camp Chase. You also hold J. A. Sperry, Go forth, and others-citizens who were captured and carried off from this place during the late raid of Maj.-Gen. Stoneman. I have had some intimations, though not officially, that these parties, or some of them at least, have been turned over by the military to the civil authorities. I know not who or how many are kept in prison under this pretext. The agreement of Gen. Carter and myself not only provided for the release of such citizens as were then in confinement and custody, but also that no other or further arrests of that character should be made. The arrest of these last-named and other citizens was clearly in violation of that agreement, and the mere fact of the subsequent transfer of those parties to the civil authorities does not purge the action of bad faith or release the military authorities from responsibility for their release and return.
I hope soon to be able to send to your lines all citizen prisoners now held by our authorities from the Department of East Tennessee, and would have done so ere this but for difficulties over which I had no control.
I would also take occasion to inform you that I have recently had George Netherlands, or Hawkins County, arrested, and he is now in custody as a hostage for a William Blackburn, of Claiborne County, an aged citizen, who was arrested during the raid, and is now, I am informed, in prison at Knoxville. Unpleasant as the duty may be, and as much at variance as it is with the spirit and intentions animating your predecessor and myself in our interview and agreement at New Market, I am reluctantly compelled, in consequence of the disregard of that agreement on the part of the Federal authorities in persisting in the arrest and confinement of citizens, to resort to this mode of retaliation. Justice to the citizens who are made thus to suffer for their opinions' sake requires it at my hand, and candor requires me to give you timely information that I will continue to arrest man for man one Union citizen for every Southern man arrested on your side. I will in carrying out this determination have regard to those and all of those who have been arrested since the 10th of November, the date of the New Market agreement.
I promised Gen. Carter orally that I would wait a reasonable time for the release of Jos. B. Heiskell, in whose case he said there were some difficulties over which he could not then exercise full control, but he hoped to be able to effect his discharge in a short time. Mr. Heiskell is still in confinement, and I have given orders for the arrest of citizens to be held as hostages for him. Permit me, however, general, to give you my solemn assurance that whenever a proper disposition shall be exhibited by the U. S. authorities to carry out the letter and spirit of our agreement, entered into in November at New Market, which can be illustrated only by the release of all citizen prisoners now in your custody and by ceasing to make any such arrests in future, I will gladly not only discharge all we hold, but will throw full and inviolable protection around all Union citizens in the same manner.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN C. VAUGHN, Brig. Gen., Cmdg. Cav., Dept. of East Tenn. and Southeest Va.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 8, pp. 272-274.
20, Report on Schools forContraband Children, Middle and East Tennessee
Office Chief Superintendent Contrabands
Nashville Tenn. Feby. 20th 1865
Brig. Gen. A. Johnson
Military Governor State of Tennessee Nashville Tenn.
I have the honor to submit the following report of Schools for Colored Children in this District:
There is a number of small pay Schools here sustained Exclusively by the Colored people of which I cannot at present give any full report. In a week I shall have information as to their number, the terms of tuition &c[.] At present I speak of Schools sustained wholly or chiefly by benevolent Societies. Of these there are four (4)
(1) One in the 1st Baptist church (colored) on Martin St
(2) One in Capers Chapel.
(3) One near Fort Houston.
(4) One at the Contraband Camp
School No. 1 is under the auspices of the "North Western Freedmens [sic] Aid Commission" (Head Quarters Chicago Ill.) under the Superintendence of Mr. Hubbard. At this school there are One Hundreds (100) pupils Enrolled with an average attendence [sic] of about Eighty (80). Two (2) Teachers are Employed. The school is partially self-sustaining.
School No. 2 is under the Auspices of the "United Presbyterian Society" of Southern Ohio. This School was begun in October 1863 in two (2) Churches of this city and has been in operation most of the time since. The number of pupils then varied from 200 to 550. There are present Eight Hundred (800) pupils Enrolled. The attendance varies from 350 to 500. Two Hundred (200) pupils are reading. Fifty Seven (57) writing. Twenty five (25) studying Arithmetic and there is some instruction in Geography &c but no classes as such in these branches for want of sufficient accommodations.
At present there are Six (6) Teachers, and two (2) moor are expected shortly. At this School since its Establishment over 550 persons beginning with the Alphabet, have learned to read[.]
Schools Nos. 3 and 4 are under the Auspices of the "Pennsylvania Freedmens [sic] Relief Association" Mr. W. F. Mitchell Superintendent[.] The average attendance in these Schools is Three Hundred (300). Industrial Schools are connected with both and there are One Hundred (100) children who can sew, and are making garments from raw materials. Four (4) Teachers are engaged and two (2) more are coming.
A School is to be started here today (Monday the 20th inst.) under the auspices of the "American Millennial Freedmens [sic] Commission" (Head Quarters in Boston)[.] Four (4) Teachers are on the ground and two (2) more expected. There are in Edgefield from 500 to 600 Colored families who have agreed to fit up the School-House [sic] and furnish fuel &c[.]
There are Schools at,
Murfreesborro'[sic] Stevenson and Huntsville
Under the Superintendence of Mr. W. F. Mitchell above named.
At Murfreesborro' [sic] there is an average attendence [sic] of Two Hundred (200) pupils with three (3) Teachers[.]
At Stevenson there are One Hundreds (100) Scholars and Two (2) Teachers. One (1) more is Expected [sic].
At Gallatin there is a school under the Auspices of the "Western Association" of Cincinnati Ohio, and as I understand the same association and one or two other are assisting to keep up a School at Clarksville[.]
At Knoxville there is a school with One (1) Teacher and an average attendance of One Hundred (100) pupils[.] Preparations are making for the Establishment of Two (2) Schools at Chattanooga. An average attendance is expected of Two Hundred (200) pupils. There is also a school at Murfreesboro under the auspices of an Indiana Association, of which I have no knowledge but what is above stated.
_______ Pupils________________ Teachers_
Place Enrolled Attending Present Expected Remarks
Nashville 1 100 80 2 --
do 2 800 400 6 2
do 3 & 4 ? 300 4 2
Murfreesborro ? 200 3 --
Stevenson ? 100 2 1
Huntsville ? 100 1 1
Gallatin ? 100(?) 1 --
Clarksville ? 150(?)
Edgefield -- 100(?) 4 2 Opens today
Knoxville 100(?) 1 --
Chattanooga 300(?) 2 Preparing to open
Totals 2600 (?) 2000(?) 26 8
This does not include the pay schools referred to above nor the schools in the Regiments of Colored Troops. Each regiment having some educational arrangements under the charge of the Chaplain.
From full conversation with the Superintendents of these Free schools and from my own investigations these needs of the schools are developed.
1st More ample accommodations for pupils and Teachers Especially in Nashville. One of the schools here will have to dismiss Two Hundred (200) pupils soon if they cannot find more room.
2nd Books and stationary. McGuffeys 1st and 2nd Readers are Especially needed.
3d Rations for the Teachers. Rations have been issued to some of the Teachers under an Order of Major General Grant Commanding Military Davison of the Mississippi but the order is not general Enough [sic].
All the Teachers attest the universal desire of these people and their aptitude to receive instruction and it is a significant fact that as soon as they are able to pay for their tuition they leave the free schools and go to pay schools.
I have the honor Governor, to be,
Very Respectfully, Your Obt Srvt.
R. D. Mussey Col. 100th USCI, Chief Supt. Contrabands East and Middle Tenn.
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 7, pp. 478-480.
20, Guerrilla Raid on Wartrace
No circumstantial reports filed
Blood and Fire, p. 149.
 William Epps Newell was born in 1806. He was Montgomery County Court Clerk when the war broke out. He was too old to serve in the army. He was a wealthy man, owning and operating three iron furnaces in Stewart County, at Blooming Grove, Yellow Creek, and one near Dover. He was likewise a breeder and trainer of race horses. He died in 1867, while training one of his horses. He is buried at Riverview Cemetery in Clarksville.
 Clarksville experienced a "great panic" similar to that in Nashville.
 Not included.
 Most likely "Southern tender."
 See also: Louisville Daily Journal, March 28, 1862; The Daily Picayune, March 16, 1863 and Robert H. White, Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, 1857-1869, vol. 5, pp. 365-369.
 That is, the day Fort Donelson fell to Federal forces.
 The governor meant "the people who own slaves"
 What the governor meant was that slave owners would not do the patriotic thing and provide the state with their slaves to do the work of building the fortifications. The slave owners who had the very most invested in and most to lose if the Confederate cause failed, wouldn't help the cause. See Major Gilmer's correspondence above.
 Once again, Harris employs his skill at using empty rhetoric.
 As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.
 Fourth Avenue.
 An ammunition depot on the Cumberland River just west of Nashville. Its purpose was to guard the city from gunboats, but it was abandoned soon after the fall of Fort Donelson.
 John L. Sehon was a prominent Nashville lawyer; his wife Annie was the youngest daughter of Judge Thomas Maney.
 First Avenue, Nashville.
 Later Major James M. Hawkins, Nashville Battalion Infantry.
 This proclamation, like other similar decrees during the war were meant to enforce loyalty to the United States. Certainly property was confiscated, but it is doubtful such actions did more than to increase rebel hatred for the Union.
 Letters from Joel Watters, 10th Volunteer, Illinois Infantry Regiment, to His Brother, Samuel T. Watters, 18756-1865. Property of W. Calvin Dickinson, Cookeville, Tennessee. Transcription. Hereinafter Joel Watters Correspondence. All spelling and grammar original.
 Not found in the OR.
 Standard reading textbooks of the day.
 According to the editors of Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 7, p.482, fn 8: "The same day, Mussey wrote to Secretary Stanton urging that 'the Premises and Farm at Gallatin, Tenn., known at the 'Fairvue Estate' belonging to the late Isaac Franklin, a notorious slave trader, be turned over to him, that he might there establish a 'Freedmen's Colony for the infirm and destitute Freedmen of East & Middle Tennessee with special reference to the necessities of Colored Oprhans.'" As cited from Mussey to Stanton, February 20, 1865, Johnson Papers, Library of Congress.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456