Friday, May 1, 2015

5.1.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes



May 1, 1861, Resolution of Tennessee General Assembly to explore joining the Confederate States in a military league

JOINT RESOLUTION to appoint commissioners from the State of Tennessee to confer with the authorities of the Confederate States in regard to entering into a military league.

Resolved by the Gen. Assembly of the State of Tennessee, That the Governor be, and he is hereby, authorized and requested to appoint three commissioners on the part of Tennessee to enter into a military league with the authorities of the Confederate States and with the authorities of such other slave holding States as may wish to enter into it, having in view the protection and defense of the entire South against the war that is now being carried on against it.

Adopted May 1, 1861.

W. C. WHITTHORNE, Speaker of the House of Representatives.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 83-84.

        1, Major-General Gideon J. Pillow's instructions to Brigadier-General John L.T. Sneed regarding defenses at Fort Randolph

MEMPHIS, May 1, 1861.


In disposing of the forces in and about this city it is only necessary at present to have competent artillerists in command of the artillery at Fort Randolph. The works at that position will require, ultimately, three companies of artillery, there being three batteries constructing there. There is now a fine company in command of the field battery at present at that post. You ought, if you can, to have organized two or three additional artillery companies in the city. Smith's regiment is ordered there as a protecting force for those works and batteries; let it remain there for the present. A company of artillery have been ordered to Fort Harris to man the guns there. It is Capt. Warner's company. You must have it provided with transportation. Before Capt. Patrick's company (a part of Col. Smith's regiment) is removed to Fort Randolph, two companies from this city must take its place. These troops should be constantly drilled and instructed, so as to fit the troops for the field. All the heavy artillery which shall reach the city from Virginia and Carolina, thirteen pieces, must be forwarded to Fort Randolph. When those works are completed, your attention should be given to the organization of companies and manning the batteries at Randolph, so as to have all the guns in working order. There is one 8 inch howitzer gun at Fort Harris which should be removed to the works at Randolph, so as to have a heavy armament at that place. For the ultimate protection of these works and this city, there should be stationed at that post four pieces of field artillery, to be stationed in the open field on the bluff, and two regiments of infantry. In meeting the wants of the service of subsistence, for which $10,000 is at present provided on the branch of the Bank of Tennessee, your quartermaster and commissary must bring his checks to you that you may indorse your approval on them. If other dispositions should be required of the forces, or organizations should be needed, I will promptly communicate with you from Nashville.

GID. J. PILLOW, Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 80-81.

        1, Conditions in and around Murfreesboro on the eve of the secession of Tennessee, excerpt from the diary of John C. Spence

... There is quite a commotion over the country. Volunteers are being raised, but all independant, [sic] individual enterprises. They all important question with Tenn. has not come up. She has been once tryed [sic] and the question will have to come again. There is a heavy influence working in the mind of the people. Still, a distant hope that something may turn up that will stop blood shed. The Lincoln call causes a hesitation. Tenn. knows she is loyal; fears nothing; wishes to be at peace with all. But, the call is on all loyal states for its share of men to allay a rebellion. Who rebells! [sic] My nearest neighbor! Must spill his blood? I stop. I hesitate. [sic]

The Subject of War [sic] is not being thought. [sic] More of the people begin to look at the matter. Volunteers are now being raised by different persons....

Spence Diary.

        1, The Ascendancy of Fear and Apprehension in Memphis, Jackson and West Tennessee

A Reign of Terror on the Mississippi.

The Cairo correspondent of the Chicago Post furnishes some late news from the Southern Mississippi:

"During my sojourn here, I have taken taken [sic] much pains to ascertain as nearly as possible the true state of affairs along the river between here and Memphis.-It is a reign of terror, scarcely equaled by anything in history. Union men are no longer safe there, and are fleeing the North for their lives. Every boat that arrives or passes here brings more or less of these fugitives from anarchy. I have just returned from an interview with a lady who arrived from Jackson, Tennessee, this morning. Being suspected of loyalty to the government, her husband was waited upon by the 'vigilance committee' and warned of the necessity of his enlisting in the motley army of Jeff. Davis. He resolved to fly, and with all diligence put his family on board the train for Columbus, KY. The mob heard of it, and with knives and revolvers pursued him, searching through the cars to kill him. By the aid of the baggage master he succeeded in escaping to the woods and made his way on foot through swamps and bayous to Columbus where he rejoined his wife. The lady herself narrowly escaped violence at the hands of the ruffians, who threatened to take out of the cars and hold her as hostage for the reappearance of her husband. The officers of the road did all in their power to protect her. In Jackson, this lady says, there are a large number of loyal citizens, but they are overawed by the drunken rabble, and dare not utter their real sentiments. The best citizens of the place held a meeting and protested the unlawful and outrageous proceedings of the 'vigilance committee,' but their voices were powerless against men inflamed with bad passion and bad liquor.

A very intelligent and respectable gentleman-one of a considerable number who have recently fled from Memphis-is also here, waiting intelligence from his friend, who has gone to Chicago to see if it will be safe for southern men there, and also if there is a chance to do anything. Though gentlemen in good circumstances, they have fled, leaving everything. The gentleman I mention succeeded in getting away  the greater part of his furniture, a horse, and about $500 of his library. Said he, "when I arrived here and saw the flag waving, I felt like shouting-I felt that I was again in a land of liberty!"

It is the impression at Memphis, and all along the river below this point, that the troops concentrated here are to march southeard. A few days since a committee of citizens from Memphis, representing themselves as Union men in sentiment came up here to inquire of the commanding officer if it would be available for them to remove their families from that city to a point of safety from attack. Of course they obtained no information of the intentions of the government, but were advised to go home and attend to their business like gook and loyal citizens.

Throughout Western Tennessee and Kentucky, and on the river border of southern Missouri, the excitement is beyond description. But it is the excitement, the very desperation of despair.-There is much braggadocio on the part of many leaders, some of whom talk of coming up to Cairo, cutting the troops here and feeding them to the cat-fish! They have very few arms and still less ammunition; as for artillery, they have none any account. Union men from Memphis assure me that the N. Y. Seventh Regiment alone might start from Cairo and march straight to the city of New Orleans without difficulty from any opposition that would at present be brought against them. Throughout Tennessee they are comparatively destitute of arms of every kind. Memphis has borrowed 3000 carbines from the State of Louisiana, which were delivered by the Aleck Scott day before yesterday, and which are about all the arms they have. Men are mustering into the service to defend that city against the anticipated attack from 1,500 soldiers here. Seven miles above Memphis, Gen. Pillow is erecting a battery from the same purpose. All between the ages of 16 and 65 are eligible for service, and every man suspected of loyalty to the Union is notified to enlist, in default of which he is hunted down by the drunken ruffians and bands of "vigilance committees." Business is wholly suspended and the shops are mostly closed.-And to complete the picture of this reign of terror, low mutterings are heard among the slaves, sending fear and trembling to the stoutest hearts. The rural districts around Memphis, the women are organizing and drilling in military science, to protect their homes and little ones from the terrible doom which threatens from these "hordes of black barbarians."[1]

Milwaukee Daily Sentinel, May l, 1861. [2]





May 1, 1862, Skirmish at Pulaski capture of Union supply train[3]

No. 1

Report of Capt. John Jumper, Eighteenth Ohio Infantry.

NASHVILLE, May 4, 1862.

I left Columbia on the evening of April 30, with about 110 men, about 35 armed, that had guarded a lot of prisoners up from Huntsville, and the balance being recruits and convalescents from the barracks at Nashville. We camped some 8 miles from the City that night, started early next morning, May 1, and got along finely until about 1 p. m., when a courier came up post-haste and said a party of rebel cavalry, to the number of 15 or 20, had attacked his party of telegraph men, and urged us to go to their assistance. I took the armed men and started at double-quick for the ground, leaving the unarmed and teams to come up at their leisure. After going some 4 miles we came up with the enemy. I gave orders to Lieut. R. S. Chambers, of Second Ohio Regt. [sic], to take some men and deploy on the right of the road as skirmishers. We steadily drove them ahead for some time, when they were heavily re-enforced, and a cessation of firing from both sides took place. I then took up as good a position as I could in the road and along the fence, assisted by Adjutant Neal, Eighteenth; Lieut. Leonard, Second; Lieut. Pryor, Twenty-first, and Lieut. Dyal, of Second Ohio, still keeping Lieut. Chambers with his squad deployed as skirmishers. I soon found that the enemy was flanking me on both sides with large numbers of cavalry, and opened fire upon them, which they briskly returned, and the balls fell thick and fast among us, but all seemed perfectly cool, and both officers and men exhibited personal bravery which was hardly to be expected from men who with but few exceptions never stood under fire before, and especially when they were in such few numbers as to be easily singled out by the enemy, who showed themselves to be excellent marksmen.

After some two and one-half hours' continuous firing, and running short of ammunition, the officers held a consultation as to what should be done, and all agreed to hold out to the last, hoping that we would receive help from a company of cavalry that I knew could not be far behind, and have since learned did come up in seeing distance, and then the captain refused to advance to our assistance. By this time the enemy had begun to prepare to charge from two different ways, one in front and one on my left, and as they did so, seeing that further resistance was useless, as our ammunition was exhausted, I ordered Lieut. R.'s. Chambers to advance and meet them with a flag of truce, which had been prepared some time before, to be used as the last extremity, and surrendered ourselves to Lieut.-Col. Wood, of Adams' rebel cavalry, Col. Morgan coming up across the field a moment after, we having 1 man killed and 1 wounded and killing 6 of the enemy and wounding 3, and killing five of their horses. We were taken to Pulaski, which we found on reaching to be filled with rebel troops, and on our arrival there found some 150 officers and men from various regiments that had been taken prisoners during the day.

After getting us ready to go South, on consultation with Col.'s Morgan and Wood they proposed to release us on parole until exchanged, which proposition, on consultation among all the officers who were prisoners, was accepted, and after signing a parole we were released, and give two wagons to carry our baggage in; and here let me say that the treatment of Col.'s Morgan and Wood and all their officers was kind and gentlemanly, and everything that we could have asked or expected by any on in our situation was done for us. The men under my command lost most of their clothes and such things as they had.

The whole force of the enemy I should think was some 1,500, although they claim to have had 2,000.

Annexed you will find a list of officers and soldiers under my command who were taken prisoners and released on parole till exchanged; and, further, I would state that I applied for arms for the recruits before leaving Cincinnati and could not get them, and then again at Nashville, to have the whole party armed, and was told that it was not necessary, as the road was perfectly safe.

JOHN JUMPER, Capt. Company F, Eighteenth Regt. [sic], Cmdg.

No. 2

Report of Col. John H. Morgan, C. S. Army.

PULASKI, TENN., May 2, 1862.

SIR: I have the honor to report from this place and to inclose a list of prisoners taken in and near this town-268 non-commissioned officers, rank and file, as well as officers, among whom was the son of Gen. Mitchel, who, together with a number of other officers, had just arrived from Gen. Mitchel's command.

The incidents peculiar to the skirmish, in which our entire force engaged, were of but little moment, the engagement resulting in a loss of several killed and wounded on the part of the enemy. The Federals occupied Columbia road, deploying as skirmishers upon each side of the turnpike, which they blocked up with their wagons and teams, all of which I have taken possession of. Col. Wood made a gallant charge up the road, while I led a portion of the command to the right, when the enemy surrendered.

We have taken a quantity of arms; also a number of teams, wagons, &c. Several wagons loaded with cotton, purchased by a Mr. Campbell, and en route to Nashville, were taken possession of and burned. As we may move rapidly, the teams we will mount our men with and destroy the wagons.

If a body of cavalry is thrown across the river irreparable damage can be done the enemy. This road (Columbia) is very important, as a large amount of transportation is constantly passing to and fro.


JOHN H. MORGAN, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 875-876.

        1, "if the enemy shall reach Memphis – what then?"

A correspondent this morning, in a few well-timed observations, calls attention to the fact that Memphis may very soon be placed in a similar attitude with New Orleans, and asks what shall be the course pursued by its authorities. This is no ordinary or trivial inquiry, but is one fraught with consequences of the most vital and important character, and it is proper that it should be decided in advance, when discretion and judgment may director our counsels, and the disgrace incident to a senseless panic and trepidation be avoided.

We believe that the position assumed by the Mayor of New Orleans, in his response to Flag Officer FARRAGGUT [sic], is not less logical and proper in itself than it is commendable and patriotic. The surrender of a city by is municipal [sic] offers to an invading foe, it as he truly characterizes it, "an idle and unmeaning ceremony."

War is properly a conflict between the opposing armies of the belligerents, and the municipal authorities of a city have no more right to negotiate for the terms of surrender to the foe than a resident custom house officer or postmaster. Indeed it is questionable as to whether such a procedure ought not to be absolutely forbidden by our commanding generals.

Should Memphis be sooner or later confronted by the enemy, we believe that we reflect the unanimous opinion of every respectable citizen within its limits when we enjoin upon the Mayor the duty of refusing to engage in the humiliating ceremony of a surrender. Let his language be that of the gallant, true and intrepid MONROE [sic].

The city is yours by power and brutal force, not by choice or consent of its inhabitants. It is for you to determine what be the fate that awaits her. As to hoisting any other flag than that of our own adoption and allegiance, let me say to you, sir, that the man lives not in our midst whose hand and heart would not be palsied at the mere thought of such an act; nor could I find in my entire constituency so wretched and desperate a renegade as would dare to profane with his hands the sacred emblem of our aspirations."

This glorious sentiment which will go down in history to render illustrious it author, has struck the proper chord in our young nation's heart. It has produced a moral effect as cheering in its character and important in its results as the winning of a great battle. Now let Memphis add another verse to this chapter of our war for independence that will illustrate the intrepidity of southern heroism and the ardor of southern patriotism. Woe be to the dastard, in the day of future retribution, who shall by his official short coming disgrace her by a cowardly and ignominious capitulation.

Memphis Appeal, May 1, 1862.

        1, Purloined pistols; juvenile larceny in Memphis

Juvenile Villainy.—In consequence of information received at the Station House last night, officers Brannan and O'Ryan, entered on a search for a quantity of army pistols which had been stolen from the landing, in the north part of the city, hidden away in trunks under beds and other hiding places in various houses. Yesterday, a pistol, sabre, knapsack, belt and cartridge box, were found in another part of the city, there is yet more of similar articles not yet found. These had all been stolen by little fellows, some of them not more than four or five years of age. A little girl was likewise arrested who was concerned in the robberies. These little thieves lie down by any box, trunk, sack or cask in which they find a hole; this they enlarge, if necessary, and then steal as much as they can to escape undetected. We have no means of dealing with these young thieves, who will grow up to be a curse to the community which has suffered their minds to remain uncultivated, and their morals to be depraved. There is a manifest defect in our practical judicial system, by which the parent and guardians of such, who are the real criminals, pass unpunished.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 1 1862.

        1, "Old Beauregard is here and I hope this 3rd O. cavalry have the honor of assisting in capturing that noted old villain that has caused so many of our noble soldiers to sleep their last sleep." Excerpt from George Kryder's letter to his wife

Camp Shiloh, Tenn.

May 1st, 1862

Dear and beloved wife,


…. We are now within about 12 miles of Beauregards army and expect a battle every day. Night before last our Co were all out on picket guard and heard rebels fire 3 guns about 1/2 mile distant but we did not see them. The report is that there are five companies are going out tomorrow to drive the rebel pickets in, but which companies are going I have not heard. It is not likely that we will get in any fight as there is more cavalry than they really need.

I hardly know what to write, the weather is very fine. This is the poorest country I ever saw. If the whole southern confederacy was not worth more than it is here, I would not fight to keep it in the union, but it has some beautiful land down here.

Old Beauregard is here and I hope this 3rd O. cavalry have the honor of assisting in capturing that noted old villain that has caused so many of our noble soldiers to sleep their last sleep. But the day is coming fast when secesh is being played out. The health of the regiment is better than it was. I wrote to you in my last letter that Royal Syex had died of typhoid fever after being sick about 2 weeks, and there were a good many of measles on our march. Albert is pretty bad off yet with diarrhea but Henry is quite rugged again….We are now within a mile of the Mississippi line and we were in that state the other night when we were on picket. We have crossed the Tenn. River about 8 miles from Savannah and the next move we will make towards Corinth where the rebel army is fortified with about 175,000 men and we have over 200,000 two hundred thousand strong and I think that if we will whip them here, the fighting will be done.

I must fall in for roll call for the bugle has called.

Roll call is over and I must close this letter in hopes of hearing from you soon….

George Kryder Papers[4]





May 1, 1863, Reconnaissance from Murfreesborough to Lizzard

No circumstantial reports filed.

        1, Strict provision control orders issued for the Confederate Department of East Tennessee


The following general order from headquarters Department of East Tennessee is republished for the information of all concerned. It will be strictly enforced:

I. The transportation of flour, bacon, corn, and oats from the Department of East Tennessee is strictly prohibited.

II. When Government supplies are purchased for shipment from the department, authority must be obtained at department headquarters for their transportation.

III. Railroad and steamboat companies will in every case require this authority to be presented before shipping such supplies.

By command of Maj. Gen. D. H. Maury:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 807.

        1, Permission granted to destroy flour mill at Chapel Hill [see April 29, 1863, Reconnaissance and skirmish on the Chapel Hill Pike above]

HDQRS. FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Murfreesborough, May 1, 1863.

Brig.-Gen. SCHOFIELD, Cmdg. Third Division:

In answer to your note requesting permission to destroy the flour mill at Chapel Hill. I am instructed by the general commanding to say that you have full permission to do so if from your present information you deem it practicable. It is needless to say to you, general, that the enemy are "watching out," and our late raid upon McMinnville has not lessened their vigilance.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. E. FLYNT, Assistant Adjutant-Gen. and Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 304

        1, "Special Order, [sic] No. 13;" the fight against social evils; closing houses of prostitution in Memphis [see April 30, 1863, "The war against prostitution in Memphis" and April 29, 1863, "Special Order [sic], No. 13" above]

We invite attention to Special Order, [sic] No. 13, from Provost Marshal SMITH [sic], approved by the Post Commander, to be found in another column.

The evil which this order [is] designed to correct, has grown into one of considerable magnitude, and demands precisely such a remedy as our ever active and untiring Provost Marshal has applied. Scarcely a steamboat but brings an addition to our already large population of lewd women, who make exhibitions of themselves upon our streets, and, for the time, seem to have taken possession of the city. This nuisance, we are gratified to know, is to be abated, and officers who degrade the public service are to be reported to the commanding General. Both Gen. VEATCH [sic] and Col. SMITH [sic] deserve the thanks of the community of this timely and effective remedy for our social evils.

Memphis Bulletin, May 1, 1863.

        1, A Wisconsin soldier's description of Murfreesboro

Murfreesboro Tenn.

May 1st 1863

Dear friend,

You wished me to give you a brief description of Murfreesboro. From its present dilapidated appearance it is rather hard to say what it looked like in times of peace. But so far as I can judge it was quite a pleasant town of probably two thousand inhabitants. I can see no evidence of its having been much of a business place, as the only machinery in town is that pertaining to a cheap grist mill. It seems to have been quite a place for schools, and a healthy pleasant place to live. It being the county-seat of Rutherford County, added something to its importance. I think its people regarded themselves as belonging to the very elect-that is they were very aristocratic, and the fact that the most of them fled to the southward upon our arrival, leads me to conclude that their sympathies were strongly in that direction. But now the town is torn from center to circumference. Fences have entirely disappeared and many houses have been torn down. Fine shade trees have been laid low, and the once beautiful lawns have been trodden into quagmire. Thus we see the havoc of war.

J. M. Randall

The James M. Randall Diary[5]

        1-2, Federal foraging mission across the Stones River


Col. GEORGE E. FLYNT, Chief of Staff, Fourteenth Army Corps:

COL.: I returned to-day from a highly successful foraging trip across Stone's River. I started with the expedition yesterday morning at 5 o'clock, with three regiments of infantry, 100 cavalry, one section of artillery, and 90 wagons. We crossed Stone's River at Charlton's Ford, 4 miles northeast of this camp, moved in the direction of Lebanon, 8 miles from the ford, to Hugle's Mill, where we loaded 65 wagons with corn, and then moved on, in the same direction, to Logue's tannery, 2 miles from Hugle's, where we loaded, as at Hugle's, from the farms of active rebels, 25 wagons with corn. While the teams were being loaded at Logue's, a squad of rebel cavalry made a dash on the vedettes I had thrown out on the Lebanon road, but were driven off without doing any damage to my men.

From Logue's, I marched in a southeesterly direction, to Goodwin's Ford, where I camped for the night, on the east side of Stone's River, returning to camp at 10 o'clock this morning, all safe, with ninety loads of corn and 2 prisoners, believed to be "bushwhacker."

I made an expedition through the same region of country on the 28th of April,[6] bringing to camp eighty-five loads of corn and 2 prisoners (Capt. [Wade] Baker, of the Twenty-eighth Tennessee rebel infantry, and a noted guerrilla by the name of Worl).

In making both these expeditions, I have patrolled a section which has been a place of resort and concealment for the rebels who have made the raids upon the railroad and pike between this post and Nashville.

On Monday I will go over the river again with a large train.


JAMES B. STEDMAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Post.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 306-307.





May 1, 1864, Federal Warehouse Inventory from Chattanooga

List of military store-houses built and in process of construction at Chattanooga, Tenn., May 1, 1864.

No.  Location.                        Dimensions     By whom used.               Condition.


1      On river front of Market street       150 by 40        Capt. C.K. Smith, assistantCompleted

                                                     quartermaster.         May 1,'64.

1      do                          300 by 50        do                           Do.

2      do                          300 by 50        Capt. A.D. Baker, commissary     Do.

                                                     of subsistence.

1      On river near Market street     50 by 20         Capt. H.M. Smith, assistant       Do.


1      In rear of depot quartermaster's      204 by 40        do                           Do.


1      On Market street                    250 by 50        do                          Do.

1      do                          115 by 50        …engineer dept. One-fourth completed.

1      In rear of market-house          300 by 50        Buildings for commissary dept.      Do.

1      On Market street                    460 by 50        Buildings for ordnance dept.   Do.

1      On river-bank (brick magazine)      do                           One-third completed.

1      In rear of depot quartermaster's      154 by 40        …for quartermaster's Foundation

                                                     office department.   being laid.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 21

        1, A Female orderly sergeant

A Female soldier, who has served over two years with the 54th Indiana regiment, and participated in several battles, was arrested by the Military conductor on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad on Thursday last [April 28]. The regiment of which she claimed she was a member was in transit at the time. She was dressed in full uniform, and displayed the badge which indicates the rank of an orderly sergeant. The conductor brought her to Nashville, and reported her to the Provost Marshal for disposal.

Nashville Dispatch, May 1, 1864.

        1, Elvira Powers' description of a black church service in Nashville

This P. M., Miss O. and myself accompanied Rev. E. P. Smith to listen to his "colored preaching," as he termed it, in the same church in which is the school for the colored children. It was a rare treat-and the first colored audience I ever saw.

Do not imagine a squalid, ragged, filthy audience; but one where silks, ribbons, velvet, broadcloth, spotless linen and beavers predominated, with a sprinkling of beautifully cared for silver, and gold-headed canes, with about the usual proportion of fops to the canes that one may find in an audience of equal size, or our own color. Some of these persons are free and own property. But one would scarcely covet some of the ladies their silks and velvets, when she learns that it is purchased with the avails of extra labor at night after the day's work "for de missus is done."

But so it is. And although the church was built some years ago with their money, yet it was held in trust by white people because "negroes [sic] cannot own property."

I have been repeatedly told that I would turn pro-slavery when I came south and saw how things really were. I do not feel any of the first symptoms as yet, but quite the contrary. Instead, I'm getting to believe that the day when the Emancipation Document was sent forth, was that of which it is said "a nation shall be born in a day," and I'm learning to think that this gospel, which is

"Writ in burnished rows of steel"

And read by

"The watch-fires of an hundred circling camps," is the "word" which "makes men free," and will forever strike the manacles from the oppressed bondsman.

One indignant white man, during the first prayer which was made by a negro preacher, and in which he asked for blessing upon the Union arms and freedom for slaves, left his seat and walked the whole length of the church, with heavy tread and with his hat on his head, while a voice called out,-

"Take your hat off!"

During the closing prayer the negro very properly prayed, "Oh Lord, wilt dou give de people good manners and teach 'em right behaviour wen dey come into de house ob de Lord!"

The sermon was the Bible-story of the death of James and the release of Peter from prison. It was told in a simple, earnest, impressive manner, to a deeply attentive, impressible audience. When he drew the picture of the angel entering the prison, and taking Peter away as easily as though "his chains were made of wax and a lighted candle was held beneath them, while the four quarternians-sixteen-soldiers were powerless to act," one old man laughed outright, a joyous, grateful laugh, others made their peculiar grunting noise which no combination of sounds will give exactly, while others shook hands and cried "Glory to God." During the singing some women had the "power" so that they passed round, embraced and shook hands.

Some joined the church, and the negro preacher told them he "hoped that wouldn't be the last of it, and they they'd be faithful and come to church; " but that some joined whom he "never could get a chance to set eyes on again, so that when they died he never culd tell WHICH PLACE THEY'D GONE TO!" [sic]

I have forgotten to note in its proper place, that upon entering the church Miss O. and myself took seats in the only unoccupied pew in the body of the church. But Rev. Mr. S. beckoned us forwarded to a side seat by the pulpit. We took our seats there, but soon a neat, elderly negress [sic] came forward and said with a coaxing smile and voice, "Young ladies go up in de altar an' set-you [sic] doesn't wan [sic] to set down here wid dese yere colored folks." We preferred remaining, and she urged the matter in vain. Soon an elderly mulatto man, probably a prominent member in the church, whose portly form was assisted in its waddles by a gold-headed cane, came forward and made the same request. But not being accustomed to the highest seat in the synagogue on account of our possessing a lighter color, we declined doing so until all the seats were filled and some must stand, when we did go; but upon others coming in they also were induced to take a seat in the altar.

Powers, Pencillings, pp. 67-68.

        1, 'Those girls never had been able to get into respectable society, and they imagined they could now make an entrée with an armed force…." Social gossip in McMinnville

….The 19th Michigan left….The streets of Mc [sic] are said to have presented a sorry sight the morning they left. The Union feminine element which had so frantically thrown itself entirely away into Abraham's bosom, was dissolved, melted, and steeped in briny tears,-and while it took its long-lingering farewell of the shoulder straps, the darkey [sic] feminine element in the streets hung like clouds about the necks and brows of "uncle sam's boys" [sic] in the ranks and made the melodious with their lamentations. The hard-beat of rebellion looked on unmoved by all this panorama of despair. The feminine "secesh" element was centred [sic] upon finding out how the "union element" conducted itself at Bersheba [sic]. The Col. would say but little – indeed there was but little need since they, themselves had trumpeted their own doings as soon as they returned. It seems they were much "cut" [sic] by not being invited to Mrs. A's [sic] and made a good deal of "to-do" over it – tho' [sic] some did aver that they cared nothing for the attentions of Mrs. A. or Miss Franklin' they only wanted the use of their parlor and piano, to entertain their beaux! One of the rebel sisters remarked that "Those girls never had been able to get into respectable society, and they imagined they could not make an entrée with an armed force, but they were mistaken." It seems that the Yankee beaux tried first to get the rebel ladies to accompany them but when they politely declined – the Union feminine were taken as a "dernier resort!" [sic] Funny doings. It is funny to see the "loyalty" neglected when there is a ghost of a chance to catch a "rebel" smile – but so it is, and all natural enough I suppose too. Yankee officers are men (in a measure,) and men in whatever degree that they may exist will always run themselves to death to obtain "whatsoever they can't git [sic]…."

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.

        1-5, Entries in Alice Williamson's Diary, Sumner County

1st. This is the dullest May-day Gallatin ever seen; no picnics or anything else.

2nd. A reg. of East Tennesseans have come to hold this post. They are the meanest men I ever saw; but they have one good trait they make the negroes [sic] "walk a chalk."[7]

3rd. The East Tenneseans [sic] burnt a school hous [sic] last night it was a contraband school. They say they will have none of that while they stay here.

4th. The soldiers are behaving very well I do not suppose the negroes think so though they threatened to burn the old tavern last night (that like every thing else is filled with contrabands) but the citizens told them if they did Gallatin would burn; they let it alone but say if they get up a school in it they will burn it and G. may go to H____ [sic]

5th. A contraband was killed today; he insulted one of Miss B's scholars & a soldier being near killed him. Go it my East Tenn [sic]

Williamson Diary

        ca. May 1, 1864-ca. May 21, 1864-Federal anti-guerilla scout in pursuit of the Blackwell and Davis guerrilla gangs in Middle Tenessee [see May 27, 1864 – Federal intelligence report relative to location, activities and strength of guerrilla bands in Bedford, Lincoln, Franklin, Marshall, Coffee and Jackson counties, below]

        ca. May 1, 1864-ca. May 26, 1864-Blackwell and Davis Confederate guerrilla gangs active from Shelbyville, Richmond, Lynchburg, headwaters of Flat Creek to Flat Creek Store, in Middle Tennessee [see May 27, 1864 – Federal intelligence report relative to location, activities and strength of guerrilla bands in Bedford, Lincoln, Franklin, Marshall, Coffee and Jackson counties, below]

        1-September 8, 1864, Atlanta Campaign





May 1, 1865, Directions for gaining surrender of stragglers and guerrillas

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, May 1, 1865--8 a. m.

Maj.-Gen. STEEDMAN, Chattanooga:

Send a summons, under flag of truce, to all and every band of armed men in your vicinity or which you may know of, who are operating nearer to yours than any other command, and call upon them to surrender to you, or any other officer you may name for that purpose, upon the same terms as Lee surrendered to Gen. Grant. If they disregard your summons and continue acts of hostility, they will hereafter be regarded as outlaws, and be proceeded against, pursued, and, when captured, treated as outlaws.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army, Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 552-553.[8]

        1, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 99, relative to Federal forces assisting enforcement of civil law in Anderson County


* * * *

V. Capt. Cross' company, Seventh Tennessee Mounted Infantry, will at once proceed to Clinton, Anderson County, for the purpose of assisting the sheriff of that county in the execution of the civil laws.

* * * *

By command of Maj.-Gen. Stoneman:

G. M. BASCOM, Maj. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 554.

        1, Joint Resolution Number XXXIV, placing a $5,000 reward for Ex-Governor Isham G. Harris

Whereas, Treason is the highest crime known to the laws of the land, and no one man is presumed to understand the true meaning of the term better than Governors of States, and certainly no one should be held to more strict accounts for the commission of the crime of treason; and whereas, the State of Tennessee before the rebellion enjoyed a high social, moral and political position and bore the well-earned reputation of the Volunteer State; and whereas, by the treason of one Isham G. Harris, Ex-Governor of Tennessee, the State has lost millions of dollars and thousands of her young men, who have been killed in battle and died of diseases, while thousands of middle aged and old men have been murdered or imprisoned, and defenseless women and children driven from the State, heartbroken and penniless; and, whereas, the voters of Tennessee did, in the month of February, 1861, by a majority of sixty thousand, repudiate treason and rebellion, but the aforesaid Isham G. Harris, well knowing the true sentiment of the people on treason and rebellion, and entirely disregarding the overwhelming expression of popular sentiment, did use his position as Governor of the State to precipitate it in rebellion and hostility to the government of the United States; and, whereas, by such acts he is guilty of treason, perjury and theft, and is responsible to a great extent for the misery and death of thousands of the citizens of the State, and the devastation of the same from east to west, and from north to south-the cries of the wounded an dying, the wail of the widow, and weeping of the orphan, are wafted on every breeze, imploring a just retribution on the instigators of this rebellion; be it therefore

Resolved, By the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, that the Governor of the State is hereby authorized and instructed to offer a reward of five thousand dollars for the apprehension and delivery of the said Isham G. Harris, to the civil authorities of the State. He shall fully describe said fugitive from justice....

Signed, WGB, May 1, 1865

Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, Vol. 5, p. 439.[9]

        1-10, Pursuit &capture of Jefferson Davis at Irwinville, Ga.



[1] The dichotomy about slaves indicates the presence of cognitive dissonance on the part of Southerners who insisted slaves were child-like, happy and content on one hand, and on the other a menace waiting to explode forth and rape all white women and slaughter all whites. Nat Turner's revolt (1831) was no doubt the example they feared.


[3] The following two reports differ both in their conclusions and in the use of the terms "skirmish" and "engagement," further obfuscating the exact meaning these words had in the nineteenth century. Was this a skirmish or was this an engagement? The OR General Index refers to it as a skirmish.

[4] Center for Archival Collections, George Kryder Papers, Transcripts, MS 163:

[6] This is apparently the only reference to this expedition.

[7] "Walk a straight line."

[8] See also: Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal and Rebel Ventilator, May 10, 1865.

[9] See also: Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal and Rebel Ventilator, May 10, 1865.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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