24, Major-General Gideon J. Pillow on expected attack by River upon Fort Randolph
SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 123. HDQRS. PROVISIONAL ARMY OF TENNESSEE, Memphis, May 24, 1861.
The major-general in command of the Army of Tennessee is in possession of the purpose of the enemy to attempt, within the next ten days, a descent of the Mississippi River. The plan is to approach the batteries at Randolph in the night. When signaled to come in the enemy will be slow to answer by whistle, but will answer and continue to answer; will keep well on the opposite shore, and with a heavy head of ream will aim to run by the batteries above Memphis, expecting to reach the city and take it by surprise, believing that we have no forces here. This information is brought to the major-general commanding by a special dispatch from a source evidently well informed of the purposes of the enemy, and directly from the camp at Cairo. The boats in which the descent will be attempted to be made are the City of Memphis, Mound City, Iatan, Swallow, Swan, and probably others. Their present plan does not seem to contemplate an attack by land, but this may be changed or we may not be in possession of all the propose. It is the purpose of the enemy, it seems, in this way to take possession of the city of Memphis, open the river again by running the blockade here, and hold this place. The movement is an exceedingly hazardous one for them, but they believe we have but few guns at Randolph and that those there are of light caliber. They therefore think they can succeed in passing down. They are further informed that we have no forces here, but that all our troops are at Jackson, Tenn. This information may cause a movement to be made which will enable us to send the whole force embarked to the bottom of the river. The major-general therefore directs that Brig.-Gen. Sneed keep constant and vigilant watch; that he be well prepared with guns in battery for action at all times; that he keep out picket guards of mounted men at the bridges crossing Hatchie River, and at such other points as may be deemed advisable; that he give orders for the proper disposition of the supporting force in the event of an attack by night. Brig.-Gen. Sneed will have the orders read to the troops. Upon the appearance of any steamer downward bound, after the signal of one blank cartridge, give her shot as soon as she is in reach of your guns, and if no prompt evidence of approach to your shore, open with all batteries and sink her or them. The major-general commanding wishes every possible energy thrown into the work of field intrenchment and completing the work on the batteries. The sentinels at night should be well instructed as to their duty.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Pillow, commanding Provisional Army of Tennessee:
JNO. C. BURCH, Aide-de-Camp.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 107-108.
24, "TO THE PALMYRA VOLUNTEERS."
The tocsin of war has sounded throughout
The land, and you country calls upon
You, in this, her hour of peril
Go forth, then, with bold-fronts, and
Brave hearts, and God speed you,
In your great and glorious cause.
And like the illustrious Washington,
The "Father of his Country," be "first in
"The hearts of your countrymen."
"Strike! 'till the last armed foe expires --
"Strike! for your altars and your fires-
"Strike! for the green graves of your sires,
"God, and your native land."
Fight, like brave and gallant men,
Strew the ground with the enemies slain;
Conquer, and return again,
With laurel wreaths of fame.
Montgomery County, May 20, 1861.
Clarksville Chronicle, May 24, 1861.
24, "Tennessee's Battle-Song"
By Henry Weber
Awake, take up the arms! prepare for battle!
Our country's honor calls on your her sons!
Arise! arise! ye warriors, from your slumbers!
There is not one of you who fighting shuns,
The Lord of hosts your hearts and arm will strengthen;
The prayers of wives and sisters, filled with woe,
Plead at his throne your cause, the cause of freedom!
Success to you! Confusion to the foe!
Form! form! in proud array, ye Tennesseans!
March onward-charge-break down the seried [sic] line
That now invades the South, hallowed to freedom,
Where happiness-religion-culture shine,
Amidst the storm of war and cannon roaring,
Think of your pass-word, "Death or victory?"
Renown and love the conqueror awaiting,
And glory those who in the battle die.
Fight manly! Shame on all who will be branded,
When the fight is o'er, with wounds on back or heel,
Where'er may be the "Valley of decision" --
Thus saith the Lord, decide it with the steel,
Let all your priests uphold their arms in prayer,
That God, the God of battle, be your stay;
While his strong aid the en'my is confounding;
Yours is the crown, the vict'ry of the day.
From the Nashville Patriot
Clarksville Chronicle, May 24, 1861.
24, Skirmish at Winchester
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the "Record of Events, Third Division, Army of Ohio" for May, 1862:
On the 18th 300 men from the Ninth Brigade, under command of Colonel Lytle, marched for Winchester, and arrived there on the morning of the 24th. After a skirmish, dispersed a body of rebel cavalry, and occupied the town, and returned to Huntsville May 24.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 894.
24, "The very idea, I hope I will die before I am found receiving a Yankee." Unwelcome visitors at the Carney residence in Murfreesboro.
Bettie and I were sitting out on the front steps when we saw some men coming up, but it was so dark we could not distinguish who they were, but when we found it was not Pa coming from Mr. Camp's, run in and shut the door. Ma stepped to the door, and on finding it was strangers stepped back & got a light, & lo & behold it was that little Yankee from the convalescent hospital that came up, and told Ma when Pa was arrested that it was negro news, & wanted to know about her money, & I firmly believe if he had thought that Ma had had money in the house he would have robbed her. He wanted Ma to pay him to get Pa out of jail, said he was a Pittsburgh lawyer. He wanted Mr. Tally to make out a bill and receipt it, so he could go to the government officer & make him pay it, & when Mr. Tally refused, he swore he would get as much money out of that old government as possible meaning the U. S. It was he and two others (I guess of the same stamp). One was a Capt. & the other had some office, I don't know what, Pa came after awhile, & still they staid on, & when supper was announced they went in, although they said they had taken theirs before the came. I suppose they thought they would get to see us & go off, and report that we had received them, but only Pa, Ma, & Cousin Ann went in to supper. They asked for music, both before and after supper, but I would cut my hands off before I would play for Yanks. I thought it was a great piece of impertinence in that little chap bringing those others up here to hear music, as he said just as if we dare not refuse to see them. The very idea, I hope I will die before I am found receiving a Yankee. They said they had never received a single kind word from any one in Murfreesboro, & had no sympathy for secession. How can they look for kindness when they have come to take every thing away from the citizens down South, & ruin every thing we hold dear.
Kate Carney Diary, May 24, 1862.
24, "For them the tear trembled, but the rod was not raised." Military Governor Andrew Johnson at the Union meeting at Murfreesboro
Union Meeting at Murfreesboro.
On Saturday last, notwithstanding the rain in the early part of the day, a large audience, composed chiefly of the "bone and sinew" of Rutherford county, assembled in Convention at Murfreesboro, to take into consideration their relations to the Federal Government. Wm. Spence, Esq., a man deeply devoted to the interests of the Union, was called to the chair. Dr. E. D. Wheeler moved the adoption of the resolutions of the Union Convention at Nashville. Hon. Edmund Cooper, of Shelbyville, advocated the resolutions in a speech of about an hour's length, characterized by marked ability and true eloquence, pervaded by a lofty and noble patriotism. He pointed them to the best government on earth—a government which had been their pride and boast—a government which had secured unparalleled prosperity at home and commanded the respect of all nations abroad—a government which had grown with a rapidity never before known, because founded—in the choice and the affections of the people—the only government which had attained complete civil and ecclesiastical liberty—a government whose only object was the happiness of the people. Yet, this government so pure in its aims, so beneficent in its action, showering its blessings as freely as the rains of heaven, productive of nothing but happiness, had been sought to be overthrown by persons who owed their all to its goodness and justice and wisdom. What was the offence committed? Treason. What is the penalty attached to this offence by every nation of the earth? Death. But here again the benevolence of the Government interposed and said, no, let not a drop of blood flow from one of her people who would renew his loyalty. In unity there is strength. The spider's attenuated web could be blown asunder by every breeze; but you could multiply these threads, until their mighty strength could suspend the anchor of the proudest vessel that rides the waves of the ocean.
We regret the lack of time and space to report Mr. Cooper fully and accurately. His speech did honor to himself and justice to the occasion, and was listened to with undivided attention, and its effect was evident and happy.
Gov. Andrew Johnson followed Mr. Cooper. Never have we seen him in better plight. Here he had been heard, in days gone by, advocating the policy of the Government; now he was battling for its existence. Long, in time past, had the dear of the State been turned to him for counsel and advice; now was the deepest anxiety manifested again to hear his voice. His presence was inspiring, his whole countenance was lit up with animation, and his eyes glowed and sparkled with the intensity of feeling. There was a rush of the anxious to the stand, to catch the first word he uttered.
He began by reminding them of former times, when political differences obtained, which it was now pleasant to refer to, because those discussions were all conducted beneath the stars and stripes which this day floated over them, and underneath which they now proposed to pledge and renew their allegiance. His great familiarity with the political history of the country enabled him to show concisely and accurately the rise and progress of secession from its incipiency until the attainment of such gigantic proportion as emboldened it to lay its unhallowed and ruthless hands upon the bonds of the Union and attempt to break them asunder—while his resistless, searching logic ferretted out the sophisms of the specious catchword of "southern rights," and exposed their fallacies in all their glaring inconsistency. His burning, thrilling eloquence, rising with the occasion, embraced the subject in all its bearings and dependencies, portrayed in colors of glowing light the beauty, the grandeur and the happiness of our Government, emanating in the labors and sacrifices, the blood and treasure of our ancestors, secured and established by their wisdom and justice and transmitted to us with their blessings. He showed the patience and long suffering of the Government—its deep love for the people—it spoke more in sorrow than in anger—even now inviting them to the enjoyment of its affection and protection, and proclaimed peace and good will toward all men who would return within the pale of its mercy. For them the tear trembled, but the rod was not raised. It was only upon the persistent, hardened guilty that its punishment would fall, but upon such with crushing force and power, dividing marrow and bone.
The pleasure of listening to the speaker was heightened by observing the effect upon the crowd. They swayed to and fro before him like fields of waving grain before the wind. At one moment their faces were brightened with smiles, and again the tears streamed down their cheeks. For more than three hours they stood and listened without moving from their places. We have attended many, many popular gatherings, but never before did we see a speaker command such attention. We have often heard Governor Johnson, but never when so able, so convincing, so eloquent. We regard this as the most masterly effort of his life. He was in the State of his youth, whence from the humblest avocation he had risen by his own sterling worth to the highest honors, and in the promotion of the prosperity of the State in the Union, he had spent the toil and labor of his life. This beloved State had been sought to be torn from that dear Union, and to prevent which the people had assembled to advise and counsel with him. What more could inspire a man? What more could move a people? No wonder that when he had concluded his speech, they crowded around him, exchanged greetings and were still reluctant to separate from him.
It is almost superfluous to add, that these resolutions were unanimously adopted.
During the day, thirty-four men, members of Capt. Barclay's Company, 11th Tennessee Regiment, Col. Smith, came before the Provost Marshal, took the oath of allegiance, and are now at home. How beautifully this illustrates the magnanimity of the Government, and the moral courage of the men. The following are the names:'
We are happy to observe the Union sentiment that is beginning to obtain in Rutherford county.
We will avail ourselves of this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to E. L. Jordan, Esq., and lady, and to Wm. Spence, Esq., and family, for their great courtesy, kindness and hospitality to your correspondent.
Nashville Daily Union, May 27, 1862.
24, Confederates vs. Tories in Greene county
A fight occurred in the upper portion of Green [sic] county, Tennessee, last week, between a band of tories and a detachment of Confederates, in which the Confederates lost two killed and the tories about twenty-five.
Dallas Herald, May 24, 1862.
24, The oath of allegiance in Murfreesboro
Thirty-Six Rebel soldiers take the Oath of Allegiance.
Our correspondent at Murfreesboro' states that at the great Union meeting there on Saturday [24th] thirty-six Tennesseans who had come back from the Confederate army at Corinth, renounced the rebellion publicly and took the oath of allegiance to the United States Government! What a touching spectacle that must have been to the eyes of every patriot. There is most decided and eloquent testimony as to the great change now going on in this State. We hear of like changes going on in every quarter of Tennessee to which we have access. The leaven of patriotism is working admirably. The reaction has begun, and we see in the distance the swelling head of the returning tide. Its magnificent roar will soon be resounding at our feet. Fellow-citizens, let us all be actively engaged in hastening the return of all Tennessee into the bonds of love and union. Let no loyal man be idle or luke-warm. Work night and day.
Nashville Daily Union, May 27, 1862.
23-24, Expedition from Memphis to Hernando, Mississippi
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. II, p. 429, 432.
24, Skirmish at Davis' Mill Road
No circumstantial reports filed.
24, Skirmish at Clifton
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
24, Skirmish near Woodbury
No circumstantial reports filed.
24, One Federal soldier's opinion of Memphis; excerpt from a letter home
You seemed sorry that we were ordered to Memphis, but your are not half so sorry, as I shall be glad when we leave. You have no idea what a place we are in. I have often been told to go to hell, but never arrived there till now. I would sooner face the Batteries at Vicksburg then times over than remain here. It is I think the most beautiful camp we have yet had, but it is cursed by whisky. Our duties beside, [sic] are vary arduous, Last Saturday evening I went on Picket for the first time came off on Sunday evening. Went [sic] on again Monday Wednesday [sic], Friday, and today am on Camp Guard. This has been all regular duty for I am happy to say that I have never had a black mark, or an hours [sic] extra duty, since I have been in the Regt. [sic] We had a Dash on our pickets by Guerillas [sic] on Wedy [sic] last, they succeeded in killing two or three niggers, who were out chopping wood. Yesterday an expedition left here to try what they were made of-It consisted of two Battalions of 5th Ohio Cavalry, two Do of 2nd Wisn Cy [sic], and three regiments of Infantry.
It is no joke standing picket here, for you do not know what moment you may be needed. Besides we have to search all persons and Vehicles, going from Town, for Contraband Articles. One woman was taken with the Bosom of her Dress stuffed with Quinine, And another, I am informed, with the seat of her not to be talked aboutables [sic] stuffed with letters. Some of the old and ugly Ladies make a great fuss about being searched, but the young and good looking are a great deal more civil. Wednesday evening I stopped a buggy containing two Ladies [sic] and a baby about 8 months old. I got to talking to the Baby, and you should have seen the little thing laugh and hold out her hands for me to take her. It make me feel bad, for I could not help thinking of my own little fellow at home. I could amuse you for hours by relating incidents of picket life. One made me laugh the other day, I was pacing my beat when an Irish woman came to the post with eggs to sell, I told her to place a dozen on the ground for me, and paid her for them, [sic], she soon found I was from the Ould [sic] Countree [sic], and told me she had a sister living in Clerkenwell. Of course I knew that place well enough. In the course of the conversation she asked me, what in the Divils [sic] name I wanted to be a soldier for. I told her I was married and my, wife was tired of me, and packed me out of the way. Shure [sic] now and your joking says she The Divil [sic] a woman would get tired of such a fine sensible man as your are at all. She showed me her house and invited me to call and see her, but I think she had kissed the Blarney Stone too often for my fancy.
Another Lady when I informed her that I must see what goods she had about her -- told me she was doggawned [sic] if she cared I was only a Darned mean Yankee cuss anyhow.
George Hovey Cadman Correspondence.
24, Destruction of Confederate cotton and woolen factory at Savannah [see also 17-31, Naval Operations on the Tennessee River, relative to operations at Savannah and Clifton above]
24, "Military Hospitals. Chap. XIII
Number 13-Hume High School.
This Hospital [sic] stands on the corner of Spruce and Broad streets, and is, in all respects very pleasantly situated. The ground is high, the neighborhood quiet, the rooms lit and well ventilated, and the grounds attached extensive.
The following is a list of officers:
Surgeon in charge -- A. H. Smith, Asst. Surg., U. S. A.
Assistant--H. M. Lilly, Gustavus Schiff
This hospital contains 160 cots, about half of which are family lounges, or low single bedsteads, the remainder of iron; and all except three were occupied in the 21st inst. A large number of patients having been received on that and the day previous. To attend to the wants of these there are employed four female nurses, twenty-two male nurses, two cooks, five colored females and eight colored males.
All, or nearly all the rooms are preserved in their original forums, and the building is in a remarkably good state of preservation, but little injury having been done to the walls. There are nine wards, 1, 2 and 3 being on the first floor, 4, 5,6 and 7 on the second, and 8 and 9 on the third. The light and ventilation in all are perfect.
Religious services are held in the hospital at half past two o'clock every Sunday evening, and the Chaplain makes frequent visits during the week. They have no library, but the Chaplain furnishes Bibles, Testaments, Tracts, and religious newspapers.
The bath room is in a temporary shed in the yard; the only system of bathing is that which a scrupulous attention to cleanliness requires.
Chess, checkers, quoits, cards, and marbles, beside reading, are the amusements indulged in.
The office of the officer of the day is opposite the main entrance on Spruce street; the other officers are suitably located on different parts of the main building. The dining room is in the rear of the building, on the first floor, and seats comfortably 68 person. Meals are served at 6½, 12, and 5½ o'clock. The kitchen is located in a temporary building in the rear of the dining room.
The Dispensary, Commissary, and Linen room, are well supplied with every thing needed, and abundant for any emergency, according to the capacity of the house.
The same general good order and cleanliness prevails throughout the building that we have noticed in other hospital, and this building boats an excellent yard, fine halls, broad and easy stairways, etc.
We were sorry that the Surgeon in Charge was absent during our visit, as well or own sakes as that of our readers, as the Surgeon is almost indispensable to point out patients and related incidents which help materially in filling up a chapter like this. The Steward, however showed us every attention in his power, and accompanied us throughout the hospital.
Nashville Dispatch, May 24, 1863.
24, "The County Jail;" press description and defense of a public institution in Nashville.
As we consider ourselves in a manner, at least, so far as our ability and influence extends-the guardians of the poor, the imprisoned, the sick and the distressed generally of our city, we pay occasional visits to such places of confinement as we can obtain access to, and when we find anything wrong, expression our mind freely to the persons in charge, with a view to having everything as nearly right as possible. When our objections are reasonable, and it is possible to remove them, we have always found a willingness displayed to ameliorate the condition of the imprisoned as far as possible, and when we find such disposition put in practical operation, we invariably award the praise justly due the parties concerned. In this spirit we gave, a short time ago, a commendatory notice of the County Jail, and did then, and do now, consider it well merited by the Sheriff and the officers in charge.
Yesterday morning we read a grave charge against "the authorities, both civil and military," about "the wretched condition of the jail, and the manner in which the prisoners are kept," which caused us immediately to repairer to the jail, before some of the prisoners were up, and before any one had attempted even to use a broom in the premises. Without the slightest hesitation we were permitted to inspect every nook and corner, inside and out, upstairs and down, and in the cells, and can say with truth that the jail is in good condition, and that the prisoners are far better fed than half our working population. The jail is clean, and not even a musty or disagreeable smell of any kind assailed our nostrils. The prisoners are fed upon good beef, pork, rice, beans, potatoes, bread, coffee, etc., luxuries which few enjoy at present time, and abundant of it. So much we say for the persons in charge. Now of the real [sic] cause of the complaint:
There are too many prisoners for the space at command. On the upper floor of the building are five cells, each eight feet wide, 22 feet 4 inches long, and 9 feet 2 inches high; and one cell 18 feet by 22 feet. The light and ventilation in these cells are good as may be in such a place, when security demands massive walls and small windows. The floors are dry and clean as can be expected -- nay, cleaner than we expected to find them, as early in the morning. On the lower floor there are seven cells, much darker than those above, the windows being more securely barred, the doors double, and the light from the halls not being so clear as that one the second story. But in the darkest recess we failed to detect any unpleasant smell, or see anything opposed to health and cleanliness. When we consider that they are now in this jail about one hundred and eighty prisoners [sic], averaging nearly thirteen to each cell (counting the double cell as two), does it not display a degree of attention and industry on the part of those in charge, worthy of commendation rather than of censure?
We would before this have suggested to the military authorities the propriety of separating the civil and military prisoners, and those guilty of heinous offenses are those of a different character, but we thought we might considered impertinent and therefore confined our efforts to endeavoring to see that our civil officer performed their duty faithfully toward the prisoners committed to their charge. This we are satisfied they have done, and in their name repeat the invitation given through our columns some time ago, to the Jail Commissioners and to proper officers, to visit the jail frequently and at any time of the day.
Nashville Dispatch, May 24, 1863.
24, "The Rules of War."
The Government has officially promulgated a code of "Instructions for the Government of the Armies of the United States in the Field," prepared by Francis Leiber,  [sic] L. L. D., of New York, a gentleman who for many years has devoted much time to the study and analysis of the customs pertaining to military affairs, as gathered from the history of various campaigns in all countries, and revised by a board of competent officers of the army, of which Maj. Gen. E. Hitchcock was president. The faithful observance of these instructions will remove many difficulties and embarrassments that have presented themselves in the execution of military law, because of the want of uniformity of policy, by which the different commanders could be guided. Since a line of conduct for the government of the troops has been thus authoritatively marked out, it will behoove every person connected with the army to perfectly familiarize himself, with the rule laid down. While students of the military art and observers of universal military usages may not concur in all the propositions submitted by Dr. Leiber [sic], and accepted by the Commander-in-Chief, we presume it will not be denied that, as a general thing, the principles of modern warfare are correctly set forth in this code.
Concerning martial law and military jurisdiction, the instruction are quite elaborate. The presence of an army in the enemy's country is itself a proclamation of martial law over the district occupied, and the commander of the forces may elect whether or not the administration of civil law may continue, either wholly or in part. But military oppression is not martial law; it is the abuse of the power which law confers. As military law is executed by military force it is incumbent upon those who administer to be strictly guided by the principles of justice, honor and humanity -- virtues adorning a soldier even more than other men, for the very reason that he possesses the power of his arms against the unarmed, its exercise extending to property and to persons, whether they are subjects of the enemy or aliens. The law of war "disclaims all extortions and other transaction for individual gain, all acts of private revenge or connivance with such acts," and offences to the contrary, particularly if committed by officers, are to be severely punished. Military jurisdiction is of two kinds only-one exercised by courts-martial, and the other (in cases which do not come within that jurisdiction conferred by statute) by military commission.
Military necessity consists in the necessity of measures indispensable to the ends of war, and which are lawful according to the modern rules and customs of war. Besides the direct destruction of the enemy, it admits of the withholding of the means of life from him, and if the appropriation of the supplies in an enemy's country; but it forbids the inflicting of suffering for revenge or any wanton destruction, and, in general, military necessity does not include any act of hostility which makes the return to peace unnecessarily difficult. The unarmed citizen is to be spared in person, property, and honor, as much as the exigencies of war will admit, protection of the inoffensive citizen of the hostile country being the rule, and privation and disturbance of private relations the exceptions. Commanders may compel the civil officers of the hostile country to take an oath of fidelity to the Government of the occupying army, and my expel all who decline to do so; but, in any case, the people and their civil officers owe strict obedience on peril of their lives, to the Generals holding the districts in which they reside. Unjust or inconsiderate retaliation only exasperates and leads nearer to savage warfare.
Classical works of art, libraries, scientific collections or precious instruments, such as astronomical telescopes, as well as hospitals, must be secured against all avoidable injury, even when they are contained in fortified places whilst besiege or bombarded; and in no case shall they be sold or given away, if captured by the armies of the United States, nor shall they ever be privately appropriated, or wantonly destroyed or injured.
The United States acknowledge and protect, in hostile countries occupied by them, religion and morality; strictly private property; the persons of the inhabitants, especially those of women, and the sacredness of domestic relations. Offenses to the contrary shall be rigorously punished. This rule does not interfere with the right of the victorious invader to tax the people or their property, especially houses, lands, boats or ships, and churches, for temporary or military uses. Private property, unless forfeited by crimes or by offenses of the owner, can be seized only by way of military necessity, for the support or other benefit of the United States. If the owner has not fled, the commanding officer will cause receipts to be given, which may serve the spoilated [sic] owner to obtain indemnity.
That ground is taken, in the instructions under notice, that an invading army may suspend or abolish, so far as its martial power extends, the relations arising from the services due one person to another, leaving the permanency of the change to the final settlement. The following is the wording of the instructions on this point:
Slavery, complicating and confounding the ideas of property, (that is of a thing,) and of personality (that is of humanity,) exists according to municipal or local law only. The law of nature and nations has never acknowledged it. The digest of the Roman law enacts the early dictum of the pagan jurist, that "so far as the law of nature is concerned, all men are equal." Fugitives escaping from a county in which they were slaves, villains or serfs, into another country, have, for centuries past, been held free and acknowledged free by judicial decisions of European countries, even though the municipal law of the country in which they had taken refuge acknowledged slavery within its own dominions.
Therefore, in a war between the United States and a belligerent which admits of slavery, if a person held in bondage by that belligerent be captured by or come as fugitive under the protection of the military forces of the United States, such person is immediately entitled to the rights and privileges of a freeman. To return to such person into slavery would amount to enslaving a free person, and neither the United States, nor any officer under their authority, can enslave any human being. Moreover, a person so made free by the law of war is under the shield of the law of nations, and the former owner or State can have, by the law of post-liminy, no belligerent lien or claim of service.
All captures belong exclusively to the Government. Wanton violence to property or persons, robbery, pillage, rape, etc., are prohibited under penalty of death, or other severe punishment. Officers and soldiers are alike forbidden to use their positions for private gain, "not even for commercial transactions otherwise legitimate." Offenses to the contrary committed by commissioned officers will be punished with cashiering or such other punishment as the nature of the offence may require; if by soldiers, they shall be punished according to the nature of the offence.
That portion of the instructions relating to insurrection, civil war, and rebellion, we give in full, as follows:
142. Insurrection is the rising of people I arms against their Government, or a portion of it, or against one or more of its laws, or against an officer or officers of the Government. It may be confined to mere armed resistance, or it may have greater ends in view.
150. Civil war is war between two or more portions of a county or State, each contending for the mastery of the whole and each claiming to be the legitimate Government. The term is also sometimes applied to war of rebellion, when the rebellious provinces or portions of the State are contiguous to those containing the seat of Government.
151. The term rebellion is applied to an insurrection of large extent, and is usually a war between the legitimate Government of a country and portions or provinces of the same who seek to throw off their allegiance to it, and set up a Government of their own.
152. When humanity induces the adoption of the rules of regular war towards rebels, whether the adoption is partial or entire, it does in no way whatever imply a partial or complete acknowledgment of their Government, if they have set up one, or of them as an independent or sovereign power. Neutrals have no right to make the adoption of the rules of war by the assailed Government toward rebels on the ground of their own acknowledgment of the revolted people or as an independent power.
153. Treating captured rebels as prisoners of war, exchanging them, concluding of cartels, capitulation, and other warlike agreements with them; addressing officers of the rebel army by the rank they may have in the same; accepting flags of truce, or on the other hand, proclaiming martial law in their territory, or levying war taxes or forced loans, or doing any other act sanctioned and demanded by the law and usages of public war, between sovereign belligerents, neither proves nor established an acknowledgment of the rebellious people, or of the Government which they may have erected, as a public or sovereign power. Nor does the adoption of the rules of war towards rebels imply an engagement with those extending beyond the limits of these rules, it is victory in the field that ends the strife and settles the future relations between the contending parties.
154. Treating, in the field, the rebellious enemy according to the laws and usages of the war, has never prevented the legitimate Government from trying the leaders of the rebellion or chief rebels for high treason, and from treating them accordingly, unless they are included in a general amnesty.
155. All enemies in regular war are divided into two general classes; that is to say, into combatants and noncombatants, or unarmed citizens of the hostile Government.
The military commander of the legitimate Government, in a war of rebellion, distinguishes between the loyal citizen in the revolted portion of the country and the disloyal citizen. The disloyal citizens may further be classified into those citizens known to sympathize with the rebellion, without positively aiding it, and those who, without taking up arms, give positive aid and comfort the rebellious enemy, without being bodily force thereto.
156. Common justice and plain expediency require that the military commander protect the manifestly loyal citizens, in revolted territories, against the hardships of war as much as the common misfortune of all war admits.
The commander will throw the burden of the war, as much as lies within his power, on the disloyal citizens of the revolted portion or province, subjecting them to a stricter police than the non-combatant enemies have to suffer in regular war; and if he deems it appropriate, of if his Government demands of him that every citizen shall, by an oath of allegiance, or by some other manifest act, declare his fidelity to the legitimate Government, he may expel, transfer, imprison, or fine the revolted citizens who refuse to pledge themselves anew as citizens obedient to the lay and loyal to the Government.
Whether it is expedient to do so, and whether and whether reliance can be placed upon such oaths, the commander of his Government have the right to decide.
157. Armed or unarmed resistance by citizens of the United States against the lawful movements of their troops is levying war against the United States and is therefore treason.
Nashville Dispatch, May 24, 1863.
24, "Murfreesboro' News and Rumors."
Correspondence of the Cincinnati Commercial.
Murfreesboro, May 21, Scouts from the mounted infantry of the tireless Wilder have brought in a small party of rebels, several of whom have furloughs dated May 16; and given by General Wheeler, at McMinnville. The prisoners report a portion of Wheeler's forces scouting beyond Caney Fork and the remainder at McMinnville.
Col. Harrison, in command of two regiments of rebel cavalry is reported at Smithville. Prisoners say that Gen. Wharton, one of the most dashing and daring cavalry officers in the rebel service, in command of four regiments and two battalions, was thrown from his horse, at Sparta, on last Saturday, and so severely injured that his life is despaired of.
Col. Wm. H. Breckinridge, son of Dr. R. J. Breckinridge, is known to be in the vicinity of Woodbury, with a regiment of rebel cavalry. I apprehend that his stay in that locality will not be prolonged beyond a day.
The rebel cavalry are almost wholly without sabres. No regiment in Wharton's whole command but the 4th Georgia have them, and they are of an inferior kind.
Morgan having again been detached from Gen. Wheeler's command, and given a roving commission, is reported as having started up the Cumberland, alter his futile efforts to over-power Col. Jacobs. It is said that he intends co-operting [sic] with the contemplated raid into Kentucky from East Tennessee.
Quite a large party of rebel cavalry was seen today, by our pickets, on the left.
Deserters are still coming in large numbers, but bring nothing of interest.
Correspondence from the Louisville Journal.
Murfreesboro, May 22 -- General Stanley with portions of two brigades from General Turchiln's [sic] command started out last night to surprise the camp of the 1st Alabama and 8th Confederate cavalry in the vicinity of Middleton. He marched all night, and at daylight this morning his advance guard came in sight of the enemy encamped in a dense cedar glade. Our forces were divided and sent around the enemy to prevent his mistake. The advanced guard, anxious and confident, dashed along and unsupported into the rebel camp, putting the whole, one thousand strong, to flight. The rebels in their night clothes darted through the cedars, throwing away blankets, side arms, revolvers, and everything that could impede their flight. Our forces killed eight of the enemy, captured seventy two prisoners, and brought in over two hundred splendid horses. They also burnt the tents, wagons, equipage left in their flight, and captured the battle flag of the celebrated 8th Confederate cavalry. Second Lieutenant Wood, who was promoted only day before yesterday to the 4th Regular cavalry, Federal, is supposed to be mortally wounded. We had also three others slightly wounded. Gen. Stanley pushed forward within one mile of Fosterville, where prisoners say there is a brigade of rebel infantry, supported by a splendid battery.
* * * *
Col. Wilder's mounted infantry have just arrived. They penetrated the enemy's picket lines in the direction of Manchester, and captured seven prisoners, one of whom is a rebel colonel.
* * * *
Nashville Dispatch, May 24, 1863.
24, M. E. Lacy, in Jackson County, to her husband, Lieutenant A. J. Lacy
Stat [sic] of Tenn [sic] Ja [sic] Co [sic] May the 24 [sic], 1863
Mi der [sic] and most affection husband
I set down to writ [sic] you a few line to let you now [sic] that I am well at this time and I hoop [sic] when these few lines com [sic] to hand that it will find you well.
I has nothen [sic] strang [sic] to writ [sic] to you. I want to see you but I fer [sic] that I [illegible] will see you in life. I was in hopes that I wood [sic] see you a while sick but now I hav lost all hope of see you. [sic] Now I wish tha [sic] I had more time to writ [sic] to you.
I want you to writ [sic] to me evry [sic] chance you get. I love to get a letter from you if you cood [sic] get anything by me. Wish you had it. I wood [sic] wish you something [sic] good evry [sic] day.
I must clos [sic] for the present. I still remain your most affection [sic] wife.
from M E Lacy to A J Lacy [sic]
24, "The Yankees comes to our country every onste [sic] and a while [sic] and takes Negros [sic] and horses. Where ever [sic] they go [they] burn mills and some citizens [sic] houses …." Lieutenant A. J. Lacy's letter from his father in Jackson County
State of Tennessee Jackson County May the 24th 1863
Very dear and affectionate son,
I am again this Sabath [sic] morning permited [sic] through the mearces [sic] of a cind [sic] providence to take my pen in hand to wright [sic] to you a fiew [sic] lines to let you know that we are well except for your Mother. She is not in as good health as she was before warm weather commenced but she is able to go about. But we hope when these fiew [sic] lines comes to your hand they will find you in good health.
We have noting strang [sic] or interesting to wright [sic] but we have wrote [sic] several letters since you rote [sic] of getting [sic] a letter and this time I was at a log roling [sic] yesterday and heard of this Mr [sic] Williams going to start to day, to your Redgment [sic] and as he is going to start today and I have to meete [sic] him out on the Sparty [sic] Road with this letter.
The Yankees comes to our country every onste [sic] and a while [sic] and takes Negros [sic] and horses. Where ever they go [they] burn mills and some citizens [sic] houses but they have not got to Gainsborough yet but I was at Gainesboro [sic] a while back and the Yankies [sic] was at the river opposite to town while I was thare [sic]. Tha [sic] was thought to be about 150 cavrely [sic] but they soon left and I was a feard [sic] that they would come to our settlement and I have sold our oxen and young horse. I got 200 dollars for the steers and 232 dollars for ben [sic] as I am a bliege [sic] to close.
Wright [sic] every chance you have. So fairwell [sic] for the present.
Wm &: Kezia Lacy to A. J. Lacy
24, "I dont [sic] want to leave the service of my country until the Stars and Stripes float from one end of our country to the other and until every Rebel knee shall bend not only to the King of Kings, but to the Flag of Flags also." Frank M. Guernsey's letter to Fannie
May 24th, 1863
My Dear Fannie:
~ ~ ~
Since writing you before we have had quite a lively time. It was reported that the Rebs [sic] sixteen thousand strong were marching on this city which is garrisoned with about one half that number, but we were fully apprised of their movements so that they thought the best thing they could do was to keep clear of us. I thought we were going to have a fight one morning sure the long roll beat about three o'clock and within ten minutes the Regiment was in line of battle and eager for the fight you can judge of the disciplin [sic] and efficiency of our Regiment, when they can be called out from a sound sleep to a line of battle in that length of time. There is a report that our Regt. [sic] is going to be mounted and take the field again, if such be the case we shall see plenty of fighting and have enough to do. I like the idea first rate. It will be much easier for men to ride than to march and carry their heavy loads. We have just heard of our success at Vicksburg and are feeling first rate over it. God grant that this war may be closed within the current year and closed honorably. I dont [sic] want to leave the service of my country until the Stars and Stripes float from one end of our country to the other and until every Rebel knee shall bend not only to the King of Kings, but to the Flag of Flags also.
We have lately made quite an addition to our choir in the shape of a very nice melodion [sic], the Chaplain went through the Regiment and solicited a contribution and the result was very satisfactory. We sent to Chicago and purchased a very nice instrument for a little over sixty dollars, so that now we have good music as well as good sermons. Before this the ballance [sic] was decidedly in favor of the sermons, and now the service is about equal.
Glen was just in my tent and said "give my respects to Fannie". He has taken a great liking for you, which I think, shows decidedly, a very good taste in him. I have been in the same fix for some time [sic], only in a greater degree. Fannie I think my chances for a furlough at present are extremely poor. The Adjutent [sic] has been taken sick and in all probability will go home, so that I will have not only my duties to perform but his also, and I had rather be shot dead than have it said I shirked duty, no I can wait until I can leave honorabl [sic] without leaving a duty neglected. I should like very much to spend a couple of weeks with you, but Fannie I believe you had rather I should do my whole duty to my country than come home, but it is very late and I must close, so good night and pleasant dreams, and accept much love from your – Frank
24, Parson Brownlow's address to the troops in Nashville
….Severl [sic] from our Company went to hear parson B rownlow preach in the Post Chappaln [sic] at half past ten AM we went about an houre [sic] before time so as to make sure of a seat the house soon filled to overflowing both gallery and church room was crowded so that a large number of people was oblidged [sic] to remain out side that could not be admited [sic] we wated [sic] with thre greatest of patinas [sic] for Brownlow, he did not appeal until 11 o'clock he got up and said the reason why he did not come sooner was that he had just arose from his bead [sic] he was sick and ought to be in bead [sic] now instead a [sic] being up before a [sic] audience that attemping [sic] to preach and that he would not a [sic] come today. Only he was aware that a great many had come to hear him. And would be very much disapointed [sic] if he did not come he said he would not attempt to preach from a text nor would he attempt to preach a sermon attal [sic] but Simply talk to us a little in regard to the present condiation [sic] of our country he comenced [sic] his discorse [sic] by giving us a sketch of his life for the past 30 years of his life and the corse [sic] he took previous to the time the Southern States seceeded [sic] he said he was opposed to Lincoln['s] election and did not sustain him but since times turned out as they did he was prowd [sic] that Lincoln was elected he was the man ordained for these time and all the falt [sic] he had to Abraham Lincoln was that he was two [sic] tender hearted & allowed two [sic] much mercy he said we needed a man like old Jackson had he been living when this war brock [sic] ad he said he would a [sic] straightened himself up about 7 feet in his boots and told them they had to stop and if they did not they would feel his revenge for he would show no mercy to treators [sic] these he said would a [sic] been the words of Old Jackson and stop them he would yes he would a [sic] nipped them in the bud but then he said we had no President for 4 years before Lincoln was elected the South dun [sic] as they pleased during that time and the honest republicans [sic] let them go a head [sic] expecting to fight them at the ballet [sic] box which they did and whipped [sic] the South and for no other cause under the heavens [sic] a few of the Leeding [sic] officers [sic] Seekers of the South brought on this infernal war all the brave and loyal blood that has been spilled rest upon there [sic] heads. These men must pull hemp witheout [sic] a fast halt [?] that with the addeation [sic] of [the] burning regens [sic] of hell, will be all there [sic] punishment and that will be no punishement attal [sic] compaired [sic] to there crimes he then told how he was treated when in prison and went on to proove [sic] from what he knew to be truth that the rebel preachers were the wickedest men in the South for they were hiared [sic] by the Leeders [sic] of this infernely [sic] rebelion [sic] to betray the people and leed them astray he spoke for about 2 hours we were very much intrested [sic] in his speech [sic] there was quite a number of Chaplans [sic] present.
John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.
24 (?), Confederate patrol to arrest deserters and gather conscripts along the state line
HDQRS. FIRST DIVISION, FORREST'S CAVALRY, [May 24 [?], 1864.]
Capt. W. H. FORREST, Cmdg. Company, Crews' Battalion:
CAPT.: The brigadier-general commanding directs that after having accomplished the objects of paragraph IX, Special Orders, No. 60, and destroyed the railroad bridges, &c., between Moscow and Memphis, you fall back with your command along the State line and move southeard, arresting and turning over to the proper officers all deserters and conscripts and all persons guilty of unlawful practices with the enemy or of acts of robbery and violence. Especial attention will be given to arresting the robbers and thieves with which the border is infested, and in bringing them to justice. Under no circumstances will they be permitted to escape. You will keep couriers at Senatobia to receive and take you any orders that may be sent, and you will forward any information which you may obtain of the movements of the enemy to these headquarters by telegraph. You will seize all cotton going toward the enemy's lines without proper authority, and will turn it over, with the wagons and teams, to the proper officers, to be disposed of according to law.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. A. GOODMAN, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 620.
24, Skirmish near Nashville
No circumstantial reports filed.
24, Skirmish in Winchester, guerrillas rob U. S. Army paymaster [see September 14, 1863, "Confederate raiding party robs Winchester" above]
Report of Col. Henry K. McConnell, Seventy-five Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry.
HDQRS. RAILROAD DEFENSES, Tullahoma, Tenn., June 2, 1864.
Maj. B. H. POLK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Nashville:
SIR: I send herewith a copy of a report from Col. McConnell. I have had no opportunity to control this lawlessness for want of sufficient cavalry force. I shall be ready in a few days. The same men are concerned in all of the depredations on the railroad. I have learned the names of some of them and several of the persons who keep up and harbor the outlaws.
E. A. PAINE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 18.
HDQRS. SEVENTY-THIRD Regt. [sic] OHIO VET. VOL. INFTY., Elk River Bridge, May 30, 1864.
I have the honor to respectfully state that on last Tuesday night [the 24th] the guerrillas robbed Winchester of about $10,000. They knew men and houses and events only as citizen guerrillas can. No one came to notify me of the raid. I heard incidentally that the citizens were industriously circulating the report that our troops had robbed the town. I sent Capt. McConnell to inquire into the matter. They gave but partial information. The squad was small; only six or eight. They have been lurking in the neighborhood ever since. They fired into the train on Saturday night [28th] between this and Decherd, and yesterday they stole a horse near Winchester. We are very much embarrassed for want of a telegraph office here.
H. K. McCONNELL, Col. Seventy-first Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, pp. 18-19.
24, A Federal officer fires at Military Governor Andrew Johnson
A Dangerous Character. – The city was in a flurry yesterday [24th] evening, in consequence of a report circulating to the effect that a Federal officer has shot and wounded Governor Johnson. It appears that Lieut. Augustus A. Brown, company A, 71st Ohio volunteers had been off duty long enough to get so tight that no barkeeper would sell him any more whisky. This riled Brown some, and going through High street, he drew his revolver upon two officers, whom Brown declared were too drunk to walk straight. After disposing of this affair, he turned up Cedar street toward the Capitol, and seeing one of the Governor's servants in the yard, he went in and endeavored to persuade him to procure him some whisky. The Governor seeing them talking together, came out and ordered the officer off, at the same time depressing his contempt for an officer who did thus disgrace himself. Brown there upon drew his revolver and fired, the ball placing through the Governor's coat. In the twinkling of and eye the Governor was near enough to the Lieutenant to strike him a stunning blow and wrest the pistol from his hand, after which the officer was sent over to the Provost Marshal, who ordered him to prison.
Nashville Dispatch, May 25, 1864.
A Drunken Officer Attacks Gov. Johnson. – Just before dark last evening a most disgraceful affair occurred on one of the principal thoroughfares of the city. A drunken officer, named Augustus A. Brown, Lieutenant of the 71st Ohio volunteer infantry, after insulting several gentlemen on Cedar street, in the neighborhood of the capitol, stopped at the private residence of Governor Johnson, and demanded some whisky from a negro [sic] who was standing at the gate. The negro [sic] told him that he had nothing of the kind, when the Lieutenant, in an enraged condition drew a pistol and threatened to shoot him. The negro [sic] fled to the house, closely followed by the officer. Gov. Johnson, hearing the disturbance, came out of the house and endeavored to appease the wrath of the Lieutenant, when he cocked his pistol and fired at the governor, the ball grazing the Governor's side and passing through his coat. At this state of the affair the Governor concluded that pacification was entirely out of order, and throwing aside his dignatorial [sic] robes, he advanced upon the Lieutenant, and as he should have done, knocked him down and pounded him severely. The Lieutenant was immediately afterwards arrested by Sergeant W. H. Colreth, company E 16th Michigan, and lodged in jail.
Memphis Bulletin, May 31, 1864.
24, Johnson the Canadian vs. Rochester Bardwell; bare-knuckle boxing in Nashville
"Great Battle in Germantown."
Considerable maneuvering and chaffering has been going on in the neighborhood of the mule pens, between the friends of J. W. Johnson, the Canadian bruiser, on the one part, and those of Lewis P. Bardwell, of Rochester, New York, on the other, concerning the respective merits of their champions. To settle the dispute amicably, we are informed that a fight was agreed upon, to take place on Tuesday, the 24th inst., in the northern part of Germantown, when and where those in the secret assembled to witness the sport, of which a looker-on gives the following account:
Round 1. Johnson squared off for the first blow, but Bardwell dodged him, and put in a well-directed left hander [sic].
2. Bardwell came up in fine style, and gave his opponent some heavy blows, but struck too high.
3. Johnson tapped Bardwell's claret, which flowed freely from his sneezing apparatus.
4. Bardwell got the advantage, and kept it to the finish, notwithstanding Johnson showed himself game, and made a good fight. In the tenth round the seconds separated them, they having clinched, and the eleventh was so severe that both parties were thoroughly blown. In the 12th and 13th rounds Johnson put in some heavy licks, but in the 14th Johnson showed evident signs of weakness, Bardwell keeping cool, and getting in a few smart blows, two or three of which Johnson returned.
In the fifteenth round Johnson came up to the scratch in good style, though very tired, and put in several well directed blows, one of which peeled Bardwell's nozzle; but it was plain that the fight was up, Bardwell being quite fresh still; and length B. got the opportunity, and throwing out a stunning blow from the shoulder, knocked Johnson out of time.
Chicago Jack seconded the Canadian, and Bridgeport Jerry did the honors for Bardwell.
Nashville Dispatch, May 26, 1864.
24, A Request to South Carolinians to Assist Tennessee's Confederate Soldiers
AN APPEAL FOR TENNESSEE SOLDIERS.
Editors Carolinian: The citizens of this beautiful place and of its vicinity are proverbial, throughout or sunny land, for their generous hospitality to the soldier. The success of their "way side home" and "relief associations" attests how constantly and earnestly the mother, wife, daughter, sister and sweetheart have toiled to lighten the burden of the willing but often sorely tried men who are confronting the advancing hosts of Grant in the east and Sherman in the West.
I well know that the generous spirit of these "ministering angels" yet burns as brightly as ever, but I am almost induced to pause before asking aid for the soldiers of another State, for there is a limit to even the best impulses. Yet, it may be, there are many among your wealthy and chivalrous sons and daughters who think that the gallant men of the glorious "Volunteer State" have some claim upon South Carolinians.
Look at Tennessee but for a moment, and read the bright page which the future historians will record in her behalf. She entered into this contest deliberately. She used every honorable means to aver it, well knowing that, from her geographic position, her citizens must suffer all the horrors of a border war. Yet, when the guns flashed from around Fort Sumter, she sprang into the warrior's ring; and her sons have nobly done their duty on every battle field of the West. Her muster roll is next to that of Virginia, being upwards of 118,000 men before Forrest went into West Tennessee, in March last. To her credit, too, be it said, her soldiers are all volunteers; for, unfortunately, her soil has been held by the enemy ever since the Conscript Act was passed, and hence that law could not be enforced within her limits. The two most sanguinary battles of the war yet fought – Shiloh and Murfreesboro – were fought on her soil; the deaths and casualties in each, among both Confederates and Federals, largely exceeding those of any other field, considering the numbers engaged; and in each her brave troops were the principal because [they were] the most numerous actors. At Chickamauga, they again fought in sight of their mountains and beautiful river and with that success that always marks their onset. At Dalton, they again stand ready to meet the foe and avert from Georgia and South Carolina the sad fate which chains their own loved homes to slavery. Can South Carolinians imagine what would be the fate of Columbia if Johnson's [sic] army were defeated? Most of that army is composed of Tennesseans, and many of them have not seen home for two years. Step by step they have seen their State given up to the foe till we can claim none of it as ours. All, all – property, homes, and yet worse still, wives and children and aged parents are under the rude, barbarous grasp of the greedy and vindictive Yankees.
Am I wrong, Mr. Editor, in asking South Carolina's sons and daughters to remember the exiled soldiers of Tennessee? Here you have known nothing of plunder, spoils, rapine and devastation. You have known nothing of actual invasion. Your people do not (may they never) know what it is to flee their quiet homes; at night the flames of their burning dwellings often lighting up the "old familiar paths," yet leaving them wanderers, without means and almost without hope. Tennesseans had drank of this cup to the bitter dregs, and yet their sons, brothers, fathers are in your front, side by side with the brave men of your own State impatiently waiting the hour when, in saving Georgia and Carolina, they may also move forward to the redemption of their own loved homes. From these homes, now, they seldom hear, save by the enemy's papers or by stealth. Tokens of kind remembrances from mother, wife or sister seldom reach them. How can they do so? Thus cut off for long weary months from all those at home who could or would aid them, am I presumptuous, Mr. Editor, in asking if South Carolina will not remember the Tennessee soldier in this hour? Georgia is nobly doing her part in this matter. Will South Carolina fail to give of her abundance?
The soldiers of Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama and Mississippi are all in front of their friends as well as their foes. Tennessee soldiers, unfortunately, find the enemy between them, and their homes and their situation is peculiar. Will this appeal in their behalf be in vain?
May 16, 1864
The Daily South Carolinian (Columbus SC) May 24, 1864
24-26, Anti-guerrilla scout, Shelbyville to Richmond to Lynchburg to Flat Creek
HDQRS. U. S. FORCES,
Murfreesborough, Tenn., May 27, 1864.
Maj. B. H. POLK,
Assistant Adjutant-Gen., District of Nashville:
MAJ.: I respectfully inclose reports of Maj. Stephenson, Thirty-first Wisconsin, and of Capt. Hill, provost-marshal, respecting guerrilla parties, for the consideration of the general commanding the district. That there are rebel parties growling about the country is very evident, from the fact that Shelbyville was plundered by them a short time since, and my scouting parties have come in contact with them several times. With regard to their numbers, I cannot speak. They may be exaggerated. I think they are. I have ordered the prisoner Rousseau, who, by the by, claims kinship to our general, to be sent immediately to Nashville.
H. P. VAN CLEVE, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Post.
[Inclosure No. 1.]
HDQRS. U. S. FORCES,
Duck River Bridge, Tenn., May 22, 1864.
Capt. E. A. OTIS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
CAPT.: I have the honor to report to you that I have ascertained from a Federal scout named Young that the guerrilla band or organization of bushwhackers that has infested this part of Tennessee for some weeks past now rendezvous near the head of Mulberry Creek, about fifteen miles nearly south from Shelbyville, and is composed of the following commands: Capt. Davis, seventy men; Blackwell, seventy men; Blackwell now ranks as major; Roddy, sixty men; Roddy now ranks as colonel or lieutenant-colonel; Cruzer, forty men; ----, forty men--this name is forgotten--making in all 280 men. Cruzer seems to be operating along the line of Lincoln and Marshall Counties. The squad from Short Mountain, under Maj. Hughs, was at Fairfield on the 20th instant. Lieut. Thomas Beattie and twenty men returned yesterday from a scout, on which he visited Shelbyville and Richmond; from Richmond he proceeded to within five miles of Lynchburg, thence to the headwaters of Flat Creek, thence down said creek to Flat Creek store. Davis and Blackwell have been scouring that country almost constantly for the last three weeks. He learned that their headquarters was on Mulberry Creek, near Mulberry village. The greatest number of men of Blackwell's command seen together at one time in that neighborhood was thirty-six. I learn that Gen. Paine will send an expedition through that country, if deemed necessary, whenever you are ready.
I have the honor to be, captain, your most obedient servant,
R. B. STEPHENSON, Maj. Thirty-first Wisconsin Volunteers.
[Inclosure No. 2.]
Murfreesborough, Tenn., May 27, 1864.
Capt. E. A. OTIS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
CAPT.: I have the honor to report that a rebel prisoner has just been brought in named Hillier L. Rousseau, a private of Col. Mead's regiment of Partisan Rangers, attached to Gen. Roddey's command, who was captured on yesterday about twelve miles northeast of this place. He says that Capt. Hays, with thirty-five men, of whom he was one, left their regiment last week in Franklin County, for the purpose of coming to this country to ascertain the strength of the Union force at this post; that the company was to start back on yesterday; that fifteen or twenty recruits from Coffee County were expected to return with the company. He says that the regiment has been in Tennessee several weeks, and numbers nearly 500 well-mounted men, many of whom have enlisted since the regiment entered the State. The regiment is to remain in Franklin and Jackson Counties until this and other scouting expeditions return. He says that Col. Mead makes his headquarters at Jackson, at which point his command is ordered to reunite in the event of their being scattered by any means.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
H. R. HILL, Capt. and Provost-Marshal.
OR Ser. I, Vol.39, pt. II, pp. 52-53.
25, Initiation of anti-guerrilla scouts in Knox, Anderson, Campbell, Montgomery, White, Overton, and Fentress counties, and between Little River and Tennessee River
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, Tenn., May 25, 1865
Maj. Gen. GEORGE STONEMAN, Cmdg. District of East Tennessee, Knoxville:
GEN.: The major-general commanding directs that you send a force of cavalry of the region disturbed by guerrillas, starting from Knoxville and scouring the counties of Knox, Anderson, Campbell, and Montgomery to Morgan, where it will meet a force sent by Maj.-Gen. Rousseau through the counties of White, Overton, Fentress, and Montgomery. Maj.-Gen. Rousseau will confer with you as to the time of starting so that the commands will meet at Morgan. After having met the command of Maj.-Gen. Rousseau your command will return south, and pass through the counties of Roane, Rhea, and Hamilton crossing the Tennessee River somewhere in the neighborhood of Dallas, and returning to Knoxville. You will at the same time send a command to scour the country between Little River and the Holston. The object of this expedition is to destroy the guerrillas and restore quiet to the country.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 905.
25, Anti-guerrilla expedition to White, Overton, Fentress and Montgomery and Morgan counties
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, May 25, 1865
Maj. Gen. L. H. ROUSSEAU, Cmdg. District of Middle Tennessee:
GEN.: The major-general commanding the department directs that you send the Fourth Tennessee (mounted) Infantry, Col. Blackburn commanding, through White, Overton, Fentress, and Montgomery Counties to Morgan for the purpose of restoring quiet to that region, now so much infested by guerrillas. Orders will be sent Gen. Stoneman, commanding in East Tennessee, to send a force to the same region by another route, and the major-general commanding desire that you will confer with him as to the time of starting, that the two commands may meet at Morgan. After having met Gen. Stoneman's command your force will return to Alexandria and report.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. D. WHIPPLE, Brig.-Gen., and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 904.
25, Report on fortifications at Johnsonville, Fort Donelson, Clarksville and Memphis
OFFICE OF INSPECTOR-GEN. OF FORTIFICATIONS, MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Nashville, Tenn., May 25, 1865.
Maj. Gen. GEORGE H. THOMAS, Cmdg. Mil. Div. of the Miss. West of Allegheny [sic] Mountains:
I have the honor to submit the following report of my inspection of the defenses at Johnsonville, Fort Donelson, Clarksville, and Memphis, with accompanying drawings:
I inspected this position February 24, 1865, with a view to constructing further defenses on both sides of the river. The garrison of this post previous to Hood's invasion built a redoubt for six guns on the spur of the hill overlooking the depot, and when the place was threatened in November, 1864, two advanced batteries and rifle-pits were thrown up to defend the post. The attack by Forrest's troops came from the opposite or western side of the river. As there were no redoubts on that bank the enemy planted his batteries so as to completely control the river at the landing and the landing itself, which was flat and entirely exposed to their guns. The position was not yielded, though the boats and warehouses were destroyed. Instructions were given after my examination to erect a fort opposite the landing at Johnsonville and an additional one on the hill of the east bank. The rapid march of events since and the determination to abandon this position as a depot have rendered additional forts unnecessary. The bridges on the Northeastern Railroad between Nashville and Johnsonville were defended by block-houses until Hood's invasion, which compelled the abandonment of this line. Of course these defenses and the bridges themselves were destroyed by the enemy. The reconstruction of these block-houses was commenced to protect the bridges against guerrilla gangs, but in consequence of the breaking up of the rebellion all labor on these defenses has been suspended.
I inspected this position February 26, 1865, in company with the commanding general. The fort is large and irregular, conforming to the ground. The gorge is flanked. Most of the line is broken into salient and re-entering angles. It has a good command, though in some parts the hill slopes are too steep to be swept by canister. The ditches were well excavated, so as to give steep scarps not readily scaled. Seven barbette guns constituted the armament at the date of my inspection. Twenty guns could readily be mounted in Fort Donelson, and the interior space is large enough for a regiment; besides, it is connected with the river by two lines of rifle-pits inclosing the buildings belonging to the post. The fort had a good magazine well covered; directions were given to the commanding officer to repair the slight damages which had occurred to the breast-height wattling and to keep the work in good order with his command. The garrison of Fort Donelson controlled to some extent the country about and especially the narrow strip toward the Tennessee and had a favorable influence upon the navigation of the Cumberland. The fort is unnecessarily large, simply to hold the position, but for a garrison large enough to extend its influence to patrol in all directions its magnitude is not inappropriate.
When the commanding general stopped at Clarksville sufficient time was not allowed to examine the fort. I could only see it is passing and from the town. The work was laid out and partly finished by the rebels before the position was occupied by the U. S. forces. Immediately after its occupation our troops finished the construction as laid out. The fort is large and partially flanked and has a sufficient magazine, which has required some repairs to prevent leakage. Its site is upon the hill which overlooks the city at long range. As Clarksville could not be an important depot, it required no defenses further than this simple fort to control the city and vicinity. Shoals in the river below Clarksville prevented transportation to Nashville during the summer by that route, and for two-thirds of the year the Cumberland is navigable to Nashville. All labor of a defensive nature has ceased on the railroad from Clarksville to Nashville and the trains have been removed by the chief quartermaster of the department.
I inspected Fort Pickering, at Memphis, March 26, 1865, in company with the commanding general. These fortifications have been much criticized. At the time Fort Pickering was commenced it was desirable to build speedily a fort to cover not Memphis, but rather a depot, yet with power to control the city and drive out an enemy should he venture within its limits. The city might have been surrounded on a contour line of six miles, as the opposite bank of the river is low, and no danger was apprehended in that direction. Such a line would have required twelve redoubts half a mile apart and six miles of infantry intrenchment. Two interior forts as keeps to the position, to drive back the enemy, should he succeed in breaking the line at any point, would have been requisite for the most approved defense. These redoubts would have developed a line of artillery parapet at least one mile and a half long. It may well be doubted if such a line, though vigorously commenced, would have been finished during the war. Fort Pickering, with its keep, has a crest of about two miles and a half length. If we except Washington, upon which immense labor has been expended, no city has been thoroughly defended with redoubts and infantry lines upon a development of six miles, as indicated above. Nashville as a depot, second to none other in the United States exposed to attack, has stood through the war but partially fortified, though the fate of the great Western armies, with their immense territorial conquests, were dependent upon it as a base of supplies. The continuous lines around Knoxville and Chattanooga, secondary depots, though important military positions, have been but recently finished. The most complete fortifications, perhaps, in Tennessee, that near Murfreesborough, employed the Army of the Cumberland six months, though its development with its interior constructions is less than three miles. Memphis was fortunate to secure so speedily the defense of Fort Pickering, and I do not doubt that its existence has prevented any serious demonstration against the place. It does not seem, however, to have been used by the quartermaster and commissary departments, as originally intended, though a rail track has been constructed from the river below through the fort to unite with the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. Fort Pickering was built mostly beyond the occupied portion of Memphis, on the plateau south of the city, with interior space supposed sufficient for ordnance, commissary, and quartermaster store-houses. It is one mile and a half long and quite narrow; the interior being a plateau with but slight depressions, is not so favorable for sites of store-houses as irregular ground with ravines would have been. Such store-houses, had they been erected, might have been covered by traverses. Gen. Gillmore inspected the works at Memphis in December, 1864, and recommended that five small redoubts should be constructed in advance of Fort Pickering to prevent an enemy from establishing mortar batteries in the near ravines to shell the fort. Without laying so much stress upon the mortar batteries, had Fort Pickering been made as intended the inclosed depot for Memphis, such advanced works would have been necessary to prevent an attacking force, favored by the irregular ground, from securing within easy range direct ricochet or vertical fire upon the inclosure with its store-houses, garrison, and employes; especially would it have been necessary to hold the position "A" from which Fort Pickering could have been enfiladed. Absolute security by means of fortifications can be attained only by excessive labor. Fort Pickering was probably quite as secure with its usual garrison as other positions of equal importance in Tennessee or elsewhere. This fort is mostly a broken line. Its ditches are therefore swept. It is fairly constructed, has a good command, so that the parapet gives excellent cover to the defenders; some traverses along the crest and some within the work would have been judicious, furnished excellent resting places for portions of the garrison not on duty. The ditches are from six to seven feet deep, and excavated on so steep a slope (which the tenacious soil permits) that it would be difficult to get over the parapet without ladders, and especially so under canister and musketry flank fire. The work therefore may be pronounced strong as an obstacle, which obstacle has been increased in portions of the contour line by inclined palisades placed in advance. It would be very difficult to assault Fort Pickering. Of course such scarps, from the effect of frosts and rain, will gradually crumble, but the garrison can and should remove the debris from the foot of the scarp. The interior work or keep is not in so finished a condition as the main work. There are some magazines near the parapet and under its cover. At the south end of the fort two ancient mounds are used as barbette batteries, which have a fine command over the country. Sea-coast guns on front or center pintles are placed in barbette in the salients of the work. It is questionable if they could be used thus exposed were the fort seriously attacked, unless the broken ground in front were held, as recommended, by advanced redoubts. Some field pieces at the re-enterings in embrasure defend the ditches and sweep the ground in front of the salients. Many of these sea-coast carriages are old, cracked, and quite defective. The armament must be pronounced bad. Rifled guns, both field and siege, with some Napoleons, would be more effective. I presume when Fort Pickering was constructed and armed the best armament was not available. It was doubtless necessary to use such guns as were on hand, including those taken from the enemy. In the north part of the fort toward the city is a large store-house used by the ordnance department. This building is covered from attack in the south by a stockade marked A on the plan. Between B and D the parapet has been dismantled. The new line, C, D, has been constructed to diminish the interior capacity of Fort Pickering, for the reason that the line was looked upon as too long to be secure with the usual garrison of Memphis. The parapet of this line has been recently constructed and several traverses commenced to cover its defenders, especially the gunners, against ricochet and even obliquely reverse fire. This portion was well advanced when inspected by me and was nearly ready for its armament. Strong stockades extend the north and south lines of Fort Pickering down the steep banks to the river. No barracks nor store-houses of any importance have been built within the fort. Some buildings standing near the ordnance depot before the fort was constructed are used by the garrison. Below Fort Pickering on the river's edge is a water battery armed with five 8-inch sea-coast howitzers--a feeble armament. The colonel commanding Fort Pickering designed and commenced a series of small works to surround the city. Some small enclosures with a connecting ditch or strong picket fence might have been a useful cover to the picket-line against surprise by cavalry; but it was too late to commence inclosing Memphis by a regular line of works and infantry entrenchments in the fourth year of the war. Though not familiar with the history of the defenses of Memphis, I have been informed that Gen. Halleck at the time of its occupation gave directions for the construction of a fort large enough to accommodate a garrison of 10,000 men. Gen. Webster and Capt. Jenney, serving as topographical officers, mostly superintended the construction, which was in great part executed by hired blacks. As Memphis will be one of the principal places in Tennessee to be occupied for the next year, perhaps for a series of years by a large garrison, and as it will doubtless be the headquarters of the District of West Tennessee, and perhaps of Northern Mississippi, as well as a depot, Fort Pickering will be retained and garrisoned. As the fort is very large, it will not be necessary to preserve the whole line. Too much labor would be required to keep it in repair. Probably the north part containing the ordnance store-house can be dismounted when the army is reduced. Preserving the fort south of the line C D, the interior space along the river-bank will be 6,000 feet long, much more than is needed unless the depot is wholly removed from the city and placed within the fort. As it will without doubt be necessary to pay rent for the ground occupied, and as light frame store-houses and carpenter and blacksmith shops can be cheaply built, more cheaply than rented within a city, it is probable that Fort Pickering will be occupied as the depot. The disposition to be made of any part of it therefore can only be decided after determining all the questions connected with the manner of occupying Memphis upon the peace establishment.
I inclose two tracings, one of Memphis with Fort Pickering and the redoubts proposed for inclosing the city; the other of the fort simply showing its armament. Sketches of Johnsonville, Clarksville, and Fort Donelson accompany this report. I have not thought it necessary to attempt to describe these forts in detail. They are nearly all of similar profile, and the drawings show their contour line. That at Johnsonville was hastily built by the garrison, and is inferior in finish and strength to most of the redoubts of the Department of the Cumberland.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Z. B. TOWER, Brig. Gen. and Insp. Gen. of Fortifications, Mil. Div. of the Miss.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 898-901.
25, Deadline for administration of loyalty oaths in Middle Tennessee
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, May 25, 1865
Maj.-Gen. MILROY, Tullahoma:
No more amnesty oaths will be administered to either soldiers or citizens, and all are repudiated and annulled which have been taken since the 15th day of December last.
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 905
25, Peace comes to the Cherry Creek community in White County; an excerpt from the journal of Amanda McDowell
There has so much taken place that I shall not try to write it all. But I guess peace is made. That is all I care much for. The soldiers have all come that are alive and able to get here. They say they are not whipped but "overpowered," but I wonder what is the difference. The guerillas [sic] all surrendered but "Old Champ" (and some say another one or two) and he went back and offered to give up but they refused to take him and told him to go back and wait for further orders....
Diary of Amanda McDowell.
25, Much of Dyersburg is burned [see May 26, 1865, Observations made by an ex-Confederate soldier from the Army of Tennessee while on his way home to his home in Dyersburgh environs below]
25, An End to Amnesty Oaths in the Department of the Cumberland
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, May 25, 1865
No more amnesty oaths will be administered to either soldiers or citizens, and all are repudiated and annulled which have been taken since the 15th day of December last.
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army, Cmdg.
OR, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 905.
25, "…Elkins drew up a double barreled gun and discharged two loads at me…." The Provost Marshal case of Benjamin Edens, assault and battery near Wartrace, Bedford County
I live near Wartrace Bedford Co Tenn on or about the 25th day of Nov 1864 I went to the house of Bill Elkins citizen of Wartrace to procure a Govt mule which I obtained to leave to procure and work throughout he winter from Lt in charge of the block house near Wartrace. I told Elkins that I had come for my mule as I had tracked him to his house he remarked he had no mule and his colored men without making nay remarked drew up a pistol and fired at me the ball taking effect in my head. I was then running and looking back. I saw four Negroes with Elkins at the head mounted on horses the party got within ten yards of me when Elkins drew up a double barreled gun and discharged two loads at me the loads were slugs one took effect in my left arm near the elbow and the other in the back of the head. I fell to the ground and remained perfectly still. The rote about me for a few minutes one of them remarked he's dead as hell. After the rode away I managed to get to my house some one hundred and fifty yards distant with the aid of my wife and boy. My arm has been amputated and is not thoroughly well yet. I am still suffering from the wounds in my head.
Fire & Blood, p. 193.
 The expedition originated in Memphis and all action took place in Misjsissippi
 There is some confusion regarding this authenticity of this event and this date. The OR General Index, Vol. I, p. 239 indicates that there was a skirmish at Davis' Mill Road on May 24, 1863 and that information is to be found in Ser. Vol. 24. However, this event is listed in the index of Vol. 24, pt. I pp. 811 and 832 as having occurred in March 24, 1863. In Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 472-473 is found the report of Lieutenant-Colonel Reuben L. Loomis, 6th Illinois Cavalry of a skirmish on the Davis' Mill Road on March 24, 1863 [see also above, March 24, 1863] Consequently it cannot be determined whether or not there was a skirmish, etc., for this date at Davis' Mill Road. [see also above, March 24, 1862, p. 472 of Vol. 24, pt. I.] Not listed in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
 Not listed in the OR.
 A fuller version of the text of "the rules of war" is found in OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 671-682. This brief treatment was obviously printed to justify the actions already taken by the Federal army in Tennessee.
 "Lieber" according to OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, p. 671.
 See Plate CXIV, maps 4,5, and 6, and Plate CXV, maps 1 and 2, of the Atlas.
 Not included in OR.
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