Wednesday, May 6, 2015

5.7.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes





          7, Tennessee General Assembly passes resolutions in favor of secession and admission of Tennessee into the Confederacy subject to popular vote on June 8, 1861

NASHVILLE, TENN., May 7, 1861.

Hon. ROBERT TOOMBS, Secretary of State, &c.:

SIR: I have the honor to inform you that the two ordinances to which I referred in my last dispatch--the one for secession and the other providing for the admission of Tennessee into our Confederacy-have passed the legislature by a large majority in both Houses. They are subject to ratification by the people, the vote to be taken on the 8th day of June next. That they will be ratified by an overwhelming majority of the people is not doubted by the best informed men here. The injunction of secrecy has not yet been removed, and the Governor, apprehending that an immediate publication of these important steps would precipitate an attack by the Northern troops upon the exposed frontier of Tennessee, desired that I should not communicate it, even by telegraph, until I could write, urging an immediate movement on the part of our Government in behalf of the State. Some 10,000 troops are stationed at Cairo, and Governor Harris thinks it of the first importance that a considerable body of troops should be ordered to Union City, in this State, well armed and prepared for prompt action. The want of arms is the great want; 50,000 troops can take the field in a few days if arms can be supplied, but as it is not probable so large a force will be needed, it is desired that 15,000 stand of small arms shall be forwarded. The spirit of the people is fully roused; so popular a war I never saw, nor do I recall any recorded in history that called out a more prompt and uncalculating spirit on the part of the people.

The Governor has appointed three commissioners on the part of Tennessee, Mr. Henry, Mr. Totten, and Mr. Barrow, who are authorized to conclude a convention with me similar to that concluded with Virginia. We are about to meet, and I must close this dispatch for that purpose. Of course you will have learned before you receive this that Arkansas has seceded with but one dissenting vote. Kentucky only wants arms to take the same step. Missouri is impatient for secession. I await your orders. I shall return home, bearing the convention agreed on with Tennessee, so soon as you direct me to do so. Please notify me by telegraph. I rejoice at the success which has so far attended my mission, and do not doubt its complete success.

I have, &c.,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 542, pt. II, p. 88.

          7, Confederate salute, in Montgomery, Alabama, to Tennessee's announcement of secession


In honor of the official announcement of the secession of the States of Arkansas and Tennessee, and their adherence to this Confederacy, a salute of ten guns for each will be immediately fired in front of the Government building.

By command of the Secretary of War:

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen.

OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 1, p. 292.

          7, Correspondence from Mrs. S.C. Law, President of the Society of Southern Mothers (Memphis) to Brigadier-General John L. T. Sneed, relative to support for sick and wounded Confederate soldiers [see also May 27, 1862, Activities of the Society of Southern Mothers, Memphis, below]:

The Society of Southern Mothers at this place are prepared to render any assistance needed by the soldiers of the South who may be sick or wounded in the service. They will nurse them at their own homes, or in rooms provided by themselves for that purpose, whenever they shall receive intimation through the proper officers for that purpose of the need of such care. Their organization contemplated the effectual care of the sick and wounded in actual service by the matrons of the land for whose defense they are in arms, and we ask of the officers in command to point out the way in which our object may be attained, and to place the sick in our charge.

OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 1, p. 298.

          7, Tennessee forms a military league with the Confederacy

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, May 7, 1861.


By virtue of the authority of your joint resolution, adopted on the 1st day of May instant, I appointed Gustavus A. Henry, of the county of Montgomery, Archibald O. W. Totten, of the county of Madison, and Washington Barrow, of the county of Davidson, "commissioners on the part of Tennessee, to enter into a military league with the authorities of the Confederate States and with the authorities of such other slave-holding States as may wish to enter into it, having in view the protection and defense of the entire South against the war that is now being carried on against it. "The said commissioners met the Hon. Henry W. Halyard, the accredited representative of the Confederate States, at Nashville, on this day, and have agreed upon and executed military league between the State of Tennessee and the Confederate States of America, subject, however, to the ratification of the two governments, one of the duplicate originals of which I herewith transmit for your ratification or rejection. For many cogent and obvious reasons, unnecessary to be rehearsed to you, I respectfully recommend the ratification of this league at the earliest practicable moment.

Very respectfully,




The State of Tennessee, looking to a speedy admission into the Confederate established by he Confederate States of America, in accordance with the Constitution of the Provisional Government of said States, enters into the following temporary convention, agreement and military league with the Confederate States, for the purpose of meeting pressing exigencies affecting the common rights, interests, and safety of said State and said Confederacy:

First. Until the said State shall become a member of said Confederacy according to the constitution of both powers, the whole military force and military operations, offensive and defensive, of said State, in the impending conflict with the United States, shall be under the chief control and direction of the President of the Confederate States, upon the same basis, principles, and footing as if said State were now and during the interval a member of said Confederacy, said force, together with that of the Confederate States, to be employed for the common defense.

Second. The State of Tennessee will, upon becoming a member of said Confederacy under the permanent Constitution of said Confederate States, if the same shall occur, turn over to said Confederate States all the public property acquired from the United States, on the same terms and in the same manner as the other States of said Confederacy have done in like cases.

Third. Whatever expenditures of money, if any the said State of Tennessee shall make before she becomes a member of said Confederacy, shall be met and provided for by the Confederate States.

This convention entered into and agreed [upon] in the city of Nashville, Tenn., on the 7th day of May, A. D. 1861, by Henry W. Halyard, the duly authorized commissioner to act in the matter of the Confederate States, and Gustavus A. Henry, Archibald O. W. Totten, and Washington Barrow, commissioners duly authorized to act in like manner for the State of Tennessee-the whole subject to the approval and ratification of the proper authorities of both governments, respectively.

In testimony whereof the parties aforesaid have herewith set their hands and seals the day and year aforesaid, in duplicate originals.


Commissioner for the Confederate States of America.




Commissioners on the part of Tennessee.

JOINT RESOLUTION ratifying the league.

Whereas, a military league, offensive and defensive, was formed on 7th of May, 1861, by and between A. O. W. Totten, Gustavus A. Henry, and Washington Barrow, commissioners on the part of the State of Tennessee, and H. W. Halyard, commissioner on the part of the Confederate States of America, subject to the confirmation of the two governments:

Be it therefore resolved by the Gen. Assembly of the State of Tennessee, That said league be in all respects ratified and confirmed, and the said Gen. Assembly pledges the faith and honor of the State of Tennessee to the faithful observance of the terms and conditions of said league.

Adopted May 7, 1861.

W. C. WHITTHORNE, Speaker of the House of Representatives.

B. L. STOVALL, Speaker of the Senate.

OR, Ser. IV, Vol. I, pp. 296-298.[1]

          7, Innocence, rhetoric and a flag presentation in Stewart County

Dover, May 7th, 1861

Mr. Editor: The people in Old Stewart are all right -- They are not only a unit upon the question of severing their connection with the Lincoln Government and uniting their destiny with the Southern Confederacy immediately, but are also a unit in defending to the last drop of blood and the last breath the rights and institutions of the South.

We have two large Companies already made up in this County, one that is ready and anxious to march to any point where they may be needed, and the other for home protection. Yesterday, according to previous notice, the ladies of Dover, through Miss Mary E. James, presented Capt. Graham's Company of Infantry, numbering over one hundred, with a beautiful and gorgeous flag, bearing the inscription on one side, "OUR RIGHTS," and on the other, "VICTORY." Miss James Addressed the Company as follows:

SOLDIERS OF THE STEWART COUNTY GUARD: -- It is with sentiments and emotions of the profoundest pleasure I perform the part so generously assigned me this day, by the ladies of Dover. When I behold your martial bearing and the determined valor that sits upon each dauntless face in your ranks, my heart swells with pride, that I am a native of the same County with yourselves, that the first air my infant lungs drank in, was amidst the hills of freedom and valley of plenty of Old Stewart. It is needless to add that all eyes are turned with proud confidence to the Military, that great bulwark of protection in time of war.

The public mind is now intensely agitated, and the great Southern heart is throbbing with indignation at the unjust and tyrannical policy which the Northern Administration is endeavoring to impose upon the South. Every breeze which floats over our hill troops or along our valley, brings intelligence of some new aggression, some fresh outrage upon the great character of American Liberty, and, by a petty usurper and despot, who has brought everlasting shame and disgrace upon the Executive Seat once occupied by Washington, the Father of his Country.

And fired by these unhallowed encroachments upon your rights as freemen -- you have gallantly quit your shops, the fields, and counting-houses -- you have thrown aside the implements of your peaceful pursuits and with soldiers hands, served with patriotism, grasped the sword, and are now ready and eager to march at the tap of the drum to rush to the field of strife, and meet in sanguinary conflict the tyrants who would dare trample upon the rights of Southern freemen.

Influenced by this patriotic sentiment, the ladies of Dover -- your wives, your mothers, your sisters and you daughters -- through me, offer for your acceptance this flag, which I now unfurl to the breeze. May it wave proudly over many a victorious field, and the gallannt [sic] hearts that marshal under its folds soon return to the fond embrace of their friends covered all over with victory and glory. Heaven forbid that this flag should ever fall into the hands of the enemy, or be trailed in the dust. And should it be your fortune to meet your foemen in battle's strife -- then when your manly cheeks blanch and your hearts palpitate amidst the din and roar of battle turn your eyes to that flag, and think of those who formed it, and presented it, and let this nerve your arm for the conflict, and be a prestige of victory on every battle field.

Heaven is on your side, Justice is with you, and woman's hearts and woman's prayers will accompany you. Go then, my gallant friends, and fear not to defend that land which in repose is a Lamb, but when roused a Lion.


"Which seeks not the combat, nor shuns its career,

'Tis respect for her laws she exacts from her foes,

And honor it they shall, tho [sic]! they do it with fear."


Capt. Graham then replied in his usual happy style in a most eloquent and appropriate address. Stating that he and his brave boys had not volunteered for six nor twelve months, but in the language of Gov. Carroll, when starting for New Orleans in 1812, they had entered during the war. That their watch word in battle should be the wives, the mothers, the sisters, and the daughters of Dover, that the ladies who presented that flag might rest assured it would never be dishonors, but would be defended with the last breath of the last man in their ranks. Capt. Graham and his Company were cheered three times by the immense crowd in deafening and enthusiastic cheers.

Maj. N. Brandon land Gen. W. WE. Lowe, have both commenced to form Companies in this County, which, I have no doubt will soon be completed.

Capt. Graham has already tendered his Company to the Governor the State.


Clarksville Chronicle, May 10, 1861.

          7, Pulaski's Martha Abernathy's remarks about the beginning of hostilities in the Civil War

What startling events have transpired since I last wrote in this book. The American feels himself scrutinized by the world [sic]. The North under cover of [the] Constitution & Flag [sic] implore Divine aid in crushing the South who is only defending [sic] right & honor. Weigh the motives of the two sections & reason (unaided by Christian convictions,) certainly sustains the South in this revolution [sic]. For revolution we must call it [sic], as secession but faintly [sic] conveys our idea [sic]. We do not claim to have left – our Union [sic], but we do [sic] claim to have the right to maintain it. Let the North waive [sic] her Stars & Stripes & call it union, so we must do [sic]. For why should we give up the Union & the Constitution. I tell you [sic] my children, (for whose eyes I write this) the North gave up the Constitution long before we did. They did it in changing the meaning of its pure precepts [sic] to suit their higher law policy [sic], hoping (they say) to liberate the slave [sic]. Aye, he might be liberated in name [sic], but would he be indeed? [sic] I leave the record of their past [sic] to tell you. I say again. Long waive [sic] the Stars & Stripes, perhaps fewer in number, but not necessarily less loyal to right & honor to religion [sic] & not necessarily less loyal to right & honor to religion & patriotism [sic]. Let us then place our trust in God, God who rules worlds [sic] as well as makes them. He who gave us being will dispose of us as suits best his end [sic]. And in praying for deliverance from this dread calamity war, let not our appeal be prompted by ambition, neither by a false pride of country, but by an earnest desire to further on the cause of Christ [sic], that the work which we have begun so gloriously for Christianity [sic] may not be crippled by our downfall [sic]. O, although all seems dark I must think God's smile is behind the cloud & that we may erect out of the ruins [sic] of this once great nation, two governments, which in time to come may negotiate together [sic], & hardly realize that this hatred ever existed. God grant that it may be so [sic]. May his justice be stayed by the hand of mercy & may we yet rejoice where we now [sic] mourn –

Elizabeth Paisley Dargan, ed., The Civil War Diary of Martha Abernathy[2]

          7, Percussion Caps

Nashville, May 7, 1861

To Hon. W. P. Chilton, Montgomery

Mr. Irby Morgan, who is just starting to Louisville, Ky., on public business [sic], requested me to enclose to you these caps as the first make of Nashville. They are making millions now of the same sort. Mr. M. Bought the copper in Orleans, and other fixings, and says please attend to his request per his express to you from Orleans.

Respectfully yours,

C. D. Sanders.

How It Was, p.167.[3]

          7, Panhandling nuisance in Memphis

Street Begging.—A system that has long been a curse to northern cities has lately been inaugurated here—we mean the practice of sending little girls out into the streets to beg. As soon as one of these young swindlers—for that is what they are in reality—sees two or three gentlemen conversing together in the streets, she thrusts herself in among them and by pertinacious importunity she interrupts them until she is paid to go away. Rarely, if ever, we have good reason to believe, are these girls—or rather those who compel them to pursue their vicious occupation—really objects of charity. The poor child who is sent out on this soul-destroying business is indeed an object of compassion; but to give her the money she solicits, is to pay those who ill use her to persist in their cruelty. Instead of giving money to these children, the children should be given into custody to the nearest policeman that inquiry may reveal the actual position of those to whom they belong. Yesterday a girl twelve years old, named Mary Anne Moray, was thus placed in custody. It proved that she had a father, who is a shoemaker. Her sister took her from the station house, putting down twenty-five dollars as security for her appearance for examination this morning. In taking the money from her purse she showed not less than fifty to sixty dollars. Do the credulous now see what need there was for the five and ten cent pieces they have kept from the really poor, to give to imposters?

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 7, 1861.

7, The prayer of a Southern Mother

To Southern Mothers.

Unite with me at the hour of sunset in humble prayer and supplication to the "Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named," praying that he may pour out his Holy Spirit on our sons to enable them to put on the whole panoply of God, and as soldiers of the cross to resist their enemies and His, so that if they live, they will live unto God, and if they die, they may fall asleep in Jesus, and awake in the presence of the captain of our salvation, to be forever with Him in glory.

If God's banner of love waive [sic] over our sons, they must come off more than conquerors in this earthly warfare, and if they fail in the strife, through their limbs be stiffened in death—and now their blood stained, dusty armor laid aside—angels will waft their spirits to their God to join His army in heaven, where, robed in Christ's spotless righteousness, they too will cast their palms of victory before Jehovah's throne, and sing the song of the redeemed, while, blessed with the like faith, we southern mothers shall echo back salvation's joyful sound, and give the honor and glory to Him who hath redeemed them with his precious blood.

A Southern Mother.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 7, 1861.

          7, Civil Disturbance in Knoxville

Bloody Fight in Tennessee!-Knoxville, May 7.- A serious shooting affray occurred here this afternoon, caused by the raising of a Union flag. Some twenty shots were fired. Douglas, one of the Union leaders, was slightly wounded in the fight, and a man named Ball, an outsider, was mortally wounded. Morgan, secessionist, who shot Douglas, brought his company to the city, but was persuaded to return to the camp. The excitement is intense.

Fayetteville (NC) Observer, May 9, 1861. [4]


~ ~ ~

The following extract from a letter to a gentleman in Connecticut, from his friend in Knoxville, Tennessee, illustrates the influences at work to drive that State into rebellion:

Knoxville, May 9, 1861

Dear -----: I am writing at the office, but in what country it is the Lord only knows. Be that as it may, the Devil's thousand years are up, and he is let loose among us. I cannot begin to tell you of the actual condition of things. Union men are threatened with death in almost every shape if they persist in making public speeches….There are about 800 soldiers here now, most of them from Monroe and Meigs County, of the most worthless, desperate class of men, and frenzied by liquor. Among them is one Wash Morgan, who is part Indian, and is captain of accompany of spirits of the same class, but if possible more wicked than himself.

Day before yesterday [7th] the Stars and Stripes were floating from the Union pole, and ____was making a few remarks to a crowd of Union men. Among them was Charles Douglass, who is a strong Union man and is not remarkably prudent about denouncing Secessionists. It so happened that, on this occasion, Morgan and two of his men were near him, and taking offence at what he said, fired their pistols at him. As Douglass was unarmed, he started for his house, the others following and firing. Nine shots were fired I all, but Douglass escaped with slight flesh wounds. He was near his store at the time, and as soon as he could get his gun they were off like "quarter horses." Morgan ran to Sackey's stable, jumped on a horse, and ran him to the Fair Grounds, where his men were quartered. As soon as possible back the cowardly rascal came, with 400 men to kill one man. The citizens commenced arriving, determined to defend him, but ____and____succeeded in stopping Morgan and his men in East Knoxville, and turned them back to camp, thereby preventing a general fight.

When Morgan was shooting at Douglass, one of his balls struck an old man from the country who was in town on business, causing his death in a few hours. Yesterday Morgan got a hack and came round by the back way to the Lamar House, and , in at the "Ladies' Entrance," accompanied by several of his gang, went into one of the chambers and shot Douglas, who was standing by his wife in his own house, with his window closed, the ball passing through his breast. He is still alive, but thought to be mortally wounded.

No arrests have been made (which shows the power of the civil authority), and Morgan is to-day in high favor with the Secessionists.

~ ~ ~

Milwaukee Morning Sentinel, May 21, 1861. [5]




          7, Skirmish at Purdy

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

          7, John Hunt Morgan, according to the New York Times

Guerrillas in Tennessee.

Of the partisan rebel troopers who annoy the rear of our army in Tennessee, the most noted is a cavalry corps commanded by one Morgan. This fellow began to figure while our army was in Central Kentucky last Winter, and since it moved southward he has been particularly active. He and his men turn up everywhere. Now they are reported as killing a picker; now waylaying and entrapping small detachments of our troops; now burning bridges, tearing up railroad tracks, scouring the country in every direction, plundering houses, frightening women and children, and mingling, on general principles; occupation of rebel mosstroopers [sic] with that of bandits and murderers. He is the first genuine specimen of those guerrillas with which, when all other means of waging war fail, the rebels threaten to devastate their own section of the country. His field of operation is mainly a narrow strip of country running north from Nashville to either border of Tennessee, along the line of the railroad which our troops travel in going south or north by Nashville. He likes particularly to commit his depredations tantalizingly near to the Capital, and says that he will yet have Andy Johnson and other large game among his prisoners of war. We have already published a good many tales of the fellow's doings, and some other are reported this morning. Last Friday [May 1st] he and his men made a sudden swoop upon a detachment of National troops stationed in the village of Pulaski, Giles County, Southern Tennessee, and, after a skirmish, captured four Union Captains, nine Lieutenants, and Adjutant, and about 250 privates, whom he spiked by putting them all upon their parole of honor. Three days afterward he suddenly turned up at the town of Lebanon, Wilson Count, Northern Tennessee [sic], nearly a hundred miles by the travel route from the scene of the previous exploit; but this time the tide of battle turned against him. A large number of his men were taken prisoners, the rest routed, and he himself is said to be slain. This is the first time Morgan is reported to be killed; and, if he has as many lives as some other rebel chieftains in the Southeest, it need not disappoint anybody if he turn[s] up again-in time, at least, to be hanged.

Marauders like Morgan, are not to be dreaded after the destruction of the main rebel force. Such men follow the wake of retreating armies. Immediately after the rebel army was expelled from Kentucky, Morgan left also. Now, when it is in and on the borders of Tennessee, he hovers around that State. He cannot remain there long after it leaves; for the local military police of the State itself will be employed for his destruction. So that, whether his troop is now destroyed, and he himself slain, is of no great moment; for it is certain his time is short.

New York Times, May 7, 1862.

          7, Confederate efforts to quell subversion in Cleveland


Knoxville, May 7, 1862.

J. R. TAYLOR, Deputy Provost-Marshal, Cleveland, Tenn.:

Yours of the 6th instant by Capt. Jones is to hand. You will call on the captain of cavalry at Cleveland to assist Capt. Jones to arrest any of his own men and to arrest any citizen that is endeavoring to persuade soldiers to desert their companies and join the enemy when the proof shows that they are doing it. You will not allow men that have been to Kentucky to return home for the purpose of getting men to return there with them. As regards whisky I refer you to the proclamation of Gen. Smith.


W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.

By R. M. BEARDEN, Assistant Provost-Marshal.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 2, p. 1423.

          7, "…because they were confederate flowers he cursed me, & kicked them…." Pro-Confederate opinion in Union occupied Murfreesboro, an excerpt from the Kate Carney Diary

I heard for the first time of Will Rucker & Will Wilkinson taking the oath, which I must acknowledge was no little surprise to me, or as some would express it, I was thunder struck, for I thought their pride would have revolted at anything so base &cowardly. Bettie & I, had made two handsome bouquets to send them, but were prevented which I am thankful, as they are so detestable as to take that oath. This morning Ma was going to take our boys that are prisoners their breakfast but, thinking so many would send provisions, and as she sent them good many nice things yesterday. The first strawberries we had were taken to them. I would give up my share any time for our poor soldiers, nothing would be considered too great a sacrifice on my part for their good, or comfort. Before I had eaten my breakfast, Mrs. Mollie Crockett sent out for me to send some flowers, for a young lady to send to Tom Morgan, brother of John Morgan, as he is among our prisoners at the jail. I had quite a handsome one made, but I am afraid he had not the pleasure of receiving it, as they are not going to allow our men to receive such demonstrations of sympathy as were expressed by the ladies of Murfreesboro. Ma took them up some comforts and bedding last evening. Poor fellows. They were thing's left here, that belonged to the hospital. She also took some clothes up to Tom Morgan, as she understood he was in need of some. She carried Bettie's & my bouquets up to some of the boys. When old Capt. Frost (who by the way comes out quite frequently since Pa['s], arrest which was three weeks last Tuesday).[6] He is ever a welcome visitor as he is better than any newspaper and seems so disturbed about Pa. He brought a message from Mr. Crossman (who is a Union man, though we think a very clever one and is staying for protection, which we are very glad to have him do, as he carries letters to Pa, or any thing else, or getting a pass for Ma, to have hauled wood from the Quarter to have sold. It is a mutual accommodation, & satisfies all parties. Bettie & I give him some hard cuts though, about people taking the oath). Well to return to the message he sent Ma, that she must neither send or carry anything to the prisoners today, for, if she did the Yankees might insult her. She and cousin Ann would not take them when they first went up, but afterwards sent back after some clothes, said she could have them sent in secretly. When they came back they brought the same old tale, that we must prepare for a battle, as one was expected here before night. It seems as if it was always "bad news." So without more ado about the matter, I went upstairs and began packing my trunk, but before I finished dinner came on, & with it Mr. Crossman, but brought no news. He is afraid of committing himself to us, for fear our secession tongues would get us into trouble, as he is of the opinion that we talk too much. Scarcely had we gotten up from the table, when we saw Mrs. Kittie Reeves & her grandson Levi coming, at the same time heard the band of music coming, played by rogues (as that is what I call the Yankees, more appropriate than any thing else). We saw also about 2 thousand Yankees tramping down the Lebanon pike, & to my astonishment stopped in the grove opposite our house (owned by Uncle Wm. Lytle). Thinking they had come down to drill I went in and slammed the door, & had every blind in the house shut, [that] they might know I would not condescend to see them drill. I also called all servants and children in, & said sufficiently loud for them to hear, that I didn't want anyone to see them, but to our astonishment they stacked arms and seemed to be waiting for something, on enquiry found they were expecting prisoners from Lebanon.[7] Soon our yard was filling with Yankees, asking for flowers, to all Ma said help yourselves (well knowing they were going to do it), which I guess was the best way, but I should have refused. Scarcely had they begun, when they heard that the other men with our men prisoners were coming, but I had enough flowers to tie up three bouquets. Bettie Gillespie had gotten some also we did not have to wait long after getting down to the fence, on the pike, before we saw our poor boys being brought along with as much pomp & show as possible. There were about 5,000 to guard less than a hundred of our men. Our men looked so noble, & had such a manly bearing, that they looked less like prisoners than those that had them in charge. I forgot I was before so many men, especially when I began to see my old friends among them. I told them never to take the oath & they answered "that had played out", and a great many other things, that enraged the Yankees very much. After I saw Jessie Sikes, George Ridley & Mr. Roberts I scarcely knew what I did do. I know when I screamed a whole camp hissed at me, but what I cared for that. I was perfectly insensible to any feeling save sympathy for our prisoners. An officer ordered us to the house, but contrary to military rules & regulations, we did not go until we got ready. Good many cursed us when we hurrahed! for "Jeff Davis", John Morgan, & Beauregard, but we heard very little of it until an old man that wanted to pick up our flowers that we had thrown to our soldiers & when we said he must not have them because they were confederate flowers he cursed me, & kicked them, & I have since been sketching him for Bettie's benefit, and for our entertainment tonight, as we are sitting up until three our four o'clock, as they have threatened to burn our house tonight, but seeing no prospect of a fire, went to bed & slept very comfortably. An officer rode up and offered to buy one of my bouquets, (I suppose as an insult) I told him he could never get one for any consideration, but if he had been a Confederate soldier he would be welcome. So the chap rode off. Charley Marchbanks, & Col. Wood were also in the lot of prisoners. I was so much excited [I] did not recognize them. They were sent off on the train this afternoon. Mrs. Kittie Reeves left shortly after we came up to the house. Mrs. Edwards came over & staid awhile this afternoon. Cousin Ann & Ma went to town in the buggy, but did not get to see any of the prisoners.

Kate Carney Diary, May 7, 1862.

          7, Knights of the Golden Circle[8]

Let the rebels of Nashville who are receiving midnight couriers from rebel leaders over the South, and holding secret meetings of the Knights of the Golden Circle, beware in time. The loyal men and armies are not to be trifled with much longer. An old hymn says:

"Mercy knows her appointed bounds,

And turns to judgment then!"

A storm of loyal and patriotic indignation is gathering in the sky, and its red lightning's sleep uneasily in the cloud.

"And that two-banded engine at the door. Stands ready to smite one and smite no more."

Nashville Daily Union, May 7, 1862.

          7, Mocking the dead in Murfreesboro

A correspondent writing from Murfreesboro', says that as a hearse passed along the streets of that place, the other day, with the body of a poor soldier who had died far from home and kindred in the service of his country, a woman standing before a handsome residence remarked to a soldier in the mournful procession, "Well, I am very glad to see them die—there is one less anyhow." If it be true that they who die in the holy service of their country are translated to the realms of the blessed, we can assure that blot and reproach to the female sex that she will never meet a Union soldier in the spirit land. Her passage is paid to the land of the first Arch-rebel, the head of all traitors to their country.

Nashville Daily Union, May 7, 1862.




          7 [?], Affair at Obion Plank-Road Crossing, capture of guerrilla chief Captain Parks

MAY __, 1863.- Affair at Obion Plank Road Crossing, Tenn.

Report of Brig. Gen. Alexander Asboth, U. S. Army, commanding District of Columbus, Ky.

HDQRS. SIXTH DIV., SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Columbus, Ky., May 8, 1863.

SIR: I beg to report that Company E, Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry Volunteers, First Lieut. William B. Ford commanding, succeeded in surprising the notorious guerrilla, Capt. Parks, with his band, encamped on the Obion Plank Road Crossing, 70 miles distant from Hickman. The rebels fired upon our men, but were gallantly charged. One lieutenant and 3 of their men killed and 18 taken prisoners, including Capt. J. H. Parks and First Lieut. A. W. Henry. Thus another guerrilla company is destroyed, and I have now 4 noted guerrilla leaders here, Scales, Cotter, Cushman, and Parks, all to be tried as highway robbers. To-morrow our artist will combine the four in a picture. The officers and men of Company E, Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry Volunteers, are deserving of all praise. Telegraphic communication is open between here and Hickman.

ASHBOT, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 329.

          7, Letter from William Henry Ruse of the 97th Ohio Volunteer Regiment to Maggie Stewart of Adamsville, Ohio[9]

May 7th 1863

Dear Maggie!

Once more with great pleasure I embrace a few moments to write you a short letter. I wrote to you a short time since and shortly after I started mine I received a very kind letter from you. It seems that all our letters pass each other on the road. "speck" they say "How do you do" or make use of some familiar phrase.

Wish the writers could meet as often as their letters do. strange wish, "ain't" it. and not very strange neither. You know we can't refrain from wishing, but I wish that our wishes could come to pass. Oh! Maggie! I have written so often to you that I expect you are getting wearied reading my disinterested letters. but let me assure you it is not so with me. Your letters are received by me with the greatest pleasure, and a beating heart always waits a reply. I have written a good many letters to other girls. Letters of friendship, but those I write to you. I want you to receive them for more than mere friendship. For let me say that your memory is ever dear to me and if we never again meet on Earth I shall ever Cherish the fond remembrance of Thee, and think of the pleasant hours passed in your society, but let me indulge the hope that we may again meet ere long.

I cannot yet see much sign of the war Closing but I always try to hope for the Best.

I suppose you was [sic] a thousand times glad to welcome the returns of your soldier Brothers.

I imagine I see Maggie when she first got a peep of Nixon. I want you to give me the particulars of your first meeting. I was glad to hear of Nixon getting his discharge. I received a letter from him when he was about ready to start home. I was somewhat surprised when I received the news of his going but he did his duty in the army. And I know his discharge is an honorable one. I have not yet answered his last letter. And I believe I will wait till I get a letter from him at home if he has not yet written tell him I want him to write immediately.

A great many left no. [sic] 12 day [sic] before yesterday for Louisville. I could have gone had I so desired but I thought it not a very desirable place from Nixons [sic] description of affairs there. We have a new surgeon in Charge. He is quite a young man + [sic] I presume a very fine man + [sic] skillful Physician but I must stop. Now dont [sic] forget to write often. I will pledge myself to answer Your letters immediately on their reception if you will do the same "Aint" that fair?

Well goodbye Dear Maggie hoping to hear from you soon.

I am very

Yours sincerely


farewell oh no it cannot be

Direct as before

Civil War Love Letters[10]

          7, "We have a nice dry camping ground convenient to wood and excellent water." James I. Hall's letter from Humboldt to his parents in Covington

Humboldt, May 7, [18]63

Dear Parents,

Mr Calhouns boy will take this to you. I found our Reg't (Ninth Tennessee Infantry). The baggage had been brought back from Jackson. We have a nice dry camping ground convenient to wood and excellent water. The boys are generally well. Ed Elam & Mr Price are sick not seriously. When I got to the Depot this morning Mr Claiborne advised me not to bring up the box as everything was in confusion here & I did not then expect to stay here I have written to him to send them up tomorrow. Mr Sherrill will go on to Henderson Station tonight I found Johns trunk at the depot and sent it out by John. Mr Sherril will inquire after the bed clothing.

I gave the keys of the trunk to John I also gave him my thin boots to take home. Ask Martin to oil them well & have them laid away. My new boots are just such a pair as I have been wanting for a while.

Give my love to the children and the family.

Jour afft son

Jas I Hall

Ninth Tennessee, p. 142.




          7, Protest of alleged over partiality shown to pro-Confederate citizens in Knoxville

Partiality Shown Rebel Citizens in Knoxville.

A great deal of dissatisfaction justly prevails in relation to the manner in which disloyal persons are shown partiality by the official of Knoxville. Those who prior to the advent of the Union army were doing all in their power to aid treason and persecute loyal persons, seem not to receive the special favors of Quartermasters, Commissioners, Post Commanders, Provost Marshals, and "Shoulder Straps" generally. Nay, more, some that disdained not to trample and spit upon the banner of freedom, since the country has been occupied by Union troops, are now making their living by boarding Union officers and drawing and purchasing supplies from the Commissary Department, while those who never submit to the reign of traitors fail to be recognized before the controlling authorities.

It is understood that the stores of the East Tennessee Relief Society are distributed alike to loyal and disloyal. In fact, the preference in many cases seems to be given, not to those for whom the supplies were originally intended, but to those who have the boldness to make the greatest demands upon the Society. Amongst the last named class are to be found those who took the oath of allegiance merely to remain at home. [sic]

Where is the necessity for such a distinction? Is it the part of wisdom and justice to attempt to conciliate by lavish kindness the traitors in our midst, while Union persons are totally neglected? Is not that class to be shown preference to have ever been loyal, and who under trials like the past, would continue their fidelity to the Federal Government? Can a sensible person be mistaken as to the most discreet course in the premises?

A remedy, a speedy remedy, is needed. Let those placed at the head of the different departments display their charity toward rebels after Unionist have been supplied with the gifts of the Government. [sic]


Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal and Rebel Ventilator, May 7, 1864.

          7, Special Orders, No. 81, relative to visiting the Small Pox hospital in Memphis

Office of U. S. Military Gen'l Hospital

Memphis, Tenn. May 7, 1864

I. From and after this date, NO PERSON [sic] will be permitted to visit the Small Pox Hospital, or the ground, on any pretense whatever without a written permission from this office.

II. The surgeon in charge will arrange his guards so as to prevent any person from entering or loitering upon the grounds in the vicinity of the hospital.

B. J. D. Irwin, Surgeon U. S. A.

Supt. General Hospitals

Memphis Bulletin, August 9, 1864.

7, "…I have running sore on my arm about the size of a quarter dollar and I feel the afects all over me, yet I have been on duty every day. I was somewhat frightened last Monday I felt so awful bad and I began to break out on my face and it burnt like fire, so I started for the doctor. I found the major in his tent, I got him to examine me and he pronounced it the –eraloid [sic] and I think that was it, there is some of the boys have it very light." Camp life in Tullahoma: W.N. Fast's (Co K 102 Regt OVI) letter home to his wife

Tullahoma Tenn May 7th/ '64

Co K 102 Regt OVI

Mrs Amanda E Fast

Dear wife I seat myself this Saturday morning to write a few lines in answer to yours of Apr 28th which came to hand last Thursday evening. It found me reasonable well with some little exceptions. I was vaxionated [vaccinated] some six weeks ago last Thursday and I am scarcely able to get around now from the efects of it, I have running sore on my arm about the size of a quarter dollar and I feel the afects all over me, yet I have been on duty every day. I was somewhat frightened last Monday I felt so awful bad and I began to break out on my face and it burnt like fire, so I started for the doctor. I found the major in his tent, I got him to examin me and he pronounced it the –eraloid[11] [sic] and I think that was it, there is some of the boys have it very light.

We have a very nice camp here, little a nicest camp that we have had since we left Clarksville. Our camp is in a small grove close by the fort, but I think that it is good not to remain here long they have relieved nearly all of our men that we have got strung along the RR so that it looks to me as though our chance was good for the front. Well it is my opinion that they will nead us all down there soon, and I am ready to go where ever ordered. I believed that I would rather be in the front than to be here in the rear doing guard duty. I heard directly from James yesterday G C McConnell came from there yesterday he sayes that he saw all the boys and they was all well, and that they had turned over their horses and gone into the fort and they expected to remain there til the war was over, they are now called the Garisoned Batery. Good luck to them.

Our boys came in from Cowan Station last night and Knauss was among them, when he came to my tent he handed me Olives likeness and he said that she was going to teach school at the center this summer. You cant imagine how it made me feel. To think that when I left home she wasn't any better than Alice was and now she has improved so that she can teach, and whare is Alice but little better than she was when I left home, she mite of been just as or advansed as she is if had only taken the right course, nothing would give me more pleasure than to see her have a good education, and the boys I mean they should have an education, that is if I should live to get out of this army all right, for there is nothing like a good education especialy if a man is poor, when everything else fails him he can resort to an honorable position such as teaching or like manor.

I understand that malitia has been ordered out for a hundred days, I am glad of that I hope that they will take every man not leave one that is capable of baring arms. If they had of don that long go the war would have been at an end now. I understand that in Cleveland and other large citys that they are offering from five to eight hundred dollars for substatutes for a hundred days. I think if I was at home I would take some of them on that, that length of time is nothing by the side of eleven hundred and ten days, but my sheet is full and I must close for this time. Give my love to the boys and others that are worthy of it.

Yours as ever with respect

W.N. Fast

Fast Family Correspondence[12]

          7, On Nathan Bedford Forrest's Family, Brothers and pre-war Business in Memphis

Antecedents of the Rebel General Forrest and his Family.

A Knoxville correspondent of the N. Y. Tribune writes:

The news of the capture of Fort Pillow by Forrest, and the cowardly butchery which followed of blacks and whites alike, has produced a profound sensation here. The universal sentiment is-"let no quarter be shown to those dastardly butchers of Forrest's command while the war lasts."

These Forrests, the eldest of whom, Gen. Bedford Forrest, has by this and other atrocities obtained such a record of infamy, were all negro traders. There were four brothers-Bedford, who kept a negro pen for five years before the war on Adams street, in rear of the Episcopal Church, Memphis; John, a cripple and a gambler, who was jailor and clerk for Bedford; Bill Forrest, an extensive negro trader at Vicksburg; and Aaron Forrest, general agent to scout the country for his other brothers. They accumulated large sums of money in their nefarious trade, and Bedford won by that and other influences a natural promotion to a Brigadier. He is about 50 years of age, tall, gaunt, and sallow visaged, with along nose, deep set black, snaky eyes, [illegible] and hair wore long. He usually wore, while in the "nigger" trade in Memphis, a stove pipe hat set on the back of his head at an angle of forty-five degrees. He was accounted mean, vindictive, cruel and unscrupulous. He had two wives-one white, the other colored (Catharine), by each of which he two children. His "patriarchal" wife, Catharine, and his white wife, had frequent quarrels or domestic jars.

The slave pen of old Bedford Forrest, on Adams street, was a perfect horror to all negroes far and near. His mode of punishing refractory slaves was to compel four of his fellow slaves to stand and hold the victim stretched out in the air, and then Bedford and his brother John would stand, one on each side, with long, heavy whips, and cut up their victims until the blood trickled to the ground. Women were often stripped naked, and with a bucket of salt water stand by, in which to did the instruments of torture, a heavy leather thong, their backs were cut up, until the blisters covered the whole surface, the blood of their wounds mingling with the briny mixture to add torment to the infliction. One slave man was whipped to death by Bedford, who used a trace-chain doubled for the purpose of punishment. The slave was secretly buried, and the circumstance was only known to the slaves of the prison, who only dared to refer to the circumstance in whispers.

Such are the appropriate antecedents in the character of the monster who murdered in cold blood the gallant defenders of Fort Pillow.

Boston Herald, May 7, 1864. [13]

[1] See also: The Daily Cleveland Herald (Cleveland Ohio), June 4, 1861.

[2] Elizabeth Paisley Dargan, ed., The Civil War Diary of Martha Abernathy, Wife of Dr. Charles C. Abernathy of Pulaski, Tennessee, (Professional Printing, Inc.; Beltsville, Maryland, 1994.) [Hereinafter: Diary of Martha Abernathy.]

[3] As cited in: Mrs. Irby Morgan, How It Was; Four Years Among the Rebels, (Nashville: Publishing House Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1892), p. 167. [Hereinafter cited as: How It Was.]

[4] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[5] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[6] Her father was taken as a political prisoner by the Federal forces occupying Middle Tennessee in order to curb guerrilla incursions against Union soldiers and citizens. According to this he was arrested on April 15, 1862. See below.

[7] Most likely captured as a result of John Hunt Morgan's defeat at Lebanon on May 5, 1862.

[8] Not identified.

[9] Ruse wrote from a hospital in Nashville, Tennessee, where he served as an orderly.

[10] As cited in: [Hereinafter cited as: Civil War Love Letters.]

[11] Unknown.

[12]Center for Archival Collections, Fast Family Papers, Transcripts. MS 330.

 [13] As cited in PQCW.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 115

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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