18, "About 1 A.M. the gunboats at Broadway landing were fired – a brilliant conflagration – fire alarm was given, the people aroused from their slumbers, and great excitement occasioned until the truth was known." An entry from the Journal of Dr. John Berrien Lindsley Tuesday"
– About 1 A.M. the gunboats at Broadway landing were fired – a brilliant conflagration – fire alarm was given, the people aroused from their slumbers, and great excitement occasioned until the truth was known. Mrs. L in great terror waked me up – hurried over to the University had my carriage up – alarmed Dr. Peake and my young assistants very uselessly – then drove to Mr. McGavock's and brought Ma up to my house. Pa went to Franklin on Monday, and as Ma was by herself we were naturally much frightened at the idea of a general conflagration. After making a visit to Mrs. L. I took Ma home: it being now not far from day.
From Sunday on there had been a great deal of pressing of all kinds of vehicles: a carriage or wagon of any description could with great difficulty be retained unless guarded by a soldier or two with musket & bayonet. I made up a guard of some ten or fifteen men from my convalescents; and they proved invaluable in guarding my vehicles and getting me access to the public stores. I was welcomed by the officials employed in the latter on condition of detailing several of my men to guard their doors and keep out intruders. The military authorities during the last few days of Confederate reign sadly neglected their duty in respect to guarding the government stores, and thus threw a great deal of additional labor upon the civilians occupied in the various departments. It was a matter of wonder to me that the latter discharged their duties so coolly and faithfully. With sufficient guards the retreating army could much more readily have been supplied; much larger quantities of stores saved to the Confederate Government; a regular distribution made to the citizens instead of an irregular & disgraceful, as well as demoralizing, pillage & scramble.
During this ante-daylight excursion after Ma, I brought Carroll's other carriage to the University Hospital for the sake of protection; and while he was getting ready made quite a visit to Mrs. Porter's. Good success this forenoon at the Commissary's – secured among other items 50 boxes of star candles2, also 50 boxes of soap.
Gave directions about consolidating the hospitals – moving the Meredith to the Academy &c.
3 to 5 P.M. at Medical Head Quarters – office work. Gave the printer copy for a hand-bill – an appeal in behalf of our sick & wounded – Dr. Childers, the clerk and assistant of Dr. Pim; showed to Van & myself that the whole number now could not be much over one thousand.
Went to Ma's with my family for the night. Children made a row – I did not get much sleep.
Dr. John Berrien Lindsley's Journal, February 18, 1862, TSLA, ed. Kathy Lauder.
18, General Orders, No. 3, prohibiting Federal soldiers from looting Dover, Tennessee
GEN. ORDERS, No. 3. HDQRS. DIST. OF WEST TENNESSEE, Fort Donelson, February 18, 1862.
All commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates are prohibited from entering the town of Dover of any houses therein situated without permission in writing of their regimental commanders.
All captured property belongs to the Government, and no officer, non-commissioned officer, or private will be permitted to have or retain possession of captured property of any kind.
Any officer violating the above order will be at once arrested. Any non-commissioned officer or private will be arrested and confined in the guard-houses, and all captured property taken from them and turned over to the district quartermaster.
Col. Leggett is hereby appointed to see to the strict enforcement of the above, using his whole command for that purpose, if necessary.
By order of Brig.-Gen. Grant
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, page. 633.
18, Report on weapons collections in East Tennessee
The Knoxville Register says that Capt. Storms, who had been commissioned by Gov. Harris to collect arms in Blount County, has delivered three wagon loads of guns at the armory in Knoxville, and have several, loads yet to transmit. In addition to this he has armed a company, raised in Blount, for the Confederate service. Besides the firearms captured by Capt. Stephens, he also has a two horse wagon load of the most dangerous looking bowie-knives we have lately seen. These arms have been principally taken from disaffected men in Blount county, many of whom, we learn, are now making their way to the mountains to join the Lincoln army.
Memphis Daily Appeal, February 18, 1862.
18, Nashville's railroad and suspension bridges destroyed by Confederate authorities
It was known to a good many citizens on Monday [17th] that the destruction of the railroad and suspension bridges had been determined on as a military necessity, and this work was expected to have been accomplished Monday night, but for some reason, satisfactory it is presumed, to the authorities, it was not done. The fact became general known on Tuesday [18th], and urgent appeals were made to Gen. Floyd (Gens. Johnston and Pillow having left the city) to spare the suspension bridge, as it was of the highest importance to the people of Nashville to have uninterrupted communication with the other side of the river, from whence, for a time at least, they would have to draw all their market supplies. His uniform answer was, that the destruction of both bridges was regarded as a military necessity, and that it was his imperative duty to put into execution the plans agreed upon.
Tuesday night the torch was applied to the railroad bridge and in a short time all that remained of that splendid structure were the naked pillars and abutments and a few smoking fragments of timber. The precaution had been taken in this instance to prevent the fire-bells giving the alarm, so that the burning of the bridge was witnessed by comparatively few persons, and the event did not arouse the fears of those who had expected general conflagration. This bridge was one of the finest draw-bridges in the country, and was built for the joint use of the Louisville and Nashville and Edgefield and Kentucky railroads, at a cost of about $250,000. The funds to build it were loaned the two companies by the State of Tennessee under the general internal improvement laws….
* * * *
The wires of the suspension bridge were cut about the same time that the railroad bridge was fired, and the morning revealed a complete wreck of this magnificent structure….
The Great Panic, pp. 21-23.
18, Report on weapons collections in East Tennessee
The Knoxville Register says that Capt. Storms, who had been commissioned by Gov. Harris to collect arms in Blount county, has delivered three wagon loads of guns at the armory in Knoxville, and have several loads yet to transmit. In addition to this he has armed a company, raised in Blount, for the Confederate service. Besides the firearms captured by Capt. Stephens, he also has a two horse wagon load of the most dangerous looking bowie-knives we have lately seen. These arms have been principally taken from disaffected men in Blount county, many of whom, we learn, are now making their way to the mountains to join the Lincoln army.
Memphis Daily Appeal, February 18, 1862.
18, Skirmish near Maryville
FEBRUARY 18, 1864.-Skirmish near Maryville, Tenn.
No. 1.-Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army, commanding Fourth Army Corps.
No. 2.-Col. Edward M. McCook, Second Indiana Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Division, Army of the Cumberland.
Report of Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, U. S. Army, commanding Fourth Army Corps.
LOUDON, TENN., February 19, 1864.
GEN.: Col. McCook reports that his scouts met about 30 of the enemy a mile the other side of Maryville yesterday [the 18th] and drove them back, killing and wounding 5. They report a large body of the enemy's cavalry encamped 4 or 5 miles from Maryville, near the Sevierville road.
Col. Jacquess reports this morning from Lenoir's that there are no indications of the enemy between that place and Maryville, and that a citizen who came for 15 miles down the north side of the Little Tennessee River last night says he saw no enemy, and heard of none, but citizens were expecting the rebels and were much frightened.
Reports from Sweet Water corroborate the above.
G. GRANGER, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 407.
18, The Cheerless Return of John and Paulina Christian's Children to Slavery in the Memphis Environs
SHAMEFUL PROCEEDINGS IN TENNESSEE.
Freedmen's Camp, Memphis, Feb. 18, 1864.
Chaplain Fiske, who has been here for a few months past soliciting funds or aid for freedmen, was with us yesterday, and witnessed the scenes which I have described in this article. By his request I have written it, as his time would not admit of his doing so just now. This is the first instance of this kind in Tennessee; but we fear it will be repeated to an unlimited extent, if the public press and opinion do not at once cry it down.
Mrs. Captain Hay
Teacher of Freedmen.
A United States Soldier Deprived of his Family.
Within a mile and a half of the Freedmen's camp, Memphis, Tenn., lives a Dr. Wheaton, who, according to the united testimony of persons formerly held by him as slaves, furnished a substitute for the rebel army, and in various ways aided the rebellion. In June last, two of his slaves, a man and his wife, left him and went to the 21st Missouri regiment, and encamped near by. They went back to get their children, three in number, and the clothing they had left behind, but were driven away by the old Doctor, who heaped upon them curses and all kinds of abuse. Col. Moore then sent them to the Provost Marshal, with the following note:
Headquarters, Fourth Brigade, East Tennessee
June 7, 1863.
Provost Marshal, District of Memphis Tennessee-
In compliance with orders received from Brig. Gen. Veatch, I sent herewith negroes belonging to Dr. Wheaton. You will please hear the man's statement, as he represents to me that his wife was being badly whipped his master. The negro claims the protection of the Federal Government, having come within our lines.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel commanding 4th Brigade.
James B. Comstock, A. A. A. G.
The matter was referred by Provost Marshal to Chaplain Fiske, Post Superintendent of Freedmen, and measures were immediately taken to restore to the injured parents their clothing and children. In the meanwhile, Dr. Wheaton procured from Major General Hurlburt [sic] and Brigadier General Veatch, commanding the post at Memphis, papers which enabled him to hold the children, and forbade officers or soldiers from trespassing on his grounds. Months passed by-the parents remaining in camp were never permitted even to see their children. The father became a volunteer in the 7th Right La. Infantry. The 21st Mo. Right, which for nearly a year had been obliged to guard the property of Dr. Wheaton, was removed, and his property left unguarded. He had for months boarded a paroled rebel officer, who took turn about with him in guarding his slaves at night m, to prevent their escape. He, too, had left the Doctor; and the father of the children, who had all the time watching an opportunity, felt that the time had come for him to secured the children. The fence around the yard was high, and the gate was always locked. The children were at playing in the back yard, and the father with two other soldiers climbed the fence, seized the children, and departed. Mrs. W. ran to the pickets for help. They were colored soldiers, but seemingly rendered her every assistance in their power, looking eagerly in every direction; but they failed to see the sight which fell upon her wandering eyes. The children were brought into camp to their mother, and there was a happy reunion of the family for months separated. But did not last long. Scarcely two hours had passed when Dr. Wheaton, in his splendid carriage, with a staff officer to the General now commanding the post of Memphis, and three mounted orderlies, came into camp, brining an order from the General to Capt. H. S. Hay, Superintendent of the camp, ordering him to give up the children to their owner. Capt. Hay gave them permission to search for the, and they paraded through the camp, presenting a scene long to be remembered by those who saw it-an old rebel by the side of a Federal officer, Lieut. Busse, of an Illinois regiment. Let his name stand in history by the side of Gen. Buckland, who ordered the separation of parents and children, for he was eager to find them; but failing to do so, he returned, and stated his case to Capt. Hay, who refused in any way to assist them. The Lieutenant said he would report him to the General, to which the captain replied, "Very well." In these proceedings, no time was lost. They had been gone but a little while, when an orderly rode into camp, brining on order from the General for Capt. H. to report at his head-quarters forthwith. On entering the General's office, the Captain found him seated, and smoking cigars with Dr. Wheaton. He was not invited to a seat, but stood while they leisurely investigated the case, puffing their cigars. In the meantime, Wheaton said, "General, he treated your order with contempt." Capt. H. denied it, and continued to do so as often as he was accused; but General Buckland said he believed it, for his Lieutenant testified to the same thing. Wheaton then asked the General to step aside, to which he readily assented. After a short interview, they returned, and the General gave a verbal order to Hay to report with the children at his head-quarters, by 9 o'clock next morning, and failing to do so, he assured him that he would place him at once in close confinement. Capt. H. assured him that he did not know where the children were, and asked how he could return them; and returned fully persuaded in his own mind to make no effort of find or return them, let come what would. But after consulting with Lieut. Col. Phillips, Superintendent of Freedmen for West Tennessee, it was thought that on the whole to return them. We though best not to inform the parents of the conclusion until morning. A little fire was kindled outside the pickets, and there the mother, with a young babe in her arms had strayed with her children until it was dark. They were then brought into camp, where they spent a happy night together, unmolested in their cabin; but their anguish and indignation can better be imagined than described nest morning, when all their bright hopes were blasted on hearing that they must give up their children. They both expressed a wish to die on the spot, rather than see them returned. "I am a soldier," said the father, "and have I not a right to my own children?" "Don't take on so, Toney," said uncle John, "it's all for the best, but it's hard." The Captain refused to report in person, or with the children, but sent him the following note:-
Head-Quarters, Dets. 7th and 8th La. Inft.
Feb. 18, 1864
General-I have the honor to report those children of John and Paulina Christian (colored,) claimed by one Dr. Wheaton as slaves, found, and they are now held subject to your orders.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Henry S. Hay, Capt.,
Comm'ng Detachment, &c. Supt. Freedmen
Camp Holly Springs.
Brig. Gen. R.P. Buckland,
Comm'g Post, Memphis, Tennessee
On the back of this note the General wrote:-The within named children will be delivered to Lieut. Busse, A. D. C.
By order of Brig. Gen Buckland
C. W. Duston, A. A. G.
Hd. Qrs. Dist. Memphis, Feb. 18, 1864.
The Lieut. came with a carriage to get the children, but when he saw so many missionary teachers, officers and others gathered around to see the little ones carried away, and heard the m any expressions of sympathy for the parents, he said he was ashamed of the business. The mother, after filling her hands with cheese and apples, left; she could not see them taken away; but when the father stooped down and kissed them affectionately, wiping away his tears, everyone was deeply impressed. Two of the children cried, and protested against being taken away. At the mother's request, I gave them each a copy of the little paper entitled "The Freedmen," and the carriage rolled away. Capt. Elsworth, Adjutant for Gen. Thomas, was here, and took notes. We hope the matter will not end here. It is a wonder to all thoughtful person here how such a man as Dr. W. can keep the good will of all our Generals, and make them tools in his hands for carrying out his plans. QUERY. Why did Judas betray his Lord? It is claimed here that loyal slaveholders in Tennessee can get back their slaves; if so, is a man's loyalty to be tested but the quality of his liquors, and by his pro-slavery Generals?
L. H. H.
The Liberator, March 19, 1865. 
 The Emancipation Proclamation abolished slavery only in territories and states that were in actual rebellion against the Federal government. Inasmuch as West Tennessee, at least, was no longer in rebellion, it might be argued that slavery was not abolished there. If this was the case men such as Dr. Wheaton were legally entitled to property in slaves. It would seem Dr. Wheaton's motivation was more out of spite than any legality. In addition, the racist proclivities of Generals Hurlbut and Vaught may well have played a role in this case. Moreover, this story was published in The Liberator, the principal abolitionist paper in America so its bias must be taken into account.
 TSL&A, 19th CN.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214