Sunday, November 30, 2014

11.30.14 - Tennessee Civil War Notes

        30, Confederate Proclamation to the People of East Tennessee
HDQRS., Greenville, East Tenn., November 30, 1861.
So long as the question of Union or disunion was debatable so long you did well to debate it and vote on it. You had a clear right to vote for the Union but when secession was established by the voice of the people you did ill to distract the county by angry words and insurrectionary [sic] tumult. In doing this you commit the highest crime known to the laws.
Out of the Southern Confederacy no people possess such elements of prosperity and happiness as those of East Tennessee. The Southern market which you have hitherto enjoyed only in competition with a host of eager Northern rivals will now be shared with a few States of the Confederacy equally fortunate politically and geographically. Every product of your agriculture and workshops will now find a prompt sale at high prices and so long as cotton grows on Confederate soil so long will the money which it brings flow from the South through all your channels of trade.
At this moment you might be at war with the United States or any foreign nation and yet not suffer a tenth part of the evils which pursue you in this domestic strife. No man's life or property is safe, no woman or child can sleep in quiet. You are deluded by selfish demagogues who take care for their own personal safety. You are citizens of Tennessee and your State one of the Confederate States.
So long as you are up in arms against these States can you look for anything but the invasion of your homes and the wasting of your substance. This condition of things must be ended. The Government commands the peace and sends troops to enforce the order. I proclaim that every man who comes in promptly and delivers up his arms will be pardoned on taking the oath of allegiance. All men taken in arms against the Government will be transported to the military prison at Tuscaloosa and be confined there during the war.
Bridge-burners and destroyers of railroad tracks are excepted from among those pardonable. They will be tried by drum-head court-martial and be hung on the spot.
D. LEADBETTER, Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, pp. 851-852.
        30, "Why Must Tennessee be Disgraced?"
Had the people of Tennessee exhibited a reprehensible backwardness in furnishing men and money to the prosecution of the war, the fact might now be cited as a paliation [sic] for the present threatened attempt to draft those of her citizens who have not yet enlisted. If, seeing the imminent danger of the invasion of her own and the soil of her sister Southern States, by strong armies of the bloody and beastly Northmen, Tennessee had failed to stretch out her strong arms, in the face of the defiant foe-had, in any respect, failed in the war preparations required by the trying emergencies of the times-had, in any degree, exhibited the want of patriotism and liberality necessary to the assumption of her full share of the common burthen, her proud-spirited citizens could not today with so much good cause, cry out against the infamous outrage threatened to be visited upon her by her Chief Magistrate-he who, of all men, should most vigilantly guard against the coming of harm to her sacred honor. The Executive of no other Southern State has yet found it necessary to say to his people that he would resort to forcible means to get them into the military service of the Southern Confederacy, or that he even thought such a necessity would arise in the future. No page of history of either of the Southern States, either in their relation to the old or new government, is blackened with the disgraceful chronicle, telling posterity that, in a time of war, its citizens were dragged, and thus dragged, forced, nolens volens, into military service.
In no Southern State did such dire necessity ever occur-in no Southern State will a resort so disgraceful and humiliating to freemen ever be necessary. It is no more necessary to-day in Tennessee than it is in South Carolina or Georgia, and no more necessary in either of those two States than it is in our good county of Humphreys, which has sent, strange as it may see, almost twice her voting population into the field. Facts and figures can make the truth of this assertion apparent to every inquiring, reasonable mind; and to none is its truth more evident than to the authorities, civil and military, of the State. Why, then, should Tennessee be disgraced with a draft upon those of her citizens, who, for good and sufficient reason, are not at present disposed to volunteer for a term lasting through a series of years-but are, nevertheless, perfectly willing to offer their services for a shorter term.
There is reason in all things, even in panics and revolutions, but there is not reason in all men, not even in all men who wear Gubernatorial robes and military feathers. In this matter, so directly and immediately threatening the reputation of the brave and chivalrous people of Tennessee, there is either a miserable trick and conspiracy upon the part of certain parties to make the disgrace of the State complete, or an inexcusable incompetency upon the part of those most immediately charged with the keeping of the State's fair fame. If life and liberty be spared us we shall ascertain and show to which of the two caused this threatened disgrace is attributable, The truism "Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty," is sometimes quite as applicable to tyranny at home as to despotism from abroad.
Nashville Daily Gazette, November 30, 1861.
        30, "Shot Accidentally."
We learn that, at a muster of Col. Fulgham's Regiment, on Thursday last, a gentleman named Pritchard, living near Tank, accidentally shot himself. His gun, with muzzle up, under his arm, fired, and lacerated his left side, under the arm, considerably.
Nashville Daily Gazette, November 30, 1861.
        30, "Took the Oath."
Twenty-one of the prisoners [] lately brought here from East Tennessee, yesterday appeared in the Confederate Court, acknowledged the error of their ways, took the oath of loyalty to the Southern Confederacy, and attached themselves to a company being raised in Nashville.
Nashville Daily Gazette, November 30, 1861.
        30, "Look Out for Rogues."
There is evidently a great demand for buggy lines and whips, as a number of these articles have recently been mysteriously disappeared from their owners. In one neighborhood in Edgefield, a few nights ago, as many as six persons were robbed of their buggy lines. In future, it would [be] better to put them under lock and key.
Nashville Daily Gazette, November 30, 1861.
        30, "Attention, Militia."
It seems that a great deal of dissatisfaction is prevailing among the different classes of people of the State concerning the drafting of one part of the Militia into active service. Judging from all that I can see and hear, I think there is a great injustice in regard to the non-drafting of those working for the State. I am confidently informed from some militia men who are working for the State, and who earn from twelve to thirty dollars per week, that they would rather for eleven dollars per month, with rations (soldier's pay,) than to lay out in camp during the wet and frosty, winter months.
To put the whole population on an equal footing, there ought to be no exception. Let them be all drafted alike and give those who work for the State if drafted, the choice either to go to the field, or work for soldier's pay at home for the Government, and only excuse such men who cannot be spared or replaced by others in the different branches of Government work.
Another injustice is done by a great many doctors in this city, by giving certificates to a great many individuals certifying their unfitness for active service. Such certificates, some of which were bought with money, should not be accepted, and those men unfit for service if drafted, should be compelled to wait on the sick soldiers, if they are any way fit for that service, for the same pay as soldiers in active service.
If the State would follow this plan, a great deal of treasure would be saved by it, and justice done to all classes.
Nashville Daily Gazette, November 30, 1861.
        30, Texans presented with gloves and blankets in Clarksville
The ladies of Clarksville, Tennessee, presented the Texas Regiment a timely gift, while at that place.
Nearly all the soldiers were supplied with comfortable woolen gloves, and a number with good blankets.
[Marshall] Texas Republican, November 30, 1861.[1]
        30, Donations requested in New Orleans for soldiers' hospitals in Nashville
The Sick Soldiers at Nashville.- Our readers have already been informed through the communications addressed us by Mr. J. J. Hanna, of the distressed condition of the great number of sick soldiers from the command of Gen. A. Sidney Johnston, now in the hospitals at Nashville, under the direction of the Tennessee Hospitals Association, and we are gratified to know that the liberal people of New Orleans have so far responded in their characteristic style to the appeals made to them in behalf of those brave and suffering defenders of the country.
From good information on the subject, we can state that the number of sick at Nashville up to within a few days past, was several thousand, with but little prospect of any diminution. They comprise soldiers coming from every State south of Tennessee, now represented by regiments at Bowling Green. Every regular building appropriated to sick or wounded soldiers, by the liberality of the people of Nashville, and the zealous and active benevolence of the patriotic ladies of the Tennessee and other hospital societies, having been filled to its utmost capacity, it becomes absolutely necessary that additional shelter should be provided for those who, by casualties or fro sickness resulting fro he exposure incident to military life, needed medical attendance, and gentle nursing to restore them to health and the service. Of course this has involved a large expenditure, in addition to that already made by the liberal-minded citizens of Nashville, and it is but just that they should be aided in their good works by other communities.
The high social standing of the ladies composing the Tennessee Hospital Society, is of itself an example guarantee that all funds, clothing, or other articles contributed for the institutions under their charge, will be most judiciously and faithfully applies.
In addition to the acknowledgment, by Mr. J. J. Hanna, of contributions already made here, we today publish another card of the same nature, from Mr. Wm. H. Baker,[2] the well known artist, who is likewise empowered by the Society to receive and forward all contributions in aid of its subjects. Mr. Baker may be found at the St. Charles Hotel, and we sincerely wish that our people, full as they are with munificent zeal in the cause of Southern Independence, may not forget him or Mr. Hanna in the disposition of those means of alleviating sickness and distress with which Providence has blessed them.
Daily Picayune, November 30, 1861. [3]
        30, Execution of Henry Fry and Jacob M. Henchie
Disposing of the Traitors-The Knoxville Register, of December 1st, says:
"Greenville, Nov. 30-5:15 P. M.
"Just forty minutes ago Henry Fry and Jacob W. Henchie were hung at this place, dead, DEAD, DEAD, for bridge burning. It was done by military authority.
H. G. Robertson.
Col. Leadbetter, a firm and determined officer, is in command, we believe, of the military post at Greeneville. We presume the prisoners were tried by a drumhead court martial. Fry, it will be remembered, as the captain of the Lincolnite company who fired upon our troops a could of months since, killing one, and subsequently making his escape. We have reason to believe that hereafter all who ware caught in arms against the Confederate Government, giving aid and comfort to the enemy, or otherwise inciting rebellion, will be summarily dealt with.
Daily Picayune, December 4, 1861. [4]
30, The Tennessee Legislative Oath of Office
Oath of the Tennessee Legislature
The Nashville Patriot published the following as the oath taken by the members of the Tennessee Legislature, and further states than no objection was made to it in the House, through Senator Pickens objected he afterwards yielded:
You do solemnly swear to support the Constitution of the Confederate State of Tennessee, and that as a member of this elected Assembly, you will in all appointments, vote without favor, affection, partiality or prejudice; and that you will not propose or assent to any bill, vote or resolution which shall appear to you to be injurious to the people, or consent to any act or any thing whatever that shall have a tendency to lessen or abridge their rights and privileges as declared by the Constitution of the State.
Daily Evening Bulletin, November 30, 1861. [5]
        30, "A Cigar Whiff," by "MINT JULEP" for Miss Fanny
At the hush of evening's close,
When the starless twilight throws
O'er nature's sweet repose
A beauty soft and dreamlike,
And the wild jessamine [sic] flings
White bloom-showers in play,
And the heavy hearted rose
On the evening's breezy wings
Sighs its sweetness away;
When the night-winds sweeping low,
When the honeysuckles grow
Like music of long ago
In half-whispered melody;
When the star shadows fall
Like ivy blooms along the wall,
And the moonlight loves to dwell
O'er gray old health and hill,
Or lingers sweetly near the dell
Where blows the wild heath bell,
Like memory around all
The Spots she loves so well,
Then I love to think of thee,
Love to think of thee, and bless,
Bless thee for thy loveliness!
For those eyes so calmly beaming,
Calmly as the closing evening,
Bright as morning, blue as heaven-
Very lakes of tenderness!
        Bless they for thy loveliness,
Fair as Hope in Life's Young Dream-
A rose's shadow on a stream-
Gentle as the moonlight's tread
O'er sleeping flowers or the dead.
        Then I love to think of thee,
Love to think of thee, and bless,
Bless thee for thy loveliness
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, November 30, 1862.
        30, Cupid and Confederate conscription confusion near Knoxville
Some days ago Major Rucker was in conversation with a fair, fat and forty buxom widow of an adjoining county where by accident she mentioned the age of one of her admirers, saying that he was not quite thirty-nine. The Major made a mental note of the fact, and soon departed. He went straightway in pursuit of this juvenile admirer of the attractive widow, whom he had before learned was a little more than forty years of age. When he arrested Mr. Johnson, Rucker stated that he regretted to inform him that he was under the painful necessity of conscripting him. "I have learned," said Rucker, "from Widow _____ that you are only thirty-nine' she says that you told her so, and I feel it my duty to take you down to Col. Blake."
"Oh! ah! yes," said Mr. Johnson, "in fact sir, to tell you the truth, sir, I did lie just a little to the Widow _____ I wanted, yes-I wanted to get married-you understand, don't you Major."
"I don't understand anything about it," said Rucker, "you must go with me."
Mr. Johnson's knees smote one another, and in tremulous accents, he besought Major Rucker to permit him to send for the old family Bible. This was agreed to. In the mean time Rucker and his new levy proceeded to Col. Blake's Head Quarters. By the time they reached Knoxville, Rucker became satisfied that his follower was not less than three score years and ten. The Widower's hair dye was washed away, his false teeth had been removed, his form was bent by the immense pressure of mental anxiety.
Col. Blake wished to know why this antediluvian had been brought to him; but so complete had been the metamorphosis of the gay widower, that even Rucker blushed when he looked upon him.
The Family Bible came, and there it was written in the faded scrawl of Mr. Johnson's grand mother "Silus Jonsing baun in Bunkum, Nawth Calliny; Anny Domminy 1783!!" [sic]
Knoxville Daily Register, November 30, 1862.
        30, Problems with municipal government and civilian law enforcement in Knoxville
The criticism in which we indulged a few mornings since[6], affecting the conduct of the city military police was unjust to the extent that it derogated from the claims of Capt. Heartsell to the confidence of this community. There has never been an officer in service in this capacity in Knoxville who has discharged his duties with greater skill and fidelity than the present incumbent. He shrinks for neither personal danger nor responsibility, and in the absence and supposed non-existence of our Board of Aldermen. Capt. Heartsell has rendered invaluable services to our people.
But there is a seemingly insuperable difficulty, which he encounters at every step. The sphere of his duty and power is limited by that of the military government. And we would gladly have some one define the beginning and end of the authority under which Capt. Heartsell acts. We heard once that we had a Mayor and Board of Aldermen, but are led to believe that Judge Swan was sadly at fault when he "went a fishing" for them in the unfathomable excavations they have made on Clinch and other streets. The Judge did get a nibble or two, but the whole Board immediately afterwards dived completely out of sight, and were heard of never afterwards. We hope that some one will bait a hook that will again attract to the surface of current events this immense body of legislators.
We would ask them by what military or other law does it become the duty of this executive Military officer to repair cellar doors? What has he to do with the infractions of the criminal cold when these crimes and felonies are the acts of citizens and not of soldiers? Have the Board of Aldermen forgotten their duties and their oaths? Does the declaration of Martial Law suspend the municipal code and charter of Knoxville? Has it lifted our Mayor entirely out of his official boots? Does it suspend the payment of all salaries? That's the question-there's the rub.
And if this immortal body of "conscript fathers," they ought to be "conscripts" if they are not this illustrious Board of city fathers, if the will not co-operate with Capt. Heartsell in the suppression of vice and crime, can't they assemble and resign, and let the people elect men who will take the responsibility of doing whatever is right and whatever the sufferings of this city demand!
Capt. Heartsell can only deal with soldier and conscripts; his sphere of duty is limited by his position as an officer and soldier, and yet would our Board of Aldermen add, all possible sufferings and evils to the horrors of war by their negative conduct and unpardonable inefficiency? Have they a single policeman on active duty to assist Captain Heartsell?
There is another little fact to which we would ask the attention of our Military authorities. Capt. Heartsell's guard consists of only twenty one men, while thieves and "stragglers" and conscripts crowd the city. There is not a day nor night without its robbery or theft or burglary. We are reaching the deplorable condition of Richmond, where the very air is reeking with villainies and crimes.
Capt. Heartsell is discharging his whole duty but he demands the co-operation of our municipal authorities.
Knoxville Daily Register, November 30, 1862.
        November, 1862, Confederate Conscript sweeps, Celina to Gainsborough[7]
No circumstantial reports filed.
HDQRS. 39TH BRIG., 12TH DIV. (CENTER), 14TH CORPS D'ARMEE, Hartsville, Tenn., November 28, 1862.
SIR: I respectfully report the arrival of my command at this point at 2 p. to-day; also the arrival of my train from Cave City, via Gallatin, with five days' rations and ammunition.
* * * *
They came from Sparta, by way of Bennett's Ferry, crossing the Cumberland at Celina. Hamilton's company has been enforcing the conscript law and guarding stock between Celina and Gainsborough.
* * * *
JOS. R. SCOTT, Col., Cmdg. Thirty-ninth Brigade.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 20, pt. I, pp. 14-15.
        __, Petition to Military Governor Andrew Johnson from women in Gordonsville [Smith County] to fight the Confederacy
Gordonsville Tenn. Nov [1862]
Hon. Andrew Johnson
We the undersigned offer our services for the purpose of aiding to put down the rebellion and will be very much obliged if you will supply us with arms and if you will accept us please send them immediately. if [sic] not we will arm ourselves and bushwhack it. [8]
Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, p. 45.
        30, Affair at Charleston [see November 27, 1863, "Skirmish at Cleveland" above]
        30, Federal army retires from Cleveland
….The enemy left early this morn, en route for Knoxville in order to capture Longstreet's Army [sic]. It is said about 2 corps are to go up. The wagons are passing through under whips and lash whilst the infantry are double-quicking [sic] it.
Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman.
        30, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 162, relative to illegal sale of Federal uniforms in Memphis [see also May 10, 1864, GENERAL ORDERS No. 3 below]
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 162, HDQRS. SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Memphis, Tennessee, November 30, 1863.
Merchants doing business in the city of Memphis....having supplied improper and unauthorized persons with military clothing, to the prejudice and detriment of the service, and it being impossible otherwise to control or regulate the matter-
It is therefore ordered, that all merchants in the city of Memphis not having permission from these headquarters to keep and sell military clothing of the patterns authorized by army regulations, shall immediately ship their stocks north of the lines of the Department of the Tennessee.
The following named merchants are reported to have stocks of military clothing on hand, and not having the necessary authority to trade in the same from these headquarters, will without delay conform to this order: Samter & Lepstadt, 310 Main street; Scheadzki & Co., 302 Main street; Kahn & Co., 268 Main street; I. Schwob, 264 Main street; Loeb & Brother, 260 Main street; M. Skaller & Co., 556 Main street; Fuld, Brother & Co., 217 Main street; Loeb & Co., 251 Main street; S. & L.S. Hellman, 2765 Main street; H. Newmark, 317 Main street; G. F. Morris & Co., 332 Main street; Mass & Co., 21 Shelby street; Stow & Schapsky, Gayoso House; I. Mayer & Co., 23 Front Row; Krouse & Co., 24 Front Row.
Military clothing, shoulder-straps, &c., not made according to the provisions of, and in strict conformity with, Article LI, Revised Army Regulations, will not be permitted to be offered for sale within this command.
The attention of merchants and of all commanders is called to Generals Orders No. 36, dated March 24, 1863, from these headquarters.
OR, Ser. 1, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp 289-290.
Soon after the final culmination of the Southern conspiracy against the established government, and when the true Union men in Tennessee were about overwhelmed by numbers, in the barroom of a public house not far from Knoxville, a traitor Lieutenant and Captain were playing cards, drinking, etc., and with several rebel recruits, having a good time generally.
Now, Lieutenant, for the 'rub,' as to which of us shall lower the 'stars and stripes,' at Parson Brownlow's, and kiss his handsome daughter," said Captain Joslyn, emptying his glass of liquor and shuffling the cards.
"Not so fast, Capt., if you please; you propose too much at once.  For rest assured that I am not so selfish, as to wish to win both 'honors.'  Give me the girl, and you can have the flag," replied Lieutenant Byrnes, gaily.
Ha, ha! Good; very good for the gallant Lieutenant," laughed the soldiers.
You are very generous, Lieutenant," said Joslyn.  "But the 'fair are for the brave.'  So let us take these-two fine points in our expedition up, one at a time, if you prefer-and first, for who lowers the hateful bunting."
Well; as you say, Capt. Let it be so:- proceed," and so the game went on, the Lieutenant losing.  "You see, Captain," said he, laughing," to you belongs the honor of lowering the hated flag, and so humbling the Parson's pride.  You have won."
"Bravo, bravo!" shouted the soldiers in chorus.  "Captain Joslyn, count on us, in case the old devil should resist.  We should like to have a hand in the pleasing task of bringing his dignity as well as his indignation down.
"Be not alarmed, my boys, you shall share the glory with me.' 
"Captain," chimed in the Landlord, "that the old man will prove crooked and troublesome you may safely depend, and my advice to you is to go down fully prepared for a stout resistance from the old chap; for by his ultimatum to the people his last speech, you know, he is as hard as Hickory on the war."
"Yes, Capt., that speech must prove indeed, his ultimatum," spake Byrnes, earnestly."  For he is growing too defiant.  His arrogance is becoming unbearable.  He must be silenced.  But come now, for the girl."
"Yes, Lieutenant," chimed Joslyn.  "That speech is the Parson's last, I believe, unless he plays the lamb and acts meekly.- But now, the 'rub,'" chimed the soldiers.
"For the Parson's daughter, continued the Landlord, as the play went on.  "A handsome bouncing lass, a brave and noble girl.  She would prove an honor to a better cause than the one which by her father she is forced to espouse.  She will prove a charming, a precious acquisition to the man who is fortunate enough to win her.  A noble woman, just such an one to lead a  forlorn hope or a desperate expedition of any kind.  She could pioneer where dangers were the thickest.  She can now, after attending her domestic duties, cross a sword , handle a musket, hunt, and follow in the chase with success, equal to any man of equal years in Tennessee, - and I would forewarn the man who is so fortunate to win the honor of kissing even the hand of that brave girl, to beware; she will not be trifled with."
"Ha, ha, ha!" laughed Lieutenant Byrnes.  "You, see, Captain, you have lost.  To kiss the Parson's daughter belongs to me, so the honors of our expedition, so far at least, seem fairly divided.-  Now are you satisfied?"
The sensual captain was far from being satisfied with the result of his proposed game for the girl.  Still he had lost and,  poorly concealing his chagrin, he replied, "O yes, Lieutenant, of course I am satisfied, though the fairly appears all on one side. – It's a one-sided affair.  I should have preferred the girl-"
"But, Captain, you know that in war all is fair.  Besides, have I not won her fairly?"
"Certainly, sir; of course you have.  You played fairly.  It's all right, and I am perfectly satisfied, Lieutenant, with my duty of hauling down the flag," said Joslyn obsequiously, though slightly chafing still.
"But indeed, Captain," broke in the corporal of the company, "if what mine host here says about the girl be true, you will have quite enough on your hands at the Parson's without her."
"Ah, what does he say of her?"  quivered Joslyn, anxious to look at the subject from another point.
"Well, that she is apt with firearms and the sword," replied the corporal.  "That she is a brave, courageous girl, - in a word, she is a powerfully strong minded and very dangerous woman."
"Indeed, quite an amazon, I suppose," said Joslyn with an assumed air of indifference, and then murmured to himself.  "Tush, I have lost a precious prize, just the kind of character I so admire. D—mn me; I'll have her yet."
"What's that you say, Captain; not satisfied yet? Broke in Byrnes.  "Come, let us take another drink.  Drink death to all differences, and then go on our happy way to take down the fancy colored rag.  You know, Captain, the orders are, it must come down," said Joslyn, filling his glass.  "I was just speaking of the admirable devil-me-care sort of character" of the Parson's daughter.  Our host here says she is dangerous-full of fight and fire.
"Ah that is just what I admire," chimed Byrnes.  "She suits me exactly, Captain.  I always prefer an amour in which risk and danger are involved.  It seems to give it spice, and I relish it the more, - you know the less easily won, the more precious when overcome."
"Take care, Lieutenant; take care," spoke the Landlord, smiling.
"Oh yes, Landlord: I'll be careful – very careful, and I'll kiss the Parson's daughter," Byrne laughed, and holding up his glass continued-"Here's to the success of our mission, and to our foe's perdition."
"That's the sentiment," echoed all, and drank – "And now men, for Parson Brownlow's,"said Byrnes, placing on the bar his emptied glass.
We'll brown his carcass, and bring him low.
"So let the world wag, wag as it will,
"We'll be gay and happy still."
They filed out of the hotel, singing gaily, and took up their march for the residence of the eccentric Parson Brownlow.
In the library-room of their snug home, the beautiful and noble Martha Brownlow sat reading some manuscript; near her stood her parent, just preparing to leave on a short journey.  As he stood, hat in hand, he turned to his loved daughter and tenderly said, "Now daughter, I shall not be gone long.  But, in the mean time, prepare all the copy you can, for the paper, against my return."
The obedient and affectionate Martha arose and said, "I will do so, papa.  But hasten your return, please; for these are troublous times long to be alone."
"If you are fearful, Martha, I will remain home to-day," said the tender parent.
"O no, papa, do not mind it; 'twas a sudden thought only, that flitted through my mind; nothing will come of it," replied the noble girl, and looking from the casement out upon the stars and stripes just floating off in the breeze from the flag staff in the centre of the lawn in front of the house, she continued; "I shall feel perfectly safe, even in your absence, father.  For 'our flag is still there."  Surely, I am safe beneath its protecting folds.
"Yes, daughter 'our flag is still there.'  Heaven bless it and you!" answered the parent, warming up with patriotism for the old flag.  "But that once glorious banner of liberty and protection to-day is disrespected and hated by men long blest beneath its bounties-men whose heartlessness and base ingratitude assimilates them to the fiendish characters of devils."
"Still, father, I feel safe beneath the roof o-ershadowed by its sacred folds," chimed Martha, catching the inspiration imparted by the subject.
"And so you should, daughter, so you should.  But the pure blendings of that flag's blood-bought colors have been shot, trampled on, and trailed in the dust, even on American soil.  Fiends there are, devils in human form, who, to-day, from the black recess of their heart of hearts, execrate and detest that sacred emblem of liberty."
"True, father, they may perhaps despise that blest ensign of freedom to all.  The traitors, though so abhorring the banner of the noble free, yet I cannot think would offer harm to me."
"No, daughter, the man who would dishonor that flag has no respect for the dearest rights of man.  God bless you, my child, and shield you until my return!"  Saying which the tender father kissed his loving child and left the library, to be gone but a short time.  And Martha, the heroine, was alone, singing in a subdued tone,
"Tis the star-spangled banner, O long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave."
She again took her seat at the writing table, and busied herself with the correction and revision of copy for the press.
"How silly in me to have forebodings of evil," she murmured.  Then glancing again through the window, she continued, "With such protection as that dear old flag gives, why should I be afraid? Women there were in the American Revolution, who, with their husbands, fathers, brothers, sisters, lovers, braved every danger, faced the foe, and defended that flag against the assaults of our country's invaders.  I emulate their daring example, and I'll protect it now."  She was startled from her musing by a loud rattling at the outer gate-a boisterous demand for admittance.  Looking from the easement she saw Lieutenant Byrnes, Captain Joslyn and their recruits, gathering about the gateway, and gazing wist fully towards the house, and anon enviously, hatefully, at the stars and stripes floating so proudly over the lawn.  "Arouse my heart, be stout and brave," murmured the noble girl as she wondered to herself:-
"Who may they be?  Traitors, no doubt, or they may be some Union men called to consult with father, their counselor, and they may want assistance.  Be it as it may, I shall see; and, if I can, assist the loyal cause," she bravely concluded, approaching the gate entrance, as they renewed their impatience for entrance by rattling more boisterously still the gate, she exclaimed:
"Stay; what would you?"
"We have business with Parson Brownlow, and wish to come in," said Byrnes.
"My father is absent.  By what authority do you thus demand, abruptly, admittance to a loyal citizen's home?"  Martha inquired.
"By the authority of the commander of the Southern forces in Tennessee, and in the name of the Confederate States of America."
"Gentlemen, we recognize no such authority, no such power.  We are loyal," said the proud girl.
"Then must we come in," spake Captain Joslyn, harshly.
"Gentlemen, I cannot admit you.  My father is absent."
"That makes it all the better for our purpose, Miss Brownlow.  Admit us.  We will not harm you," said Byrnes, in a tone of mingled determination and solicitation.
"Gentlemen, you say you have called to see my father.  I am alone, therefore will  not admit you," said the brave girl sternly.
"I would leave a message with you for Parson Brownlow.  Pray admit us, my dear."
"I tell you, gentlemen, my father is not at home.  If you wish to see him you must call when he is here."
"But we must come in now.  That flag must come down.  Draw down that flag!"  Joslyn  saucily commanded.
"No, gentlemen, I cannot oblige you in that either.  That good old flag floats very well where it is, and my hope and prayer is that it may long wave there.  I will not take it down,"spake the noble girl proudly.  But she was suddenly startled afresh by Joslyn commanding his men to force the gate and take down the distasteful flag, who, as he led them in over the lawn, said "If you will not remove it we will take it down for you."  But Martha, soon recovering her self-possession, and hastening into the house, soon emerged again with a well charged musket, and, taking her stand beneath the stars and stripes, brought the unerring weapon to her shoulder, like a well practiced veteran, and leveling it at her foes, exclaimed, "Back, sirs, back!"  Draw down that flag, and I'll draw you down!  Back, you cowardly dogs!  Leave me, ere I make you bite the dust!  Touch not the sacred folds of that good old flag!"
Cowards as they really were, they turned and skulked away, leaving the heroic Martha Brownlow unharmed.
When her parent returned he found her again in the library sweetly singing:
"Traitor spare that flag;
Touch not a single star;
In shining glory now,
And blazing near and far;
'Twas our forefathers' hand
That placed it o'er our head,
And thou shalt let it stand,
Or perish with the dead

"Our dear old precious flag,
Whose glory and renown
Are spread o'er land and sea,
And w'ouldst thou tear it down?
Traitor I forbear they touch;
Rend not its heart-bound ties;
Oh, spare that glorious flag,
Still streaming through the skies.

When I was yet a girl
I glorified in the sight,
And raised my voice in joy
To greet its folds of light-
For it my home is dear;
Dear is my native land;
Forgive this foolish tear,
But let that old flag stand.
"My heart-strings round thee cling
Close as thy stripes, old friend;
Thy praises men shall sing,
Till time itself shall end.
Old flag, the storm still brave,
And, traitor, leave the spot;
While I've a hand to save
Thy touch shall harm it not."
"Well, Louis, you are punctual; and, be it spoken to your credit, you have served me faithfully now for many years."
"Why, yes, master, 'tis true, I have tried to serve you well."
This conversation occurred near the slave quarters of as beautiful and productive a plantation as any in Tennessee.  The place belonged to Lemuel Garfield.  At the time of which we write, he was colonel in the Union army, endeavoring, against overwhelming opposition, to enlist the young men of Tennessee for the Union.  Louis, with whom he was now conversing, had been to him as indicated, a faithful slave, though in color almost white.  He had been to Garfield a confidential servant, a favorite.  In answer to the reply of Louis, his master said: "Which makes me indeed the more loth to part with you, Louis.  But I have tried my best for a long time now to arouse our young men-tried to increase the loyal Union sentiment among us in sufficient force to repel our disunion invaders.  But it has all been to no purpose.  'Tis labor for nought.  I have been mocked and threatened, and now, before many days have passed, that villain and plunderer Buckner will be down among us, scouring the place, to either destroy or press us into his villainous army.  But  I have made up my mind he shall do neither with me.  So, Louis, we must escape; I have concluded also to allow you a fair chance.  Yourself and Emily your wife are now at liberty.  You are free, Louis, to go where you please; and all I ask in return is that you will remain loyal and true to the Union.  For in the end the government and the laws must triumph."
"God bless you, master," said Louis, affected.  "You  have been always kind tome; but this last act seems the kindest of them all.  You ask me to prove faithful to the Union.  May my heart cease with life to beat, when I think not with gratitude of thee, or falter for an instant in my loyalty to the American Union."
"Heaven bless you, Louis," said Garfield, taking his sleeve by the hand.  "I believe you are sincere, in your gratitude to me.  Pack up all you can take with you conveniently, and get ready to leave.  Let us not loiter here, or we shall be captured."
"Indeed, indeed, master, I love the old homestead," said Louis, mournfully.
"So do I, Louis.  But we must leave it, that we may return reinforced with true men, that we may be able to retake and hold it."
"When I leave here, master Garfield, I don't know where I shall go.  Still I must hasten now to glad my dear Emily's heart with the good news that we are free."
"All right," said Garfield, pleased with his late slave's happiness, "But be careful, Louis; remain not here too long, or you may lose all; property, freedom and yourself.  Let them not capture you-fly for your life."
"Yes, yes; bless you, master.  I'll look out for them.  The rebels to catch me will have to prove very swift."
"Louis, be faithful to the loyal cause."
"Yes master; I'll be faithful.  God bless you.  Good bye, good bye," the happy Louis repeated as he turned from his kind late master, and walked rapidly towards his little house at the slave-quarters.
"I tell you, Lieutenant, I looked that girl direct in the eyes, and as plain as stern feminine determination could say it, she said 'shoot.'  I really believe if we had advanced another step, as she declared, she would have fired both barrels into us, which, of course, would most effectually have deprived us of the pleasurable recreation which we this day enjoy of scouring the woods and country hereabouts for adherents to the Yankee cause."
"D-m-d recreating tramping about here, hunting all day and finding no game," said Lieutenant Byrnes, petulantly, to Captain Joslyn, as they emerged from a thick woods, and stood a moment on an eminence, with two or three scouting recruits, overlooking the surrounding country not far from the game I think; for I am certain it was hereabouts I saw that busy rebel Garfield to-day," replied Joslyn, seizing a musket from one of his men and leveling it at something in the distance scarcely discernible.
"And it is just as certain that the game has flown," continued Byrnes, still chafing with the disappointment with which they met at Parson Brownlow's.
"It may be so, but let us not return to camp without a trophy of some kind," and discharging his  musket he ejaculated, "Let us scour the whole place."
"What in the devil's name did you do that for?" said Byrnes crossly, as 'the rebel fiend,' towering like a colossus before them, sprang lightly, athletically from his place of concealment-the hollow trunk of a great tree on the edge of the forest.  At his sudden abrupt appearance to them, all started as if a bomb-shell had just fallen in their midst.  In truth, he was a frightful looking character, not to say 'animal.'  He towered up before them, not less than seven feet in height, hugely large.  His right hand and same side of his face was frightfully black.  His hair was black and bushy, the general contour of his head reminding you of the head of the buffalo rampant.  Across his shoulders a coarse blanket carelessly hung dropping over his white arm, and partially concealing a naked knife or dagger in his hand, while in his left hand he grasped a charred flambeau, late extinguished.
"Counsel with me," sternly said he.  "On land and sea let your motto be, rough shod o'er them ride, 'To conquer first divide.'  Then scatter, tear, and slay, and burn them on every side."  Throwing his large brawny arm aloft, he flourished his great unsheathed knife on high until it gleamed in the sun like burnished silver.  He turned on his heel and was about to disappear again into the forest, as Byrnes, just recovering from the surprise his sudden appearance to them gave, gasped, "But sir, who are you? What are you? Where do you come from? And what is your name?"
"My name is,-no matter who I am, call me The Rebel Fiend,' or the 'Scout of Secessia,' if you please.  For my business is that of a scout in the Southern service, and before my work is done no doubt I shall be called a fiend, indeed.  My mission is blood,
With fire and sword I reigned before,-
By the same I reign forevermore."
Again flourishing his weapons he disappeared in the woods.  "That chap's a trump," said Joslyn, forgetting the poor calf he had just shot.
He is full 'secesh,' sure," chimed the men.
"So, Captain, we have received again our commission, to send all who oppose us down to perdition.  To hoist the black flag, no mercy show, and hastily dispatch all Yankees below-down to the dominions of the gentlemen in black, you know," rhymed Byrnes, sticking his sword into the  earth by way of adding force to his speech, while Joslyn, with equal vehemence, flourished his sword above his head exclaiming,
"Aye, aye such is our plainly appointed duty.  To kill, destroy and gather booty, or 'beauty.'  So let us to it at once together, 'pell mell' .  To heaven, if we may, if not, then 'hand in hand to hell.'"
And away they sped, "eager for the fray" their blood-thirsty souls on some foul and hellish deed intent.  Just as they passed the spot, the "Rebel Fiend" emerged from the wood again, and looking after them in hellish glee as they sped on their determined errand of blood, he chuckled: "On, on, ye dogs of war, and cry havoc, bloody havoc, on all who our onward march oppose.  Divide and tear asunder the union of our foes.  Drench with their own blood the so-called rag of the free.  Destroy it forever from the land and on the sea.  The states are ours to rule them or to rule, still let our motto be."
Saying which the Seccession monster dashed away through the forest again.
The light mulatto, Emily, wife of Louis, was busily engaged in preparing their evening meal, when Louis, smiling and happy, entered to glad her ears with the good news of their release from bondage.-"  God bless you, Emily; I bring you good news tonight.  My dear wife, at last we have our liberty.-Emily, we are free; free; bless heaven and master Garfield, to go where and when we  please."
"Cum, cum, Louis, don't now poke fun at me in dat kind o' way Free!-we free? Why Loo, you dun no what yer talkin 'bout 'Good  news,'-yes too good to believe.-Ha, yah, yah.  We free, Loo?  You makin fun;-it can't be," laughed the simple hearted wife, unable, as her remarks indicate, to appreciate the truth of the glad tidings.
"Yes Emily, it is indeed, true," continued Louis, kissing his young wife tenderly.  "But the worst is we must leave here soon, to escape capture by the traitors, the 'seceshers,' as they are called.  For, if taken by them we shall be sold again into perpetual slavery.  So master says we must pack up all we can at once, escape from reach of the traitors, and be true to the Union cause."
"True to de Union," echoed the smiling Emily, the apparent truth of her husband's news now breaking through her mind like the rays of the sun through an April shower of rain.  "God bress yer, Loo, den, dat we ain free am true?"
"True as heaven, and master Garfield is about to remove from here, and we must go too."
"Den ob course to de Union we'll be true," chimed the happy simple wife, returning her husband's tender embrace affectionately.  "God bress yer, Loo, yer am dearer to me now dan eber," she concluded.
"Heaven bless us, Emily," said her husband, kissing her again.  "Now let us prepare to follow and assist master.  While you pack up some things in the house, I will collect what I can that we shall need outside."
He was leaving the room as she called to him,-"Stop, Loo, and git yer supper fast.  It's all ready, come,-let us have our supper, an talk dis ting ober like."
"No,  no, Emily; I will clean the old gun first that has been hanging so long in the shed unused.  It may prove a useful companion in our travels; when I get the old gun ready, Emily, I will then be ready for my supper." He closed the door after him and Emily was alone again.
She busied herself about the room, murmuring to herself, "Free, free! Got yer freedom for eber.  Dat sounds strange like to me; bery strange and bery queer like.  I dun no what it am,-what am it, anyhow.  Wonder how it am cooked, stewed, roasted, boiled, fried, raw or in de shell.  Ha!  Louis and I, Emily Nelson, his wife, free! –seems queer.  But I guess it am so; Loo wouldn't tell me a lie in earnest, dat's a fac.  Den he's gone to clean de old gun.  It must be so, and no mistake.  Freedom! O bress de Lor we am free!" and the newly freed slave gave utterance to the melody striving to rise from her glad soul, by singing more musically than she ever sang it before,-'The Slave's Dream.'  But before she concluded there was heard loud knocking at the door, and without stepping her soul melody, her happiness perfect, full to overflowing, she said invitingly, "Come in-Spec it's massa Garfield, come down to tell me bout it too. – Please to come in, Massa Garfield, always welcome to some ob Emily's nice short cake."
But she was speechless a moment as she turned and saw confronting her Lieutenant Byrnes, Captain Joslyn, and several soldiers.
"Ah I just in time here," said Byrnes, looking wishfully at the well done cakes and the smoking pleasant odored coffee on the table.
"What fur, sir sogers, yer just in time? What dus yer cum in 'fur widout ' witen," stammered Emily at length, recovering from her slight alarm at their appearance.
"Come, come! My pretty wench, don't be quite so flippant with your tongue, but haste with your hands, and get us something to eat; we are hungry, and must have something to eat soon," commanded Joslyn, harshly.
"You is white men; sogers, I spee yer.  But, praps yer don't know dat I am free; ha, yah, yah! Bress de Lor', and Massa Garfield, Loo and I am free dis day fore God."
"Ho, ho! This is news, indeed.  Beside securing our suppers by calling in here we have also caught a pretty contraband.  Aye even handsome.  Where is your master," said Byrnes familiarly pertly.
"Dun no; spec he's home tho'," replied Emily.  But what yer mean by dat name yer call me just now, 'contermand.'"
"Ha, ha! It is contraband, my pretty one," said Joslyn, toying with her.  "It means you are our prisoner; we want you and your master to go with us to-night."
"Dun no.  But I don't tink dat so easy, kase we am free," replied the simply Emily.
"That makes it all the better, and the easier, and the easier, my pretty little contraband," smiled Byrnes, checking her under the chin.  In the mean time the soldiers were busy helping themselves at the table, and besides eating and drinking all they could, packing about their persons whatever they could carry away.  Joslyn helped himself to supper, leaving Byrnes to toy with Emily.
"See here," said the latter to Lieutenant.  "You am a white man; I'se a free married woman.  Please do dat agin-and see here, you tief," she said, turning to Joslyn as he was bolting away the last of her nice cakes.  "Dat am berry bad manners, to say no wus "bout it, and of yer don't stop dat, I must call in my husbam.  Louis Nelson, wid his gun."
"Take that for your insolence, you wench; and if you don't want about forty lashes well laid on, you'll not open your mouth again," said Joslyn, angrily throwing at her from the table a loaf of bread.
Byrnes attempting rudely to embrace her, she screams loudly for help, and pushing him from her he falls partially under the table, which, Joslyn trying to save him upsets, which the soldiers accept as a signal for destroying all the things in the place, in the midst of which having heard her scream.  Louis with his gun enters, hastily followed by his late master.  He fires at once at Byrnes who as he entered, had just seized Emily again.  But wounded in the left arm by Louis, he leaps up and draws his sword on the avenging husband, who discharges the other load of his gun at Joslyn, who strangely escapes from the floor unhurt.  Colonel Garfield, more successful in his aim, brings down both of the rebel soldiers at once, as they turn to run.  Louis now dashes with clubbed gun at Byrnes, who stands a second with sword drawn; ready and apparently determined to contest the issue with the enraged husband, but dexterously eluding the terrible blow intended to crush his skull he makes a rapid pass at his assailant with his weapon, but missing him rushes past him and escapes, bleeding from the wound in his left arm.  Louis, beside himself with revenge, and spurred on by the sight of his prostrate wife, turns again, and with the butt of his gun aims a terrible blow at the head of the flying rebel, just as he leaps through the door.  But the door post catches the blow, and by its force the stock of the gun is broken from the barrel, and as Louis, raving and writhing with the pain the rebound of the unfortunate blow has given him, the 'Rebel Fiend,' with drawn dagger and burning flambeau, stands grinning in the door-way, and loudly chuckles, "Ha, ha! Now, does the work go bravely on.  So soon my faithful  minions catch the spirit of  my reign.-This is our right, we gain it by might, to scatter, tear, and slay; and so we win our way.-By force and fire, and sword we reign, we reign;" and ere he could not be prevented, with his blazing torch he deliberately fired the wooden structure, and then loudly laughing, dashed away, followed hastily by Louis, with the bare barrel of the broken gun.
"Great Heaven! Emily what has brought this about?" said Colonel Garfield, assisting affrighted Emily to her feet.  "Come, come, Emily, we  must escape from here, the house is on fire, and the rebels, or devils, are on us.  Come, are you hurt?"
"Dun no, massa; dun no; may be I is.  Tink I is hurt some in dis shoulder.  When Loo shoot at de soger, tink he hit me too." 
"Whar am Loo, massa?  Hasn't gone and left us; has he massa?  He told me we were free," said she.
"Here he comes; he is here again.  Come, Louis, we must pack up at once, now, and get away from here, or we are prisoners."
"The villain, the fiend, escaped me.  But I'll have them yet.  I'll be revenged for this night's work, Master Colonel Garfield, severely revenged.  Every one of them rascals shall die for this, and more.  Them two are settled for at any rate," said Louis, panting for breath, and turning towards the two dead soldiers shot by Garfield.  "Master, you done your part well, and I shall yet redeem my bad shots.  But, Emily, you are yet alive.  Thank Heaven, you yet live for me!  Come away here; let us escape from this burning house."
"What, Louis, what do all dis mean? Am de war bruk out on us poor negroes?"
"Dear wife, the traitors are on us, certain.  We must haste away ere they are back to carry us farther south and sell us into perpetual slavery, or  murder us on the spot; either of which they intend doing.  Come."  Again by the light of the fire the Fiend appeared to view near them.
"Master Garfield,  please take charge of Emily until I settle with the fiend who had caused all this," said Louis; and hastily dashing after the secession scout, with his broken gun, exclaimed: "Now for revenge! I'll kill the fiend for this outrage.  Save Emily, master!  Revenge for my own and master's wrong!" and, despite of Garfield's advice for him to think now only of escaping, he was soon in close conflict with the rebel fiend, who rushed to meet him, and savagely cut and thrust at him with his long knife.  But one fortunate blow from the old gun barrel knocked it from his bloody grasp to the ground with a dull sound; and Louis was about to close with and throttle him, as he was seized suddenly from behind by Captain Joslyn, who, assisted by two soldiers, secured poor Louis's arms with a large rope, making him most effectually their prisoner.  The fiend, chuckling, regained his dagger from where it had fallen; and, as if satisfied with the turn of affairs, without attempting any more violence on the avenging Louis, pointed  his dagger disdainfully at the helpless prisoner, and flourishing his fire torch above his head, to Joslyn exclaimed, "Sir, if always you would thus successful be, never fail first to take counsel with me.  But still more to scatter, burn and slay, thus I haste and flourish on my conquering way."  Flourishing his torch and dagger, he dashed away through the forest; and soon Lieutenant Byrnes, with the assistance of Joslyn and his scouts, succeeded after some resistance in capturing Emily Nelson and Colonel Garfield; and, together with Louis, they were urged forward into the traitor's encampment, now not very distant from them.
"Come on this way!"  Joslyn commanded, urging Louis on faster.  "Caught at last  ye are, another Tarter caught, ye handsome contraband; come on this way, this way."  And thus they were jeered insulted, and urged urged onward towards the rebel encampment.
Early next morning they were ushered into the presence of General Buckner, that he might elicit in person all the information from them they could or were willing to give about the movements of the Union forces, which he knew were gathering length in large numbers, and preparing quietly to meet him in battle.
"Good morning, Captain!" said he, quite pleasantly, in answer to the latter's salutation.  "You have more prisoners, I hear." 
"Yes, General, two or three  more here," said Joslyn, touching his cap, and again saluting his commander.
"Bring them in."
"Aye, aye, sir," said Joslyn, bowing-retired to bring them to a hearing.
"Ah, Lieutenant! What news this morning?  Any signs of a further advance from the enemy.  What, wounded!"
This was spoken to Lieutenant Byrnes, who entered just as his Captain retired.
"There are evidences of great preparation, General," Byrnes answered, bowing," but, I think, of no immediate advance from the foe.  We have a few prisoners without.  This," said he, referring to his wounded arm, which he carried in a sling of linen," is but a slight hurt, received last night in a skirmish with the enemy's pickets."
"Liar!" exclaimed Louis, as he entered just in time to hear the falsehood.  And, writhing in his bonds (his arms were tightly tied behind him) he stamped on the floor and revengefully continued: my home; and, could I free myself from these bonds, I'd finish ye on the spot, ye lying scoundrel."
"Silence, sir, what do you mean by such language in my presence?" exclaimed Buckner; and the soldiers attempted to hold the prisoner still.
"Be quiet, or it will go hard with you," said Joslyn.
"Quiet, eh! Ye cowardly poltroons, I'd soon quiet all such as you if you'd take these fixins from my hands!"
"Silence, I say!" exclaimed Joslyn, menacing him with his sword.  "The General would speak with you."
"Who are you, what are you, and what is your name?" questioned Buckner.
"I am, Sir General, a free man."
"Most effectually bound," said Joslyn, in an under tone, provokingly.
"My name is Louis Nelson," continued Louis.  "This is Emily, my wife, also free, whom that dog there insulted.  And this is my friend, Colonel Garfield, who once my master was."
"Louis, on condition that we unbind and give you limited freedom, you will renounce opposition to our cause and take the oath of allegiance to the Confederate States of America,-will you?"  said Buckner, trying to soften the injured feelings of Louis, the better to draw from him what information he wanted.
"General Buckner, never!  When my master set me free I vowed in my heart of hearts to live only for the Union, and when I lost my loyalty, may my life cease to flow.  To the American Union, the Government and the Laws I shall prove true.  For the Union I'll die," Louis answered him nobly, emphatically."
"Take him away.  We'll give him his choice suddenly for the Union to die," Buckner commanded sternly.  "And now, sir," continued he to Colonel Garfield, "What have you to say? What is your name?"
"You should have known me, General Buckner,"  Garfield coolly replied.
"Ahem! –Why so, sir? Be not quite so presumptious.  It may prove worse for you.  Who are you?"
"My name is Lemuel Garfield, Colonel in the Federal or Union service.  Loyal and sworn to support the Government and the Laws.  Strange you do not know your nephew, General, your sister's child."
Cut to the quick by the sudden revelation, Buckner blustered, "Take him away, confine him closely-and now, my little wench," he continued, turning to the timid, trembling Emily, as the soldiers thrust Garfield away and into close confinement.  "What shall we get from you-information or impudence?  What are you called, and what do you know?"
"Oh! Massa Gineral Buckaneer, don't; please don't hurt my Louis nor my good massa Garfield," plead Emily earnestly.  "Him berry kind and good to me and my Louis.  He sot us free and said sw should 'tramp,' scape for ourselves, an we didn't.  O massa Gineral Buckaneer, he am berry kind like."
"Are you his wife? Or who are you? What is your name?"
"I'se de wife ob my husband, sir.  Massa sot us free and told us to out and run, and now you've catched us, -wish we had."
"Well, well! You've told us all about that.  What is your name, and what do you know?" pursued Buckner impatiently.
"Emily, sir! Emily Nelson-same as my husband's sir."
"Are there many soldiers,-Yankess and Hessians, down where you come from, and what were they doing?" he continued to question.
"Dun no, Massa Gineral.  De only sogers I sede war dem dat brung us here.  O massa, let massa sand Louis go, and we'll neber come back any more."
"Take her away-Yet stay, Emily.  Can you cook? Said he, calling her back."
"Oh yes massa, cook berry nice."
"Captain, set her to work-Captain Joslyn, guard well your prisoners.  Let me hear of no escapes.  And now, Lieutenant Byrnes, let us go within; I have some further commands for you."
They entered an inner room to quietly plan other deeds of outrage, oppression and blood, on all they should find in the least favoring the cause of the American Union.

Low down is a beautiful valley, shaded by great trees, and sweet-odored shrubbery, surrounded by large mountains on every side; the sides and summits of which were covered also with trees and vines and flowers that had grown here, flourished, changed, decayed, and passed away and reappeared again in season, from time immemorial, undisturbed by the rude tread of men.  It was a place wild and romantic in its primal beauty.  It was here, in such a place as this, so fraught with natural voices of sweet thoughts, and scared solitude, I first found Freedom crowned with chaplets as a god, or the laurelled wreath of conquest and victory.  Reclining on a mossy mound and murmuring, as if to induce reflection or repose, he softly sung, "My country, tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing-Land of the Pilgrim's pride; home where our fathers died-From every mountain's side, Let freedom ring." –Then, as if in dreamy vision, he softly murmured, "Tis sweet to linger here, among the flitting birds and leaping squirrels, wandering brooks, and winds that shake the leaves, and scatter as they pass, a fragrance from the cedars , thickly set with pale blue berries.  In these peaceful shades-peaceful, unpruned, immeasurably old-my thoughts go up the long dim path of years, back to the earliest days of liberty."  And then as Freedom seemed to repose soothingly, Parson Brownlow entered reflectively the woody scene, and in the language of Dryden, apostrophised,- "O Freedom, thou art not, as poets dream, a fair young girl, with light and delicate limbs and wavy tresses,-a bearded man, armed to the teeth art thou?  One mailed hand grasps the broad shield, and one the sword.  Thy brow, glorious in beauty though it be, is scarred with tokens of old wars; thy massive limbs are strong and struggling.  Power at thee has launched his bolts, and with his lightnings smitten thee.-Oh not yet mayest thou unbrace thy corslet or lay by thy sword; nor yet, O Freedom, close thy eyes in slumber.  For thine enemy never sleeps; he shall send quaint maskers, forms of fair and gallant mien, to catch they gaze and uttering graceful words to charm thy ear; while his sly imps, by stealth, twine round thee threads of steel that grow to fetters; or bind thee down with chains, concealed in chaplets.  Oh, freedom!-awake, gird on thy sword, and defend the refuge of thy latest home, America.  Forget not forever, 'eternal vigilance is the price of liberty.'"
"Oh, oh, yes massa Brown,-high massa Brownlow; Gineral Price am cummin' wid his whole army, ob what yer call em de rag cum muffins.  He's cummin', sah,-will be down on us in a minit, and kill and take us all away.-O massa, sabe me, sabe me; sabe poor Pomp."
Pomp was negro servant to Brownlow, and black as ebony.
He came running upon his master's solitude thus in the greatest excitement; terribly frightened with the news he was delivering.
"Why, Pomp; in the name of the law what do you mean by all this hubbub?" his master inquired calmly as he could, under the provoking circumstances.
"Hug-bug!-I means, I means," stammered he, panting for breath, with his long run, "dat Gineral Price; de man ye was talking 'bout de wigilence Price; Price ob Liberty,-Liberty creek, I spec, down dar in Missouri; am not fast cummin' to catch us all alibe, an kill us and burn us wid fire.-O massa, sabe me! Sabe me."
"Pomp, in the name of the law do you mean to say that the rascally rebel Price is approaching, in force?"
"No, no, massa! He am not cummin' in de name ob de law Dare am no law here now.  But he am cummin' like de debil in force-widout any remorse; yah, yeah,-to scatter and tar and clar us all away."
"But Pomp, where did you find this precious bit of news?"
"As I was goin' to de Pos' Office wid de letters, I stop in de tabern, an a man on a horse, a horseman, you know, rid down pas de street, like as ef de debil was arter him, sah, and he hollered out loud as he could bawl, 'De rebels am cumin,'-Price am cumin.'"
"Oh yes, father; they come, they come.  Haste this way or we are all undone," cried Martha, rushing on the scene as they emerged from the woody glen.  "O fly, father; fly, or we shall be captured, by the monster, Price.  Haste; let us fly to some place of safety, until our friends, the Union forces, are prepared for battle.  O haste, haste; they come; they come."
"Let them come.  They shall not take us without a fight; so Pomp, we must fight and retreat, until we reach our friends," and away they dashed through the woods to emerge again in an opposite direction, from whence their foes were pursuing them, "Pomp making the forest resound with "Oh! oh! de debils am cumin," as he run.  Amid all the noise and tumult of flight, Freedom slept on, and the Rebel Fiend stealthily approached where he lay locked in profound sleep, and chuckling, with his fair side towards him, softly muttered, "Sleep on, O Freedom; sleep on, my old foe.  Soft be the easy numbers, on t his mossy mound, of thy gentle slumbers.  Those wreaths of many victorious bound round thy war scarred brow, contrast strangely and shade in fair relief these later chaplets with which I bind thee now.-Sleep on, for me 't is not in vain, for while ye sleep I reign."  With hard thorny thongs he succeeded, at length, to effectually bind and secure the god of freedom to the earth where he lay.
About half a mile away, Colonel Garfield, Emily and Louis Nelson, having effected their escape from prison by killing the guard,-dashed into the woods together; also flying, in the same direction as Parson and Martha Brownlow, from the rebel foe.
"This way, master, this way!" cried Louis, as he plunged into the dense forest, his clothing torn almost from his body in his desperate struggle with Captain Joslyn.  Catching his flying wife in his arms, he continued; "Haste, haste, Emily, or they will be on us presently! though that white-livered, rascally captain, I think will not be able to follow very closely, with that slug in his thigh.  Ah, he falls! But the rest pass him by.  They follow us.  Haste, Emily; for God's sake, come, hast away!"  As they plunged through a dense thicket a volley of rifle balls whistled through after them.
In the mean time the Fiend, having been scouting through the forest, again rushed, flourishing his torch and great knife, on Freedom, as he still lay, just arousing himself from his deep sleep.  Leaping up, he fiercely drew his sword, and stood prepared to meet the Fiend, not a little to the surprise of the latter.
"Off! Back, thou wily fiend of evil!" spake Freedom, loudly, which re-echoed on his assailant's ears with a stunning sounds.
"May I not rest awhile from the tumult of battle without exciting thy envy, thou wretch and foe of man!"
"Ha, ha, ha, I have thee now!  Down, Freedom, down! the Fiend cried gruffly, savagely, and rushed on Freedom to strike.  But the latter, throwing up his sword point, parried the blow intended for  his heart, and defiantly exclaimed: "Twin born with man, I am his earliest, latest friend.  Tyranny has oft dug deep for me his dungeons.  Merciless power, by a thousand fires, has forged for me his chains, and has smitten me with his scourge and lightning bolts.  But Tyranny can never quench the life and lightning bolts.  But Tyranny can never quench the life and lightning bolts.  But Tyranny can ever quench the life which Freedom draws from heaven.  For, while he deems me bound, behold his links are shivered, and the prison walls fall outward; and, as springs the flame above the burning pile, I leap forth, armed to the teeth, and the pale oppressor flies."
"Never!" cried the Fiend, rushing again to the fearful encounter.  "To be weak is miserable.  Co-existent with Lucifer, son of the morning.  I am, therefore dare contend with thee.  Born of power, I have ever been the foe of man, and shall be to the last.  My motto rule or ruin is."
"Then ruin be your end, as it is your aim, and disturb no more my peaceful reign."
The Fiend, now, unsheathing a large sword, exclaimed furiously; "I take you at your word; I rule by fire and sword.  Freedom shall never reign except I first be slain."
"Then slain you shall be, should my blade not fail me," Freedom answered bravely, and they rushed together in the shock of battle, while the forest resounded with the roar and rattle of rebel cannon and musketry.  And again Brownlow, Colonel Garfield, Louis and Pomp appeared on the scene, loading and firing their weapons, in rapid reply to the random aim of their foes-Pomp, jumping about like one possessed, crying: "Dat's it, Massa Brownlow! Do 'em brown; shoot 'em down, and gib de debils hell.  Pour it into 'em; gib de debils h----;  more dan dey want to take away wid 'em:" while the Fiend, having lost his sword, knocked from his grasp by a powerful blow from his foe, staggers off, reels and runs away.  Freedom, attempting to pursue him to the death, stumbles and falls, and finds, to his great chagrin, that he is yet tied to the earth.
"This seems enchanted ground!" he ejaculates-with hellish schemes enchanted-secession traps and snares."  Soon the flaming evidence of a revenge worthy of the Fiend flashes up all around the place.  The forest, the bridges that cross the numerous streams here, the tenement houses, the fences-in s hort every that will burn, even the crops in the earth-are all on fire, blazing by the torch of the "Rebel Fiend, the Scout of Scessia," presenting a terrible tableau-with patriots of freedom flying from their treacherous foes in the darkened, smoking background-a single emblem of liberty, the stars and stripes, yet appearing away in the distance, sadly drooping down the flag staff, "amid fire and smoke, the cannon's roar and sabre's stroke."  O, those were soul sickening days of despair to the patriot heart, when the once loyal State of Tennessee was overrun with traitors to the government laws, the rebel fiends of "Secessia!"
"Colonel, they are too many for us here," the lion hearted Brownlow was compelled at length to admit, addressing himself to Colonel Garfield, as they together emerged again from the burning forest, some distance from their pursuers.  "We therefore better make our way, swift as we can, towards the border, where our friends are more numerous, and preparing, though slowly, yet surely, to crust out this most wicked rebellion at once.  With the Union army we can return, and do greater execution than alone."
"As you say, Parson," said Garfield, "but really I should like to scout round here that I may yet get an opportunity to teach that swaggering uncle of mine, General Buckner they call him, the nice degree of relationship existing betwixt us; since he has east his lot with conspirators and traitors, I should like to teach him, Parson, how far less to me than a stranger is even the kin of brother, that despises and dishonors the banner of the free.  The man, or the resemblance of a man, who insults the flag, dishonors me; he is no relative of mine.  To such an one my duty is death.  Ho, Louis! where have you been?"
"The devils, they fired my home and attempted to murder me.  I've fired theirs.  I'll give them blow for blow, the skulking sneaking miscreants!" cried Louis, hoarsely; and striking his torch against a  tree, panted a moment for breath.  He had committed another deed of vengeance, and then fled a long distance.  "Yes, golly, massa, yer ought fur to seen de way we burnt 'em.  We set dar ole Hog House on fire.  Phew, golly, how it did burn do; yer ought fur to seeded it.  But I would like to got some ob de  meat, do," grinned Pomp.
"What! have you fired the Pork Factory?"
"He, he! yah, yeah! golly, massa, yes! De Hog Factory am burnin like blazes to kill.  Golly, dey hab plenty ob roast pig now,  massa."
"Yes; and the wind is fair to-night for it to sweep into ruins half of Nashville.  The fiends of furies direct it to the capitol, and by fire purify the place from its corruption and oppression most foul!" said Louis, flourishing his flaming torch on high.
"Fearful retribution! how soon following their crimes their punishment begins!" reflected Brownlow, looking towards the city as the flames burst forth furiously.
"Ay, Parson, 'tis glorious that we can thus return them double for all they have inflicted on us," said Garfield.
"But we lose time here, and may lose our lives; come, let us away: Heaven be merciful to our foes!" continued Brownlow.
"The Fates punish them fully and well for all they have done!" replied Garfield.
"Ay, let the very stars in their courses fight against them, and all the furies unite to torture them to the full!" said Louis.
"Yah, yah! amen to dat! roast dare hog, dare pork well fur dem! de fires gib dem roast, burnt pig till dey am sick ob pig and secession!"  Pomp grinned.
"Hark! They are approaching this way in force."
"Ay, they come, they come! we must away, away to the borders!" Brownlow urged, and away they sped, fleet as their feet would bear them.
The Rebel Fiend, recovering himself and sword, again attacked Freedom before he could get from the forest.  Rushing on him he yelled, "Now, by the flashing light of t his flame, shall Freedom be slain!"
"Rather by its light my life I regain.  And my good trusty sword, for your deeds I shall give you your reward," cried Freedom, defiantly, as they rushed together-their swords ringing together with a clashing, clanging sound.
"No man of woman born can measure swords with the Son of the Morn," echoed the Fiends.
"Freedom is not of woman born.  Born man was I am.  Blest Nature in her purity first gave me birth.  Before the mountains were settled, before the hills was I brought forth; when he prepared the heavens I was there; when he set a compass on the face of the deep; when he gave to the sea his decree; when he appointed the foundations of the earth, then I was by him as one brought up with him, and my delights were with the sons of men.  'While yet our race were few I sat with him to attend the quiet flock, and watch the stars, and teach the reed to  utter simple airs; and by  his side, amid the tangled wood, did war upon the panther and the wolf, then his only foes.'  But again the spirit of the past is on me, and I strike to give liberty to the captive and full freedom to those that are bound," Freedom exclaimed, again attacking the scout with renewed and terrible vigor.
"Your boyish rule I dispute, hand to hand and foot to foot," the Fiend chimed.
"Thus do I break the power of the Fiend.  When we contend again it shall be to the death.  For the day of vengeance is in my heart, and the year of my release has come," Freedom exclaimed, knocking the weapon from the Fiend's grasp, while, as he fled from the forest howling with pain, Freedom leaned contentedly on hid sword, watching his course over the plain.
Scene Eighth-Treachery –The Spring Poisoner-The Scout About-Freedom and the Picket.
In the edge of the forest, near the Union encampment, not far from Spring Mills, on a hazy moonlight evening, a scout may have been seen darting and dodging about-starting forward into the somber light, leveling hismusket, and, without firing, again recede into the shadow of the trees.  It was LouisNelson, who, still keeping his eyes on some object resembling  a large hog, approaching slowly and hovering round a large spring of water, which supplied that wing of the Union camp.  Louis, the scout, muttered, "I think I know that porker-have met him before"- and again leveling his gun at the object, he mutters: "He's the monster that I shot in the hand, and caused me to wound my monster that I shot in the hand, and caused me to wound my Emily.  Still I will not take his life in this way; I'll give him a chance."  And his gun dropped to the scout's side again.  "But I'll take him, though; ay, that I will-alive too.  The wretch, he wants to poison that spring, and so this brave Union army here, the rascally wretch."
It was so.  Lieutenant Byrnes, disguised in a large hog skin, and gradually approaching the spring on all fours, was just in the act of throwing a large quantity of poison into the water as Louis sprang on him with a yell of vengeance.  The traitor, suddenly rising on his feet, nearly succeeded in throwing the scout to the ground, and grappling him by the throat.
The picket, who sleepily walked to and fro near the spring deceived by the appearance of the "hog," now fully aroused and alarmed, discharged his piece, but without effect, further than foolishly to arouse that portion of the camp.
"Ha, ha, ha, my fine porker! caught at last, and alive! tried to escape, did ye! but I have  you now, my pretty pig!  Exclaimed the scout provokingly.  "Tried to throw me too, did ye! Yer my prisoner; and I thought I would just ride ye into camp is the reason why I jumped astride of yer back as ye was down on all fours.  Here, ye stupid picket, if I was not a better s hot than that you just fired, I'd never look at a gun again; and we should have lost this precious pig, and you would have gained a luxury from this spring to-morrow in the dessert of arsenic, which would have released you from picket duty  here, but to shoulder your musket 'against a sea of troubles,' perhaps, in that 'country from whose bourne,' as bard has it, 'no traveler returns.'  Come, wake up, and help get this porker into camp; I want to show him up to the general commanding."
"You cannot pass, sir, without the countersign," said the picket, presenting his musket at the scout.
"Ha, ha, ha! well, well! here's a nice mess! got an important prisoner, a traitor Lieutenant, and we cannot pass the guard, eh?" laughed Louis.
"Call that pig a prisoner?" grinned the picket.
"Well, I do-really a valuable porker-caught in the death-deserving act of poisoning the water of the camp.  It is only protracting his misery that I did not shoot him on the spot.  Prisoner, show, not your hand, but your face, to the picket, then, perhaps, he will let us pass!"  Louis commanded him, facetiously.  The trembling traitor reluctantly obeyed the command; and raising the hog face, exposed his own.  But the picture he thus presented to the picket to affrighted him that he exclaimed-giving Louis the countersign himself-"'Lexington.' For God's sake, scout, hast, take him away."  And, being relieved by another taking his post, he followed the scout and his prisoner into camp.  The new picket had paced his post but a few times when he was confronted by Freedom, emerging from the forest, and w ho, as he attempted to cross the lines, cried:
"Back, sir, back! You cannot pass!"
"What, do you not know me? Will you not allow Freedom to pass?"
"None can pass sir, without the countersign."
"Not even Freedom?"
"My orders are imperative sir; to let none pass."
"You do not know me then,- you are young, perhaps; yet you should know well and old warrior, like me,-grown old in battle; and bearing about me, the deepest scars of many a conflict in Liberty's cause.  Then my acquaintances,-my companions in arms are numerous.  My references,-my ancestry are good.  But not to prove tedious and antiquated in recounting; Louis Kossuth fought for me, a few years since, in poor, struggling Hungary, and later still, the noble Garibaldi-Italy's great liberator-has done my good service;-also the veteran General Winfield Scott, has fought for me faithfully and long.  In sooth, I am not too vain to say, that with his noble battle scars crowning his brow and his ripe declining years with victorious wreaths, there is  a remarkable resemblance betwixt us.  Then there is the youthful, noble-soiled General McClellan, has given his life to my service.  But I cannot stay to emmurate,-time would fail me to number the noble army of martyrs, who have fought for me.-General George Washington and I fought side by side, for many years; during the early days of the American republic.  But later still, General Fremont, and many others know me well.-Young soldier let me pass."
"Sir warrior, I respect you for the dangers through which you have passed; the conquests you have won,-but you must not pass," said the picket, presenting his musket.
"And why not, sir comrade," said Colonel Garfield, coming up to where they stood.
"He does not give the word, sir," the picket replied.
"Oh, I guess he is only trying you, young soldier. He certainly has our countersign," continued Garfield, taking Freedom by the arm and crossing the lines on their way.  "Freedom and I are fast friends.  I know him well, young soldier."
As they neared the head-quarters of the General, Martha Brownlow and Emily Nelson stepped nobly from a tent, bearing a beautiful silk flag, and welcomed Freedom and Colonel General.  Garfield, it is now, by charmingly singing "The Star-Spangled Banner."
Just back of the Union camp, at the slave-quarters, Pomp, surrounded by a large number of contrabands,-men, women and children; was, one fine sunny day, cutting up all sorts of antics,-laughing, singing, and enjoying himself as best he could, in his own inimitable style.
"Ha, ha, yah, yah!" he laughed. "Lilly, I'se so glad yer cum.-I dun no what to do wid myself.  Do yur ob Jubliee am cum, an I'se so glad; yah, yah.  De day ob de Pentecost am cummin'; and I'se berry happy.  I say Littly;  my lubly dear, Gineral Fremont am a great mountain.  De great stone what we read 'bout you know; what smite de image of treason, de great Juggernaut, de big idol ob de South, you know; on de feet, and set all de niggers free.- Ha, ha,  yah, yah; and I'se berry buzzard happy like.  Golly; Lillty, he am de mountain ob freedom."  Thus the happy black expressed his joy, at his prospect of liberty, to Lilly, his berothed; a jet black contraband, embellishing his odd speeches with various grimaces and antics, leaping and frisking about like one possessed.
"Lilly, as we used to sing down in the meetin' we shall come to Mount Zion, wid songs and wid laughin,' kase we am free,-yah, yah.  Golly, Lilly; guess Massa Fremont am de Mount Zion.  Let us go see him, Lilly.  Massa Fremont de man what would set all de poor niggers free."
"O  yes, Pomp; I should like to see de great Fremont.  Heaven bress massa Fremont, and gib de debils Jessie."
"No, no; Lilly yer don't mean dat.  What; gib Jessie to de debil.  Why Lilly, my lub; does yer know dat Jessie am de Gineral's mudder' or no, I don't mean dat,- I mean his wife; his aid-de-camp, you know.  Why she am de one what plan all his battles."
"Golly, Pomp; I nebber knowed dat.-How yer find out? Whar did ye git yer larnin' from, Pomp?"
"He,he; hi, hi! Golly, Lilly; ye make me feel as I was sumting, suah," grinned Pomp, strutting about, and putting on the most absurd air of supposed dignity.  "An I say, Lilly, we will be sumting sum consequence, too;-kase day am goin' to ederficate de poor nigger.-Fore God, Lilly, de brack man 'still libs.'  But how I know 'bout Jessie, I will tell  yer, my lub:-yer see I was hangin' around de camp, one day; I sede de Gineral and his sogers round him, and in de middle, Jessie; his woman, yer know; and I watch my chance, and when she want a bucket o' water I jumped at de bucket, went to de spring, and had de water at her feet, while der servant was looking fur de bucket.  And when I cum dar I sede her wid a big pen in her hand, with a great big paper before her, what de white folks calls a mop or map, I dun no which; anyhow, I tuk it to be a mop ob de shampane, or de plan ob de big battle, 'bout to be fit."
"But Pomp, what did missus Jessie want wid so much water?" Lilly inquired, while Pomp straightening himself up, honored by the inquiry, said, "To bile more ink, to plan annoder  battle-annoder shampane.  And dat am de lady, Lilly, what yer said jus now to gib to de debil.  Lilly dat won't do,-we couldn't do wid-out her yit-"
"No, no, Pomp! I didn't mean dat-I only meant for Massa Fremont, to gib de debils-dem bad soger men, what cum from Georgy, Tennessee, and udder places down south, to fight us-'Jessie,' dat is lick em good, so dey won't cum back anymore; gibe m blazes, you kno; and plenty wat dey calls,  little more grapes."
"Yah, yah! Dat am de talk, Lilly,-gib dem grapes, wild stones in em so tarnation big dat dey can't swaller em; but choke dem to defth.  Gib dem grapes dat shall fer eber be sower to dem.  But Lilly, lub, let us all on Massa Fremont 'bout it."
"They danced and laughed away, followed by the whole concourse of promiscuous contrabands.  "Dar, look dar; annoder debil rebel gone," said Pomp, dancing and leaping before Lilly, and pointing to the body of the traitor Byrnes, hanging from the gibbet.
"The wretch is executed at last, and so on him I am avenged," said Louis Nelson to Garfield, as they passed by together for another part of the encampment.
"Yes," replied the latter, "and the commonwealth is relieved of a very useless member, and the country at large, rid of one villain-one traitor more.  So should all traitors die.  But Louis, let us to horse; the rebels are advancing on us in force.  To horse, to horse; and charge on them for your home.-For your country charge,-the Government and the Laws."
"Aye, aye, Colonel! Lead on,-we strike now for the Union and Liberty's cause."
And away they rode, leading the advancing columns of the Union forces at Spring Mills, directing their course through the thickest of the fray, amid the roar of the cannon, the incessant rattle of musketry, the flashing of sabres, and the clang of arms generally.  Louis , dashing on recklessly through the incessant storm of leaden hail, that rattled in death dealing showers around them on every side, as his noble charger fell under him, pierced by a dozen bullets, he drew his sword to guard, just in time to save his life from a desperate plunging blow from the Rebel Fiend, who, having been in all parts of the field on his bloody work, espied Louis, the Scout, and singled him out as a shining mark for his weapon.  But the blow was dexteriously parried, and a hand-to-hand encounter soon ensued between them.  "Monster fiend, yet must be of the devil born," cried Louis, in my revenge, "or yet of sterner stuff than my good blade is made.  For thrice has my trusty steel pierced they garments through, and still thou art before me, strong with life as ever.  But slay thee yet I will.-For to be revenged I've sworn."
"Ha! My life immortal is;-no man of woman born can ever slay Lucifer's Son of the Morn," echoed the Fiend, thrusting desperately.  But Louis closing with him, grasped his cloak, out of which the fiend, being hardly pressed, slipped and fled the field.
"He fights as one possessing, indeed, a charmed life.  When we contend again I shall know," said Louis, in disappointment, still grasping the coarse cloak, and gazing revengefully after the flying form of the Rebel Scout.
"Follow them, boys,-on boys, on.  They fly, they fly," exclaimed parson Brownlow, encouraging the men to pursue the traitors to the death.
"Aye, go in boys; on and onward still. We've got 'em now. Pour it into 'em.  Give 'em h-ll, and 'Hail Columbia," shouted the eccentric Garfield, drawing off his coat and throwing it up into a tree, dashing over the field after the flying foe.  His brave and hardy men followed his example, throwing up their caps into the air with a wild shout, rushed after their daring and noble leader with the wildest enthusiasm.
"Colonel, the traitor; General Zollickoffer is killed,-shot through the heart; and his whole command is completely routed," shouted Louis, as he dashed past his former master into the thickest of the fray, flying over the wounded as they lay in his way, the dying and the dead, after the routed enemy, who were scattering and flying from the field in the wildest disorder.
"That's glorious news.  Pour it into 'em, boys, and drive the traitors from the land," yelled Garfield to his men.  "Look there, boys, that's a grand hand-to-hand encounter.-Take a lesson from that."
Freedom and the Fiend, hand-to-hand, were contending in a distant part of the field, isolated almost from the rest of the combtante, "Tyrant wretch; base fiend of evil.  If more than man, then not less the devil; we meet again, in this unholy war.  Man's temper still, why do you haunt me evermore," shouted Freedom, as with his sword he pressed back and bore the Fiend nearly to the g???; but the Fiend recovering started up, exclaiming, "Vain dotard of antiquity! The silly taunts have no effect on me.  My charmed life, I live o'er and o'er; I reign henceforth forevermore."
"Prophet false, base thing of evil, union is of love, disunion of the devil.  Leave us no more thy black deeds as a token; get thee back to Pluto's shore; leave our liberties unbroken; and with treason curse our land no more," Freedom shouted, with all his strength, as they again came together, in the terrible, fatal conflict.  Overborne by Freedom, the rugged Rebel Fiend fell; sank down exhausted, beneath his well used sword, drawing which from his heart-dripping with his dark and corrupt blood, he drew his sword on high, and leaping on the dead body of the Fiend, stood on it in triumph.  While the walkin' rung, again and again, with the hilarious shots of victory from the noble ranks of the Union army over Forts Henry, Donaldson, and New Madrid, the traitors are driven from Kentucky; Missouri and Tennessee; and the abused and persecuted Brownlow; Martha, his heroic and faithful daughter; Emily Nelson, the simple, yet noble wife of Louis, the avenged husband and Union Scout; and Colonel, now Brigadier General Samuel Garfield, may safely return to their homes, escorted by the Union victors.
Pomp the eccentric ebony idol of jet black Lilly, the contraband; the bride, of course, followed.  But Garfield had the satisfaction of seeing the tables fully turned on his old foe as he so ably assisted in taking prisoner General Buckner.
Their was a happy return, as they joyously re-entered their old homestead; and Martha, after singing with Emily, "Columbia the gem of he Ocean," –looking from the same window again out on the beautiful lawn surrounding the place, exclaimed again, but now with tears of joy,
"Father, 'Our flag is still there.'"
"Yes, daughter, and 'Long may it wave,
O'er the land of the free, and the home of the brave,'"
Welled up from the heart of the persecuted man, and fell from his lips in response, earnest and warm, as the true heart's sincerest prayer.
"Yes! May our good old flag,-liberty's noble ensign, be forever honored and loved at home; and respected on every sea," concluded Parson Brownlow's pure and patriotic daughter.
The Heroine of Tennessee, Barclay & Co., Philadelphia November 30, 1863.[9]
        30-December 1, 1863, Federal scout, Trenton to Edmond's Ferry and across Obion River to the edge of Dyer county to monitor Confederate movements and Federal conscription sweeps [10]
No circums
UNION CITY, December 1, 1863.
Capt. J. HOUGH, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Columbus, Ky.:
Not receiving a reply to my dispatch before noon yesterday, and being ordered to form a junction with the cavalry from the south, I pushed out to Edmonds' Ferry, 12 miles this side of Trenton, last night, and sent a scouting party across the Obion; also 1 man into Trenton. I received news from three different sources exactly confirming that brought by my spy, and sent to you yesterday morning.
Bell moved west into the edge of Dyer County to get supplies and to await the arrival of Forrest. Faulkner is at Trezevant with only his own regiment. He has sent two companies to Jackson to get arms from Forrest for him new recruits.
I had crossed the ferry this morning, and was going on to meet our cavalry when your telegrams were brought to me saying that they had been ordered back. Knowing that I could gain nothing by going to Trenton thinking that my force might be wanted here, and having all the information that I could get by advancing in person, I recrossed and turned back. Moore will come via Dresden, and Heinrichs via Gardner's Station, both conscripting as they come. They will be here to-morrow. If the general has no objections, I will go in to talk to him to-morrow evening.
My spy has gone to Jackson to get news of the artillery. He and others will inform me of any movement in this direction. I shall hold all the crossings of the Obion River from to-morrow night.
GEO. E. WARING, JR., Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. III, pp. 304-305.
        30-December 3, 1863, Scouts to New Madrid Bend, Tennessee[11]
NOVEMBER 30-DECEMBER 3, 1863.-Scouts to New Madrid Bend, Tenn.
Report of Capt. Rufus S. Benson, Thirty-second Iowa Infantry. HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Island No. 10, Tenn., December 4, 1863.
SIR: I have the honor to report that, on the morning of November 30, 1863, I sent into New Madrid Bend a party of 40 men, under the command of O. A. Lesh, first lieutenant Company H, Thirty-second Iowa Infantry, with instructions to conscript all able-bodied men subject to military duty, in accordance with General Orders, No. 68, headquarters Sixth Division, Sixteenth Army Corps, November 26, 1863. The party made quite an extensive scout through the bend and returned in the evening to the island, with 29 conscripts. That night the guerrillas conscripted quite a number of men, and seized many horses and mules. On the 2d and 3d of December, I proceeded again into the bend, and procured 6 more conscripts, 50 horses and mules, 4 wagons, and 16 harnesses, somewhat worn; also several old saddles and bridles, and 15 blacks.
The conscripted white men, numbering, altogether, 35, were examined by the post surgeon, and 28 of them were pronounced able for duty. Those rejected by him I have permitted to return home. Ten have already volunteered and joined the two companies posted here.
There is a large quantity of corn in the bend, which ought to be taken possession of for the benefit of the Government. The bend is pretty effectually cleared of male inhabitants, as the guerrillas have taken all we left, so that this grain is wholly uncared for and will probably be destroyed by the secesh, unless soon seized by the Government. If we had any means to get in across the river, I should commence bringing it to the island at once, and save what I could of it, but as the O'Brien has been ordered to Cape Girardeau, I expect to obtain but little, if any.
I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
R. S. BENSON, Capt. Company H., 32d Iowa Infantry, Comdg. Post.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, p. 592.
        30, Scout from Nashville to Nolensville
No circumstantial reports filed.
A reconnaissance was not an idle and cavalier affair but was meant to be a concise and orderly army function, as the following orders indicate.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Nashville, Tenn., November 29, 1864.
Capt. DAVIS, Cmdg. Tenth Tennessee Cavalry:
CAPT.: You will march at 5.30 to-morrow for Nolensville, to watch the movements of the enemy in that vicinity. Picket all the roads in the neighborhood, move small parties in every direction, and keep your command constantly on the alert. Take every precaution you may deem necessary for the good order and safety of your command. Keep your command together, and allow no foraging, unless your forage should give out before you are recalled. Endeavor to communicate with any of our cavalry that may be in your vicinity, and report to Gen. Wilson for orders, if he comes within ten miles of your command. Report any news of importance, without delay, to these headquarters, or to the headquarters of any brigade or other command in your vicinity; very important information will be sent to these headquarters; communicate, if possible, with Gen. Wilson without delay.
This can be done by thoroughly patrolling the country in your front. Have frequent roll-calls during the day, to compel the presence of your men in camp. Arrest all officers found neglecting their duty, and punish with the utmost severity disobedience of orders or neglect of duty on the part of any of your men. Take the best possible care of your horses, and compel your officers to see that they are well groomed, properly watered, and fed.
By command of Brevet Maj.-Gen. Wilson:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 1151-1152.

HDQRS. DETACHMENT TENTH TENNESSEE CAVALRY, Seven Miles from Nolensville, November 30, 1864. Gen. WILSON:
I learn from reliable authority that several squads of rebels were in this neighborhood last night-in all, about twenty-five men; also that a regiment of cavalry crossed this road yesterday going toward Murfreesborough. The latter report I am not prepared to believe.
JOHN A. DAVIS, Capt., Cmdg. Detachment Tenth Tennessee Cavalry.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Two Miles East of Franklin, November 30, 1864.
Brig. Gen. R. W. JOHNSON:
GEN.: The general commanding directs that you send the Fifth Iowa Cavalry, to proceed by the north bank of the river, to the right of infantry line, and picket from that line well down the river-pickets of observation.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JNo. N. ANDREWS, Capt. and Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 1180.
        30, Scout, Decherd to Shelbyville and Lynchburg environs
DECHERD, November 30, 1864.
Capt. Shipp has just returned from a scout in the direction of Shelbyville and Lynchburg. He went ten miles, crossing Elk River, and neither saw nor heard of any enemy. All quiet at bridge. I have road patrolled from bridge north two miles every hour.
W. WARNER, Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 1192.
        30, Union withdrawal from Tullahoma
No circumstantial reports filed.
NASHVILLE, November 30, 1864--4 a. m.
Maj.-Gen. MILROY, Tullahoma:
I desire you to leave Tullahoma at no particular hour, but just as soon as you can get all your sick on board north-bound trains and have carried out my previous directions given you. Have you shipped your artillery yet, and have the commissary stores been loaded on south-bound trains for Chattanooga yet? They must be loaded just as soon as trains arrive. Don't permit your men to be stampeded, but have things done quietly, and no useless destruction of property of any kind.
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Volunteers, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 1187.
        30, Skirmish at Thompson's Station
No circumstantial reports filed.
Excerpt from the Report of Colonel Emerson Opdycke, 125th Ohio Infantry, commanding First Brigade, of operations November 29-3-, 1864.
HDQRS. FIRST BRIG., SECOND DIV., 4TH ARMY CORPS, Nashville, Tenn., December 5, 1864.
CAPT.: I respectfully submit the following report of the operations of this brigade from November 29 to December 1:
The command is composed of seven regiments....[At] 4 a. m., November 30 [, b]y Gen. Wagner's orders I then drew in all of the regiments, except Col. Smith's, and made disposition to act as rear guard. I was informed that our situation was critical, and the greatest efforts would be needed. Formed in two lines of battle, and Col. Smith's command came from picket and deployed as skirmishers. A section of the Fourth Artillery reported to me at 6.30 a. m. We faced to the rear and moved off in line. As we debouched into the little valley at Thompson's Station, skirmishing opened. Col. Smith managed his line skillfully, and sustained no loss. He killed a few rebels, one an officer, within a rod of our line. Stragglers soon commenced filling the road, mostly new men with immense knapsacks. They were so worried as to seem indifferent to capture. I ordered each of my three lines to bring along every man at the point of the bayonet, and to cut off the knapsacks. These orders were obeyed rigidly, and probably less than twenty men escaped our vigilance and were captured. I am sure that we saved 500 men from capture by these severe measures. The enemy continued to annoy our rear all the time, and at 11 a. m. we reached Stevens' Hill...
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, pp. 239-240.
        30, Battle of Franklin
General U. S. Grant was promoted to Supreme Commander of the Federal Army after the Union victory in the Battle of Chattanooga. He was transferred to Virginia to initiate an offensive against the Army of Northern Virginia. In the West Federal General W.T. Sherman moved toward Atlanta where General John Bell Hood had replaced General Jo Johnston in command of the Army of Tennessee and in charge of the defense of Atlanta. After four disastrous attacks which brought about consequential Confederate losses, General Hood was compelled to forsake Atlanta and fall back into Alabama. Hood concocted an industrious strategy to both cut off Sherman's supply lines in Tennessee and through a war of attrition, starve the Federal troops in the Volunteer State into submission. Hood's plan called for the seizure of Nashville, a vital rail and supply center for the Union, where he could resupply his troops. Then, refreshed and rested, Hood planned then to move northward to attack Louisville and Cincinnati, after which he would join General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia for an expected Confederate comprehensive offensive on Washington, D.C. Jefferson Davis, however, heedless of the need for secrecy, openly discussed Hood's plans. General Sherman became aware of Hood's strategy when Davis's remarks appeared in the northern press. Sherman briefly pursued Hood, but concluded that the Federal cause would be better served by sending Major-General John M. Schofield to oppose Hood in Tennessee. Sherman was free then to return to his base in Atlanta and begin his march to the sea. Hood's plans to divert Sherman were thus ultimately futile.
On November 21, 1864, Hood advanced the Army of Tennessee from its refuge in Alabama into Middle Tennessee. When Hood learned that Major-General Schofield's army was only 30 miles away at Pulaski, he devised a scheme to arrest Schofield's forces from linking-up with Federal troops in Nashville. Schofield, however, cleverly managed to skirt Hood's army as it literally slept at Spring Hill. By this time, many believed that Hood's perception was marred by his very serious wounds which had left him with but one leg and a shattered right arm.
The Federal troops entrenched themselves on top of a hill, behind earthen fortification built hastily at a bend on the Harpeth River, on the south side of Franklin. Hood aggressively followed when he discovered Schofield's new position and hurled his army at the entrenched Federal troops with six direct frontal assaults in the afternoon of November 30. In a battle lasting about six hours, more than 6,000 Confederates including 12 generals were killed or severely wounded. While Hood's army was not yet defeated, it would be vanquished at the Battle of Nashville later in December.

Private Sam R. Watkins of Company H, 1st Tennessee Regiment of Carter's Brigade wrote about the battle from a common soldier's viewpoint:

As [we] marched through an open field the to the rampart of blood and death, the Federal batteries begin to open and move down....'Forward, men,' is repeated all along the line. A sheet of fire is poured down into our very faces....'Forward, men!' The air [is] loaded with death dealing missiles. Never...did men fight against such...odds...'Forward, men!' And the blood spurts in a perfect jet from the dead and wounded. The earth is red with blood....The death angel shrieks and laughs....I had made up my mind to die-[it] felt glorious. We pressed forward....Cleaborne's [sic] division was charging....I passed on until I got to their [Yankees] works and got over on their side. But in fifty yards of where I was, the scene....seemed like hell itself....Dead soldiers filled the entrenchment....It was a grand holocaust of death."
Sam Watkins, Co. "Aytch"[12]

General Hood has betrayed us. This is not the kind of fighting he promised us at Tuscumbia and Florence, Ala. when we started into Tenn.
This was not a 'fight with equal numbers and choice of the ground' by no means.
And the wails and cries of widows and orphans made at Franklin, Tenn [sic] Nov [sic] 30th 1864 will heat up the fires of the bottomless pit to burn the soul of Gen [sic] J B [sic] Hood for Murdering [sic] their husbands and fathers at that place that day. It can't be called anything but cold blooded Murder. [sic]
Diary of Capt. Samuel T. Foster, Granbury Texas Brigade. [13]

The following is Major-General John B. Hood's Official report on the Battle of Franklin. It is noteworthy for its brevity and focus on the loss of general officers and not the thousands of ordinary Confederate soldiers. Union sources had intercepted it from Confederate newspapers, and it was then forwarded to Lieutenant-General U. S. Grant:
CITY POINT, VA., December 16, 1864.
Lieut. Gen. U. S. GRANT, Washington, D. C.:
* * * *
Gen. Hood's Official report of the battle of Franklin has at last been received. It will be seen that our reported extraordinary loss of general officers is but too true. The following is Gen. Hood's dispatch:
"HDQRS. ARMY OF TENNESSEE, "Six Miles from Nashville, Tenn., December 3, 1864. (Via Mobile 9th.)
"Hon. J. A. SEDDON:
"About 4 p. m. November 30[14] we attacked the enemy at Franklin, and drove them from their center line of temporary works into the inner line, which they evacuated during the night, leaving their dead and wounded in our possession, and retired to Nashville, closely followed by our cavalry. We captured 7 stand of colors and about 1,000 prisoners. Our troops fought with great gallantry. We have to lament the loss of many gallant officers and brave men. Maj.-Gen. Cleburne, Brig.-Gen.'s John Adams, Gist, Strahl, and Granbury were killed; Maj. Gen. John C. Brown and Brig.-Gen.'s Carter, Manigault, Quarles, Cockrell, and Scott were wounded; Brig.-Gen. Gordon was captured.
"J. B. HOOD, "Gen."
A subsequent telegram from Gen. Hood says that our loss of officers was excessively large in proportion to the loss of men.
* * * *
JNO. A. RAWLINS, Brig.-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 445, pt. II, pp. 211-212.

The following newspaper account of the Battle of Franklin, Tenn., November 30, 1864, by Isham Green Harris, Confederate Governor of Tennessee, was published in the December 20, 1864 number of the Milledgeville, Ga., Southern Recorder. From the Governor's standpoint, the battle was a victory for the Confederacy.
We pursued and overtook the enemy at Franklin, where he had thrown up one line of breastworks and commenced two others.
The enemy evidently intended to hold permanently the line of Franklin and Murfreesborough.
We attacked him in position about 4 o'clock p. m. and successfully carried their two outer lines.
At dark we had reached and stood upon the outer edge of their interior and last line of works while the fight continued until 11 o'clock.
We held our position during the night, expecting to renew the fight in the morning, but unfortunately under cover of the darkness, about 12 o'clock, the enemy had retired, leaving killed and wounded on the field.
We were unable to use our artillery on account of the presence of the women and children in the town.
We massed about 100 pieces of artillery that night [and] opened on the enemy at daylight, expecting the non-combatants to have gotten out before day.
We have lost an unusual large proportion of officers.
Generals [Patrick Ronayne] Cleburne, [Hiram Bronson] Granbury, [William Wirt] Adams, [Otho French] Strahl, and [States Rights] Gist were killed.
Generals [John Calvin] Brown, [William Andrew] Quarles, [John carpenter] Carter and [Thomas Moore] Scott were wounded.
We have captured about 1,300 prisoners and picked up on the battlefield about 6,000 stands of arms.
We have also captured a large number of colors.
We have also captured four locomotives and trains and are running the Tennessee and Alabama railroad.
Other trains are cut off, which we hope soon to have in our possession.
About 5,000 of the enemy are cut off at Murfreesborough.
The Army is in fine health and excellent spirits, and confident of success.
The people are delighted and enthusiastic at our advance.
SOR, Ser. I, Vol. 7, pp. 677-678.

The Battle of Franklin from a Confederate Private's Point of View, John M. Copley Forty-ninth Tennessee Infantry
We were now ordered to fix bayonets, fire, and charge the first line of works. They received us with a volley of musketry, but all opposition was inadequate to check our columns in the slightest degree, and with one prolonged and loud cheer we carried the first line of works at the very points of the Federal bayonets. They stood their ground until we mounted the top of their works, but as we went over, part of their line of battle broke and fled, while the remainder lay down flat on their faces in the ditch to save themselves, and were either killed or captured; but few of those who fled succeeded in reaching their main line. Our lines of infantry swept over their works, annihilating nearly everything before us. This partial victory was quickly won. It appeared as if our troops had received an electric shock, which aroused their enthusiasm to its highest pitch, and the air resounded with loud shouts from our whole army, which almost made the earth over which we were going quake and tremble.
After taking this line of works, we made a momentary halt in order to reform our front line, but this was only for an instant; we now pressed closely at the heels of their retiring line, to storm the second. Their batteries immediately opened upon us with a perfect hailstorm of grape and canister, and when within a short distance of their main line, we encountered the abatis, or bois d'arc hedge, and also the line of cheval-de-frise; here the battery of thirty-six guns a little to our right, and that of twelve guns on our left, all double charged with grape and canister, pointing down our lines from both directions, thus enfilading them both ways from end to end, sent a tremendous deluge of shot and shell through our ranks, and these seconded by a murderous sheet of fire and lead from the infantry behind the works, and also another battery of six guns directly in our front, made the scene of carnage and destruction fearful to behold.
This hurricane of combustibles now burst forth in its height of fury, leaving ruin and desolation in its pathway, and nothing could be heard above the din of musketry and the roar of cannon, which was incessant. They fired on friend and foe, for we so closely pressed the retreating line in our front that had they waited for their own men to enter the works we would have gone over with them, and carried all before us. Whenever the dense smoke, in some degree, was cleared away by the flash and blaze from the guns, great masses of our infantry could be seen struggling to get over those ingeniously wrought obstructions, who were being slain by hundreds and piled in almost countless numbers. In the confusion which here ensued, numbers of our forces were thrown farther to the left and near the pike, forming a confused body of soldiers who were totally oblivious to all sense of order, thus giving the battery of thirty-six cannon on our right, the one of six pieces in our front, and that of twelve to our left, full play upon them. The firing of these guns was so rapid that it was impossible to discover any interval between their discharges.
The slaughtering of human life could be seen down the line as far as the Columbia and Franklin pike, and where the works crossed the pike the destruction was indescribable. Along that portion of the works in front of the batteries on the right, our troops were killed by whole platoons; our front line of battle seemed to have been cut down by the first discharge, for in many places they were lying on their faces in almost as good order as if they had lain down on purpose; but no such order prevailed amongst the
dead who fell in making the attempt to surmount the cheval-de-frise, for hanging on the long spikes of this obstruction could be seen the mangled and torn remains of many of our soldiers who had been pierced by hundreds of minie balls and grape shot, showing that they, beyond a possible doubt, had been killed simultaneously with the panic and consternation which happened upon their reaching this obstruction. The remnant of our lines succeeded in reaching the ditch on the outside of the works, and now became engaged in a hand-to-hand conflict across the top of the head-logs at the point of the bayonet. The smoke of battle belched forth from the hideous open mouth of this typical volcanic eruption cast a deep shade of gloom over that bright and lovely November eve, darkening the ether from earth to heaven, until a gentle breeze would lift and fan it away. The force and wind of the grape and canister, when fired from the fifty-four pieces of cannon on the Federal works, aided by that of the minie balls from their infantry behind the works, would lift us clear off the ground at every discharge. As the great clouds of smoke had to some extent vanished and I could look around me, I saw to my surprise I was left alone in the ditch, within a few feet and to the left of the battery of six guns on the Federal works, which was still pouring forth its messengers of death, and not a living man could be seen standing on my right; neither could one be seen for some distance on my left. They had all been swept away by that mighty tempest of grape and canister and rolling waves of fire and lead. A Federal, who was running in my front just before we entered the ditch, and a little beyond the reach of my bayonet, was shot dead from the works in front, and fell forward into the ditch; in his belt were two large army pistols, which were loaded and capped. I quickly removed them from his belt, and with one in each hand emptied them under the head-logs at the mass of men across the works in my front. The more our numbers became reduced the fiercer the conflict for life, simply too dreadful for pen to describe, and few who entered that portion of the ditch escaped death. When the pistols were emptied, having nothing with which to reload them, I reloaded my gun, and turned towards the embrasure of the cannon, which was a few feet on my right, and tried my best to shoot the artillerymen who were so skillfully and effectively manning that destructive battery, and whose gun swabs would whirl in the air after every discharge, but each time I obtained a glimpse of any of them, and before I could shoot, a cannon would run out and fire, forcing me to take refuge away from it. After getting my face blistered and eyebrows burned off, I abandoned that dangerous place by getting back away from the blaze of these guns.
Streams of blood ran here and there over the entire battle ground, in little branches, and one could have walked upon dead and wounded men from one end of the column to the other; the ditch was full of dead men and we had to stand and sit upon them,-the bottom of it, from side to side, was covered with blood to the depth of the shoe soles.
At the ditch we had to encounter an enfilading fire of musketry from both directions, as well as that in our front across the works under the head-logs. The enemy directly in our front attempted to shoot us by turning their backs to the breast works, taking their guns by the breach and raising them above their heads over the head-logs, so as to point the muzzles downward, firing them at us this way, and having nothing exposed except their arms and hands. We had to watch this and knock their guns aside with our bayonets, which was done several times; many of their men had both hands shot off while making these attempts to kill us. While this fearful battle was raging, a Federal officer on his horse, at the head of a line of infantry, came dashing up to the works in our front, and one of our soldiers in the ditch about ten feet on my left, raised his gun and fired, shooting him off his horse. Among the first whom I saw in the ditch, upon their feet and unhurt, were General Geo. W. Gordon, Lieutenant Colonel Atkins, commander of our regiment, and Captain Williams, of an Alabama regiment; they were only a few feet on my left. These men appeared to be undaunted, and a look of stoic determination had settled upon their weather-beaten faces.
South of the Columbia and Franklin pike our troops were in some degree successful in capturing part of the line of works; the Federals who survived this onslaught took refuge behind the works on the north side of the pike, in our front. Our numbers were too weak on that portion of the line to charge the position in our front with any hope of success; however, they succeeded in reaching the brick houses I have described. At the residence and in the yard of Mr. Carter his son was killed dead. He had not been at home for two or three years, and as he passed through the yard and stopped at the door his sister ran and caught him by the hand and attempted to throw her arms around his neck, when a Federal soldier, who had taken refuge in the house, ran up and shot him through the body, killing him dead in the arms of his sister.
General Quarles and Adjutant General Cowley, of our brigade, fell near the main line of the Federal works, the former wounded and the latter killed. General Pat Cleburne and his horse were killed while attempting to cross the works, the horse falling on top of the breast works and General Cleburne on the outside of the ditch; both rider and horse seemed to have received a missile of death at one and the same instant.
The color-bearer and color-guard of our regiment were all killed near the edge of the ditch; the last man of the color-guard was shot while waving the regimental colors at the breast-works, and fell forward, the flag reaching over within the Federal works, the staff resting across the head-logs. Some brave soldier of our little remnant quickly seized the staff, recovered the flag and carried it off the field. I regret never having learned his name. This deadly strife was destined to be of short duration; as our attacking columns were destroyed and repulsed, the firing became less frequent, except from our batteries in the rear, which were kept active by the fearless and solitary few who survived this bloody encounter.
The carnage and destruction was so dreadful that the sun, as if loath to longer gaze on this terrific scene, slowly sunk behind the western horizon and hid from view his smiling face; but the stars, more pitying, came forth to keep vigil o'er the silent and sleeping dead.
As the firing from the enemy in our front began somewhat to abate, sixteen of our soldiers, who were in the ditch some twenty or thirty feet on my left, sprang up and ran out of the ditch, attempting to escape; a whole volley of musketry was fired at them, killing the last one to a man. When they started I raised in a stooping posture, thinking I would run also; but they being killed so quickly caused me to abandon the idea of escape. The few of us who were alive at the ditch were in considerable danger from our own batteries and stray minie balls. We tried to lie down in the ditch; it afforded scant protection, being almost full of dead men.
We now fully realized our critical situation, and saw that we had but one choice, if any, left, and that to surrender. Lieutenant Colonel Atkins was requested to surrender the little crowd, but declined, stating that he would rather die in the ditch than to surrender us. Some few of our soldiers, a little further on our left, raised their caps on ramrods, but they were fired upon and riddled with bullets, the Federals refusing to recognize this. Captain Williams then requested some one to hand him a white handkerchief, but not one could be found. One of our soldiers who was fortunate enough to have on a white shirt, tore off a large piece and handed it to him. The captain tied this on the end of a ramrod, and hoisted it over our heads so it could be seen by the Federals. A Federal officer ordered the troops in our front to cease firing, which they did. He came up to the works, looked over and said: "Throw down your arms, boys, and come over." I threw my gun and the two pistols as far back toward our lines as I could send them, and as I passed over the works glanced around at my fallen comrades who lay on the ground wrapped in the winding sheet of death, and drew a sigh of regret as I gave them a last sad look, knowing they never again would be aroused by the sound of the reveille from their deep untroubled sleep, but would remain in death's cold embrace until the last great trump shall sound and call forth the dead from the armies of both friend and foe.
Copley, Sketch, pp. 49-61.

One Federal soldier's description of the Franklin battlefield
HdQrs 3rd Battalion
Camp near Columbia, Tenn
Sunday January 15th/65
Dear Father
We are laying in camp today about one mile north of Duck River waiting for the bridge to be finished.
We left Nashville on Thursday and arrived here last night. Passed through Franklin, and Spring Hill and over the battle ground at Franklin. The hardest fighting was in a clear open field not even a stump of bush for shelter. The ground is dotted thick with graves in clusters of from a dozen to 30 and 40 and down to single ones here and there. It was a terrible fight.
*  *  *  *
Potter Correspondence.
        30, A McMinnville Confederate Woman's Impressions of the Battle of Franklin
* * * *
....Wednesday [30th] was a golden day....I was out in the yard the greater portion of the day--and set out some hyacinths and tulips. While at our pleasant work on this pleasant day--I would pause every now and then to listen to a dull shudder in the air, which we so well knew to be distant cannon. It reminded me so forcibly of the day when the battle of Stone's River was fought--Tho' [sic] that was just one month later, and the day tho' [sic] bright was not so warm. There was a fresher breeze on that day too and the cannonading sounded much louder. Towards evening on Wednesday the guns seemed to redouble their efforts, but the sound was different. Instead of being a shudder in the air, the reports came like a thick--falling thud--Mollie had come home that day and we listed to the guns with hearts filled with varied emotions. Hope and fear, joy and sadness swayed us by turns. Towards nightfall all was quiet. Towards nightfall all was quiet....
* * * *
War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, entry for December 3, 1864.
        30[15], Skirmish 12 miles from Tullahoma, excerpt from a letter by Major-General R. H. Milroy to his wife in Rensselaer, Indiana
....Two of my Cav. Companies had a considerable skirmish with gurillas [sic] about 12 miles from here this morning and at first got repulsed but finally drove them....
Papers of General Milroy, p. 398.
        30, "To the Union Men of Middle Tennessee."
The Executive Committee of Middle Tennessee takes this opportunity of requesting the Union men of the Middle Division of the State, to appoint delegates to the Convention at Nashville, on the 19th of December. The people of East and West Tennessee will be here. It is our duty to meet them. The people meet to take such steps as wisdom may direct to restore the State of Tennessee to its once honored status in the great National Union.
The dignity of men descended from a race of freemen and heroes, the maintenance of your rights, and the interests of your children, all call upon you to act as brave and true men. Come forth in your strength to assert your rights and to organize the loyal sentiment of Tennessee.
If you cannot meet in your counties, come upon your own person responsibility. It is the assembling of Union men for the restoration of their own Commonwealth to life and a career of success.
Lewis Tillman
Wm. Spence
M.M. Brien
Jos. S. Fowler
Executive Com. Middle Tenn.
Nashville Daily Times and True Union, November 30, 1864.
        30, "General Orders, No. 22."
Headquarters Post of Nashville
Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864
* * * *
II. ALL CITIZENS at this post not engaged in a legitimate business or employment, and not permanently domiciled at the post, are directed and required to immediately proceed to Louisville, Ky., or such other places North of the line of the Department as they may select.
Applications for passes will be made to the Provost Marshal of the Post. All persons failing to comply with these orders within a reasonable time, and unable to give satisfactory reasons for the delay, will be arrested and sent North of the Ohio river to remain during the war.
The Provost Marshal is charged with enforcement of these orders.
By command of Brig. Gen Jno. F. Miller.
Nashville Dispatch, December 3, 1864.
        30, John C. Seibert, 31st Indiana Infantry, writes home concerning Hood's offensive
Nov. 30th, 1864
We made a forced march from Columbia to Franklin, twenty five miles in about 6 hours. I am tired. The Johnies [sic] shot at us several times but nobody was hurt. We have marched night and day and [word unintelligible] for several days and nights.
John C. Seibert Correspondence.
        30-December 31, 1864, Excerpts from the diary of Albert Underwood, 9th Indiana Light Artillery
Wed. Nov. 30: Left Smithland at daylight up the Cumberland River for Nashville, Tennessee. Landed a few minutes at Eddyville, Castle Rock, Canton and Tobacco Point and reached Dover, or FT. Donelson, about 8½ o'clock and tied up for the night. The sun has shined about all day for the first for a long time. The river is in a nice boating stage now. We got along today without any troubles or difficulties.
Thurs. Dec. 01: I went ashore and went up to the fort this morning. Flood's Battery and part of the 83rd Illinois Infantry is here yet. We waited for other boats and left Ft. Donelson at 10½ o'clock. Run very slow. Passed quite a number of boats today returning from Nashville. We reached Clarksville, Montgomery county, about 8 o'clock, landed a few minutes and run all night. Cloudy again.
Fri. Dec. 02: Drizzling rain this morning. Run all night and reached Nashville at 10 o'clock and commenced unloading immediately. We got off by 2 o'clock and started out to the front and took positions about 4 o'clock in the front line of battle on the Nashville Pike about 2½ miles southwest of the statehouse. Our men are throwing up rifle pits in earnest tonight.
Sat. Dec. 03: Rained last night. I went on the top of a high hill nearby where I had a nice view of the city and the troops line of battle and the surrounding country. Saw Maj. Gen. Thomas and Schofield and Brigadier Gen. McArthur and Webster skirmishing all day and about 4 o'clock this evening cannonading opened on the left wing but did not last long. A squad of citizens were brought out and throwed [sic] us up breastworks. A pleasant day, saw Tom Man. Look some for night attack.
Sun. Dec. 04: The gunboats were heard firing below last night and firing has commenced on the left this morning and kept up all day. Our men are still strengthening their works. The Rebs [sic] have throwed [sic] up fortifications in front of the 4th Corps. Their works extend to within 1/4 of a mile of ours on the left. The 3rd Indiana Battery throwed [sic] several shells into the Rebs [sic] line up to 9 o'clock tonight, and heavy picket firing was kept up all night. Four prisoners were brought in this morning.
Mon. Dec. 05: Cannonading opened again this morning to our left and was kept up at intervals all day and skirmishing was kept up all along the lines most of the day. A detachment of the 4th Tennessee Cavalry made a charge on the Rebs [sic] pickets this evening but found them too strong for them and returned again with two or three wounded after killing six Rebs [sic]. Cannonading ceased this evening. On guard today. My time is out today.
Tues. Dec. 06: Cannonading and skirmishing again today. In the evening the 2nd Illinois and 2nd Iowa Batteries opened fire on the right at a Rebel column that was seen moving to the right, and throwed [sic] several shells among them. It rained a little last night, has been a pleasant day. The gunboats are firing below here this evening. I went over on the right this evening.
Wed. Dec. 07: Rained a little last night and is warm and cloudy this morning. There has been some skirmishing today but not as much as usual. Our guns were firing all along the lines again today. Our guns throwed [sic] several shells into the Rebel lines this evening. It has turned quite cold this evening. Rained a little this evening. Mike Wilkins, David Beeson, Enock Whitted and Jerry Ferman came over this evening.
Thurs. Dec. 08: It was quite cold last night and still continues cold all day. Cannonading again today. We fired a few rounds in the morning. Captain Brown has returned. I took a walk round to the left along our lines this evening. I went about 2 miles. A charge was made on our picket line near the left center, the 31st Indiana was sent out and drove them back into their holes. We unharnessed this evening.
Fri. Dec. 09: Very cold disagreeable this morning. A cold sleeting snow is falling this morning. Ceased snowing about noon and I went down to the city and went into the U. S. Christian Commission and wrote a letter. Quite a crowd of soldiers in the city today. Cannonading and skirmishing has about ceased now as it is rather too cold and disagreeable to fight today.
Sat. Dec. 10: Quiet still this morning. I and R. C. Turner went to the city this morning. Visited the State House which is a splendid building, and after we run round over town till evening, we went back to the camp. There has been a little cannonading today. It is quite slippery getting round now. Everything is very high here in this market, but there is a large amount of business done here.
Sun. Dec. 11: Very cold here in camp. I went down to the city and went to the Baptist Church in the morning. I then took a walk out to the forts in the south part of the city. I went back through town, and Haines and I went to the St. Cloud Commercial and the City Hotel and remained till nearly night and then returned to camp. There has been no skirmishing along the line today.
Mon. Dec. 12: Cold and disagreeable all day. There was some cannonading today on the left. Most of the cavalry has crossed over to this side of the river this evening, and the indications are that a move will be made soon. I went down where the cavalry camped tonight and saw the 12th Mo. Cavalry, also the 11th Indiana and saw Burt Chapman and Capt. Woodard and Col. Mull.
Tues. Dec. 13: Still cold and disagreeable this morning and no move is being made yet for the enemy. I am on guard today and have been writing some letters. It moderated considerable this evening. The snow and sleet has all gone and it is misting rain a little. Skirmishing or picket firing is going on quite brisk up to 11 o'clock tonight.
Wed. Dec. 14: Misty and foggy this morning. There was a brisk firing kept up all night on the picket line. It is warm and cloudy and very muddy today. I wrote some letters again today. The cavalry is still in camp near here. There has been no cannonading here today I believe. There is a valley of from 2 to 3 miles width in front of our lines extending all around our lines between us and the enemy.
Thurs. Dec. 15: Still warm and foggy. Left camp at 7 ½ o'clock, formed our lines in the valley in front of our works and begun to advance at 11 o'clock. The ball opened pretty heavy about 12 o'clock and was kept up till after dark. Our battery and the 2nd Illinois shelled one of their works for 3 or 4 hours, but the infantry charged and took it. 8 guns were captured and turned on the Rebs [sic], also a lot of prisoners. Rained a little today. There was 33 pieces of artillery and 1500 prisoners captured today. We camped tonight where the Rebs [sic] camped last night.
Fri. Dec. 16: We were in readiness for action at an early hour and advanced 3/4 of a mile and the ball soon opened. We run our battery right up on the Rebel skirmish line and opened and fired all day from the position. We run out of ammunition for the Napoleons about 3 o'clock. The infantry advanced under a galling fire and scaled their walls and took possession of their works. We moved forward about 1 mile and camped for the night.
Sat. Dec. 17: Rained hard last night and continued all day. We captured 22 pieces of artillery and (??) prisoners today, also 3 generals. I went over the battle ground this morning of guns, ammunition, dead horses, wagons stuck in the mud and leaned against trees. It showed there had been a great panic. We hauled off 4 guns and some caisson and left about 4 o'clock on the Granny White Pike and then back to the Franklin Pike and into camp about 3 o'clock.
Sun. Dec. 18: Left camp at 7½ o'clock. Very muddy and disagreeable. Marched along pretty well to within about 2 miles of the town of Franklin and halted about 4 hours. Met several hundred prisoners and 3 pieces of Rebel artillery. Moved up near town a while before night to camp, but got orders to cross the Harpeth River. Crossed over on pontoon, passed through town about a mile and went into camp at 7½ o'clock. Marched 8 miles.
Mon. Dec. 19: Rained very hard last night. We have orders to march again today. Heard heavy cannonading this morning in the direction of Columbia. It rained hard all day, a cold disagreeable rain and very muddy. We have a solid pike to travel on today or we could not get on at all. Passed through Spring Hill about a mile and went into camp at 7 o'clock. Marched 12 miles, about 10 miles to Columbia.
Tues. Dec. 20: We have a tolerable good camp and there is some talk that we will remain here till morning and then go back. It is still cloudy but it is more pleasant today. We received orders to go to the front yet tonight. We harnessed and went to the ammunition train and filled up our chests about 2 o'clock and left about dark and went a few miles, but it rained and was so very disagreeable we went into camp. It is the most disagreeable I ever saw since the war.
Wed. Dec. 21: I never went to bed last night, rained till nearly day and then commenced snowing and continued all day. We can't cross a creek near here till a pontoon is laid down. The 23rd Army Corps is passing this evening. I am on guard today. This has been one of the most disagreeable times I ever saw in or out of the service. All the little creeks are booming full.
Thurs. Dec. 22: It froze last night and is cold and still snowing this morning. We received orders to move out this morning but the order was countermanded till evening. The 23rd Corps and train is still passing yet. We left camp about 2 o'clock and moved toward the front and crossed and went out about 1 ½ miles and went into camp. The 4th Corps is in camp along here. The road was full of trains and wagons all the way out. Cleared off this evening.
Fri. Dec. 23: Very cold last night and is clear and cold today. The 4th Army Corps commenced moving out last night. The cavalry is crossing Duck River this evening. The 23rd Corps is camped all along the road from Spring Hill to Columbia. There is breastworks [sic] thrown up all along here. Gen Girard is commanding our division, and the 2nd, now. It is about 2 miles to Columbia.
Sat. Dec. 24: Left camp about 3½ o'clock and went to the river and found the pontoon out of repair and the 4th Corps train to cross. We had to wait till about 1 o'clock before we commenced to cross. The pieces of Rebel artillery was snaked out of the river before we crossed. We got over by 2 o'clock and passed through Columbia which has been a very good town. We went out about 8 miles and went into camp about dark. We heard cannonading today.
Sun. Dec. 25: Rained a little this morning and turned off pretty fair day till about 4 o'clock and then commenced to rain a little again. The 4th Corps train has been passing all day and our train has come up, also the remainder of our artillery. About 25 Rebel prisoners passed here today on their way to Nashville. The boys are foraging in earnest today. Christmas.
Mon. Dec. 26: Cloudy damp morning, left camp at 12 o'clock. The 1st and 3rd Divisions march in front today. The pike is pretty muddy in places. Signs of fighting and skirmishing all along the road. Lt. Caffee started back this morning. We passed through Linwood, small town, partly burnt, marched 10 miles today and went into camp about dark about 1 mile beyond Linwood.
Tues. Dec. 27: Raining a little this morning. We left camp about 11 3/4 o'clock. The roads are pretty muddy. Cannoneers all have to walk in this department of the army. Crossed Big Creek and run down it for some ways and turned out and went into camp about 8 o'clock. There has been considerable skirmishing along here. A lot of Rebel prisoners passed here this evening on their way to Nashville.
Wed. Dec. 28: Received orders to remain in camp today. The boys are all out foraging near by. I remained in camp till evening and then I and Wilson McCallmont rode over to Pulaski, county seat of Girard [Giles] county. The town is very much torn up now, but has been a very good town before the war. There are plenty good springs and small streams in this part of the country. 23rd Corps gone down Buck River.
Thurs. Dec. 29: Left camp at 8¼ o'clock. The roads are frozen so as to bear up this morning. Passed through Pulaski and turned west on the Florence road. Crossed Richland's creek near junction with Weekly's creek. Marched in a west direction, crossed several small streams, had bad hilly roads most of the way. We went into camp at sundown in about 8 miles of Lawrenceburg and 10 miles of Pulaski. Marched 14 miles. On guard.
Fri. Dec. 30: Left camp at 7¼ o'clock. On the Lawrenceburg road, had pretty good roads to Lawrenceburg, which we passed about 11 o'clock and had very bad roads this evening. Commenced raining before noon and rained a little all this evening. We went into camp about 2 o'clock on the Clifton road in about 4 miles west of Lawrenceburg, County seat of Lawrence county. We marched about 12 miles today.
Sat. Dec. 31: Rained very hard and then snowed last night. Clear and cold this morning. Left camp about 11 o'clock, had very bad roads all day, not hilly, but very deep, stiff mud. Country thinly settled. We marched in a northwest direction today and went into camp about 4 o'clock in about 10 miles of Waynesburg, county seat of Wayne county. Marched 8 miles today.
Diary of Albert Underwood.[16]

[1] As cited in:
[2] William H. Baker was born in 1825; died in Brooklyn, New York, 29 May 1875. He was brought up to become a merchant in New Orleans, afterward studied art, and became a prominent portrait painter there. After the Civil War he moved to New York City, where he painted portraits and ideal subjects. He exhibited his works "Cupid Disarmed" (1866); "A Floral Offering" (1869); and "Cupid Reprimanded" (1871). In 1869 he moved to Brooklyn and became head of the free school of design at the Brooklyn art association. There he exhibited "May Flower's" (1870); "Red Riding-Hood" (1871); "Morning Glories," "Home Regatta," and " Cherry Time" (1872); "Lilies of the Field "(1873); and "Truants from School" (1875). One of his best portraits is that of Bishop Quintard, of Tennessee, painted for the Episcopal general convention. Baker was successful art teacher, and he was a proficient and meticulous painter, yet he never achieved greatness.
[3] As cited in PQCW.
[4] As cited in PQCW.
[6] Not found, issue not extant.
[7] Information concerning the conscript sweep between Celina and Gainsborough is sketchy at best. The only reference to the sweep is found incidentally in the report concerning the November 24 skirmish near Tompkinsville, KY. in the Report of Col. Joseph R. Scott, Nineteenth Illinois Infantry. It can be inferred with relative certainty that the sweep occurred during the month of November 1862, but exact dates are not known. This is because seldom is there any report, per se, of such activity.
[8] There were fifty-four women's signatures on the petition, ranging in age from sixty to nine. Most were single, young women, and a number of mother-daughter and sister-sister combinations. Only a few were actually substantial property holders. See Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 6, fn. 1, p. 45. There is nothing to suGALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN  est that their offer was responded to by Johnson, but the petition itself indicates the pro-Union feeling of some women in Smith County and provides information that tends to demonstrate that the role of Tennessee women during the war was at least nominally bellicose and that Tennessee's women were delicate flowers with no gumption or brains.
[9] The date is an approximation and made for editorial purposes. It was indeed published in 1863 but the month and date are not  known
[10] Not referenced in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
[11] Confederates were not alone in seizing young men to serve in the army. This is best illustrated by this report of a conscript sweep by elements of the 32nd Iowa Infantry. According to OR, Ser. I, Vol. 31, pt. I, p. 1, "Summary of Principal Events," New Madrid Bend was in Tennessee, not Missouri.
[12] Sam R. Watkins, "Co. Aytch" Maury Grays, First Tennessee Regiment of A Side Show of the Big Show, intro. by Bell Irvin Wiley, (Wilmington, N C: Broadfoot Publishing Co., 1987), pp.219-220.
[13] As cited in Norman D. Brown, ed., One of Cleburne's Command: The Civil War Reminiscences and Diary of Capt. Samuel T. Foster, Granbury Texas Brigade, C. S. A., (University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, 1980), p. 151.
[14] See map in OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. I, p. 408.
[15] The transcript of this letter appears as "October 30, 1864," yet all other documents are in perfect chronological order so it may well be that the date is incorrect as it appears. Moreover, since there was an increase in partisan activity as Hood made his advance toward Nashville in November 1864 it is plausible that the month is not October.
[16] As cited in: [Hereinafter cited as: Diary of Albert Underwood.]

James B. Jones, Jr.
Public Historian
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN  37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456
(615)-532-1549  FAX

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