29, Editorial opinion on the indecency of young women giving daguerreotypes to soldiers
Advice to Girls.—There is a practice, quite prevalent among young ladies of the present day, which we are old fashioned enough to consider very improper. We allude to giving daguerreotypes of themselves to young men who are merely acquaintances. We consider it indelicate in the highest degree. We are astonished that any young girl should hold herself as cheap as this. With an accepted lover it is, of course, all right. Even in this case the likeness should be returned if the engagement, by any misunderstanding, cease.
If this little paragraph should meet the eye of any young girl about to give her daguerreotype to a gentleman, let her know that the remarks made by young men, when together, concerning what is perhaps on her part, but a piece of ignorance or imprudence, would, if she heard them, cause her cheek to crimson with shame and anger. "Were it a sister of ours," we have often said with flashing eye—"were it a sister of ours!" but that not being the case, we give this advice to anybody's sister who needs it, most anxiously desiring that she should at all times preserve her dignity and respect.
Memphis Daily Appeal, May 29, 1861
29, Advice on how to make saltpeter
To Manufacture Saltpeter.
Editors Appeal: All earths which have been kept perfectly dry, in our climate, as in caves, under gin-houses, stables and floors of negro houses, etc., for fifteen or twenty years, contain more or less nitrous salts, when combined with potash make the nitrate of potash, or saltpeter.
To make saltpeter on a small scale, arrange barrels or hoppers, (as used in making lye) place straw and sticks in the bottom of hoppers, or barrels, put in the earth (being well pulverised [sic] first,) leaving the middle of the earth low in the center, fill the hopper with water, let it stand twelve hours, then drain it off, as in making lye. The "beer" or drippings of the nitrous earth can then be put in a kettle, and add strong lye to the "beer" (stirring it well) as long as it will curdle, let it settle, then add more lye slowly, if it does not curdle, until enough lye has been added, let this compound liquor, settle perfectly, it may take several hours. Pour off the clear liquor into the boiling kettle, boil it down to the consistence of thin molasses, drop a few drops on a plate, if it is "done" it will harden immediately and slip off like tallow by the least pressure, when in this state pour off the liquor carefully, (leaving the sediment or dirt to be returned to the hoppers) into tubs to cool. If there is nitre in the earth it will shoot off into needles or crystals, like icicles, this it will do in from twelve to fifteen hours; this is called "grough" of crude saltpeter. Scrape out the saltpeter and dry it thoroughly on smooth plank or table cloth. The beer or liquors, and lye will require less boiling, if passed through the hoppers several times or through a series of hoppers, say four or six. This crude saltpeter should be boxed and shipped to the nitre agents, in the States in which it is made, or to the ordnance officer, Dr. D. R. Lemman, Jackson, Mississippi, who is the government agent for Mississippi. The government pays, at present, seventy-five cents per pound, deducting for all impurities over ten per cent. Will the patriotic planters of the Confederacy make nitre for the government in this our hour of necessity?
Memphis Daily Appeal, May 29, 1862
29, 1863 - John Fremantle's observations on southern women and the Army of Tennessee
29th May,  Friday.-I took a walk before breakfast with Dr. Quintard, a zealous Episcopal chaplain, who began life as a surgeon, which enables him to attend to the bodily as well as the spiritual wants of the Tennesseean [sic] regiment to which he is chaplain. The enemy is about fifteen miles distant, and all the tops of the intervening hills are occupied as signal stations, which communicate his movements by flags in the day time, and by beacons at night. A signal corps has been organized for this service. The system is most ingenious, and answers admirably. We all breakfasted, at Mrs.---'s. The ladies were more excited even than yesterday in their diatribes against the Yankees….They reproved Mrs. ______ for having given assistance to the wounded Yankees at Wartrace last year; and a sister of Mrs.-'s, who is a very strong-minded lady, gave me a most amusing description of an interview she had had at Huntsville with the astronomer Mitchell, in his capacity of a Yankee General. It has often been remarked to me that, when this war is over, the independence of the country will be due, in a great measure, to the women; for they declare that had the women been desponding they could never have gone through with it; but, on the contrary, the women have invariably set an example to the men of patience, devotion, and determination. Naturally proud, and with an innate contempt for the Yankees, the Southern women have been rendered furious and desperate by the proceedings of Butler, Milroy, Turchin, &c. They are all prepared to undergo any hardships and misfortu[n]es rather than submit to the rule of such people; and they use every argument which women can employ to infuse the same spirit into their male relations.
At noon I took leave for the present of General Hardee, and drove over in his ambulance to Shelbyville, eight miles, in company with Bishop Elliott and Dr. Quintard. The road was abominable, and it was pouring with rain. On arriving at General Polk's he invited me to take up my quarters with him during my stay with Bragg's army, which offer I accepted with gratitude. After dinner General Polk told me that he hoped his brethren in England did not very much condemn his present line of conduct. He explained to me the reasons which had induced him temporarily to forsake the cossack [sic] and return to his old profession. He stated the extreme reluctance he had felt in taking this step; and he said that so soon as the war was over, he should return to his episcopal avocations, in the same way as a man, finding his house on fire, would use every means in his power to extinguish the flames, and would then resume his ordinary pursuits. He commanded the Confederate forces at the battles of Perryville and Belmont, as well as his present corps d'armee at the battles of Shiloh (Corinth) and Murfreesboro'.
At 6.30 P. M., I called on General Bragg, the Commander-in-Chief. This officer is in appearance the least prepossessing of the Confederate Generals. He is very thin; he stoops, and has a sickly, cadaverous, haggard appearance, rather plain features, bushy black eyebrows which unite in a tuft on the top of his nose, and a stubby iron gray beard; but his eyes are bright and piercing. He has the reputation of being a rigid disciplinarian, and of shooting freely for insubordination. I understand he is rather unpopular on this account, and also by reason of his occasional acerbity of manner. He was extremely civil to me, and gave me permission to visit the outposts, or any part of his army. He also promised to help me towards joining Morgan in Kentucky, and he expressed his regret that a boil on his hand would prevent him from accompanying me to the outposts. He told me that Rosecrans' position extended about forty miles, Murfreesboro' (twenty-five miles distant) being his headquarters. The Confederate cavalry inclosed him in a semi-circle extending over a hundred miles of country. He told me that West Tennessee, occupied by the Federals was devoted to the Confederate cause, while East Tennessee, now in possession of the Confederates, contained numbers of people of Unionist proclivities. This very place, Shelbyville, had been described to me by others as a "Union hole."
After my interview with General Bragg, I took a ride along the Murfreesboro' road with Colonel Richmond, A. D C. to General Polk. About two miles from Shelbyville, we passed some lines made to defend the position. The trench itself was a very mild affair, but the higher ground could be occupied by artillery in such a manner as to make the road impassable. The thick woods were being cut down in front of the lines for a distance of eight hundred yards to give range.
During our ride I met Major General Cheatham, a stout, rather rough-looking man, but with the reputation of "a great fighter" It is said that he does all the necessary swearing in the 1st corps d'armee, which General Polk's clerical character incapacitates him from performing. Colonel Richmond gave me the particulars of General Van Dorn's death, which occurred about forty miles from this. His loss does not seem to be much regretted, as it appears he was always ready to neglect his military duties for an assignation. In the South it is not considered necessary to put yourself on an equality with a man in such a case as Van Dorn's by calling him out. His life belongs to the aggrieved husband, and "shooting down" is universally esteemed the correct thing, even if it takes place after a lapse of time, as in the affair between General Van Dorn and Dr. Peters.
* * * *
I slept in General Polk's tent, he occupying a room in the house adjoining. Before going to bed, General Polk told me an affecting story of a poor widow in humble circumstances, whose three sons had fallen in battle, one after the other, until she had only one left, a boy of sixteen. So distressing was her case that General Polk went himself to comfort her. She looked steadily at him, and replied to his condolences by the sentence, "As soon as I can get a few things together, General, you shall have Harry, too." The tears came into General Polk's eyes as he related this episode, which he ended by saying, "How can you subdue such a nation as this?"
Fremantle, Three Months, pp. 73-76.
29, Reports of Confederate depredations in West Tennessee
WHITE'S STATION, May 29, 1864.
Brig. Gen. B. H. GRIERSON, Memphis, Tenn.:
DEAR SIR: Allow me to trouble you with some facts of great interest to me and my friends, and to which I desire to call your serious attention: Within the last two weeks and since I had a conversation with you a band of rebels, calling themselves Forrest's men, have arrested and carried from their homes four or our best, most peaceable, and quiet citizens, and brutally murdered them in cold blood without the slightest provocation--Mr. B. A. Crawford, age fifty years, and William Bowlin, age fifty-five years, of Weakley County, Tenn.; John C. Huddleston, age fifty-two years, and William Hurst, age eighteen years, the latter of McNairy County, Tenn. These victims of this murderous band we the friends and relatives of the families of soldiers now in the U. S. service, who were at home endeavoring, by labor and economy, to make a support for and, to some extent, alleviate the distressed condition of the wives and children, widows and orphans, of Union soldiers. I have presented these cases as mere specimens of the various outrages to which loyal men and their wives and children are daily subject; and to ask of you, in the name of our friends, and in the name of the blood of our murdered relatives, in the name of honor and patriotism, and, lastly, in the name of high Heaven, to assist us in giving our friends and country some aid, some assistance to protect and save life and the shedding of innocent and defenseless blood by thieves and murderers. The plan that I would suggest and ask for your adoption is to remove my regiment to some point on the Tennessee River where they can obtain their supplies from Paducah and give us authority to arrest the fathers, brothers, and sons of these murderers, and hold them in prison as hostages for the safety of and good treatment of our citizen friends. We think this may be done without injury to the service. We know we cannot bring to life our murdered friends, but we hope in this to prevent a repetition of such crimes upon friends equally as dear to us and whose veins are filled with blood from the fountains of our own hearts. Since writing the above a friend has laid on my table an account of three more horrible murders in Gibson County, one a very old man, under the following circumstances: A party of Forrest's men went to the residence of Francis Crawford, who, from age and infirmity, was unable to walk; they said to the old man they understood he was a damned old Union, and he must go with them to Forrest's headquarters. They then placed him on a wagon and started off. After they were gone some half hour some of the party returned and informed the lady that if she would give them $200 they would release her husband. The old lady set about and by borrowing raised the sum demanded, which they pocketed, then cursed and abused her; said they had her money and would kill the damned old tory beside. In about three days after the body of the old man was found dead and horribly mangled near his home. This old man has two sons in my regiment. I love my country and am too proud of her flag to ever disgrace it by that mode of warfare that Tennesseeans [sic] must and will adopt if such outrages are not suppressed. Hoping you will give this your serious attention and let me hear from you soon,
I remain, your obedient servant,
FIELDING HURST, Col. Sixth Tennessee Cavalry.
HDQRS. CAVALRY DIVISION, SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Memphis, Tenn., May 30, 1864.
Respectfully forwarded for the information of the major-general commanding District of West Tennessee.
Instances of this kind are constantly brought to my notice, where not only citizens but soldiers of my command have been brutally murdered after surrender by these fiends calling themselves soldiers. I earnestly trust that some summary and retaliatory measures may be taken to put a stop to this cruelty.
B. H. GRIERSON, Brig.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 56-57.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214