3, Breaking up Social Relations
Some people have become so offended at families who still adhere to "the old rotten Union" that they threaten to break up all social relations with such. This is a good idea, and we insist upon all Secession bigots [sic] carrying out their threats. We know one Union family who will try to live without the visits, smiles, or prayers of such, and who will pursue the even tenor of their way despite their threats, frowns, proscriptions, and insulting arrogance, even coupled with the pretensions that neither their origin, raising, or positions in life entitle them to. There are a great many Union families in the country, who have some how taken it into their heads, that they can live without the aid, countenance, or friendship, of these recently puffed up [sic], and most gloriously elevated [sic] characters, since their introductions into the pure, elevated, pious, and wealthy society, of the Southern Confederacy! They may be mistaken; but like the new Government of the Confederacy, it is an experiment, and they are willing to test it.
Brownlow's Knoxville Whig, August 3, 1861.
3, Letter from Confederate soldier Moses Joseph Nichols to his father David H. Nichols in Cookeville, expressing contempt for Yankees and desire to do battle
Aug. 3, 1862
I again avail myself of an opportunity which I am always glad of. Happy am I to inform you that I have the consoling privilege of sitting beneath the shade of Tennessee Oaks while I endeavor to communicate with my friendship [sic] to you with quick steps and glad hearts, we put our feet to Tennessee soil on the 27th ult. [sic] All glad to find enough uninvaded ground to strike camp on, also to find water pure and cool. We find the weather to be much more pleasant here than in Miss. The weather, water and people seem so delightful that we feel like we have emerged from a land of despair to a land of felicity.
A great change has taken place among the Tenn. troops, they were thought to be the bravest species in Virginia, South Carolina and Miss., but since the moved they all seem to frown with madness and bravery [at?] the thought of enemy being among our friends and relatives is sufficient to prompt every country loving man to action amediately [sic]. Here we are within one hundred miles of home, but for fear of being troubled by the cannon [of the] invaders of our state we dare not visit home and friends. They are wickedly infesting our vicinities, destroying privet [sic] property and like roaring lions they are traversing Tennessee, seeking whom they may devour. They even rob poor helpless women and children of their provisions and leave crying infants reaching their weak hands for bread. What is to be done with the Murders [sic] of women and children? It recurs [sic] to all at once that they should be treated likewise. This is a thing hard for us to endure without vigorously rushing forward and snatching them from their positions, as an eagle does her prey. We are expecting to have Gens. Buel [sic] and Mitchels [sic] supplies cut off in a short time, when it will be that we will liberate Tennessee. [sic] After we get them cut off from their beef and crackers, they will fail to get backers and we will drive them off as a shepherd drives his herd, only we will be a little rougher than they usually are. We will generally order them out of our premises and if they fail to respond fairly we will slightly [sic] put our bayonets to them and push them Northward until they strike their own soil. And when they are convinced that we are getting in good killing spirits they surely will get cold in their cause as some has already gotten. [sic] Before we get done with them we will make them men of consideration and cause them to think seriously on the subject of war. The whole Northern army consists of poor deluted [sic] scoundrels, who cares [sic] for nothing but money and something to eat. Lincoln has made another call for troops, but finds them slow to act. They have found out the grilling shame by which the hirelings were dragged into the field. If he gets them at all he will have to raise their wages. All that we have to do now to achieve liberty is a general forward movement with sabers in front pointing at the hearts of those Godforgetting [sic] invaders, who so much hate us and who curl the lips of derision at Southern rebellion, let us be co-workers in this struggle and add golden feathers to our gleaming laurels which we have so vigorously won on gory fields of battle. If the victories we have gained heretofore is [sic] not sufficient to prove our intentions, the beholders is hard to convince, it ought to prove [to] all at once that we will die fighting for freedom, rather than be conquered by so unworthy cohorts. Independence is a thing worth working for, and we must work with the whole heart and have spirits. [sic] If we accomplish our design and unless consolidated forces ______________, [sic] it will take years to effect peace. The thing has to be settled some way in a short time, or we will have a debt hanging over us for ages, but the debt is nothing compared with the object of our design. We had rather have a debt hanging over us through life than be brought under the tyranical [sic] laws of the North. We will take death before subjugation, and debt before Northern laws. There cause [sic] must be an unjust one and they can never complete there [sic] boasted determination, which they so clamorously difused [sic] among nations. In the outset they boated of things they cannot stand up to, and are this day sorry that they bragged so strenuously of their power and ability. A few more good overthrows such as those at Manassa, [sic] Shiloh, and Elkhorn and Richmon [sic] and many other points will [weaken] their line so much that it will be hard for them to form a line of battle. After we get our conscriptions in the Field [sic] they had better make their wills, for they must surely die, or flee from our soil with celerity. They have already been running from their post at several points, which fulfills our passage from the Scripture, (the guilty fleeith when no one persueth) [sic]. They have no human regard for civility, but go in for a wicked contest entirely, and one thing is certainly true, if they do not change their notions they will undoubtedly fall into oblivion without mercy. At their downfall we will endeavor to thrive and enjoy freedom. The Glittering Moments [sic] of Southern liberty is [sic] fast building[,] the day is near at hand for us to reap our reward on earth, which will be pure satisfaction through life, and cause has proven to the world to be truly just. Nations abroad looks [sic] on us as soldiers laboring for our just deserts. England and France are expecting us to be successful in the outcome not long from this day. We will be free from the North and Northern oppression. There is enough at stake to call forth all friends of liberty to working for their country and firesides. The soldiers all seem to be on the right side of the question. While there is [sic] some men in the dungeon of unionism, in a few days we will complete the work in Tenn. [sic] and free the people, as well as those portly [sic] fellow who could not muster up courage to take their own part in the National struggle. Good for Nashville in a short time. [sic]
Father we are near enough for you to come to see us by land, and I want to see you so much as ever. I want to see you particularly at this time. Try to come soon and I think you will never regret the trip.
Stock is in fine demand at present, beef is worth 10 c[ents] per lb., horses are selling very high since the army came in. A drove of beef cattle would pay very well if you could get them cheap.
Mother I would love to see you and Grandmother, and all the children, but I rather you would not come to camp for this is no place for women. Wait a while [sic] and we will get a change to visit you.
This leaves us all in good helth [sic] and fine spirits. Give my best love and respects to all inquiring friends. Tell them all to write and be sure to write soon, giving the news in general.
I am dear Father, Mother and Grandmother, your dutiful son and will ever remain so.
Moses Joseph Nichols
W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 3, pp. 121-123.
3, Cracking down on Confederate soldiers in Knoxville
General Order No. 2
By virtue of the following "Special Order No. 91, Headquarters, Department of East Tennessee, (Knoxville, August 1st, 1863)" to-wit:
"VII. The Commandant of the Post will take such steps as he may deem necessary to keep the city clear of officers and soldiers improperly away from their commands, and to prevent drunkenness among both officers and men, and keep so far as possible, detailed men in the city from strolling the streets.
VIII. All orders from the Commandant of the Post relating to the city or its police, shall be respected, and he will be responsible for the general good of the city."
The following are ordered:
I All officers and soldier coming to Knoxville, are required to report at Post Headquarters immediately on their arrival, register and have their leaves furloughed or orders [re]vised.
II. To prevent trouble and confusion, all officers on duty at this Post are requested to call at Headquarters and procure passes for themselves and those under their command.
III. The officers in charge of the Police Guards are instructed to arrest all officers found drunk in the city.
John B. Major, Capt. comd'g Post.
Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, August 4, 1863.
3, Confederate guerrillas reported in Sevier County
HDQRS. PROVOST-MARSHAL-GEN. EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., August 3, 1864.
Brig. Gen. J. AMMEN, Cmdg. Fourth Division, Twenty-third Army Corps:
GEN.: I am directed by the provost-marshal-general of East Tennessee to tell you that information has been received at this office that two companies of rebel soldiers, well mounted and known as Osborne's and Henry's companies, are in Sevier County, Tenn., and were last night within two miles and a half of Sevierville, Tenn. There are apprehensions that these men will do a great deal of damage to the growing crops and other property, unless driven out or otherwise stopped. Would it not be well to send a small force, say forty cavalry, to Sevier County, who, combined with our troops already there, may be able to capture or destroy the whole crowd?
I am, sir, with great respect, &c.
L. A. GRATZ, Maj. and Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 220.
3, "I suppose it is because I will not sneeze when he snuffs." Post Civil War elections in West Tennessee
Election today for members to the Federal Congress. Every voter has to get a certificate from the county court clerk to make him a qualified voter he has to come within the several articles and sections of what is known as the franchise act of the bogus Legislature under Wm. G. Brownlow's administrator of the government of Tenn. The voters at Trezevant, Carroll Co., were as condemned looking assembly of men as I ever saw. They looked as if their conscience condemned them. I think when things get right they will acknowledge their conscience did hurt them. I have no more use for some of them. I have seen his foot. I can vouch for a red-hot secessionist of the fire-eating order but not for me. I suppose it is because I will not sneeze when he snuffs. I have done them all the favours [sic] I could in person & property. The Confederate soldiers, perhaps, have done the same for me. If so, I thank them. But I do not thank them for their disfranchising course, especially their partialities.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214