Notes from Civil War Tennessee,
May 1-2, 1861-1865
May 1, 1861, Resolution of Tennessee General Assembly to explore joining the Confederate States in a military league
JOINT RESOLUTION to appoint commissioners from the State of Tennessee to confer with the authorities of the Confederate States in regard to entering into a military league.
Resolved by the Gen. Assembly of the State of Tennessee, That the Governor be, and he is hereby, authorized and requested to appoint three commissioners on the part of Tennessee to enter into a military league with the authorities of the Confederate States and with the authorities of such other slave holding States as may wish to enter into it, having in view the protection and defense of the entire South against the war that is now being carried on against it.
Adopted May 1, 1861.
W. C. WHITTHORNE, Speaker of the House of Representatives.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 83-84.
1, Conditions in and around Murfreesboro on the eve of the secession of Tennessee, excerpt from the diary of John C. Spence
... There is quite a commotion over the country. Volunteers are being raised, but all independant, [sic] individual enterprises. They all important question with Tenn. has not come up. She has been once tryed [sic] and the question will have to come again. There is a heavy influence working in the mind of the people. Still, a distant hope that something may turn up that will stop blood shed. The Lincoln call causes a hesitation. Tenn. knows she is loyal; fears nothing; wishes to be at peace with all. But, the call is on all loyal states for its share of men to allay a rebellion. Who rebells! [sic] My nearest neighbor! Must spill his blood? I stop. I hesitate. [sic]
The Subject of War [sic] is not being thought. [sic] More of the people begin to look at the matter. Volunteers are now being raised by different persons....
1, The Ascendancy of Fear and Apprehension in Memphis, Jackson and West Tennessee
A Reign of Terror on the Mississippi.
The Cairo correspondent of the Chicago Post furnishes some late news from the Southern Mississippi:
"During my sojourn here, I have taken taken [sic] much pains to ascertain as nearly as possible the true state of affairs along the river between here and Memphis.-It is a reign of terror, scarcely equaled by anything in history. Union men are no longer safe there, and are fleeing the North for their lives. Every boat that arrives or passes here brings more or less of these fugitives from anarchy. I have just returned from an interview with a lady who arrived from Jackson, Tennessee, this morning. Being suspected of loyalty to the government, her husband was waited upon by the 'vigilance committee' and warned of the necessity of his enlisting in the motley army of Jeff. Davis. He resolved to fly, and with all diligence put his family on board the train for Columbus, KY. The mob heard of it, and with knives and revolvers pursued him, searching through the cars to kill him. By the aid of the baggage master he succeeded in escaping to the woods and made his way on foot through swamps and bayous to Columbus where he rejoined his wife. The lady herself narrowly escaped violence at the hands of the ruffians, who threatened to take out of the cars and hold her as hostage for the reappearance of her husband. The officers of the road did all in their power to protect her. In Jackson, this lady says, there are a large number of loyal citizens, but they are overawed by the drunken rabble, and dare not utter their real sentiments. The best citizens of the place held a meeting and protested the unlawful and outrageous proceedings of the 'vigilance committee,' but their voices were powerless against men inflamed with bad passion and bad liquor.
A very intelligent and respectable gentleman-one of a considerable number who have recently fled from Memphis-is also here, waiting intelligence from his friend, who has gone to Chicago to see if it will be safe for southern men there, and also if there is a chance to do anything. Though gentlemen in good circumstances, they have fled, leaving everything. The gentleman I mention succeeded in getting away the greater part of his furniture, a horse, and about $500 of his library. Said he, "when I arrived here and saw the flag waving, I felt like shouting-I felt that I was again in a land of liberty!"
It is the impression at Memphis, and all along the river below this point, that the troops concentrated here are to march southward. A few days since a committee of citizens from Memphis, representing themselves as Union men in sentiment came up here to inquire of the commanding officer if it would be available for them to remove their families from that city to a point of safety from attack. Of course they obtained no information of the intentions of the government, but were advised to go home and attend to their business like good and loyal citizens.
Throughout Western Tennessee and Kentucky, and on the river border of southern Missouri, the excitement is beyond description. But it is the excitement, the very desperation of despair.-There is much braggadocio on the part of many leaders, some of whom talk of coming up to Cairo, cutting the troops here and feeding them to the cat-fish! They have very few arms and still less ammunition; as for artillery, they have none any account. Union men from Memphis assure me that the N. Y. Seventh Regiment alone might start from Cairo and march straight to the city of New Orleans without difficulty from any opposition that would at present be brought against them. Throughout Tennessee they are comparatively destitute of arms of every kind. Memphis has borrowed 3000 carbines from the State of Louisiana, which were delivered by the Aleck Scott day before yesterday, and which are about all the arms they have. Men are mustering into the service to defend that city against the anticipated attack from 1,500 soldiers here. Seven miles above Memphis, Gen. Pillow is erecting a battery from the same purpose. All between the ages of 16 and 65 are eligible for service, and every man suspected of loyalty to the Union is notified to enlist, in default of which he is hunted down by the drunken ruffians and bands of "vigilance committees." Business is wholly suspended and the shops are mostly closed.-And to complete the picture of this reign of terror, low mutterings are heard among the slaves, sending fear and trembling to the stoutest hearts. The rural districts around Memphis, the women are organizing and drilling in military science, to protect their homes and little ones from the terrible doom which threatens from these "hordes of black barbarians."
Milwaukee Daily Sentinel, May l, 1861. 
2, Second Proclamation of the Memphis Committee of Safety
Unanimously passed by the committee of Safety of the City of Memphis.
Resolved, but the Committee of Safety of the City of Memphis, That all persons in our midst from abroad, may be assured that the whole power of this Committee will be exerted to maintain the safety of its persons and property, so long as no interference on their part be exercised against the affairs and institutions of the South.
F. Titus, Pres't.
F. W. Royster, Sec'y.
Memphis Daily Appeal, May 2, 1861.
May 1, 1862, Skirmish at Pulaski capture of Union supply train
Report of Capt. John Jumper, Eighteenth Ohio Infantry.
NASHVILLE, May 4, 1862.
I left Columbia on the evening of April 30, with about 110 men, about 35 armed, that had guarded a lot of prisoners up from Huntsville, and the balance being recruits and convalescents from the barracks at Nashville. We camped some 8 miles from the City that night, started early next morning, May 1, and got along finely until about 1 p. m., when a courier came up post-haste and said a party of rebel cavalry, to the number of 15 or 20, had attacked his party of telegraph men, and urged us to go to their assistance. I took the armed men and started at double-quick for the ground, leaving the unarmed and teams to come up at their leisure. After going some 4 miles we came up with the enemy. I gave orders to Lieut. R. S. Chambers, of Second Ohio Regt. [sic], to take some men and deploy on the right of the road as skirmishers. We steadily drove them ahead for some time, when they were heavily re-enforced, and a cessation of firing from both sides took place. I then took up as good a position as I could in the road and along the fence, assisted by Adjutant Neal, Eighteenth; Lieut. Leonard, Second; Lieut. Pryor, Twenty-first, and Lieut. Dyal, of Second Ohio, still keeping Lieut. Chambers with his squad deployed as skirmishers. I soon found that the enemy was flanking me on both sides with large numbers of cavalry, and opened fire upon them, which they briskly returned, and the balls fell thick and fast among us, but all seemed perfectly cool, and both officers and men exhibited personal bravery which was hardly to be expected from men who with but few exceptions never stood under fire before, and especially when they were in such few numbers as to be easily singled out by the enemy, who showed themselves to be excellent marksmen.
After some two and one-half hours' continuous firing, and running short of ammunition, the officers held a consultation as to what should be done, and all agreed to hold out to the last, hoping that we would receive help from a company of cavalry that I knew could not be far behind, and have since learned did come up in seeing distance, and then the captain refused to advance to our assistance. By this time the enemy had begun to prepare to charge from two different ways, one in front and one on my left, and as they did so, seeing that further resistance was useless, as our ammunition was exhausted, I ordered Lieut. R.'s. Chambers to advance and meet them with a flag of truce, which had been prepared some time before, to be used as the last extremity, and surrendered ourselves to Lieut.-Col. Wood, of Adams' rebel cavalry, Col. Morgan coming up across the field a moment after, we having 1 man killed and 1 wounded and killing 6 of the enemy and wounding 3, and killing five of their horses. We were taken to Pulaski, which we found on reaching to be filled with rebel troops, and on our arrival there found some 150 officers and men from various regiments that had been taken prisoners during the day.
After getting us ready to go South, on consultation with Col.'s Morgan and Wood they proposed to release us on parole until exchanged, which proposition, on consultation among all the officers who were prisoners, was accepted, and after signing a parole we were released, and give two wagons to carry our baggage in; and here let me say that the treatment of Col.'s Morgan and Wood and all their officers was kind and gentlemanly, and everything that we could have asked or expected by any on in our situation was done for us. The men under my command lost most of their clothes and such things as they had.
The whole force of the enemy I should think was some 1,500, although they claim to have had 2,000.
Annexed you will find a list of officers and soldiers under my command who were taken prisoners and released on parole till exchanged; and, further, I would state that I applied for arms for the recruits before leaving Cincinnati and could not get them, and then again at Nashville, to have the whole party armed, and was told that it was not necessary, as the road was perfectly safe.
JOHN JUMPER, Capt. Company F, Eighteenth Regt., Cmdg.
Report of Col. John H. Morgan, C. S. Army.
PULASKI, TENN., May 2, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report from this place and to inclose a list of prisoners taken in and near this town-268 non-commissioned officers, rank and file, as well as officers, among whom was the son of Gen. Mitchel, who, together with a number of other officers, had just arrived from Gen. Mitchel's command.
The incidents peculiar to the skirmish, in which our entire force engaged, were of but little moment, the engagement resulting in a loss of several killed and wounded on the part of the enemy. The Federals occupied Columbia road, deploying as skirmishers upon each side of the turnpike, which they blocked up with their wagons and teams, all of which I have taken possession of. Col. Wood made a gallant charge up the road, while I led a portion of the command to the right, when the enemy surrendered.
We have taken a quantity of arms; also a number of teams, wagons, &c. Several wagons loaded with cotton, purchased by a Mr. Campbell, and en route to Nashville, were taken possession of and burned. As we may move rapidly, the teams we will mount our men with and destroy the wagons.
If a body of cavalry is thrown across the river irreparable damage can be done the enemy. This road (Columbia) is very important, as a large amount of transportation is constantly passing to and fro.
JOHN H. MORGAN, Col., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 875-876.
1, "if the enemy shall reach Memphis – what then?"
A correspondent this morning, in a few well-timed observations, calls attention to the fact that Memphis may very soon be placed in a similar attitude with New Orleans, and asks what shall be the course pursued by its authorities. This is no ordinary or trivial inquiry, but is one fraught with consequences of the most vital and important character, and it is proper that it should be decided in advance, when discretion and judgment may director our counsels, and the disgrace incident to a senseless panic and trepidation be avoided.
We believe that the position assumed by the Mayor of New Orleans, in his response to Flag Officer FARRAGGUT [sic], is not less logical and proper in itself than it is commendable and patriotic. The surrender of a city by is municipal [sic] offers to an invading foe, it as he truly characterizes it, "an idle and unmeaning ceremony."
War is properly a conflict between the opposing armies of the belligerents, and the municipal authorities of a city have no more right to negotiate for the terms of surrender to the foe than a resident custom house officer or postmaster. Indeed it is questionable as to whether such a procedure ought not to be absolutely forbidden by our commanding generals.
Should Memphis be sooner or later confronted by the enemy, we believe that we reflect the unanimous opinion of every respectable citizen within its limits when we enjoin upon the Mayor the duty of refusing to engage in the humiliating ceremony of a surrender. Let his language be that of the gallant, true and intrepid MONROE [sic].
The city is yours by power and brutal force, not by choice or consent of its inhabitants. It is for you to determine what be the fate that awaits her. As to hoisting any other flag than that of our own adoption and allegiance, let me say to you, sir, that the man lives not in our midst whose hand and heart would not be palsied at the mere thought of such an act; nor could I find in my entire constituency so wretched and desperate a renegade as would dare to profane with his hands the sacred emblem of our aspirations."
This glorious sentiment which will go down in history to render illustrious it author, has struck the proper chord in our young nation's heart. It has produced a moral effect as cheering in its character and important in its results as the winning of a great battle. Now let Memphis add another verse to this chapter of our war for independence that will illustrate the intrepidity of southern heroism and the ardor of southern patriotism. Woe be to the dastard, in the day of future retribution, who shall by his official short coming disgrace her by a cowardly and ignominious capitulation.
Memphis Appeal, May 1, 1862.
1, Purloined pistols; juvenile larceny in Memphis
Juvenile Villainy.—In consequence of information received at the Station House last night, officers Brannan and O'Ryan, entered on a search for a quantity of army pistols which had been stolen from the landing, in the north part of the city, hidden away in trunks under beds and other hiding places in various houses. Yesterday, a pistol, sabre, knapsack, belt and cartridge box, were found in another part of the city, there is yet more of similar articles not yet found. These had all been stolen by little fellows, some of them not more than four or five years of age. A little girl was likewise arrested who was concerned in the robberies. These little thieves lie down by any box, trunk, sack or cask in which they find a hole; this they enlarge, if necessary, and then steal as much as they can to escape undetected. We have no means of dealing with these young thieves, who will grow up to be a curse to the community which has suffered their minds to remain uncultivated, and their morals to be depraved. There is a manifest defect in our practical judicial system, by which the parent and guardians of such, who are the real criminals, pass unpunished.
Memphis Daily Appeal, May 1 1862.
1, "Old Beauregard is here and I hope this 3rd O. cavalry have the honor of assisting in capturing that noted old villain that has caused so many of our noble soldiers to sleep their last sleep." Excerpt from George Kryder's letter to his wife
Camp Shiloh, Tenn.
May 1st, 1862
Dear and beloved wife,
…. We are now within about 12 miles of Beauregard's army and expect a battle every day. Night before last our Co were all out on picket guard and heard rebels fire 3 guns about 1/2 mile distant but we did not see them. The report is that there are five companies are going out tomorrow to drive the rebel pickets in, but which companies are going I have not heard. It is not likely that we will get in any fight as there is more cavalry than they really need.
I hardly know what to write, the weather is very fine. This is the poorest country I ever saw. If the whole southern confederacy was not worth more than it is here, I would not fight to keep it in the union, but it has some beautiful land down here.
Old Beauregard is here and I hope this 3rd O. cavalry have the honor of assisting in capturing that noted old villain that has caused so many of our noble soldiers to sleep their last sleep. But the day is coming fast when secesh is being played out. The health of the regiment is better than it was. I wrote to you in my last letter that Royal Syex had died of typhoid fever after being sick about 2 weeks, and there were a good many of measles on our march. Albert is pretty bad off yet with diarrhea but Henry is quite rugged again….We are now within a mile of the Mississippi line and we were in that state the other night when we were on picket. We have crossed the Tenn. River about 8 miles from Savannah and the next move we will make towards Corinth where the rebel army is fortified with about 175,000 men and we have over 200,000 two hundred thousand strong and I think that if we will whip them here, the fighting will be done.
I must fall in for roll call for the bugle has called.
Roll call is over and I must close this letter in hopes of hearing from you soon….
George Kryder Papers
2, Hostile hospitality in Henry County; Captain Charles C. Nott, Fifth Iowa cavalry, encounters an antagonistic southern belle
The main body of our detachment arrived [in Paris] during the afternoon, and I was ordered with my squadron to the farm of a Mrs. Ayres, some three miles off. I had heard nothing of Mrs. Ayres, except that she was "a prominent secessionist," and quite wealthy; and three months' active cavalry service had quite accustomed me to riding into people's houses, and taking possession for the use of the Government. Yet I was rather taken aback, when a lady with grey hair and widow's weeds came out, as I rode up. I said that I regretted to intrude, but that I was ordered to stop there; and she said that it was very unpleasant; she and her daughter were alone, no gentleman in the house, and she wished we would go somewhere else. I explained that no one would come in the house or be guilty of any rudeness, and that she might feel perfectly safe. But she reiterated her request, and went on: "I am a secessionist, sir; I am opposed to the Union. I scorn to deny my principles. Of course you will do as you choose, sir. I am a woman, and unprotected, and you have a company of soldiers; I can offer no resistance," etc., etc. I answered that I admired her sincerity, and cut the argument short by asking in which yard she preferred my putting the horses, and from which stacks we should get forage. There were woods to the right of the house; the men filed into them, and in a few minutes fires were lighted, horses picketed, and we were bivouacked for the night.
An hour or two elapsed, and I received a message that Mrs. Ayres wished to see me. I went in-the house was large and handsomely furnished, and she was evidently far superior in intelligence, education, and position, to the simple country people among whom we had hitherto been thrown. I afterwards learnt [sic] that one son was then at Richmond, a member of the Confederate Government, and another with Beauregard, at Corinth. I began the conversation by hoping that she had recovered from her alarm. She said, "Oh, entirely," and that she had expected the officers in the house to tea, and that she had beds enough for them. I replied that I had promised that no one would intrude, and that I intended my promise to apply to myself as well as to my men. Mrs. Ayres hastened to say that it was no intrusion; that I must at least stay and spend the evening; she really could not allow me to go out in the dark and cold, while she had houseroom to offer. "My daughter plays," she said; "perhaps you like music." I said that I liked music exceedingly, and should be most happy to hear some, and as I was finishing my civil speech, Miss Ayres came in. She was a pretty girl of seventeen, and gave me an icy bow that said I was there by military power, and was no guest of hers. "Mary," said her mother, "Captain N. wishes to hear some music." The young lady gave another icy bow. There was a little black girl curled up in a corner near the fire. "Bell," said Miss Ayres, "Carry the candles into the other room." The little black girl uncurled herself, and seizing the candles, marched into the other room. There she placed the candles on the piano, and immediately popped under it and curled herself up again on the floor. I moved round, and took my position at one end of the piano, as an admiring listener should. It was a handsome instrument, and seemed like a friend, for I read on its plate, "Wm. Hall & Sons, New York." It had come from New York, and so had I. Miss Ayres took her music-book, and I waited for her to begin. She partly opened the book, then stopped, and looking deliberately at me, said, "Well sir, what must [sic] I play?" Had she slapped me in the face I should not have been more astounded. It was evident that she was in the same frame of mind her mother had been at the gate. But I had been so particularly civil that this cut was too unexpected. I felt my color rise, but kept my temper down, and inwardly resolved that her little ladyship should take this back before our acquaintance ended; so I answered, almost sweetly, that I would leave that to Miss Ayres' better taste! We had a little contest then, she trying to make me order something, and I trying to make her select the piece. It was a drawn game, and ended in her suggesting a couple of pieces, and my saying, "Either of them."
An hour passed very agreeably, and when I arose to go, all coolness has entirely vanished, and the invitation to stay was really cordial. But it was an inflexible rule with me, when on these expeditions, to sleep beside my guard, so I declined and, after thanking them, went out.
Nott, Sketches, pp. 112-115.
2, Confederate guidelines for determining disloyalty in Bradley and Polk counties
HDQRS., Knoxville, Tenn., May 2, 1862.
J. R. TAYLOR, Esq., Deputy Provost-Marshal for Bradley and Polk Counties.
SIR: Your favor of the 30th ultimo has been received. I sent you some blank passports yesterday. In reference to parties visiting the near towns or border counties of Georgia for a few days you can issue them upon your own responsibility, but would advise you to be very rigid in questioning such applicants. When application is made for passports to visit any other State they must be referred to these headquarters. If you find parties from other districts you must demand their passports. If they have none they must satisfy you of their standing. If they know no one in your district and are suspicious characters they must refer you to some party in their own district to identify them. Make no arrests unless you are forced to do so by urgent necessity. Use your power with delicacy yet firmness; keep yourself well posted as regards the movements of suspicious Union men, and any important event transpiring communicate to these headquarters. If you should need any assistants report to me the names of efficient soldiers stationed or in your district of furlough. The salary of your office has not as yet been determined. Your rank is deputy provost-marshal. Allow no soldiers to be in your district (unless on duty) without a furlough. If you find any arrest and report to this office. In no case grant passports to persons desiring to pass toward the enemy's line. Keep an account of your postage till we get fully organized.
W. M. CHURCHWELL, Col. and Provost-Marshal.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 2, p. 1423.
2, Nashville's abandoned Confederate families
We are informed, by a person residing in Edgefield, that there are twenty-eight families of private soldiers of the rebel army, residing there, who were left upon the promise that they should be fed and clothed, during the absence of the soldiers, by the citizens of that place. On last Saturday, one of these wives was seen, with three little children, in the market-house, crying, because she had no money with which to buy marketing for herself and children, and saying that she had not a mouthful to eat at home.
When the Confederates were here, the citizens of Edgefield held regular meetings in the churches for the purpose of raising means for the support of these families, and on the subscription lists were ostentatiously displayed names with large sums affixed for this purpose. What have become of these subscription lists? We would like to see them?
The fact is, now, that these poor soldiers are not longer regarded as useful to them, their miserable wives and children are left to beg and starve.
Nashville Daily Union, May 2, 1862.
2, News censorship in Memphis
The Memphis Argus is considered the exponent of Union sentiment, and not allowed to receive telegraphic dispatches. The Safety Committee talk of suppressing it.
Philadelphia Inquirer, May 2, 1862.
2, Union prisoners of war taken at the battle of Shiloh pass through Memphis and news from Fort Pillow
On Wednesday succeeding the battle of Pittsburg, General Prentiss and two thousand three hundred and eight-six Union prisoners passed through Memphis. The men were in good spirits, and kindly treated by the inhabitants, particularly the Irish and German women. The citizens contented themselves with waving handkerchiefs and looking the interest they dare not openly express.
Prentiss made a Union speech to his men, and the citizens cheered him. Provost Marshal E.D. McKissock bade him to remain silent. Prentiss told him that he had four to one more friends in Memphis than he (McKissock), and said to the citizens, keep quiet for a few weeks, and you will have an opportunity to cheer the old flag to your hearts' content. Our soldiers sand "The Star Spangled Banner," "Red, White and Blue," "Happily land of Canaan," and "Old John Brown," as they were starting on the cars for Tuscaloosa, Ala., where they are at present continued. There were one hundred and fourteen Union officer among the prisoners. Beauregard claims to have taken three thousand prisoners.
The Memphis and Ohio, and Memphis and Charleston, and Mississippi and Tennessee Railroads, are connected by union track to give greater facilities for moving rolling stock and prisoners in case of a Union attack. All the old iron and brass was being concealed and forwarded below. The Confederate loss, all told, at Pittsburgh Landing, was about four thousand. One thousand two hundred Rebel soldiers hare in Memphis. Government machinery, Commissary and Quartermaster's stores are removed. It is thought the fate of the Confederacy hangs upon the Corinth battle.
Four deserters from Fort Pillow arrived at the flotilla Sunday morning, and reported twenty-five more in the swamps opposite. A tug was sent for them. They say the Confederate army at the fort is greatly demoralized, whole companies refusing to do ordinary military duty. A large number of soldiers are in irons. Their term of enlistment had expired, and officers whish to compel them to serve two years longer. At the fort one man had been killed and a dozen wounded by the explosion of our shells.
Philadelphia Inquirer, May 2, 1862.
2, News from Memphis weeks before the city would fall to Federal forces
Reports of Refugees-Union Feeling at Memphis-Union Prisoners Received with Waking of Handkerchiefs-Gen. Prentiss Makes a Union Speech in Memphis.
Correspondence Cincinnati Commercial.
Cairo, April 28.- There are 500 bales of cotton, 7000 hogsheads [of] sugar and 20,000 barrels [of] molasses now lying upon the levee, of which the cotton will be burned, and the sugar and molasses rolled into the river on the approach of the Union forces. The citizens and newspapers are opposed to burning the city, but soldiers and country people favor it.
The Memphis Argus is considered the exponent of Union sentiment, and not allowed to receive telegraphic despatches. The Safety Committee talk of suppressing.
On Wednesday succeeding the battle of Pittsburg, General Prentiss and two thousand three hundred and eighty-six Union prisoners pass through Memphis. The men were in good spirits, and kindly treated by the inhabitants, particularly the Irish and German women. The citizens contented themselves with waving handkerchiefs and looking the interest they dare not openly express.
Prentiss made a Union speech to his men, and the citizens cheered him. Provost Marshal E. D. McKissock bade him remain silent. Prentiss told him that he had four to one more friends in Memphis than he (McKissock), and said to the citizens, keep quiet for a few weeks, and you will have an opportunity to cheer the old flag to you hearts content. Our soldier san "The Star Spangled Banner," "Red White and Blue," "Happy Land of Canaan," and "Old John Brown," as they were starting on the cars for Tuscaloosa, Ala., where they are at present confined. There were on hundred and fourteen Union officer among the prisoners. Beauregard claims to have taken three thousand prisoners.
The Memphis and Ohio and Memphis and Charleston, and Mississippi and Tennessee Railroads are connected by union track to give greater facilities for moving rolling stock and prisoners in case of as Union attack. All the old iron and brass was being collected and forwarded below. The Confederate loss, all told, at Pittsburg Landing, was about four thousand. One thousand tow hundred Rebel soldiers are in Memphis. Government machinery, Commissary and Quartermaster' stores are removed. It is though the fate of the Confederacy hangs upon the Corinth battle.
Four deserters from Fort Pillow arrived at the flotilla Sunday morning, and reported twenty-five more in the swamp opposite. A tug was sent for them. They say the Confederate army at the fort is greatly demoralized, whole companies refusing to do ordinary military duty. A large number of soldiers are in irons. Their term of enlistment had expired, and officers wish to compel them to serve two years longer. At the fort one been killed and a dozen wounded by the explosion of our shells.
Philadelphia Inquirer, May 2, 1862.
2, Louisville Daily Journal War Correspondence
[Correspondence of the Louisville Journal]
SAD CONDITION OF EAST TENNESSEE-THE CONCRIPTION LAW-THE ROCK CITY GUARDS-BY GRAPEVINE TELEGRAPH-THE GREAT PANIC-A "PATRIOT" EDITOR'S FLIGHT-GOV. JOHNSON AND THE SIXTY-NINTH OHIO.
Nashville, April 20, 1862.
A rumor yesterday of the taking of Cumberland Gap by the Union Army, and the disastrous defeat of the rebel forces there, caused momentarily exultation amongst all true hearted patriots, but particularly amongst the exiles from East Tennessee in this city. The rumor, however, was not confirmed; and we were left to wonder, as we have been doing for months past, why the deliverance of the Union men of East Tennessee continues to be postponed. Every day's delay adds to their sufferings and wrongs, and makes more galling the chains with which the Confederate traitors have bound them. Thousands have fled from their homes and sought refuge in your noble state [i.e., Kentucky], but there are thousands yet who cannot get away, and are in the power of their persecutors, who, by illegal drafts and conscript laws, seek to force them into the armies of the rebels. Hundreds, trying to escape, have been caught and condemned to loathsome prisons, or to labor with the negro slaves on fortifications. Under this state of things it is not to wondered at that East Tennessee, renowned for the industry and thrift of its liberty-loving inhabitants, is becoming depopulated and desolated. Unless relief soon reaches the people, ruin, after and irredeemable ruin, will overtake those who remain. As you ride through that section of our State, the growing wheat, rich and beautiful in its luxuriance, reminds you of the promises and hopes which preempted the sowing of the seed; but the vacant fields, left to the grass and weeds, the idle plough, the broken fence, the closed cottage doors, also remind you how those promises have been unfulfilled, and those hopes deferred until the land mourns and the people cry in despair-"There is no salvation for us!" How much longer will East Tennessee be compelled to endure the bitter anguish which afflicts her now? We feel that her deliverance draws near. Oh, gallant soldiers of the Union army, hasten the happy event!
The conscription law, enacted by the rebel debating society at Richmond, and which the military usurpation is enforcing, has opened the eyes of many a supporter of the rebel cause to the despotism which they have been, unwittingly, erecting upon the ruins of their free institutions. Of the 60,000 troops furnished by Tennessee, all, except a few regiments which re-enlisted, are twelve months' men, whose terms will begin to expire next month, The great body of these troops have been anxiously awaiting the expiration of their period of enlistment that they might return home. The conscription law, however, forces them, against their consent to remain in service two years longer. All individual freedom, all volition is denied them States rights are ignored-and everything made to subserve the wicked purposes of the knaves and tyrants who beguiled them into the folly and crime of endeavoring to break up a government which was only felt in the innumerable blessings it bestowed upon them. Hundreds of fathers and mothers in this city, whose sons belong to the [Confederate] battalion of Rock City Guards, enlisted here, this day lament the infatuation which led them to ascent to the degradation of their sons; but, alas, there is now no hope for them except the hope that springs from the speedy success of the Union cause, without the further shedding of blood. But this cannot be. The incarnate fiends who control the rebellion will not succumb so long as they can make their dupes fight, and we shall have more and bloody battles. The have "undertaken more than they can accomplish;" this they know, but before they go into exile or to the halter, they will accomplish all the ruin they can. And besides, this being the most wanton and wicked of all rebellions, it is necessary to the future peace and security of the Republic that it should be crushed out so thoroughly that treason will never again dare to show its serpent head.
The grapevine telegraph was in operation here again last Saturday. It regaled the rebels with the information that Gen. Mitchell and his command had been taken prisoners after an obstinate fight near Tuscumbia. The telegrapher did not condescend to fix upon a date for this wonderful achievement. He had it from a soldier "wounded in the fight," or who got lame, and left before the fight he wasn't sure which. It would have amused you to have witnessed the knowing looks with which rebels met each other, and with what smiling faces they heard the news and repeated it. A rebel in a balmoral-was so fond of heat she has discarded the "boop-de-doo-doo-doo" passed a couple of very gentlemanly United States officers on the street, strangers to her. Having paused a moment near them she asked:
"Have you hears the news?"
"Why, that they have taken Gen. Mitchell."
"Who have taken him?"
The officers made no further response, and petticoats sailed off with the self-satisfied air of one who had performed a brilliant act of some sort.
It is astonishing that absurd stories our rebels can invent, and more astonishing still that men and women, usually reckoned sensible, believe them. After witnessing the elation of Saturday and the soberness of Monday following, one could not resist the belief that there must have been a considerable quantity of whisky drank Saturday.
The "Great Panic" is the title of a little pamphlet which was sold on the streets to-day by the news boys. It is a brief history of the inflation and collapse of the rebel balloon in February last, the fight at Donelson, and the surrender of Nashville. It is an unvarnished big cry, but wild as the creations of dreamland. It is incomplete, however. Much yet remains to be told. No history of the memorable Sunday in Nashville can be complete which does not mention the leading editorials in that day's Patriot and the flight of the editor who wrote it. The editor, chested by the false accounts of the fight at Donelson up to Saturday night, speaks in glaring eulogy of the invincible Southern soldiery, and blackened the record of the Union heroes; asserting vehemently that they would ravage and devastate, and do all manner of naughty and barbarous things if they should possession of our city. Before his readers had digested his words, the "brave legions" at Donelson surrendered, and the editor showed his faith in his assertions about the victors by fleeing from the city. And now the manner of his flight. After midnight Sunday night, a gentleman living on one of the pikes leading east heard a noise, and went out to see what it was. Having reached the pike, he beheld a wagon-an uncovered wagon-drawn by four mules, making good time. In it were several trunks, and a number of children lying in straw. On one of the trunks sat the figure of a man with an umbrella open over him, an infant in his arms, and a bottle of mile [sic] in the bosom of his vest. Astonished by such an apparition at that time of night-and such a night- the gentleman ran out to see if it was reality or a creation of fancy that was before him. He gazed intently, and a flash of lightening aided in his enlightenment. "Well, I'll be d____d, if there ain't Jones! What's the matter, and where are you going?" "Matter! Why Donelson has surrendered, the Yankees are in Nashville, and I am off for the South. I am a member of the Legislature and Gov. Harris's staff, and it wouldn't do for me to stay. Driver, go ahead."
An occasional arrest continues to be made by Gov. Johnson, but none of our notabilities, since Barrow, Harding, and Guild, have been made to realize that there is punishment for the "intelligent and conscious" traitors. Ex-May Cheatham, who was under arrest for a fortnight, is rusticating in the country. He is an ex-member of the Legislature, ex-Alderman, ex-Mayor, ex-Missionary to, and, it is understood, is excessively mortified that the Governor did not regard him of sufficient importance to be a companion in prison of the gentlemen above named who have been sent North. Gov. Johnson know what he is about-he does not flush game not worth the chase.
The Governor made a fine speech to day to Col. Campbell's 69th Ohio regiment. He is succeeding finely in the object of his mission here.
It is rumored that the Banner is to be resuscitated. If so, it will sustain the cause of the Union. Then let it wave.
The Louisville Daily Journal, May 2, 1862.
May 1, 1863, Reconnaissance from Murfreesborough to Lizzard
No circumstantial reports filed.
1, Strict provision control orders issued for the Confederate Department of East Tennessee
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 8. HDQRS. DEPT. OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, May 1, 1863.
The following general order from headquarters Department of East Tennessee is republished for the information of all concerned. It will be strictly enforced:
I. The transportation of flour, bacon, corn, and oats from the Department of East Tennessee is strictly prohibited.
II. When Government supplies are purchased for shipment from the department, authority must be obtained at department headquarters for their transportation.
III. Railroad and steamboat companies will in every case require this authority to be presented before shipping such supplies.
By command of Maj. Gen. D. H. Maury:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 807.
1, Permission granted to destroy flour mill at Chapel Hill
HDQRS. FOURTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Murfreesborough, May 1, 1863.
Brig.-Gen. SCHOFIELD, Cmdg. Third Division:
In answer to your note requesting permission to destroy the flour mill at Chapel Hill. I am instructed by the general commanding to say that you have full permission to do so if from your present information you deem it practicable. It is needless to say to you, general, that the enemy are "watching out," and our late raid upon McMinnville has not lessened their vigilance.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
GEO. E. FLYNT, Assistant Adjutant-Gen. and Chief of Staff.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 304
1, "Special Order, [sic] No. 13;" the fight against social evils; closing houses of prostitution in Memphis
We invite attention to Special Order, [sic] No. 13, from Provost Marshal SMITH [sic], approved by the Post Commander, to be found in another column.
The evil which this order [is] designed to correct, has grown into one of considerable magnitude, and demands precisely such a remedy as our ever active and untiring Provost Marshal has applied. Scarcely a steamboat but brings an addition to our already large population of lewd women, who make exhibitions of themselves upon our streets, and, for the time, seem to have taken possession of the city. This nuisance, we are gratified to know, is to be abated, and officers who degrade the public service are to be reported to the commanding General. Both Gen. VEATCH [sic] and Col. SMITH [sic] deserve the thanks of the community of this timely and effective remedy for our social evils.
Memphis Bulletin, May 1, 1863.
1, A Wisconsin soldier's description of Murfreesboro
May 1st 1863
You wished me to give you a brief description of Murfreesboro. From its present dilapidated appearance it is rather hard to say what it looked like in times of peace. But so far as I can judge it was quite a pleasant town of probably two thousand inhabitants. I can see no evidence of its having been much of a business place, as the only machinery in town is that pertaining to a cheap grist mill. It seems to have been quite a place for schools, and a healthy pleasant place to live. It being the county-seat of Rutherford County, added something to its importance. I think its people regarded themselves as belonging to the very elect-that is they were very aristocratic, and the fact that the most of them fled to the southward upon our arrival, leads me to conclude that their sympathies were strongly in that direction. But now the town is torn from center to circumference. Fences have entirely disappeared and many houses have been torn down. Fine shade trees have been laid low, and the once beautiful lawns have been trodden into quagmire. Thus we see the havoc of war.
J. M. Randall
The James M. Randall Diary
1, "Juvenile Villainy." Juvenile Delinquency in Memphis as a result of war
—In consequence of information received at the Station House last night, officers Brannan and O'Ryan, entered on a search for a quantity of army pistols which had been stolen from the landing, in the north part of the city, hidden away in trunks under beds and other hiding places in various houses. Yesterday, a pistol, sabre, knapsack, belt and cartridge box, were found in another part of the city, there is yet more of similar articles not yet found. These had all been stolen by little fellows, some of them not more than four or five years of age. A little girl was likewise arrested who was concerned in the robberies. These little thieves lie down by any box, trunk, sack or cask in which they find a hole; this they enlarge, if necessary, and then steal as much as they can to escape undetected. We have no means of dealing with these young thieves, who will grow up to be a curse to the community which has suffered their minds to remain uncultivated, and their morals to be depraved. There is a manifest defect in our practical judicial system, by which the parent and guardians of such, who are the real criminals, pass unpunished.
Memphis Daily Appeal, May 1, 1862
1-2, Federal foraging mission across the Stones River
HDQRS. SECOND Brig., THIRD DIV., FOURTEENTH A. C., DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, La Vergne, May 2, 1863.
Col. GEORGE E. FLYNT, Chief of Staff, Fourteenth Army Corps:
COL.: I returned to-day from a highly successful foraging trip across Stone's River. I started with the expedition yesterday morning at 5 o'clock, with three regiments of infantry, 100 cavalry, one section of artillery, and 90 wagons. We crossed Stone's River at Charlton's Ford, 4 miles northeast of this camp, moved in the direction of Lebanon, 8 miles from the ford, to Hugle's Mill, where we loaded 65 wagons with corn, and then moved on, in the same direction, to Logue's tannery, 2 miles from Hugle's, where we loaded, as at Hugle's, from the farms of active rebels, 25 wagons with corn. While the teams were being loaded at Logue's, a squad of rebel cavalry made a dash on the vedettes I had thrown out on the Lebanon road, but were driven off without doing any damage to my men.
From Logue's, I marched in a southwesterly direction, to Goodwin's Ford, where I camped for the night, on the east side of Stone's River, returning to camp at 10 o'clock this morning, all safe, with ninety loads of corn and 2 prisoners, believed to be "bushwhacker."
I made an expedition through the same region of country on the 28th of April, bringing to camp eighty-five loads of corn and 2 prisoners (Capt. [Wade] Baker, of the Twenty-eighth Tennessee rebel infantry, and a noted guerrilla by the name of Worl).
In making both these expeditions, I have patrolled a section which has been a place of resort and concealment for the rebels who have made the raids upon the railroad and pike between this post and Nashville.
On Monday I will go over the river again with a large train.
JAMES B. STEDMAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Post.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 306-307.
2, Camp in Murfreesboro, a description by Bliss Morse, 105th Ohio Volunteer Infantry
The boys have adorned the camp about here with cedars and looks very fine around our camps – looks like a big door yard set out with cedars. Every two men have one of those tents throughout the army. Our boys are in very good spirits and will all be paid to the 1st March. My knapsack was turned over to Quartermaster. The boys used my boots, socks, blouse, shirts and hdkf [sic]. I drew an Enfield. It is heavier than Sprin. [sic] I got a letter from Jay and Jason. Sam and I went and peeled bark for a floor to our shanty. It keeps us off the ground. Our floor room is six feet square. We spread two coffee sacks and an overcoat down for bed with two blankets for us, and sleep sound, and fearless – way down here in the enemy's country. Our boys are delighted with scouting [sic] and like to get away from camp and the stench of dead animals. Around twelve hundred rebels are said to come in and lay down their arms. I have had some good pancakes for breakfast – rises with Soda which Sam made.
* * * *
Loren J. Morse, ed., comp., Civil War Diaries & Letters of Bliss Morse
1, A Female orderly sergeant
A Female soldier, who has served over two years with the 54th Indiana regiment, and participated in several battles, was arrested by the Military conductor on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad on Thursday last [April 28]. The regiment of which she claimed she was a member was in transit at the time. She was dressed in full uniform, and displayed the badge which indicates the rank of an orderly sergeant. The conductor brought her to Nashville, and reported her to the Provost Marshal for disposal.
Nashville Dispatch, May 1, 1864.
1, Elvira Powers' description of a black church service in Nashville
This P. M., Miss O. and myself accompanied Rev. E. P. Smith to listen to his "colored preaching," as he termed it, in the same church in which is the school for the colored children. It was a rare treat-and the first colored audience I ever saw.
Do not imagine a squalid, ragged, filthy audience; but one where silks, ribbons, velvet, broadcloth, spotless linen and beavers predominated, with a sprinkling of beautifully cared for silver, and gold-headed canes, with about the usual proportion of fops to the canes that one may find in an audience of equal size, or our own color. Some of these persons are free and own property. But one would scarcely covet some of the ladies their silks and velvets, when she learns that it is purchased with the avails of extra labor at night after the day's work "for de missus is done."
But so it is. And although the church was built some years ago with their money, yet it was held in trust by white people because "negroes [sic] cannot own property."
I have been repeatedly told that I would turn pro-slavery when I came south and saw how things really were. I do not feel any of the first symptoms as yet, but quite the contrary. Instead, I'm getting to believe that the day when the Emancipation Document was sent forth, was that of which it is said "a nation shall be born in a day," and I'm learning to think that this gospel, which is
"Writ in burnished rows of steel"
And read by
"The watch-fires of an hundred circling camps," is the "word" which "makes men free," and will forever strike the manacles from the oppressed bondsman.
One indignant white man, during the first prayer which was made by a negro preacher, and in which he asked for blessing upon the Union arms and freedom for slaves, left his seat and walked the whole length of the church, with heavy tread and with his hat on his head, while a voice called out,-
"Take your hat off!"
During the closing prayer the negro very properly prayed, "Oh Lord, wilt dou give de people good manners and teach 'em right behaviour wen dey come into de house ob de Lord!"
The sermon was the Bible-story of the death of James and the release of Peter from prison. It was told in a simple, earnest, impressive manner, to a deeply attentive, impressible audience. When he drew the picture of the angel entering the prison, and taking Peter away as easily as though "his chains were made of wax and a lighted candle was held beneath them, while the four quarternians-sixteen-soldiers were powerless to act," one old man laughed outright, a joyous, grateful laugh, others made their peculiar grunting noise which no combination of sounds will give exactly, while others shook hands and cried "Glory to God." During the singing some women had the "power" so that they passed round, embraced and shook hands.
Some joined the church, and the negro preacher told them he "hoped that wouldn't be the last of it, and they they'd be faithful and come to church; " but that some joined whom he "never could get a chance to set eyes on again, so that when they died he never culd tell WHICH PLACE THEY'D GONE TO!" [sic]
I have forgotten to note in its proper place, that upon entering the church Miss O. and myself took seats in the only unoccupied pew in the body of the church. But Rev. Mr. S. beckoned us forwarded to a side seat by the pulpit. We took our seats there, but soon a neat, elderly negress [sic] came forward and said with a coaxing smile and voice, "Young ladies go up in de altar an' set-you [sic] doesn't wan [sic] to set down here wid dese yere colored folks." We preferred remaining, and she urged the matter in vain. Soon an elderly mulatto man, probably a prominent member in the church, whose portly form was assisted in its waddles by a gold-headed cane, came forward and made the same request. But not being accustomed to the highest seat in the synagogue on account of our possessing a lighter color, we declined doing so until all the seats were filled and some must stand, when we did go; but upon others coming in they also were induced to take a seat in the altar.
Powers, Pencillings, pp. 67-68.
1, 'Those girls never had been able to get into respectable society, and they imagined they could now make an entrée with an armed force…." Social gossip in McMinnville
….The 19th Michigan left….The streets of Mc [sic] are said to have presented a sorry sight the morning they left. The Union feminine element which had so frantically thrown itself entirely away into Abraham's bosom, was dissolved, melted, and steeped in briny tears,-and while it took its long-lingering farewell of the shoulder straps, the darkey [sic] feminine element in the streets hung like clouds about the necks and brows of "uncle sam's boys" [sic] in the ranks and made the melodious with their lamentations. The hard-beat of rebellion looked on unmoved by all this panorama of despair. The feminine "secesh" element was centred [sic] upon finding out how the "union element" conducted itself at Bersheba [sic]. The Col. would say but little – indeed there was but little need since they, themselves had trumpeted their own doings as soon as they returned. It seems they were much "cut" [sic] by not being invited to Mrs. A's [sic] and made a good deal of "to-do" over it – tho' [sic] some did aver that they cared nothing for the attentions of Mrs. A. or Miss Franklin' they only wanted the use of their parlor and piano, to entertain their beaux! One of the rebel sisters remarked that "Those girls never had been able to get into respectable society, and they imagined they could not make an entrée with an armed force, but they were mistaken." It seems that the Yankee beaux tried first to get the rebel ladies to accompany them but when they politely declined – the Union feminine were taken as a "dernier resort!" [sic] Funny doings. It is funny to see the "loyalty" neglected when there is a ghost of a chance to catch a "rebel" smile – but so it is, and all natural enough I suppose too. Yankee officers are men (in a measure,) and men in whatever degree that they may exist will always run themselves to death to obtain "whatsoever they can't git [sic]…."
War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.
1-5, Entries in Alice Williamson's Diary, Sumner County
1st. This is the dullest May-day Gallatin ever seen; no picnics or anything else.
2nd. A reg. of East Tennesseans have come to hold this post. They are the meanest men I ever saw; but they have one good trait they make the negroes [sic] "walk a chalk."
3rd. The East Tenneseans [sic] burnt a school hous [sic] last night it was a contraband school. They say they will have none of that while they stay here.
4th. The soldiers are behaving very well I do not suppose the negroes think so though they threatened to burn the old tavern last night (that like every thing else is filled with contrabands) but the citizens told them if they did Gallatin would burn; they let it alone but say if they get up a school in it they will burn it and G. may go to H____ [sic]
5th. A contraband was killed today; he insulted one of Miss B's scholars & a soldier being near killed him. Go it my East Tenn [sic]
2, Skirmish at Bolivar
APRIL 30-MAY 9, 1864.-Expedition from Memphis, Tenn., to Ripley, Miss., and skirmish (May 2) at Bolivar, Tenn.
Reports of Maj. Gen. Cadwallader C. Washburn, U. S. Army, commanding District of West Tennessee.
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., May 4, 1864.
GEN.: On the afternoon of the 2d instant the advance of Sturgis' cavalry, 700 strong, under Lieut.-Col. Karge, Second New Jersey Cavalry, encountered a brigade of Forrest's cavalry near Bolivar, on the south side of Hatchie. The enemy were from 800 to 1,000 strong. After a severe fight of two hours the enemy retreated across the Hatchie, destroying the bridge. They retreated through Bolivar in a southeast direction. Gen. Sturgis fears that Forrest has retreated between the Hatchie and Tennessee Rivers. He hears that the cars are running to Corinth, and that a part of Gen. Polk's forces are below Corinth.
Our losses in the action were 2 killed and 10 wounded. My latest information from Gen. Sturgis is to 7.30 o'clock yesterday morning, whence was 16 miles west of Bolivar but expected to have a large part of his cavalry force up to Bolivar by 12 o'clock yesterday. The heavy rains had so swollen the creeks as to greatly retard his movements.
I am, general, your obedient servant,
C. C. WASHBURN, Maj.-Gen.
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Memphis, May 6, 1864.
GEN.: On the 30th ultimo I sent from here 3,300 cavalry and 2,000 infantry in pursuit of Forrest, under Gen. Sturgis.
On the day following [May 1st] Forrest left Jackson, Tenn., in force, retreating south. My advance met a brigade of his in the afternoon of the 2d near Bolivar, and after a sharp engagement of two hours drove them from their intrenchments with considerable loss. They retreated across the Hatchie, destroying the bridge behind them. Our loss, 2 killed, 10 wounded.
Forrest with his whole force encamped on night of 2d at Purdy, and continued his retreat the day following [3d] toward Pocahontas. He crossed the Hatchie at Pocahontas on the 4th, and Sturgis was in hot pursuit. A co-operating force which I expected from Bethel to be at Purdy on the night of 30th failed me or I should have captured his whole force. The Hatchie was very high and impassable anywhere below Bolivar. I still hope to punish him severely before he gets out of reach.
C. C. WASHBURN, Maj.-Gen.
HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE,
Memphis, May 8, 1864. (Received 11th, 11 a. m.)
Forrest is driven out of West Tennessee. My forces followed him as far as East Mississippi, but his swift horses rendered farther pursuit unavailing. There is no organized enemy in West Tennessee or Kentucky.
You will next hear of Forrest near Decatur, Ala.
C. C. WASHBURN, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 693-694.
2, Skirmish at Newport
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
2, A Yankee's love spurned by a Rebel in Cleveland
....Lieut. Simmons [a Federal soldier] called on me this eve. He loves me, I dislike him, he is a Yank, he filled my heart with dolt as regards Gen. Johns[t]on's success. I sewed a button on his coat for him. He bade me good-bye....
Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman, p. 246.
2 The 104th Ohio Volunteer Infantry's Trip from Bull's Gap to Athens
Camp near Charleston, Tenn.
May 2nd 1864
I wrote to you last week from Bull's Gap and I guess told you that we expected to leave soon. Next morning we got marching orders and waited till nearly night for a train from Knoxville, when it came up we got aboard and arrived at K about 9:00 p.m….We laid around town till noon when we took the dirt road for Loudon. It was very warm but we marched about 12 miles before sundown…reville sounded at 3 ½ o'ck. We started soon after and marched 5 miles before breakfast…reached Loudon by noon. We crossed the R.R. bridge which is not quite finished, tho the cars have been running over it for some time. It is the longest bridge I ever saw and will be a fine affair when it is completed…Tonight we camped near a little town (Athens)….
May 1, 1865, Directions for gaining surrender of stragglers and guerrillas
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, May 1, 1865--8 a. m.
Maj.-Gen. STEEDMAN, Chattanooga:
Send a summons, under flag of truce, to all and every band of armed men in your vicinity or which you may know of, who are operating nearer to yours than any other command, and call upon them to surrender to you, or any other officer you may name for that purpose, upon the same terms as Lee surrendered to Gen. Grant. If they disregard your summons and continue acts of hostility, they will hereafter be regarded as outlaws, and be proceeded against, pursued, and, when captured, treated as outlaws.
GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., U. S. Army, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 552-553.
1, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 99, relative to Federal forces assisting enforcement of civil law in Anderson County
SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 99. HDQRS. DISTRICT OF EAST TENNESSEE, Knoxville, Tenn., May 1, 1865.
* * * *
V. Capt. Cross' company, Seventh Tennessee Mounted Infantry, will at once proceed to Clinton, Anderson County, for the purpose of assisting the sheriff of that county in the execution of the civil laws.
* * * *
By command of Maj.-Gen. Stoneman:
G. M. BASCOM, Maj. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 554.
1, Joint Resolution Number XXXIV, placing a $5,000 reward for the capture of Ex-Governor Isham G. Harris
Whereas, Treason is the highest crime known to the laws of the land, and no one man is presumed to understand the true meaning of the term better than Governors of States, and certainly no one should be held to more strict accounts for the commission of the crime of treason; and whereas, the State of Tennessee before the rebellion enjoyed a high social, moral and political position and bore the well-earned reputation of the Volunteer State; and whereas, by the treason of one Isham G. Harris, Ex-Governor of Tennessee, the State has lost millions of dollars and thousands of her young men, who have been killed in battle and died of diseases, while thousands of middle aged and old men have been murdered or imprisoned, and defenseless women and children driven from the State, heartbroken and penniless; and, whereas, the voters of Tennessee did, in the month of February, 1861, by a majority of sixty thousand, repudiate treason and rebellion, but the aforesaid Isham G. Harris, well knowing the true sentiment of the people on treason and rebellion, and entirely disregarding the overwhelming expression of popular sentiment, did use his position as Governor of the State to precipitate it in rebellion and hostility to the government of the United States; and, whereas, by such acts he is guilty of treason, perjury and theft, and is responsible to a great extent for the misery and death of thousands of the citizens of the State, and the devastation of the same from east to west, and from north to south-the cries of the wounded an dying, the wail of the widow, and weeping of the orphan, are wafted on every breeze, imploring a just retribution on the instigators of this rebellion; be it therefore
Resolved, By the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, that the Governor of the State is hereby authorized and instructed to offer a reward of five thousand dollars for the apprehension and delivery of the said Isham G. Harris, to the civil authorities of the State. He shall fully describe said fugitive from justice....
Signed, WGB, May 1, 1865
Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, Vol. 5, p. 439.
2, Telegram communication between Major-General R. H. Milroy and Major-General Rousseau relative to capture and punishment of guerrillas, horse-thieves and other armed outlaws.
TULLAHOMA, May 2, 1865.
Maj. B. H. POLK, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Nashville:
Your telegram received. Am I to understand that I am directed to send flags of truce to all bands of guerrillas, horse-thieves, and other armed outlaws that may be within reach of my command? I have eighteen of these cut-throats in my stockade under charges, awaiting trial. Shall I make the proposition to them? They are not so bad as some of the armed bands who are in the brush. All will gladly go through the motions of accepting the terms offered.
R. H. MILROY, Maj.-Gen.
NASHVILLE, TENN., May 2, 1865.
Maj. Gen. R. H. MILORY, Tullahoma:
Your dispatch in reference to the order sent you yesterday has been submitted to Maj.-Gen. Thomas, who says the order intends to apply to all bands of armed men. The men already in your stockade are not included. You will make it understood that all men who refuse to cease their warfare against the Government or the citizens of the country will be regarded and treated as outlaws.
By command of Maj.-Gen. Rousseau:
B. H. POLK, Maj. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 570.
 The dichotomy about slaves indicates the presence of cognitive dissonance on the part of Southerners who insisted slaves were child-like, happy and content on one hand, and on the other a menace waiting to explode forth and rape all white women and slaughter all whites. Nat Turner's revolt (1831) was no doubt the example they feared.
 GALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN
 The following two reports differ both in their conclusions and in the use of the terms "skirmish" and "engagement," further obfuscating the exact meaning these words had in the nineteenth century. Was this a skirmish or was this an engagement? The OR General Index refers to it as a skirmish.
 Center for Archival Collections, George Kryder Papers, Transcripts, MS 163: http://www.bgsu.edu/colleges/library/cac/transcripts
 Meaning unknown. Perhaps a taunt reserved for Federal soldiers from Nashville's secessionist-women, or a satirical reference to Nashville's secessionist women by Federal officers.
 This pamphlet is not known to be extrant.
 As cited in PQCW.
 The law of supply and demand!
 Used with the permission of eHistory: http://www.ehistory.com/uscw/library/letters/randall/09.cfm
 This is apparently the only reference to this expedition.
 i.e., Springfield rifle.
 Loren J. Morse, ed., comp., Civil War Diaries & Letters of Bliss Morse [105th Ohio Volunteer Infantry], 1st ed., (n.p: privately published, 1985.) [Hereinafter cited as Diaries of Bliss Morse.]
 "Walk a straight line."
 OR indicates skirmishes at Newport, Virginia, on the 12th and 13th of May, 1864 (I, 37). The only Civil War recorded skirmish at Newport, Tenn., transpired on January 23, 1864 (I, 32).
 See also: Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal and Rebel Ventilator, May 10, 1865.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Editor, The Courier
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214