Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Notes from Civil War Tennessee, May 3, 1861-1865

Notes from Civil War Tennessee,

May 3, 1861-1865.


            3, "The Masses of the people of Tennessee-Their Love of the old Union-Demagogism-Slaveholders and non-Slave holders;" class- and race-consciousness and pro-secession rhetoric in Clarksdale

The great body of yeomanry and laborers of Tennessee may be poor, but they are brave, honest, patriotic and true-hearted. Some who do not know them, may doubt their patriotism and valor to defend their rights when invaded, but this is a great mistake. They love the old Union of our fathers, and would never consent to dissolve it, so long as the Constitution is not violated, and so long as it protects their rights; but they love liberty and justice more; and they will never consent to submit to abolition rule, and permit the evils to come upon them, which must result from a continuance in the Union when the Government is in the hands of our enemies, who will use all its power for their destruction. When it becomes necessary to defend our rights against the foul power of Black Republican domination, the yeomanry of the mountains and the valleys, of very portion of Tennessee, will swarm around her standard, with a resolution that will strike terror into abolition cohorts of the North. Wealth is timid, and wealthy men may cry for peace, and submit to wrong, for fear they may loose [sic] their money; but the honest laborers of Tennessee can never consent to see slavery abolished, and submit to the taxation, low wages and downright degradation that must follow. They will never consent to be reduced to an equality with the negro [sic], or to take his place: God forbid.

Some contemptible demagogues have attempted to deceive non-slaveholders by appealing to their prejudices, and asking them what interests they have in maintaining the rights of the wealthy slave-holder [sic]. They cannot be deceived in this way. They know that the laws of Tennessee protect their lives, their families, and their property; and that all the property which the wealthy slave-holder may have, can be taxed by the State, if need be, to protect the rights an liberties of all. The rights and interests of the slave-holder [sic] and the non-slave-holder, of the rich and the poor, in the South are reciprocal, homogeneous and identical. One man in a large neighborhood may have a mill. Not one in fifty has a mill. What would be though of the public speaker who would appeal to the fifty, and ask them what interest [sic] they have in defending their neighbor's mill, if an abolition mob were trying to burn it down? Another has a store. None one in fifty has a store. Who would say the fifty should not help the one, if an invader is about to burn his Store [sic]? Another has a Blacksmith shop. Not one in fifty has a Blacksmith Shop. Shall the shop be destroyed by the common enemy, and no one protect the owner because no one near has the same peculiar kind of property? It may be that I have no horse, and you have a horse; or that I have a cow, and you have no cow. In such cases, if our rights of property are assailed by a common enemy, shall we not help each other? Or I have a wife and children, and another has neither wife, children, or house. Will he, therefore, stand by and see my house burned, my wife and children butchered, because he has none? The slave-holder [sic] has honestly invested the money, which it has cost him years of toil to make in slaves, which are guaranteed to him by the laws of the State. The common enemy of the South seeks to take this property from him.-Shall all who do not own slaves stand by and permit this to be done? If so, they have no right to call upon the slave-holder [sic], by taxation or otherwise to help protect they [sic] property or their liberties. Such a doctrine is monstrous; and he would advance it, deserves to be rode [sic] on the sharpest edge of one of Lincoln's rails. The doctrine strikes at the very foundation of society; and if carried out, would destroy all property and all protection to life, liberty and happiness. The present is a critical period with the people or the South. We all poor and rich, have a common interest, and a common destiny. It is no time to be wrangling about old party strifes. Our common enemy, the Black Republican party, is in power, united and triumphant. If we cannot all see alike, let us have charity enough to believe that all are equally patriotic in their efforts to promote the common cause. If we can act unitedly [sic] and harmoniously, we can achieve a glorious and signal victory.


Clarksville Chronicle, May 3, 1861.

            3, "Volunteers;" suggestion to keep Clarksville volunteer clerks' pay in escrow

Many of the young men who have Volunteered, in this hour of peril, to go forth and battle for the homes, the firesides, and the liberty of the South are Clerks [sic], who in thus doing, surrender situation on which they have been dependent for their living. They give them up, to, for the perils of war, and without the hope of any gain, save the glory, they may win; and in view of this, we wish to suggest to those, who have had these young men in their employment, that they shall let their salary go on, as heretofore, while they are in the service of their country, as soldiers, and that whenever they employ other young men in their place, it shall be with the understanding that it is to be given again to the gallant Volunteer, should he return to claim it, and have proved worthy of it. Our merchants are able to do this, and we hope they will. If they cannot afford to continue the full salary, allow half of it [sic], any way-(to such as deport themselves as good soldiers, we mean, of course.)

We see that this has been done in New Orleans -- the full salary continued, and the old situation, with increased pay, promised to be worthy, on their release from service -- and we hope it will be done here. Who will lead in doing it?

Clarksville Chronicle, May 3, 1861.

            3, THE VOLUNTEER STATE.

Old Tennessee was welcomed out  of the Union yesterday, in Macon, by a salvo of Artillery and musketry and fire-crackers in plenty. – There was a general jubilee over the news. – Tennessee he most warlike State in the Union, producing and most stalwart in the world, will teach the Northern philosophers a lesson or two on Southern "emasculation."

Macon Daily Telegraph, May 3, 1861.


We have a round-about despatch from Richmond, announcing the passage of a Secession Ordinance by the Tennessee Legislature – to be submitted to the people, as a matter of course. A verbal count from a gentleman lately arrived from Nashville, says the act assed by a vote of ninety- five to five! – a greater degree of unanimity than has yet been shown by any State – South Carolina excepted. But the indications of events are so clear and unmistakable that no man, with a Southern heart in his bosom, can longer doubt or hesitate. The opponent of Secession now, is only he who prefers Northern institutions-Northern dictation-Northern supremacy. The people of Tennessee will sustain the ordinance by ten to one.

But notwithstanding the immense majority for secession, letters received here say that in Knoxville, a few days since, the infamous Andrew Johnson addressed the people, advising armed resistance, and that a regiment of Tennessee soldiers, near that town, on their way to Virginia, were imminently threatened with attack. If this be so, it is clear, there must be a strong incendiary party in and about Knoxville. Otherwise such a speech could not be delivered. A recent letter from that place, however, gives it as the writer's opinion that the secession ordinance will get a clear majority of at least fifty thousand in the State. Mr. Andy Johnson and his Unionists must behave themselves, or Tennessee will have to borrow counsel from the course pursed in the Northern States, where a word of compunction at Southern invasion and massacre is the signal for violence or death. The South will order her proceedings by law with all the calmness and dignity of conscious rectitude and strength; the public safety will out permit such conduct as that of Johnson to go unnoticed and unpunished.

Macon Daily Telegraph, May 3, 1861.

            3, A Newspaper Report on pre-secession feelings in Memphis and Knoxville


~ ~ ~

Tennessee is catching the fever. A dispatch dated Memphis, Tenn, April 24th, says" The excitement in this city is at a high pitch Volunteers are enlisting for the Southern army. Batteries are erected, ad no steamers are allowed to press up or down... Senator Johnson still denounces secession. Parson Brownlow says in the Knoxville Whig: "We are for the Union as it is, first; for a Border State Confederacy next; and for the Southern Confederacy never, in any contingency."

~ ~ ~

Farmers' Cabinet, May 3, 1861




            3, "…she was a raarin an' pitchin' and cavortin' around about."

Police Court.

Saturday, May 3.—A large number of cases were brought before Recorder Shane yesterday morning, which were disposed of after careful scrutiny and some difficulty….

Mehila Guy and Miss Sullivan were arraigned for disorderly conduct, and each fined $3 and costs.

Ellen Angler was fined $5 and costs for abusing and striking an old man called "Doctor" Moore….

Mary Callahan was accused of being disorderly, her accuser being the persons who procured the liquor at her expense. She was found guilty and fined. Fowler was reprimanded, and placed in charge of an officer to ascertain where the whisky was obtained.

Mrs. Nancy Ross was arraigned for being disorderly and for selling liquor, but was discharged on both charges….

Widow Sullivan was fined $5 and costs for selling liquor.

Mary Brown was accused of disorderly conduct. Mr. George German swore that she cursed steadily, without any hold up, for three or four hours, and that, among other things, she said "she wouldn't give a d__n for any one who would not hooray for Jeff. Davis."  One of the Federal soldiers said "she was a raarin an' pitchin' and cavortin' around about."  Miss Alice Write said German was as bad as Mary, and Mrs. Wright corroborated her statement, naming to the Court some of the language used by German, which Miss Alice could not be prevailed upon to repeat, and which we cannot soil our pen to record. The defendant stated that the soldiers frequently tantalized and mocked her, and that a German encouraged them in so doing, causing her to lose her temper, and to use language which she knew was improper. The Recorder took a very sensible view of the matter, and imposed a fine upon both, adding $30 to the city finances.

Nashville Dispatch, May 6, 1862.     

            3, Reconnaissance on Memphis and Charleston Railroad

Excerpt from the Report of Brig. Gen. Gordon Granger, commanding cavalry division, of operations from April 23 to June 10, 1862, relative to the reconnaissance on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, May 3, 1862.

May 3.-The Second Iowa Regt. [sic], under Lieut.-Col. Hatch, proceeded to a point on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad between Burnsville and Glendale, and destroyed the track by burning the trestle work, bending the rails, and destroying the switches. Captured 3 wagons, 10 mules, and 4 prisoners. One battalion of the Second Michigan, Capt. Alger commanding, made a reconnaissance toward the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, encountering the enemy and taking 9 prisoners. No casualties.

OR, Ser., I, Vol. 10, pt. I, p. 728.

            3, "A YANKEE TRICK."

On Saturday evening (3rd) the telegraph operator at Grand Junction received a dispatch, dated Corinth, stating that the track was clear and no train would go down that night. At once a large train, filled with soldiers, was prepared to send up the road, when, ten minutes before it would have started, a freight train arrived down the road. A circumstance so contradictory of the telegram received, led to the operator at Grand Junction making inquiries of the operator at Corinth, when the fact came out that the latter party had sent no dispatch to Grand Junction. Some enemy had connected a private instrument with the line, and had simulated a Corinth dispatch, so as to lead to a collision between two trains, one filled with soldiers. Had the freight train been ten minutes after, the train full of soldiers would have set out with the belief they had a clear track, and a fearful loss of life no doubt would have ensued.

Memphis Appeal, May 6, 1862

            3, News and needs of the Overton Hospital

The Overton Hospital.—We have several times called upon our citizens to give their assistance at the Overton Hospital and many have tendered their aid there who have afterward abandoned the good work they had intended to do, on account of unpleasant influences that have hindered the performance [of] their good wishes. Persons who have gone with the desire of doing their best for the sufferer lying there, have met with unkindness in some instances, and ministers of religion going to offer the consolations of their office to the dying, have not been treated with the respect due to their sacred office, and have in some instances been refused admission altogether. We have hitherto refrained from mentioning these unpleasant matters, but the receipt of the card below, in which Dr. Curry very handsomely engages that as far as lies in his power no insult or rude repulse shall occur, but ladies and gentlemen shall be treated with the respect due to them, authorizes us to do so on this occasion. We learn that on Thursday night only three persons were present to attend to the large crowd of patients; now there is an engagement that that those who go shall meet with polite treatment, we urge upon those who can to give their aid, it is greatly needed. Gossippers and busybodys will be of no service, but those who have a heart to work to alleviate suffering and do good, will find an opportunity to worthily imitate the glorious example of Florence Nightingale at the hospitals of Scutari. The following is the card of Dr. Curry:

Overton General Hospital,

Memphis, May 2, 1862.

To the Patriotic Ladies and Gentlemen of Memphis:

Your services are much needed, at this time, to assist in nursing the sick soldiers at the Overton Hospital. Many, very many of you have, as yet, rendered little or no assistance in this department, while many have exhausted their strength and need a chance to recuperate. Last night there was a great deficiency of nurses. Only think of the inevitable consequences. Your defenders—southern soldiers—suffering, desponding, perhaps dying, for want of your sympathy and attention, while prostrate with disease, contracted by exposure and overexertion in saving you and yours from our enemy, who purposes your subjugation and ruin!; I have heard that some persons complain of having been insulted or rudely repulsed, while aiding, or offering to aid, the sick. If there be just cause for such complaints, I regret it, and can only promise, that so far as in my power, all ladies and gentlemen who come here to help (and not to promenade the halls and get in the way), shall be treated with due respect. In this connection I might say, that no fair-minded, considerate person will take offense at the enforcement of those prudential regulations, designed expressly to exclude the idle or unworthy. Come, then, and help us to save the lives of the gallant soldiers of the Southern Confederacy.

G. W. Currey, Asst. Surgeon C. S. A. in charge Overton Hospital.

Memphis Daily Appeal, May 3, 1862.


            3, "A reign of terror prevailed for three days…" The aftermath of Morgan's May 1 raid on Pulaski

Since the 1st of May our town has been a military camp, having been taken violently by the Federals of the 2nd of May. On account of Morgan's enthusiastic reception by the inhabitants the enemy came in town like demons belching forth oaths too bad to repeat. A reign of terror prevailed for three days, our court-yard which was beautified with grass & forest trees was first destroyed, the trees being skinned by the cavalry horses & the grass trampled down by them, the stores then were broken open around the square, & shops of every description were rifled of their valuables. Mr. Manning who owned a small jewelry shop & by his work upon watches maintained his family principally lost all his valuable instruments, Mr. Scoggin, a good [sic] man & favorite in town, who owns a drugstore, had his store ruined [sic] by the brutal soldiery, all suffered around the square in one way or another. In a different parts of the town, the soldiery entered ladies private apartments, & demanded whatever they wished. I was forced to submit to much [sic] which I scorned myself [sic] afterwards, the only consolation being the hope that the gallant Southern band might one day repay the deeds of the hostile foe. Mr. Ballentine's family suffered most. I visited them during their distress & heard them relate their troubles as they accumulated. Fifty armed [men?] rushed into the hall at one [sic] time, demanding in loud tones a negro [sic] which they suspected the family had harbored. Mrs. Mason, daughter of Mr. B.s, [sic] who was in her room above stairs hearing the loud voices, rushed down the stair-way standing proudly defiant before the infuriated mob demanded of them why [sic] they were there. They answered: "We want that negro [sic]" She replied, we know nothing of a negro [sic] belonging to you. Told to in words of eloquence that they had proved to her since their entrance into the town the character of their mission south-abolition of slavery. But not until the room (in which they suspected the negro [sic] to be concealed) was thrown open to their view did they hush their boisterous clamor. Mrs. B's private premises were over-run, the strawberry bed, cistern & fine flowers being greatly injured. Many of the citizens at their approch [sic] sought safety in concealment. Those who succeeded in eluding their grasp the most conspicuous being Mr. Wm. Martin, have since courted the tyranny which, at first appalled [sic] them. He, finding the Federals in pursuit of him sought shelter in a magnolia tree which shows conspicuously [sic] in his mother's garden. I do not know how he feels toward the tree which have him shelter, but it seems to me I should regard it with a holy reverence [sic]. One of our citizens found a cozy retreat in his wife's wardrobe, which however proved less [sic] secure than the sacred tree. He was found & forced to terms by the relentless foe. After the three days of terror, a garrison was firmly [sic] placed over our town which has encamped upon the square ever since rendering it an unfit place of resort by the ladies, all of whom adhere closely to their rebel principles. The commander Col., Mundy of the 23rd Kentucky finding some noble spirits who refused to yield to his despotic sway, chose to banish them from their homes, contrary to their wishes. The names of those summoned before his majesty are as follows. Ref. Mr. Mooney, Mr. Sheperd, Mr. Winstead (a member of Capt. Flournoy's Co. who came home to recruit his health) Dr. Sumpter, Dr. Edmunson, Dr. Abernathy Major Tom Jones, Mr. Brannan, Mr. Flipin, Mr. Frazier. The three latter accepted his terms I stayed at home, the others refusing, were doomed to exile, the just fate [sic] which he deemed their desert for their rebellious [sic] sentiments. Major Jones paid Owen a visit & fount after much persuasion [sic], a certain leniency in Gov. Andrew Johnson which mysteriously to us, allows him freedom [sic] such as it is.

Diary of Martha Abernathy, entry for June 3, 1862 .[1][1]

            3, News from Nashville on the Situation in Middle Tennessee


From the Memphis Appeal.

A gentleman who left Nashville about ten days ago, and arrived at Memphis yesterday with great difficulty, gives us some later details than we have before had from that quarter. He says that on the 16th  [April] instant there were but 3,500 troops in and around the city, 800 of which were immediately in the corporation, and the rest in the suburbs. There was, in addition, one regiment at Murfreesboro, and another at Shelbyville, all belonging to Gen Mitchell's division.

Our informant states that a few days before he left the "cotton agent" of the Washington despotism proceeded out to Major Tucker's plantation, some distance from Nashville, on the Murfreesboro road, and stole about twenty bales of cotton in the name of his government, and hauled it to the city. It had been concealed and was discovered by him. But little of this staple however, had been obtained by the Federals since their occupation of Middle Tennessee..

The bogus military governor, Andrew Johnson, has been reduced to the necessity of keeping an armed guard at his door all the time, as a protection to his person. He had issued orders to allow no citizen to appear on the streets after nine o'clock P. M. , and on the night of the f5th instant the public square was filled with parties under arrest, who had violated the despotic order. He has also established a detective policy some of whom dogged the footsteps of our informant with much importunity. The Chief Detective is an unscrupulous Yankee scoundrel, who several years ago occupied the same position at Washington City.[2]

Johnson has been attempting for more than a month to raise a full regiment as a body guard, but has so far succeeded in getting only about eighty Dutchmen to volunteer in that dirty capacity.

The rigor of the despotism continued to grow more severe. The Nashville Banner had been suppressed for refusing to publish abolition sentiments and versions of affairs in general.

Jas. T. Bell, late editor of the Gazette who was arrested some weeks since, had been released after his giving bond to remain in the city.

On the day before our informant left, the news reached Nashville, that Capt. John Morgan was moving upon the city from Lebanon, with a force of  1500 cavalry. Great consternation prevailed among Johnson and his minions in consequence and the full available Federal force was kept under arms all night in anticipation of an attack. [3] About 300 cavalry were kept around Johnson's premises, as a special force to resist any demonstration that might be made upon him. The despot himself is said to have been very much terrified, and had his clothes packed and his papers put up preparatory to a rapid hegira in case of such a necessity.

The people of Nashville are represented to as positively being more hostile in their feelings towards the Lincoln Government than ever. The flagrant outrages of Johnson's minions have exasperated and embittered them beyond the description of words, and they earnestly look forward to the day when swift retribution will be visited upon their persecution by the advancing legions of a triumphant Confederate army.

The Courier (Natchez, MS), May 3, 1862.




            3, Loss of steamboat near Gallatin carrying medicine for Federal forces at Carthage

CARTHAGE, TENN., May 3, 1863.

(Via Gallatin, May 4-9.30 a. m.)


The boats arrived last night. The boat loaded with antiscorbuties[4] sank just above Gallatin. Our men are suffering terribly for want of them. The boats will be sent to Nashville immediately; cannot they be sent back at once with these much-needed articles? Very little clothing-some three hundred pairs of pants-came up. Blouses and pants are greatly needed; many of the men have none.

The rebels are again making their appearance in the Alexandria country [KY], and scattering through the country in all directions. Nothing can be done with them from here without cavalry. It will be necessary to send some of our sick down, if these articles cannot be obtained here soon.



OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 309.

            3, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 99, relative to the reorganization of inspector general's office in the Army of the Cumberland

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 99. HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, Tenn., May 3, 1863.

In pursuance of a plan proposed by the assistant inspector-general of this army for the reorganization of his department, the following orders are published for the guidance of all concerned:

I. General Orders. No. 6, of November 6, 1862, and the inspection circulars of December 20, 1862, and January 23, 1863, are hereby abrogated.

II. Each division and brigade commander will immediately nominate from his command three energetic and capable officers as inspectors, and forward their names to the corps commanders, who will, from the three approve and appoint one, whose name shall be forwarded to the general commanding for his approval as an inspector, who shall perform all the duties of his office in accordance with this order and the Army Regulations. The inspectors thus appointed will be of the rank of majors for divisions and captains for brigades, unless special authority, in particular cases, be given to appoint officers of less rank. They shall be known as division and brigade inspectors.

III. A monthly and semi-monthly report will be made as heretofore and in accordance with the blanks to be furnished from the office of the assistant inspector-general of the department. The semi-monthly report will embrace the time to the evening of the 14th, and will be made by the brigade inspectors; and, after being approved by the brigade commander, will be handed to the division inspectors by the morning of the 18th. The monthly report will embrace the time up to the end of the month, and will be made and forwarded in the same manner.

Brigade reports will be in duplicate, and by regiments, giving the brigade total; one copy to be retained in corps inspector's office, and one to be forwarded by him to the office of assistant inspector-general of the department. Division reports will be in the same manner in duplicate, and by brigades, giving division totals, and will be made by division inspectors, immediately upon receipt of brigade reports, one copy to be retained in corps inspector's office and one forwarded to office of assistant inspector-general, as before. Corps reports will be in duplicate, and by divisions, as before. All totals shall be in red ink. Brigades and divisions on detached service will report in the same manner, in duplicate, and through the corps inspectors. If such reports cannot be obtained in time for consolidation, they will be forwarded separately, and by him to the office of the assistant inspector-general of the department. Regt. [sic]'s that are detached, and cannot be reported upon by the brigade inspector, will be reported upon in the same manner as above described, and by their adjutants. Blanks will be furnished by corps inspectors to the infantry organizations in their corps, and the reports must be made full and in strict accordance with them.

Every report, whether regimental, brigade, division, or corps, will be accompanied by a letter of advice, which shall contain every information which may be of any importance to the general commanding the department. It must state briefly, but fully, all points which need attention, and recommendations, if necessary, on such points as the inspector may think proper. They must not be more formalities. All letters of advice, or copies of them, will be forwarded, with the reports to which they belong, to the office of the assistant inspector-general, at department headquarters. The letter of advice of the corps inspectors should be very full, but concise, and touch on all changes and improvements, recommendations that have and have not been acted upon, or results obtained. Should inspectors find companies or regiments particularly deserving of praise or censure, it should be given fully and without hesitation. The commanding general directs this particularly.

Guards will be reported upon as to the number of men and average daily detail in brigade in "remarks" and letter of advice.

Hospitals will be reported upon as to the number of men and daily average number of sick in regiment or brigade in "remarks" and letter of advice.

Officers absent without leave will be reported in letters of advice.

IV. Inspectors will use figures, instead of adjectives, to express the condition of regimental books and papers, company books and papers, discipline, drill, sanitary condition of camps, and cooking; also arms, accouterments, and ammunition. With books and papers, 1 will represent "Neat, according to Regulations;" 2, "According to Regulations;" 3, "Not according to Regulations;" 4, "Bad;" 5, "Not kept up;" 6, "Totally neglected." With discipline, drill, sanitary condition of camp, and cooking, 1 will represent, "The best;" 2, "Very good;" 3, "Good;" 4, "Only medium;" 5, "Bad;" 6, Very bad," and 7, "Worst." Clothing will be reported as "New," "Worn," "Well worn," "Worn out," and "Ragged." Corps inspectors will receipt to the inspector-general of the department for the inspection blanks issued to them, and make a quarterly statement to said officers how and when they were disposed of.

V. All printed orders will hereafter be distributed by the assistant inspector-general of the department, and will be sent to corps inspectors (in bulk), who will distribute them to their corps, including all arms of the service. The orders will be receipted for in bulk by the corps inspectors. All orders needed to fill out files in each regiment will be noted in letters of advice; also last orders received, both War Department and Department of the Cumberland. Particular attention must be paid to the proper distribution of orders, and inspectors will be in a measure responsible for the files, or show cause why they are not complete.

VI. Inspectors must ascertain if all the officers reported for duty on the morning reports are present for inspection. Should any be absent, they must be reported by name in the letter of advice. They will also inspect provision returns, and see if they are based upon the morning reports, which reports they will also examine, and ascertain that they are correct. If faulty, it should be reported promptly and fully at once. Inspectors will give particular attention to the treatment of Government animals, and report when they are not properly fed or cared for, and the names of quartermasters who are neglectful of them, or allow them to be ill-treated or ridden hard. No officer or man has a right to use a public horse except on the public service, and quartermasters are responsible that it is not done when in their department. Inspectors must see that have no more tents and baggage for themselves or others than is allowed by orders. Department Orders, Nos. 3,10,17,21,24,25,26,29,30, and 40, of 1862, and Nos. 5,21,32, and 33, of 1863, must be particularly observed, and, if not fully carried out, must be adverted to in the letters of advice. Inspectors will also reports the capacity and zeal of officers in command of troops, staff officers, &c., mode of enforcing orders by officers. They will also report in all new localities upon the roads, communications, where forage can be obtained, and, in fact, all information which may be of use, or will aid to correct defects in introduce improvements.

VII. It is found that the duties of division and brigade inspectors are not distinctly enough divided. The brigade inspectors will in future be relived from reviewing troops and inspecting by regiments or brigades, and it will be their duty, instead, to closely examine and inspect the arms, accouterments, ammunition, clothing, and general equipment and condition of their brigades, by companies, and specially report to the commanding officer of the regiment and brigade, in addition to their report to the division inspector, all evils, irregularities, and wants, of whatever nature, as well as those deserving praise. This does not relieve them from other specified duties and instructions under this order. The division inspectors will attend to the general inspection and reviewing of the troops in reference to drill, discipline, condition of camps, transportation, &c. The duties of division and brigade inspectors in reference to vedette and grand guard and other general duties to remain unchanged. On a march, they will assist the corps inspectors in all things pertaining to the inspector-general's department.

VIII. Inspectors must consider themselves always on duty, and perform their duties without favor or fear. They must have no friends to reward, or enemies to punish, through their official position. They stand as the censors of the army between the commanding general and all officers or men, no matter what their rank or standing may be. Officers who are habitually intemperate, neglectful of their duty, or ignorant and careless must be fully reported on. The duties of inspectors are not always pleasant ones, but they must be performed fairly, and any officer who seeks to find fault with them, or indulge in hard feelings, is both unwise and impolitic.

If inspectors do their duty, the efficiency and discipline of the army can be still more improved. It is hoped that they will not forget that their position is a responsible one, and that the general commanding looks to them for earnest and active work in helping him to make this army what it ought to be. Their appointment is a mark of appreciation of their soldierly qualities. It is hoped they will sustain the reputation that places them in their important position.

The inspectors are friends of both commanders and troops. Justice, good temper, a resolute impartiality, and the avoidance of a bitter and censorious spirit, should characterize their official reports and actions. The friends and aiders of the commanders, by observing all that is done amiss, left undone, or well done, they are equally friends of subordinates and soldiers, whose rights, interests, and honor are at stake-the just fulfillment of orders, regulations, and maintenance of discipline.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 309-312.

            3, Confederate guerrilla attack on mail boat near Gallatin


Brig. Gen. JAMES A. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff:

The enemy....attacked the mail going down on the 3d, but were driven off. Those on the opposite side seem to be in squads.



OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 313.

            3, Special Orders, No. 103, orders to arrest various persons for treason

Headquarters, United States Forces

Nashville, Tenn. May 3d, 1863

Special Orders, No. 103

"Extract" [sic]

The following named persons having been guilty of acts and words against the government of the United States, while residing within the lines of the army thereof at this Post, will by the direction of Major General Rosecrans Commanding the Department of the Cumberland be sent out Tuesday the 5th instant to Louisville en route to points north of the Ohio River not to return to any point South there of unless permitted or ordered by competent authority during the War under penalty of arrest and trial as spies.

[14 names appear]

Simon Perkins, Jr., Papers

            3, Life in the Tullahoma Environs

Tullahoma, Tenn., May 3, 1863.

Since my last letter, I have had opportunities to explore and understand the topography and history of this point, and the country around it. Tullahoma is about the line of Coffee and Franklin counties. It is a wretchedly poor and "God forsaken" region, and is called "the barrens" of Middle Tennessee. Poor and sterile area in the balmy days of peace, the desolations of alternate armies that have swept over it have left it a desert. The Yankees swept off all the male and nearly all the female slave populations. The men have enlisted in the Yankee or Confederate Army, according to their preference, or been caught by the conscript-man, or run into the mountains for refuge; and there is nobody left but women, children, old men, and a few plough-boys. There is nobody else left to cultivate a crop, and almost nothing in the way of a crop, is being made. Horses and mules have been swept off, cattle killed, and the only thing between these poor people and starvation is the product of a few cows. They sell, or barter off, milk and butter to the army, at enormous prices.

And they are such poor creatures, and their condition is so appealing, that a generous heart cannot feel like jawing [sic] them in their prices. Money is almost useless here; it will buy almost nothing at all.

The country women come in with butter and eggs, but generally they will not sell them for money.

They want to barter them off for salt, rice, or molasses. I encountered an old woman, the other day, who had several dozen eggs. I tried to buy them, but it was no go. I offered a high price, but she replied that she did not want money; she could not eat money, nor buy anything to eat with money.

She wanted rice, and would barter the eggs for the rice—one dozen eggs for three pounds of rice.

As nothing else would do, I made the swap, and she went on her way rejoicing. I tried another woman, for butter, but she would not snap her finger for money. But she was "honing" for molasses, and would barter butter for molasses. We traded, and as the molasses was being measured, her delighted urchins gathered round and stuck their fingers in the molasses for a taste. Such are pictures of the life around us.

But such is the desolation wherever vast armies have quarters, and especially upon the disputed territory which is alternately occupied by both armies.

I am sorry to say that Lincolnite traitors abound in this region. Numbers of them are now in the Yankee army. I can detect them by their sneaking look, and by the "cold shoulder" which they poke at a Confederate soldier.

Let me tell you of a Tennessee hag—a Lincoln she-devil, whom I encountered a few days ago. Her house being convenient, I went in, with a few others, and took a drink of water. The hag came out, looking furious, and TOTED [sic] off the water. I had hitched my horse in the yard—a very common yard—and she rudely ordered me to take my horse out of her yard. While I went to obey her behest, she whisked by and TOTED off the chair I had been sitting in, and slammed the door as she closed herself in her house. Not a word was said in reply by the polite and forbearing gentlemen in "stars and bars," who were sitting in the piazza. This is a specimen of the hospitality we get from the Lincoln hags.—The 'secesh' women are much more polite….


Mobile Register and Advertiser, May 10, 1863.[5]

            3, "I am only a machine here and run when I am told to providing the Wheels are well greased with Uncle Sam's bacon, hard bread and such luxuries." Frank M. Guernsey's letter to Fannie

Memphis, Tennessee

May 3rd, 1863

Dear Fannie

Your very welcome letter of the 25th April came to hand this morning, and notwithstanding the gentle yet merited rebuke it contained, was read with much pleasure. Your "I mean it" [sic] gave me more pleasure than I can describe, not that I take pleasure in offending you Fannie, but in that I see you have the spirit and good will to point out to me my errors and faults of which I have many. You say you think I am indiscreet. I think so too, for had I not been I should have kept my affair at the Theatre to myself and not have given you a chance to rebuke me on the subject so I flatter myself that I possess the trait of honesty and frankness, at least, and then I had rather receive one of your gentle rebukes than the commendation of all others beside for I know that by them though you may esteem and even love me yet you are not blinded as to my faults.

The bell rings for church but it is so warm and I am so lazy that I shall not go I had much rather stay in my tent and write you for I can almost imagine that I am talking with you face to face, a privilege that I would give nearly all the world to enjoy if it was but for a few brief hours, but what is the use of talking or wishing or thinking about such things. I am only a machine here and run when I am told to providing the Wheels are well greased with Uncle Sam's bacon, hard bread and such luxuries.

Fannie, you can just imagine me at your picnic if you do not see me. I shall probably be in the form of some fary [sic], so look out for me.

I have very little war excitement here now. Genl. Hurlburt has received orders from Genl Grant to furnish him a report of the number of available troops in his command. There is a probability of more troops being sent to Vicksburg and I almost hope that we may be among the number. I am getting so tired of this life of inactivity it seems that I would rather brave all the dangers of the seige [sic] at Vicksburg than to lay in camp as we have been doing for the past three months. Our Regiment has enough to do out it is not of the right sort. I like the excitement of the Campaign where there is toil and danger, where when we encamp at night weary and tired there is no assurance but before the morning sun dawns upon us, some of us may be hurried into eternity. It is amid scenes like these Fannie that I live, live years in a single hour. They make my blood course like fire through my veins and I am a changed man, for better or for worse I can't tell. I never stop to think but this dull weary monotonous life that we live here is not what pleases me exactly. I guess that all hopes of our Regimts [sic] coming north are giving up. I believe I wrote you about it. I do not hear the thing mentioned at all now there will be work enough for us to do down here before long, though it would have been so very pleasant to have spent the summer in Wis. and to have seen all our friends.

But it is nearly time fore Dress Parade and I must close. Please give me regards to all your people and accept much love from your soger [sic] boy-Frank M. Guernsey

Guernsey Collection.

            3, Catholic, company, contraband and Presbyterian worship services in Nashville; an entry from the diary of John Hill Fergusson, 10th Illinois Volunteer Infantry

….I went to the Catholic Church at 10 oc [sic] in co [sic] with some others the performance [sic], or Service or what ever it might be termined [sic] was a rather singular one to me there was 2 preasts [sic] or some thing of that sort dressed with long black gown one had a white sack or blouse over the gown then a long yellow scarf over his sholders [sic] and the two ends hanging down in front of him the other had over his dress something like a fancy glazee [sic] table cloth with his head stuck through a hole in the senter [sic], and on the back part was a large cross: although [sic] the day was bright and clear they had 6 large candles burning, and 6 smaller ones besides a peace [sic] of candle in one side by itself, and a lamp light, there was a veriaty [sic] of others that was not light [sic]. they had little boys dressed in pink frocks they were jumping around waiting on the priests every time He would pass in front of whare [sic] the candles were burning, and of some imiges [sic] that were placed by them they would fall upon one knee and the seen [sic] was quite interesting one priest sent down the center of the church throwing watter [sic] all over the people with a little spurt [sic] gun fixing [sic] he held in his right hand, and a pitcher of watter [sic] in the other then he went up in front of the candles & images and fell on his knees for about a minut [sic] with a little boy on each side of him then he went through a number of different minor vers [sic] then got a glass and kept pouring in something out of a bottle into it every little while then he would hold it up and look at it then he would ring the bell [sic] & kneel down then sens [illegible] spoonful of watter [sic] to the other [illegible] it then pour it into his mixture and after he got a verity [sic] of stuffs mixed in he swallowed it down I had an idea he was goin [sic] to treat me and my partner as we were strangers but I was mistaken, after he got through with his pirforming [sic] the other Priest got up, he appeard [sic] to be more sensibl [sic] he read about half of the 3d chapter of John then preached a very good little sermon in English then the party was dismissed at one o'clock I went to the fort at hour [sic] Mr. Linnel our Chaplan [sic] I forget [sic] his text but he preached better then [sic] I expected it was the first time I had a chance to hear him after we were dismissed we went down through the negro camp they were just commencing [sic] meeting out in the hot sun. I got up on a wagon [sic] close by where I could hear them. I must say they had good ideas and seemed to understand the new Testemant [sic] in the proper light. Still they had an odd way of expressing themselves they lack both in stile [sic] and education, of what our white preaching have. Still I believe they are more sincere then our own ministers are in the evening with candle light we wint [sic] to the presybterian [sic] church to hear Mr. Goodlet preach. He does not seem to be the right stripe for that reason for that reason I do not like him so much.

John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.




            3, A Blount County Federal soldier's letter home from Camp Cattel, near Nashville

Camp Cattel

Near Nashville, Tenn.

May 3rd, 1864

Dear Parents:

I again take pen in hand to inform you that I am well and In fine Spirits and I trust that this may find you enjoying the same blessings I have not anything of importance to write you only that we have turned over our horses to finish mounting ---------------- [sic] that comes on that is a hard matter to get horses now till crops is laid by weve [sic] to much to do now only to drill[.] we [sic] have dress parade every evening Gen. Gillem and his wife was out to see us on derssparade [sic] last evening[.] they [sic] are furlowing [sic] men out of the 3rd Tenn. I do not know what is the reason that the Second cannot get any[.] It looks like I and John [sic] will not get to go home till our time is out. the [sic] Secretary of war [sic] has ordered that Soldiers [sic] will not be mustered out according to the date of enlistment but from the date of mustering and was not mustered in till after the fight at Morfesborogh [sic] that keeps us about 5 months longer than we was expecting but we Cannot help that[.] we [sic] must serve our Country [sic] and be Contented [sic] although it is hard to be Contented[.] Pa I wish that I was at home to help you to farm this summer then next fall I would not mind leaving in the army. John Ambrister and I are together he is like some near relation he is the best felow [sic] to be out with in the world he is studier [sic] than he was at home[.] it [sic] is getting late and I must bring my few line to a close by saying write soon & nothing more [sic]

R. L. Houston

W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. I, p. 9.[6]

            3, "A Sorrowful Picture;" a refugee train passes through Chattanooga

Every day carloads and sometimes whole trains leave here for the North, loaded with refugee citizens, seeking a land of safety and peace. If the tide continues our country will be depopulated. We hope some plan will be adopted by our State and National authorities, which will enable our people to live at home in the mountains they have made memorable by their unflinching patriotism. When the Rebels, our inveterate enemies, ruled this country with the iron rod of consolidated military despotism, our young and old men had to flee to the North for safety from their mob and conscription laws; now that our friends occupy this country, our women and children are compelled to seek refuge in the north from the lean gaunt monster Starvation.-Chattanooga Gazette.

Nashville Dispatch, May 3, 1864.

            3, "Montgomery County News."

From the Clarksville (Tenn.) Gazette, April 30.

By order of Col. Smith, Post Commandant, on and after May 1, all retailers of liquor-(all selling less than a gallon)-must obtain a license from the Provost Marshal, for which they must pay $150 (for a year.) Billiard Saloons are to be licensed at $10 a year for each table, and Ten-pin Alley the same.

An esteemed lady-friend of ours, Miss B_cky A__y [sic], of Louisa Furnace, in this county, has related to us a case of ruffianism and guerrillaism in which she narrowly escaped being shot. She was riding along the public road, near home, having with her only a little negro boy, when hearing a peremptory order to "halt," she looked around, and saw a man in Federal uniform, mounted, and coming through the woods, towards the road. The fellow's horse stumbled over some brush, and fell, and Miss B__y [sic], taking advantage of this put off at a real Tam O'Shanter gait! Not being able to follow her, the rascal got into the road, and sent two or three shots whizzing by her!-but fortunately they all missed her, and she got home safe. Some of the neighbors turned out, and caught the fellow, and two others with him, all of whom are said to be deserters from the Federal force that was at Charlotte [KY]. They were taken to Nashville. We congratulate Miss B__y [sic] on her fortunate escape.

A small band of thieving guerrillas made their appearance at Darden's Still House, near Port Royal, on Friday-week [April 22], and after buying, and paying for a quart of whisky, they demanded Mr. Darden's watch. He refused to give it up until some two or three pistols were drawn upon him, when he handed it over. They next, with the same circumstances of persuasion, asked for his money. Going to his house he got, and gave to them, a pocket-book containing several hundred dollars in Confederate money, that he had laid up for hard times, hoping thus to get off. They however, demanded the pocket-book from which he had taken change, when they bought the whisky. To this he was seriously opposed, but the pistols being put in battery again, he delivered the wallet to them. It contained some $400 or $500 in greenbacks. Leaving Darden's, these fellows went on the Keysburg, and took that town. After satisfying themselves with plundering stores, shops, and individuals, they proceeded to Cross Plains. In the meantime a small body of citizens had armed themselves, and gone in pursuit of the villains. They came up with them near Cross Plains, where two of the rascals were killed. The others unfortunately escaped. It was reported that these desperados [sic] were men who had deserted from the Federal forces stationed at Springfield.

Richard Carney, of this county [i.e. Montgomery], was tried by a Military Commission, in this city [Clarksville], last September, on a charge of murder. It will be remembered that the killed Lawson Murphy, of this county, about a year ago. "The two had some difficulty about a fish trap, that was on Carney's land, (rented by him) and one evening they met at the trap, and Carney shot Murphy, in self-defense, as he alleges, from the effects of which shooting the latter died the day after. The finding of the Commission, by whom Carney was tried, was forwarded to Gen. Rosecrans, for approval or rejection, and the penalty adjudged, death by hanging! These have been approved by the Department commander, and confirmed by the President of the United States. By some oversight, we presume, the Commander of this Department failed to name a day on which the execution should take place, and, as he will yet have to do this, it may be some weeks before it is known. Carney is a young man-about 25 years old-and has a wife, and two or three children. Murphy was also a married man, but had no children. They were closely connected by marriage. Carney's doom is indeed a terrible one for one so young. Would to God, if consistent with the ends of justice, it may be, in some way, averted!

Nashville Dispatch, May 3, 1864.

            3, Myra Adelaide Inman's unforgettable day, a young Cleveland woman's prayers for Confederate victory

A lovely day. Will I ever, can I ever, forget this day? Never, never. Our hearts all bowed down in grief. I am sitting at the parlor window. I hear the drums beating, the bands and fifes playing and ever and anon I let my eyes wander over the once beautiful country, I behold the foes marching and their guns and bayonets glistening in their onward march to desolate our country and rout our high spirited but downtrodden friends. I have (ye, we all have) mingled many a tear with our fervent prayers to God for our success. Fifteen thousand, they say, are to march from here. Whilst thousands are going from this vicinity, and thousands are to flank our poor boys; God have mercy on their souls. If it is Thy good pleasure, let us be caused to rejoice at Thy interposition in our behalf; let our enemy be totally routed, driven back, and their baggage captured from them. Let Lee in Virginia achieve a glorious victory over Grant. Let peace soon dawn on us and we be made to rejoice and praise 'god for giving us victories and casing us to establish our independence. Humble the hearts of all the people in the Southern States; causes them to feel that Thy help alone we can gain the battle and establish our independence. Oh, our Father! Give us the victory if it is Thy will. I feel that it is our sins alone that will prevent us from being the victor. Watch over and guard and protect our friends in this coming struggle. Save the souls of those whose lot is to fall on the impending battle. Sherman is marching on Gen. Johnston with an army of one hundred and fifty thousand strong. Such an army has never been mustered in these United States. We wish and tremble at the result. A few weeks will decide it. Sgt. Douglass[7] came and told us good-bye. Thousands of cavalry have passed this morn, going on, on to kill our beloved friends….Uncle Caswell has no hope for our success….We finished the ironing today.

Diary of Myra Adelaide Inman.

            3, "The flower and the pride of Tennessee is in the Rebel Army. Her educated and enlightened class are there and I believe them to be conscientious." Excerpts from Lt. Albert Potter's letter to his father

Columbia Tenn

May 3rd 1864

Dear Father

I rec'd a letter from you a few days ago, but have lost it. Am glad you are all getting well again. I am not very tough at present but am feeling better every day. The regiment and Brigade has moved to the front, I think to Chattanooga as soon as they get where I can rejoin them, I shall do so by rail. Col Park told me he would telegraph me to what place to come. Lt Carter is with me. We are boarding at a Rivalto [sic] house, a Mr. Sheppard, very nice people especially Mrs. Shepard. We have plenty of music and singing, a piano and plenty of girls. They are all Southern here at heart but they are loyal with the tongue. The girls sing us southern songs with our permission of course, we allow them to sing what they choose. They have a brother in the Southern Army and they feel a certain sympathy which is natural and right. I think of my own home very often and how anxious you all are and I can but admit that if we had all been born and lived down here that probably we would have been just as these people here are, Rebels. Perhaps you will think I am getting tainted with treason myself but you know me better than that. I do not approve of the course Tennessee has taken. She has brought ruin and desolution [sic] upon herself, but people here are so different. The flower and the pride of Tennessee is in the Rebel Army. Her educated and enlightened class are there and I believe them to be conscientious. They think or thought they were right and now their Pride will not let them come back. K[8] cannot blame the mother or sister who will sympathize for the cause their sons and brothers are engage in under the circumstances.

*  *  *  *

Potter Correspondence.

3, Report of a shooting in Memphis

The Memphis Bulletin says that on Saturday afternoon, the 23rd ult. [of April], an altercation arose in the North Market in that city, between Robert Lawson, a marketman, and a soldier named Thar, which, after loud words and a scuffle, terminated in Thar's shooting Lawson, the ball entering his head and killing him instantly. The provost guard being drawn to the spot by the report of the weapon, were in the act of arresting Thar when he broke through the crowd, hastened for the street, and was about passing out of the market door, when he was shot by the guard, the ball entering his chest and causing death within a few moments. This most serious affair is rendered more unhappy by the fact that it arose from the merest trifle – some misunderstanding about the price of piece of beef.

Nashville Dispatch, May 3, 1864.

            3, Harriet Beecher Stowe's play in Nashville

Theatre. – "Uncle Tom's Cabin" is to be repeated at this house this evening. Last night the house was crowded from pit to dome to witness its rendition, and, judging from the plaudits of the audience assembled, we had no doubt it would continue to draw good houses for several nights to come, Little Ella Bailey, as "Eva," was rapturously received, and made the most of her character.

Nashville Dispatch, May 3 1864.




            3, Orders relative to administration of anti-guerrilla activity in Middle Tennessee

HDQRS. FIRST SUB-DISTRICT OF MIDDLE TENNESSEE, Tullahoma, Tenn., May 3, 1865. Brig. Gen. H. P. VAN CLEVE, Cmdg. First Brigade, &c., and Post of Murfreesborough:

The following telegraphic order has just been received from headquarters District of Middle Tennessee, viz.,:

Brig. Gen. H. P. Van Cleve, commanding post at Murfreesborough, Tenn., is hereby designated as the officer to treat with the classes named in the foregoing order who may be nearest his post. All bands or individuals taking the benefit of the foregoing order will be required to report at the nearest military post immediately thereafter and take the usual parole, and surrender their arms and everything they have belonging to the so-called Confederate Government.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Milroy:

JNO. O. CRAVENS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

(An order similar to the foregoing has been forwarded Col. Amasa Cobb, commanding post of Decherd, Tenn.; to Lieut. Col. T. J. Stauber, commanding post of Shelbyville, Tenn., and to Capt. W. H. Lewis, commanding Forty-second Missouri Infantry.)

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 591.

            3, Description of Ex-Governor Isham G. Harris[9] by Governor William G. Brownlow

The aforesaid refugee from justice, without the authority of law, and in violation of all law, human and Divine, was the chief instrument in thrusting upon Tennessee this terrible rebellion, and its innumerable evils, a rebellion which has stormed the very citadel of order, every defense of virtue, every sanctuary of right, and every abode of decency. When those villainous but frantic efforts were astonishing mankind with her success, as much as appaling [sic] them with their atrocity; when the fairest portion of this great Commonwealth had been made hideous by the triumphs of this arch-traitor and his corrupt and treasonable associates, and their preclusive orgies had profaned our churches, like dastards they ingloriously fled, upon the approach of the national flag of beauty and glory, carrying with them to the heart of treason the funds and other valuable from the State. From that period until now, the said Isham G. Harris has been roving through the South, swept by the unparalleled hurricane of licentiousness and furious tempest of anarchy, never before equaled upon earth! Said Harris has been periodically visiting the border counties of this State, issuing bogus proclamations, and collecting revenue, falsely pretending to be the Governor of Tennessee.

This culprit Harris, is about five feet ten inches high, weighs about one hundred and forty-five pounds, and is about fifty-five years of age. His complexion is sallow-his eyes are dark and penetrating-a perfect index to the heart of a traitor-with the scowl and frown of a demon resting upon his brow. The study of mischief, and the practice of crime have brought upon him a premature, baldness and grey beard. With brazen-faced impudence, he talks loudly and boastingly about the overthrow of the Yankee army, and entertains no doubt but the South will achieve her independence. He chews tobacco rapidly, and is inordinately fond of liquor. In his moral structure he is an unscrupulous man-steeped to the nose and chin in personal and political profligacy-now about lost to all sense of honor and shame-with a heart reckless of social duty, and fatally bent upon mischief.

If captured, he will be found lurking in the rebel strongholds of Mississippi, Alabama, or Georgia, and in female society [sic], alleging with the sheep-faced modesty of a virtuous man, that is not a wholesome state of public sentiment or of taste, that forbids an indiscriminate mixing together of married men and women. If captured, the furtive must be delivered to me alive, to the end that justice may be done him here, upon the theater of his former villainous deeds!

The daily papers of Nashville and Memphis, as well as the Chattanooga Gazette and Knoxville Whig, will each insert three times, in addition to the other papers suggested by the Legislature.

In testimony whereof, I have herdunto [sic] set my hand and affixed the seal of the State, at the City of Nashville, this 3d of May, 1865

Wm. G. Brownlow

By the Governor:

Andrew J. Fletcher, Secretary of State.

Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal and Rebel Ventilator, May 10, 1865.[10]

            3-5, Anti-guerrilla mopping up actions emanating from Memphis

No circumstantial reports filed.


A guerrilla hunt will commence on the morning of the 3d day of May, and will be prosecuted in the following manner: On Wednesday morning Col. Cameron will move 200 men to Holly Springs and capture anything he can find there; he will take a telegraph operator with him and endeavor to obtain rebel dispatches. On the morning of the 4th at 4 o'clock 200 men will leave La Fayette and move by different roads to Byhalia, and on the same morning 200 men will leave Collierville for Byhalia, moving so as to thoroughly scour the country north of the Coldwater. The forces converging at Byhalia will thoroughly scour the country south of the Coldwater as far south and west as Senatobia, and as much farther as there is probability of catching a guerrilla, and having accomplished all that is possible will return to La Fayette and Collierville. One hundred men will leave Germantown on the morning of the 4th at 4 o'clock and beat up the country thoroughly as far as the Coldwater. From Olive Branch the command will divide, one-half going to the Coldwater on the Byhalia road, and the other to the crossing on the road to Cochrum's Cross-Roads; this command will not cross Coldwater, but will return to Germantown. On the morning of the 4th at 4 o'clock 100 men will leave Memphis on the Pigeon Roost road and beat up the country to Byhalia, and from there will strike across, via Pleasant Hill, to Hernando; and at the same hour in the morning another column of 100 men will leave Memphis on the Hernando road and will spread out and scour the country to Hernando and the Coldwater. The troops will all take forty rounds of ammunition; those from Memphis and Germantown will take three days' rations, those from Collierville four days', and those from La Fayette five days', and they will take as much forage as they can carry. There must be no straggling or plundering, and if forage or subsistence has to be taken receipts will be given, and the parties instructed to present their receipts during the month at Memphis for settlement. People in the country will be kindly treated, but must be informed that if they are known to harbor or encourage guerrillas hereafter they shall be utterly destroyed. Should the murderers Fort and Mat Luxton be caught they will be disposed of by a drumhead court-martial, and if rebel soldier are captured it will be reported whether they are captured in arms or not.

By order of Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn:

W. M. MORGAN, Maj. and Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49. pt. II, p. 557.


[1] There is no corroborative evidence to independently verify these terrorist acts in Pulaski to be found in the OR, although that would be expected.

[2] William Truesdail, Chief of Army Police. Truesdail's career is shrouded in mystery. There is little information to indicate who he was, where he came from, and how he became Chief of the Army Police - or for that matter, if the Army Police was a branch of the Provoat Marshal.

[3]The informant had no way of  knowing, but it was actually 325 cavalry on a raid into Federal territory. It reached Lebanon where the Confederate population welcomed them with shelter, food and whisky. They got drunk and when Federal forces arrived on May 5, Morgan's raiders were completely, humiliatingly and unalterably routed, Morgan even losing his favorite horse, "Black Bess."

[4] Medicines to relieve or prevent scurvy.

[5] As cited in: http://www.uttyl.edu/vbetts.

[6]Tennessee, Records of East Tennessee, Civil War Records, Volume I, Prepared by the Historical Records Survey Transcription Unit, Division of Women's and Professional Projects Works Progress Administration, Mrs. John Trotwood Moore, State Librarian and Archivist, Sponsor, T. Marshall Jones, State Director, Mrs. Penelope Johnson Allen, State Supervisor, Mrs. Margaret H. Richardson, District Supervisor, Nashville, Tennessee, The Historical Records Survey, June 1, 1939, p. 9. [Hereinafter cited as W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol.___, p. ____, etc.]

[7] A Federal soldier and a suitor of Myra Adelaide Inman.

[8] Unidentified.

[9] By this time Harris, fearing prison and perhaps even execution, had scrambled off to Mexico, then to Liverpool, England where he would wait until this reward was rescinded and charges of treason dropped before he would return to Tennessee. When he did return in 1867 he took up the practice of law in Memphis and served as U. S. Senator from 1877 to his death in 1897. Little is known of the circumstances of his hiatus in Mexico or England. Even less is known of the whereabouts of the school fund.

[10] See also: Messages of the Governors of Tennessee, Vol. 5, p. 439.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Editor, The Courier

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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