2, Obituary for Uncle Sam; a pro-secession argument in Memphis
Died, on the 4th of March, 1861., UNCLE SAM, in the 85th year of his age.
In chronicling the demise of Uncle Sam, we do so with a mixed emotion of sorrow and joy. His death was anticipated for some years, having fallen a victim to an "irrepressible conflict" disease, which combated successfully and rendered ineffectual the expert skill of the most learned Sewardite and prominent physicians of the day, and after a long, protracted suffering, lingering in its progress with a slow, certain and unavoidable end, he departed this life on the day and year named above, leaving behind many to mourn this sad bereavement and others experiencing gratification who desired the agonizing and excruciating pains he endured to cease and be no more.
As he lived, he died, beloved and respected by all nations. We shall, perhaps, never look upon his like again. As a model for example, no copy is now extant and none ordered. His life was fraught with many eventful scenes, and the multitudinous vicissitudes through which he struggled and rendered glorious, characterized his indomitable will, honesty and bravery.
Born on the 4th of July, 1776, the last century was signalized by his unprecedented advent, and as the legitimate offspring of the independence of America, his birth was hailed by freedom as a wonderful epoch in the history of the world. His terrestrial career advancing, it became evidently important that a generalissimo was required, and should be employed to superintend and guard his household affairs. George, of revolutionary fame, having established a good character, and being strongly recommended by letters of an innumerable number of brave hearts, was the chosen one. Tradition says he made an excellent and very trustworthy functionary, gained the admiration and confidence of his employer and the respect of all of his obedient servants.
Then when George's term expired, John, Tom, James, Quincy, James the second, Andrew, Martin, William, Henry, John the Second, James the third, Zachariah, Millard and Frank, were employed successively in rotation, and are said to have given partial satisfaction in ruling moderately well over the servants, and conducting the affairs of the White House with a discretion remarkable and peculiar in the times and circumstances. During the latter part of these Administrations however, Uncle Sam, laboring under the debilitating influences of the "irrepressible" contagion prevalent, was confined to his department, private, and being unable, therefore, to give an undivided attention to the things of his Government, advantages were taken, powers usurped, and all matters appertaining to nationality administered by reckless employees, with a keen, discriminating eye toward personal aggrandizement.
At this juncture James, surnamed Buchanan, was called in to preside. Powers extraordinary and plenipotentiary were extended to him, and being an old horse in the harness, he very soon wrought the same privileges enjoyed by his immediate predecessors, into advantages which led him and subordinates to adopt the grab game, and before his term transpired, managed to oust from the treasury all of its contents, and created a debt inconsistent with legal expenditure, precedent and expectation, consisting of nearly one hundred millions to be liquidated by Uncle Sam's dilapidated, disintegrated and moneyless federalism.
It is conjectured, and believed by some who have not thought much upon the subject, and have had less opportunities whereby to form a proper opinion, that this dissolute, corrupt and jealous disposition made manifest in the administration of governmental affairs was the immediate cause of Uncle Sam's demise; but, as investigating committee of thirty-three, representing all parts of the public domain concerned, having been appointed, and detailed to examine into and ferret out the true circumstances surrounding this predicted event, and report the causes which tended to produce such an unhappy result, met in judgment and pronounced as follows: Whereas Uncle Sam had discovered that, during his physical derangement and lamentable sickness, many of his powers were misused, and immunities, never granted constitutionally, were employed by his employees to abuse and subvert the ends of his Government; and, whereas, his union of States was now in a manner disrupted, it became important and absolutely necessary to elect another presiding officer, more trustworthy and faithful in the discharge of incumbent duties, enforcement and execution of his laws. Hence numerous applications were made, and through the counseling of leading and influential contemporaries, conventionally, Stephen, John, John C., and "honest old Abe," received the nominations, and went forth upon the campaign, canvassing for an election to this high, distinguished and responsible position.
Strong recommendations were voted each, but as a greater number appeared, testifying to the sobriety, capacity, and integrity of "Honest Old Abe," his claims were favorably and duly considered. Uncle Sam, however, had never seen him but once, and then casually, while the other candidates were familiar acquaintances, and knowing them well, was cognizant of their many faults. In view of these facts, especially after learning that very impressive, popular, and inviting handle to his name, through the tantalizing importunities of supposed friends, Uncle Sam concluded to select Honest Old Abe. Therefore, a dispatch was forwarded to Springfield, his place of abode, requiring him to repair immediately to the White House at Washington. According to order, "Honest Old Abe," after having delivered himself of the ignorant and insignificant phrase, indicative of his unsound calibre, "No one is hurt," at the time and place designated, arrived to assume the new duties assigned. The moment Uncle Sam beheld him, he was startled, aggravated, and horrified at this emaciated, imbecile, and aboliltionized countenance, and was heard to exclaim: "He is not the right man, in the right place, the handle to his name is a ruse, I am deceived, mortified, and ruined forever." Thus as Uncle Sam's mental and physical ability was already nearly destroyed by the "irrepressible conflict disease," he could not withstand this sudden deception, and mortal shock, so falling prostrate, died.
Let his memory be revered as a monument to self-government, and the star-spangled banner remodeled to comport with the exigencies of the times, as a shibboleth of his glory to enshrine in the hearts of all.
It may be interesting to state that there was found among the archives of Uncle Sam's office, his last will and testament, bequeathing all of his earthly effects, both personal and real or mixed, to be equally divided between his two surviving heirs—the Northern and Southern Confederation.
The will is now being probated and the executors will administer in due time. No apprehensions, therefore, need be had in regard to continued difficulties arising between the legatees, as the property involved must be distributed according to the law of the will. So be it.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 2, 1861.
2, 1862 - Conditions in East Tennessee
FROM EAST TENNESSEE.
The situation in that Section-The 9th Army Corps enroute for the East-Deplorable Situation of the People of East Tennessee-Interesting Details of Evens Transpiring in and about Knoxville.
By a gentleman from Knoxville direct, we have news of an important nature up to the 26th [March]:
The rebels are still in strong force in East Tennessee, and at least 12,000 men under Buckner are mounted. On the 25th a large number of rebel cavalry came within sight of Morristown, driving in our pickets and a number of citizens.
The bulk of the rebel force is at Greeneville, with a brigade of cavalry at Newport. There are 2,000 infantry between Bull's Gap and Blue Springs.
This gentleman says that the rebels are committing the most unheard of depredations, robbing everybody of horses and the necessaries of life.
They are also enforcing the conscript law upon all classes physically capable of enduring life in the field. He says: "Things are in a most deplorable state. Men, women and children are ragged and dirty, and half starved. The people of East Tennessee cannot possibly live through the summer, as there is nothing to eat. Money is more plenty [sic] than it was, but there is little use for it, as there is nothing to buy. I cannot select language to describe the distress and ruin which daily presents itself."
The gentleman has a letter from his wife, who is at Greeneville. She inform him that "a few families are getting along tolerably well,' and adds: "Longstreet has his headquarters here, but is at present away. It is said that he will return in a few days. Some of his staff officers are at Milligan's, and some are boarding with me. All those families who are boarding officer and officers' wives, are getting along well, at least as far as the necessaries of life are concerned-the luxuries of the land none of us know anything about."
The gentleman also writes: "Joseph Powell, Esq., went home some weeks since. He was arrested and sent to Richmond. Also, Alexander Jones has been sent to the same place.-Old Abe Thompson is cutting up a high hand-manufacturing bad whiskey, and having all those who he knows to be Union men caught and robbed, at least, and the Lord only knows what becomes of some of them. Whether they are [three words illegible] or [three words illegible] to terminate their existence by [one word illegible] deaths, is not known. Sure it is that many disappear and do not return. We sent out a flag of truce a few days ago. Geo. Jones wife and a few others were sent through the lines."
Our informant concludes thus: "There is no telling when or army will occupy Greeneville. A great many farmers in the neighborhood of Knoxville, Morristown, Strawberry Plains, and all along the line of the railroad from Lenoirs to Cleveland, are putting in seed, and some, will no doubt make large crops. The great bridge at Loudon, which was to have been finished last week, was completely wrecked by the last rise in the river. The health of the army is excellent."
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Chattanooga Daily Gazette, April 2, 1864. 
2, Expedition from Readyville to Woodbury
APRIL 2, 1863.-Expedition from Readyville to Woodbury, Tenn.
No. 1.-Col. William B. Hazen, Forty-first Ohio Infantry, commanding Second Brigade, Second Division, Twenty-first Army Corps.
No. 2.-Lieut. Col. Isaac C. B. Suman, Ninth Indiana Infantry.
No. 3.-Lieut. Col. Aquila Wiley, Forty-first Ohio Infantry.
Report of Col. William B. Hazen, Forty-first Ohio Infantry, commanding Second Brigade, Second Division, Twenty-first Army Corps.
HDQRS. 2d BRIGADE, 2d DIVISION, 21ST ARMY CORPS, Readyville, Tenn., April 4, 1863.
CAPT.: I have the honor to make the following report of the expedition made on the 2d instant, under my command, to Woodbury: The expedition was to have consisted of Cruft's brigade, which should would enable me to put two columns in motion at 11 p. m., for the purpose of flanking and getting in the rear of Woodbury by daylight.
The brigade of Cruft's did not report till something after midnight, enabling me to start one column, composed of the Forty-first Ohio Volunteers and Sixth Kentucky, under Lieut.-Col. Wiley, of the former regiment, at 1 a. m., which went to the right of Woodbury, and a column composed of the Ninth Indiana Volunteers and First Kentucky, under command of Lieut.-Col. Suman, of the former regiment, at 1.30 a. m., to proceed to the left of Woodbury. The One hundred and tenth Illinois, under Col. Casey, accompanied this column as far as the point on the map accompanying, marked A, where they were to turn to the right, and proceed cautiously to the Woodbury pike, in rear of the picket post of the enemy marked B, where 60 men were on picket, and remain concealed till the main column, composed of the Second Kentucky and Ninetieth Ohio, with Standart's battery and the Second Battalion of Third Ohio Cavalry, all commanded by Col. Enyart, First Kentucky which started at 3 a. m., should have driven them on to the regiment, that would capture them. The delay of two hours in this brigade to report made it nearly that length of day before the different columns arrived at the points intended. The One hundred and tenth Illinois, in consequence, did not reach the pike in time to be of service. I, however, directed the cavalry to charge this post, which they did in fine style, sabering and capturing a dozen of this picket. We pushed on through the town, and came upon the main body of the enemy at 6 (one regiment, [Baxter] Smith's cavalry, of about 600), drawn up to receive us, about 1 mile beyond.
Keeping my main column concealed, I permitted the advance to parry with him for about an hour, giving more time for the columns to get in position. I then pressed him forward, and about 4 miles from town, upon Willey's column. Upon seeing troops at this point, they at once scattered through the hills in all directions. The column all gained their positions promptly, correctly, and unknown to the enemy, marching about 16 miles to do so. Had I not been delayed two hours, the results of the day would probably have been much more satisfactory, as then my original plan, which was to capture entire their main picket and regulate the speed of all the columns so as to have gathered upon the camp at dawn, would have probably succeeded perfectly. As it is, I have to report 3 of the enemy killed (his wounded is not known), 25 prisoners, 50 horses, 4 wagons, 8 mules, with all their baggage and provisions. Col. Suman captured one picket post almost entire, as did also Col. Casey.
I have to speak in the highest terms of the battalion of the Third Ohio Cavalry, commanded by Maj. Seidel. A brigade of such cavalry, well mounted, armed with revolvers and sabers, would be invaluable. Col. Suman reports to me that the First Kentucky, in command of Maj.-, straggled in going out, so as at one time to be a mile long, and detaining him nearly an hour. We returned to our camp at 12 m. See inclosed map, with routes of the columns.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. B. HAZEN, Col., Cmdg. Brigade.
Report of Lieut. Col. Isaac C. B. Suman, Ninth Indiana Infantry,
HDQRS. NINTH INDIANA VOLUNTEERS, Readyville, Tenn., April 3, 1863.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by my command, consisting of the Ninth Indiana Volunteers, Maj. Lasselle, One hundred and tenth Illinois Volunteers, Col. Casey, and First Kentucky Volunteers, Maj.-, in the expedition against Woodbury on the 2d instant: The Ninth Indiana moved at 1 a. m., followed by the One hundred and tenth Illinois Volunteers. At half a mile from camp I was joined by the First Kentucky Volunteers, which I placed in the rear of the Ninth Indiana and in advance of the One hundred and tenth Illinois. I followed the Woodbury pike to the crossing of Louk's Creek; then turned to the left, and up the creek between its banks 4 or 5 miles. Finding that my guide did not know where Somers lived, that being the point where I was to leave the One hundred and tenth Illinois (where the Auburn road crossed the one we were then on), I called up a citizen about 1 mile this side of where the roads crossed, and learned from him that the enemy had a picked post of 2 men on the east side of the road. Lieut. [L. S.] Nickeson having command of the advance guard, dispatched 4 men with the guide, to go in their rear. Here found that the First Kentucky Volunteers had not come up. I waited about three-quarters of an hour, and directed Maj. Lasselle to go back and order them forward; he found them within 1 mile, coming up. I then ordered the Ninth Indiana forward, when the enemy's vedettes challenged my advance guard. Lieut. Nickeson ordered his men to fix bayonets and charge them. The moon had gone down, and it was quite dark.
The enemy's reserve finding my men coming in with their vedettes, jumped from their beds and ran, leaving 7 horses, saddles, and bridles, several guns, 3 pairs of boots with spurs on, 8 or 9 coats, and 5 pairs of pants, with their bedding.
Being then 5 miles northwest of Woodbury, I ordered my command forward. When I came up with the 4 men who had been sent in the rear of the vedettes. I found that they had only killed 1 horse, and had captured none of the rebels, who dashed by them when they found there were only a few of them. I then moved rapidly forward till I reached a hill between the Half-Acre road and the McMinnville turnpike. From that point I could see the enemy passing out in the valley beyond. Believing pursuit useless, I ordered my command to move toward Woodbury, then distant 4 miles. Having 10 of my men mounted on the captured horses, I ordered them to scour the country and drive in toward Woodbury all the stragglers of the First Kentucky Volunteers. It appeared that the officers had no command over their men. They would sit down in the presence of their officers, and, when ordered forward, would reply, "I am tired," and remain behind. [added - ed. When the column arrived at Woodbury, I halted it about an hour and a half, when Gen. Hazen arrived and ordered it to camp. The Ninth Indiana Volunteers lost 1 man, who straggled from his company and has not yet returned to camp. I have no means of knowing whether the First Kentucky Volunteers brought in all their men or not. Their stragglers brought in 1 prisoner, who had lost his horse (killed in the morning). They found him somewhere in the country as they straggled through.
I. C. B. SUMAN, Lieut.-Col. Ninth Indiana Volunteers.
Report of Lieut. Col. Aquila Wiley, Forty-first Ohio Infantry.
HDQRS. FORTY-FIRST REGT. , OHIO VOLUNTEERS, April 4, 1863.
MAJ.: In compliance with orders, I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the detachment I commanded in the attack on the rebel cavalry posted 2 miles east of Woodbury, on the 2d instant: The detachment consisted of the Forty-first Ohio Volunteers (12 commanding officers and 305 enlisted men) and Sixth Kentucky Volunteers (14 commanding officers and 215 enlisted men), Lieut.-Col. Shackelford commanding. It marched from camp at Readyville at 12.30 a. m. on the morning of the 2d instant, the Sixth Kentucky on the right, with the advance guard, rear guard, and flankers necessary to prevent surprise, and proceeded, according to instructions, about 3 miles east on the Woodbury pike; then took a road leading to the right, and passing about 2 ½ miles south of Woodbury, and again striking the Woodbury and McMinnville pike 5 miles east of Woodbury. It was 6.30 o'clock in the morning when we reached the McMinnville pike, having marched 16 miles in six hours, about half the distance the road being the bed of a stream in which the water was about a foot deep. The moment our advance guard struck the McMinnville pike they met the advance guard of the rebel's retreating forces, who ran as soon as they discovered us. One entire company of the Sixth Kentucky was immediately deployed on each side of the road, two companies were held in column by platoon about 100 yards in rear, in the road, in reserve, and the rest of the regiment in line still farther to the rear, with skirmishers on the flanks, and the Forty-first Ohio Volunteers about 200 yards farther to the rear, in double column, with skirmishers on the flanks and a rear guard. In this manner we advanced about 100 yards, when we came on their train of 3 wagons, which they had abandoned, only succeeding in carrying off 1 mule.
The escort, consisting of about 30 cavalry, had fled across the fields. As we advanced we could see the rebels, in squads numbering from 5 to 10, retreating on the ridges and in the ravines, from one-fourth to one-half mile from the road. After proceeding in this manner about 2 miles, as the skirmishers were ascending a hill, two squads of rebel cavalry, one about 10 and another about 20 in number, appeared in quick succession on the brow of the hill, and were fired on by the skirmishers, killing 1 man and wounding 2 others, and killing and wounding 4 horses. The men who were uninjured fled down a ravine on the south side of the road, and were soon out of our reach. Our cavalry, who had attacked in front, now coming up, ended the affair. Two of the captured wagons we brought with us, having first transferred to them part of the load of the third, which we had to abandon. Two men of the Forty-first Ohio Volunteers and 2 men of the Sixth Kentucky fell out of the ranks from exhaustion during the night, and have not returned. Officers and men deserve great credit for the cheerfulness and good order with which they marched six hours at the top of their speed, without rest, over a rough and difficult road. The duties of the advance, rear guards, and flankers were especially fatiguing.
I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
AQUILA WILLEY, Lieut.-Col. Forty-first Ohio Volunteers.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, pp. 203-206
2, A version of the Oath of Allegiance for Confederate deserters
I do solemnly swear, in the presence of Almighty God, that I will henceforth faithfully support, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Union of States thereunder and that I will in like manner abide by and faithfully support all acts of Congress passed during the existing rebellion, with reference to slaves, so long and so far as not yet released, modified, or held void by Congress or by decision of the Supreme Court, and that I will in like manner abide by and faithfully support all proclamations of the President made during the existing rebellion, having reference to slaves so long and so far as not modified or declared void by the decision of the Supreme Court. So help me God.
Memphis Bulletin, April 2, 1864.
 TSL&A, 19th CN
 Omitted by the editors in 1889.
 Omitted by the editors in 1889.
 This oath was apparently part of GENERAL ORDERS NO. 10 of December 12, 1863, made in Chattanooga by Major-General U. S. Grant. It was not reprinted in the OR, but is found in GENERAL ORDERS, NO. 11 as published in the Memphis Bulletin April 2, 1864.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214