4, "Poor Julianna—poor Magdalen, who not only with the frowns of those who were of her sex—stood up for the ill-used wife, and the ______ man shot her, killed her because she said a word for an oppressed, injured sister." Murder of a prostitute in Memphis
Another Murder.—Susan Striker, who was shot in the bosom on Saturday night by Charles Burton, died yesterday [4th]. Her real name was Julianna Johnson. It is a fact, perhaps not generally known, that the unfortunates who tramp the streets, and attract so much attention from men for a few months, have almost always the true womanly feeling left about them to avoid being known by the names of their pure mothers and chaste sisters. They let the vile herd that seek their society, know them by an appellation that never graced their days of innocence. So it was with poor Julianna. The gem that makes a woman loftier than a throne, she had lost, but she had not parted with all that makes a woman noble. This man, Burton, was abusing and ill-treating his wife. Poor Julianna—poor Magdalen, who not only with the frowns of those who were of her sex—stood up for the ill-used wife, and the ______ man shot her, killed her because she said a word for an oppressed, injured sister. "Inasmuch as ye did it unto one of the least of these, ye did unto me." What strange revelations that next world will show! "The first shall be last, and the last shall be first." Poor Julianna, she was among the outcasts, the Pariahs, but she died nobly, vindicating her outraged sex against cowardly outrage. God bless her memory.
Memphis Daily Appeal, April 5, 1861.
4, Skirmish at Lawrenceburg
APRIL 4, 1862.-Skirmish at Lawrenceburg, Tenn.
Report of Brig. Gen. Milo S. Hascall, U. S. Army.
HDQRS. FIFTEENTH BRIGADE, ARMY OF THE OHIO, Field of Shiloh, April 12, 1862.
Agreeably to the order of Gen. Wood, I proceeded on the morning of the 4th instant from our camp, 23 miles beyond Waynesborough and about 60 miles from this place, with two regiments of my brigade, to wit, the Twenty-sixth Ohio and the Seventeenth Indiana, together with a detachment of about 600 of the Third Ohio Cavalry, under Lieut.-Col. Murray, of that regiment, and marched for Lawrenceburg. The general had been informed that about 500 of the enemy's cavalry were at that point, with the intention of making a descent upon our train after the troops had passed. My instructions were to proceed cautiously to Lawrenceburg, a distance of about 14 miles from our camp, and capture the enemy, if possible, and to disperse him at all events. It happened that the day was very rainy and exceedingly bad for the infantry to make the march, on account of the swollen streams and mud. I proceeded very cautiously, leaving a couple of cavalry at every house we passed, to prevent any one taking information there we had to pass over a succession of hills, in full view of the town, so that further precaution in this respect was useless.
By this time I had learned that there were not more than from 50 to 100 cavalry there at furthest, and being desirous of saving the infantry as much as possible for the forced march that was still before them, before reaching this point I ordered the infantry to halt, and, after getting their dinner, to return to the camp they left in the morning and join the other two regiments of my brigade. I then proceeded with the cavalry as fast as the roads would permit, and, when getting within about one-fourth of a mile from town, ordered a charge upon the town, which was splendidly executed by Lieut.-Col. Murray at the head of his men. I learned that there were 50 to 75 cavalry in town, but as soon as they observed our approach put themselves in readiness to leave. They left principally in the direction of Florence and Mount Pleasant, and, their horses being fresh, but few could be overtaken, though they were pursued some 8 miles in both directions by our cavalry. Two of the enemy were severely wounded, as evidenced by the blood upon their horses which fell into our hands. The result of the expedition was the breaking up of the secession rendezvous at that point, the capture of 6 cavalry horses and saddles, about 4,000 pounds of fine bacon, a dozen or two shot-guns and squirrel rifles, and 2 drums.
I take great pleasure in reporting that a strong Union sentiment seemed to pervade the whole country through which we passed going and returning, my command being everywhere received (except at Lawrenceburg) with every demonstration of joy and treated with the utmost kindness and consideration.
Fearing that that portion of the rebel cavalry that fled toward Mount Pleasant might be part of a large band in that direction and might seriously embarrass, if not capture, portions of our train, I dispatched Maj. Foster, of the cavalry, with two companies, to scout the country as far as Mount Pleasant, and then to join his regiment at Savannah; since which time I have received two tidings from him, but presume he has joined his regiment some time since. The remainder of the cavalry, with myself and staff, bivouacked near Lawrenceburg the night of the 4th, and having procured wagons in the neighborhood with which to transport the captured bacon, started early the next morning, and about noon overtook the infantry of my brigade, who were en route for this place. The next day (6th) we began to hear the fire of the gunboats, and presuming an engagement had taken place, we took three days' rations in our haversacks, and leaving our train in charge of the brigade quartermaster, with a sufficient guard, we pushed ahead by forced marches, and made our way to Savannah and Pittsburg Landing at 12 o'clock on the night of the 7th, and early the next morning I had my whole brigade in its present position, in the advance, ready to fight the enemy should he again attack, or for any other duty that might be assigned it.
When the general considers that two regiments of my brigade thus made a detour some 30 miles out of the way, and that for 20 miles back of Savannah the road was completely blockaded by the teams of the other divisions of Gen. Buell's army that had preceded his own, and that notwithstanding all this my brigade arrived on the battle-field only twelve hours after the other rations of his division, I think he will unite with me in saying that it is entitled to as much credit as any that took part in the glorious achievements of the 6th and 7th instant. This latter part concerning the march after the affair at Lawrenceburg, though not strictly speaking part of this report, I have nevertheless thought that justice to my brigade, under all circumstances, demanded this statement from me in this connection, and its indorsement by the general commanding the division, who is aware of all the circumstances.
It is proper for me to add here that in all my operations after being detached for the Lawrenceburg affair to the time of my arrival here I received most efficient aid and co-operation from all my field and staff officers.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
MILO S. HASCALL, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Fifteenth Brigade.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 10, pt. I, pp. 87-89.
4, U. S. policy toward recruiting contraband artillerists and trade restrictions in Memphis
MEMPHIS, TENN., April 4, 1863.
(Via Cairo, Ill., 6th.)
Hon. E. M. STANTON:
I arrived here last night, and explained this morning to Gen. Hurlbut the policy of the Administration respecting the contraband. He says his corps will give it their support, especially those regiments which have been in battle. He desires 600 as artillerists, to man the heavy guns in position, which he says can readily be raised from the contraband within his lines. I have authorized him to raise from the contraband within his lines. I have authorized him to raise six companies, and select the officers. He knows intelligent sergeants who will make good captains. The experience of the Navy is that blacks handle heavy guns well. Gen. Hurlbut is embarrassed with the runaways from their Tennessee masters. They come here in a state of destitution, especially the women and children. He cannot send them back, and I advise their employment as far as possible by the quartermaster, and the general is authorized by Gen. Grant to hire them to citizens who will give proper bonds. Goods shipped here have been on entirely too extensive a scale, especially clothing and other articles needed by the rebels. At least 2,500 pairs of cavalry boots are here. Smuggling from this place and on the river below has been carried on extensively. The trade should be restricted. I am assured that no officers of the command have anything to do with cotton. It is ostensibly bought here, but the dealers in it have their agents, who buy through the country before it reaches this point. It should be brought or shipped here by owners, delivered to the Government cotton to be sold here in the same way, this being a better market than Saint Louis. After to-day I shall take the first boat for Helena. Nothing of importance from below.
L. THOMAS, Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. III, Vol. 3, p. 116.
4, 1864 - Military Governor Johnson and Major General Rousseau speak at a Union Rally in Shelbyville
GREAT UNION MEETING IN SHELBYVILLE, TENN.
Speeches of General Rousseau and Governor Johnson.
Special Correspondence of the Inquirer.
Shelbyville, Tenn., April 4, 1864.
The meeting at Shelbyville, Tenn., on Saturday last, was numerously attended by the citizens of Franklin, Marshall, Cannon and Bedford counties and many gentlemen of Davidson and Lincoln and other counties were also present.
The day was propitious, contrary to the expectations of m any, and before nine o'clock at least three thousand persons were assembled in and about the square, including some five hundred ladies.
Probably three-fourths or those assembled were men who have ever stood unflinchingly loyal, and who attended prepared to further any object proposed by those who put the meeting on foot, while among the other fourth, might be alliteratively catalogued the disloyal, the disinclined and the discouraged.
Early in the morning excellent music was discoursed by the Sixteenth Wisconsin band, and several operatic morce sus were given by the splendid band from Gen. Slocum's head-quarters.
At about twelve o'clock the meeting was called to order, the speakers stand being in front of the building on the square known at Council Row.
Mr. Tillman ascended the stand, and announced the following named gentlemen as officers of the meeting.:-
President.-Ed. Cooper, of Bedford.
Vice Presidents.- Wm. Barton, of Bedford, John T. Gordon, of Lincoln; Newton McCutcheon, of Franklin, and Peter Hoyle, of Marshall.
Secretaries-James A Moore, J. B Woodruff, Wm. T. Schell and Benj. Truman.
On taking the Chair Mr. Cooper informed the audience that, although some time ago the object of the meeting was declared to be the taking of some step towards the reorganization of the State Government, as this time he deemed it more expedient and more judicious to resolve the occasion into grand mass meeting, which announcement was received enthusiastically.
Subsequently Mr. Cooper paid a glowing tribute to his country, to his flag, and to its defenders, and concluded by introducing Major-General Rousseau, whose gallantry upon the battle-field, and who administration in the District of the Cumberland, he said, were alike characteristic of the noble hearts and official capacity of the distinguished Kentuckian.
The General had been suffering for the past twenty-four hours with severe headache and sore throat, but he said he could pleasurably experience any inconvenience, so great was his delight to see such a concourse of people assembled in the loyal town of Shelbyville. He recollected that about a year ago, when a thousand or more Federal prisoners were being dragged through these streets, the ladies of Shelbyville succored the famishing captives, and bade the God-speed in their heroic and patriotic endeavors.
In a brief retrospect the General eloquently and feelingly carried his attentive listeners back to the time when all were free, prosperous and happy. He never had considered Tennessee, however, out of the Union. By the acts of some of her public men, the star had been dimmed, and much of its luster lost, but the old State was still standing beside his dear Kentucky, and could not be torn away
He remarked that all that had been said about Wendell, Phillips, William Lloyd Garrison, and others, and their influence before the war, was atrociously false; and those band men who poured such poisons in the ears of the unsuspecting and ignorant now it was false." As a Southern man," the General said, "I have always been opposed to political Abolitionism, yet I cannot avert the fact that slavery is the sole cause of all our troubles." "Those who brought on the war," he said, "insidiously took advantage of our political differences, and forced us to fight against each other when there was nothing to fight about."
The General said that he was a man of prejudices, but still a man of judgment. He went into the war with strong prejudices, and as time rolled on his judgment still kept him above his prejudices. As a Southern man, without a drop of Northern blood in his veins, naturally he had many prejudices. From the commencement of his manhood, he had been pro-slavery and my prejudices-all!"
Many ask if you are not in favor of the Government as it was, and General Rousseau: he added, "I am in favor of the old Government as it was. If I cannot get that, I am in favor of the next best thing to it. But my friends, and intend to be frank with you, if hanging men for opinion sake is one of the rights to be restores with the 'Union as it was,' THEN I AM OPPOSED TO IT!"[sic]
In expressing his loyal, honest indignation at the villainous audacity of Jeff. Davis, in his attempt to obstruct the navigation of the Mississippi, the General became quite vehement in his expressions and grand in his choice of language, and concluded the subject by saying that he would, as a Kentuckian, see the country sunk before he would acknowledge encroachments upon that stream from which a source [sic]
He urged the hearers to look at the matter as it was, speaking of the history of the Rebellion in the incipiency. Those bad men, he said, stated in their ordinances and speeches in the cotton States that the nigger [sic] was not the cause of the war; but in Kentucky and Tennessee these same men revered their argument, and in their speeches stated that Northern encroachments upon slavery was the cause of the war-"I saw the designs of these men," said the General, "and in all my speeches told my friends that if they ever thought over the nigger [sic] of the nigger [sic] could get up and walk away." He believed the institution of slavery was about to perish, and thought that its existence would cease with the termination of the war. He was anxious to see the annihilation of slavery in every Secessionist's hand, and would advise his loyal friends to place their negroes into the service and save three hundred dollars each. As for himself, he said that he did not fear slavery, dint fear abolitionism, did not fear the nigger [sic] and did not fear his master.
In speaking of the negro soldiers; Gen Rousseau reiterated that his judgment and his prejudices had long been at conflict upon this point with the exception that he had always believed that a nigger [sic] with a musket on his soldier fighting for the Government was far better than a Rebel fighting against it. He referred to the negroes under General Jackson, to their qualities as soldiers, and to the fact that he praised them officially for their gallantry, and sarcastically interrogated: -"Perhaps 'Old Hickory' was an Abolitionist?" "Why," said the General, "if the Rebels could trust their niggers, [sic] they would have put them to work cutting our throats a long time ago."
"What is the difference?" he inquired; "do they not act on the capacity of servants? Do they not dig trenches and build fortifications? Do they not, in fact, do everything but pull a trigger?" And why do they not place arms in their hands? Because they dare not; such an event would place in jeopardy their own existence. Again, he stated that he was prejudiced in regard to negro soldiers, but that if a darky [sic] got immediately before him upon a battle-field he would not kick him out of the way. He then, referred to the battles of Stones River and Perryvuille, and said that had there been then thousand negro troops upon the field upon those memorable days, the results would have been, or might have been, far different. At any rate, had such a thing taken place, had the ten thousand negro troops been on had to assist our gallant soldiers in their temporary decline, he would have shouted "Go in Caffey!"
He said that really the greatest objections to negro troops and other measures of a like nature, came from those who were disinclined toward field labor, with or without the black man. "Those who urge their objections the strongest," said the General "are the Copperheads of the North – the Constitutional Union men. I tell you, ladies and gentlemen, the Constitutional Union men are mostly to be found in the Rebel army denounces negro soldiers, and why? With the Constitutional Union men of the North; those men who got up the Copperhead riot which never had its parallel, and which could not have possibly taken place in the South."
The General then referred to his own State, and said that the Conservatives of Kentucky who are urging the opposition of negro enlistments were for the most part, in sympathy with treason and traitors, and at heart opposed to the war. He said that nothing serious would come of such petty elements, and that his confidence in Kentucky's unqualified loyalty and experienced no abatement. "Kentucky," General Rousseau said, "Is a loyal State and will come out all right, as she has upon all other occasions. She had always towered above her prejudices. She has sent over fifty regiments of soldiers to the defence of the nation's flag, and will not waver at this late hour of the struggle;" and added that in his humble opinion, negro enlistments was a matter of taste; that if the negroes of Kentucky were citizens of the State according to the laws, they might be drafted; if property, however, and so he considered the slave of loyal neb, the Government had a right to take and use them in any capacity in which the authorities might deem them the most serviceable.
The General said that he was prepared to sacrifice everything in crushing the Rebellion. His love and devotion to his country was his guiding star. To be assigned to the command of negro troops would be most repugnant indeed; but if the safety of his country demanded it, and his Government required it, he would take command of a nigger brigade." [sic]
The General then informed his hearers that the hue and cry about the preservation of the institution of slavery was the height of folly. "When you can take the palm and roll back the ocean's billows," he said, "then can you avert the destruction of the institution of slavery in this struggle. Do as I do, my friends, rise above your prejudices, and look at the matter philosophically and without bias."
There could be no doubt about the final result, he said. The overrunning protection of Providence hovered over us, and the great, good Government was bound to exist. He believed the contest would end this year, but however it might be prolonged he desired to fight until its formation.
He then congratulated the Government and the armies upon the great successes so far, and the loyal people of Tennessee upon their release from Rebel terror and thralldom, and said the bogus Government had commendable to slay about the last ditch, etc. "Now my hearers," said the General, I want to see them retire in that direction, I want to pursue them to that last ditch, and place my foot upon them as I would a Copperhead-any kind of a Copperhead, my friends, those who are in Jeff. Davis's army, or those who live in the North, and murder Union soldiers upon their return home to visit their families. I tell you, my friends, these bad men in the Free States I cannot trust."
General Rousseau paid another compliment to his native State, and spoke glowingly and feelingly of the valor of Kentucky troops. He said, and every one who is at all acquainted with the stories of Shiloh, Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga and Chattanooga, knew how truly he has spoken, that the time was yet to arrive when Kentuckians would disgrace themselves in camp, or turn their backs upon the enemy in conflict. He also paid a high tribute to the Union man of Tennessee, and the South generally, and said that every loyal man within the hearing of his voice had passed through more than any soldier upon the field or battle. He loved them truly and detested and despised those who, had been instrumental in bringing this dire calamity upon us, and who are still urging its existence. He announced himself willing, however, notwithstanding their great crime, to extend the hand of fellowship to all those of his brethren who had returned, or might return, in sincerity.
In concluding the General made many happy allusions, and especially derided what he termed the "one-to-five-business." He said he believed the war had developed the fact that one man with a musket in his hand from the South was but a match for a man similarly circumstanced from the North, and that the reverse was also the case. He said that it was the cry of some men from the Northern and Western States, after a brief residence in the South, that one Southerner could whip five Yankees. This, however, must be must be classed among the multiplicity of errors which have led the ignorant astray, and which alone contributed vastly to the growth of treason in the Rebellion's incipiency.
The General made touching references to the disposition of the Rebel alarm after the cessation of a conflict, which produced a world of grief in the hearts of a magnitude of his hearers
He thanked his friend for their kind applause and marked attention and gave way.
At the conclusion of General Rousseau's speech, the President in response to repeated call on Govern Johnson introduced His Excellency to the people. It would be affectation in us to even say that he made an excellent speech. As his opinions are well known to the country, I will merely say that portions of his remarks were reiterations of those sentiments of many times annunciated by him. He paid a flattering compliment to the noble soldier who had preceded him, and earnestly invoked his hearers to heed the truths and solicitations he uttered.
Philadelphia Inquirer, April 9, 1864.
4, Report on Federal defenses from Knoxville to Cleveland on the way toward Chattanooga
OFFICE INSPECTOR-GEN. OF FORTIFICATIONS, MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Nashville, Tenn., April 4, 1865.
Maj. Gen. GEORGE H. THOMAS, Cmdg. Mil. Div. of the Miss. West of Allegheny [sic] Mountains:
GEN.: I have the honor to submit the following report of my inspection of the defense of Knoxville and the line thence to Chattanooga:
Knoxville.-This city, the keep of East Tennessee, is well fortified, and though the works are not finished they are sufficiently advanced to admit of good defense against coup de main or siege. The city is situated on the north bank of the Holston. South of this river two high summits are held by strong redoubts, finished. The seizure of these hills by an attacking force would render the city untenable and would seriously, if not fatally, weaken the defense of the line north of the river. Their occupation by our own forces is essential to the safety of the city. West of Knoxville the defensive line follows the crest naturally indicated to Fort Sanders and thence east to Fort Wiltsie. The contour of the hills east of the city fixes the defensive line there, the prominent points serving as sites for forts and batteries. Knoxville is mostly covered from the west and northwest as the ground declines in front of the line. Near the depot a depression in the ridge opens the most populous portion of the place to a fire from the north. Again the range of hills to the northeast of which Fort Smith is located covers the city in that direction, as the ground in advance is quite low. Mayberry Hill, however, sees through between Battery Clifton Lee and Fort Fearns, and would seriously annoy, by distant fire, movements in a part of the city. As three heavy batteries bear upon this hill its occupation by an enemy would be very uncomfortable, and light field pieces put in battery there would probably be silenced. The system of defense, however, would be more complete were Mayberry Hill and the slightly elevated ground north of the depot occupied each by a small, strong redoubt with a deep ditch, stockade gorge, and interior blockhouse. The immediate vicinity of the depot east and west can be floated by dams across the two streams flowing through the city, rendering an attack on the front of Knoxville almost an impossibility. Seven inclosed works, eight batteries, and about two miles of infantry entrenchment constitute the defenses of Knoxville. Fort Byington is an interior work, serving as a keep to the western portion of the line. Fort Sanders, at the apex of this line, is very properly a bastion work. Forts Smith and Fearns are large works, the former perhaps unnecessarily so. The latter sees well upon the south bank of the river, and would assist Fort Lee if attacked from the east and cover the hills slopes toward the river. These works are generally well constructed with parapet and embrasure resentments formed of logs set vertically. The ditches are mostly six feet deep and the scarp difficult. The infantry entrenchments connecting forts are well flanked by re-entering batteries, and this portion of the line is as strong as the works themselves with the exception of direct artillery fire. The flank fire would, however, enable a small number of men to hold the line on the same principle that a bastion work requires less garrison than a polygonal one of the same magnitude. The entrenched line has a good command, about seven feet, sufficient to cover troops passing in the rear. Its parapet is six feet thick, while the batteries and forts have parapets of twelve feet at least. The lines are generally well arranged to sweep the ground over which the enemy must approach. On account of the usual convex sections of hill slopes it is impossible by any simple combination to sweep the approaches to works on elevation as completely as on level ground, and the steeper the slopes the more difficult will this problem be of solution. On a portion of the north line the hill slopes are too abrupt and convex for thorough exposure, but the partial inundation in front is a great protection to this part of the entrenched line. From Smith to Wiltsie, a half mile, no infantry entrenchment has been constructed, reliance being placed upon the water barrier as a defense. It would be a proper precaution to extend the parapet from Wiltsie to the small stream to the right of the main road, sweeping that road by a two-gun battery. This, however, can readily be done on the approach of an enemy in force-200 yards of the line toward the river on the left have not been commenced. Much labor is still required to put down platforms for the guns, build service magazines, and complete the unfinished embrasures. Those embrasures which look to the front are mostly ready for service, but many of those intended for sweeping the ground within the entrenched inclosure are not yet reverted. The following short description shows the condition of each work and battery:
Fort Fearns: The breast height is entirely reverted, eighteen embrasures finished and fourteen partly reverted. About one-quarter of the parapet should be raised two feet. The gateway is unfinished; platforms for twenty-nine guns are required. This fort has a large well-ventilated magazine.
Battery Engle: Finished, except the platforms for eight guns.
Battery Clifton Lee: Requires platforms for twelve guns.
Fort Smith: This work requires one additional traverse, platforms for twenty-two guns, a gate, and large magazine. Four of the embrasures are not quite finished.
Fort Wiltsie: Requires a gate at entrance, a service magazine, and platforms for its eight guns.
Battery Galpin: Has no platforms for its nine guns.
Battery Zoellner: Requires platforms for its four guns.
Battery Karnasch: Platforms for three guns needed and a few days' labor upon the parapet.
Battery Elstner: Requires four gun platforms and some labor upon the parapet.
Fort Sanders: This large form of bastion form [sic] is intended for twenty-one guns, the embrasures for which are nearly all finished. The work needs a good magazine and twenty-one platforms. The interior is not excavated deep enough to give good cover to its defenders. The ditches should be deepened and the scarp trimmed.
Battery Noble: Finished, excepting platforms for eight guns.
Battery Harker: Is in an unfinished condition. It is intended for five guns. The parapets and embrasures need revetments.
Fort Byington: Requires a service magazine, gate, and platforms for fifteen guns.
Forts Dickerson and Lee, south of the Holston, are finished for forty-one guns; each possesses a good magazine. Infantry parapet connecting forts and batteries is finished excepting a portion 200 yards long on the left of the line. A deep ditch extends from Battery Clifton Lee to the inundation in front to prevent surprise in that direction. There is a large magazine by the road passing near Fort Byington.
The accompanying sketch shows the general character and arrangement of the forts and batteries just described.
The defensive of Knoxville, commenced by Capt. Poe, Engineer Corps, immediately after its occupation by our army, owes much of its progress to Gen. Davis Tillson, commanding at this post during the past year. He has evinced much skill in laying out the connecting lines, and an uncommon energy in their execution, and it is a pleasure to bring his services in the defense of his post to the notice of the commanding general. It would require a large army to invest the city on the north and south banks of the Holston. If the south side is threatened, the garrison, by the aid of Forts Dickerson and Lee with temporary lines, can hold at bay a large force. It is probable that an attacking force would take position on the north bank of the river. In this view the inundation would prove doubly serviceable, protecting a portion of the line and covering the valley to the north, thus forcing the enemy to confine his attack either to the east or west front of Knoxville. The garrison therefore will only be required to meet the attack on a short line, simply watching the other portions of the defenses vigilantly. Hence, though the line from river to river is three miles long, the garrison need not be proportionately large-5,000 infantry with artillerists for service of the guns will be able to hold the lines against 20,000 men. The works are designed for 192 guns; 100 will suffice for the ordinary garrison, for should the city be threatened by an approaching army, it will doubtless be re-enforced in time by an army with its material. The garrison of Knoxville can complete the defensive line so nearly finished, and keep it in order, commencing no new work.
Loudon.-At this place the railroad from Chattanooga to Knoxville crosses the Tennessee. The preservation of the bridge across the river is necessary for supplying the forces of East Tennessee. For this purpose three redoubts on the south bank and one on the opposite side with a stockade at the north abutment, have been constructed. These defenses of weak profile and without block-house keeps have thus far protected the bridge. It is not advisable now to strengthen them. Loudon, distant but twenty-eight miles from Knoxville, has doubtless been indirectly covered by the large garrison of that city; besides its insular position has only exposed it to attack from raiding parties. For the want of a map prepared from survey I attach a sketch showing approximately the relative positions of the railroad bridge and the redoubts defending it. The railroad bridge is 1,670 feet long.
Charleston.-One small redoubt and two two story block houses defend this position and protect the railroad bridge over the Hiawassee. The redoubts, as built, adds little strength to the defenses, being little more than a cover to the garrison within. A well-constructed redoubt, with an interior keep, and having a deep, ditch with a difficult scarp and exterior obstacles, may force a division one even a corps to the delay of a siege. Without these accessories it is little better than a rifle-pit, and will inevitably yield to a superior attacking force. A block house is a much better defense than these little redoubts of weak profile. The two block-houses, one at each end of the Hiawassee bridge, have doubtless prevented raiding parties of the enemy from attempting its destruction. Charleston is but forty-two miles distant from Chattanooga and could receive assistance from the garrison of that depot if required. Its defenses, however, have proved quite sufficient against raiding parties. The bridges at Loudon and Charleston, though very important to East Tennessee, had no bearing upon the Atlanta campaign. The motive for their destruction seems to have been insufficient to cause any serious attack upon them; besides Knoxville could be supplied by the river, if necessary. The rough sketch annexed, for want of an accurate map, shows the defensive works at Charleston. The railroad bridge is 500 feet long.
Cleveland.-This town is situated at the junction of the railroad to Dalton with that to Chattanooga, and is thirty miles distant from the latter city. The regiment that garrisoned this place built there two small redoubts; one about a mile the other half a mile distant from the town. When these defenses were constructed Cleveland possessed more military importance than at present. Now one little redoubt or a double-cased block-house will be sufficient to control the position.
Tyner's Station.-At this place, nine miles from Chattanooga, there is a small redoubt. The position is unimportant.
Dalton Railroad Junction.-Six miles from Chattanooga, where the road to Dalton branches from the road to Knoxville, is an important trestle-work. This is securely protected by two block-houses. The railroad and telegraph stations and water-tanks between Loudon and Chattanooga would be best protected by block-houses, as the cheapest and most efficient defense. They require but a few men for garrison, and are impregnable to infantry and will resist a long cannonade from field pieces. It is not, however, advisable to make any changes in the defenses from Knoxville to Chattanooga.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Z. B. TOWER, Brig. Gen. and Insp. Gen. of Fortifications, Mil. Div. of the Miss.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, pp. 213-216.
 See Plate CXI, Map 5, of the Atlas.
 Plate CXI, Map 15, of the Atlas .
 See Plate CXI, Map 15, of the Atlas.
 For a sketch, see Plate CXI, Map 4, of the Atlas.
James B. Jones, Jr.
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN 37214