Saturday, August 1, 2015

7.26-8.1/2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes


          26, Life in a Cumberland Plateau spa [see July 26, 1863, The Sack of Beersheba, below] 

Letter from Beersheba Springs.

Beersheba Springs, July 26, 1861..

Editors Appeal: As there may be many readers of your paper who would be glad to know something of this charming spot, I have concluded to turn reporter and give them such information as I have been able to gather.

I have been at many summer retreats both North and South, but none have pleased me more than Beersheba.

It is situated on the Cumberland mountain, Grundy county, Tenn., seventy miles from Nashville. It derives its name from Mrs. Beersheba P. Cain, who built a cabin here in 1832. Mr. Dugan, who moved to this country in 1805, and who is still alive, first entered the land. From him the property passed through several hands, until it finally became the property of Mr. Armfield, to whose energy and industry many of the present improvements are due. It now belongs to a company of southern gentlemen, who purchased it for fifty or sixty thousand dollars.

If visitors are not satisfied with the arrangements made for their comfort at Beersheba, then they must carry their fastidiousness to a marvelous extent. A purer atmosphere never blessed this earth. You must remember that Beersheba is situated two thousand feet above the level of the sea. That dreadful annoyance, the mosquito, cannot be found here. The thermometer hardly ever exceeds seventy-five degrees. Fires and blankets have been comfortable for the two past nights. The main hotel is situated on the brow of the mountain, commanding an enchanting view of the valley of Collins river, which is from three to six miles wide and eighteen miles long. Its soil is fertile, producing in great abundance wheat, corn, rye, potatoes and vegetables of every kind. I am told that the valley contains numerous sulphur springs.

But let me come back to the springs. Arrangements are made for the accommodation of eight hundred people. The rooms are very nicely fixed, amply provided with pleasant beds, and everything necessary to secure comfort. Unlike many watering places, great attention is paid to cleanliness. There is nothing to be seen offensive to the eye. For the amusement of visitors there are provided billiard rooms, ten pin alleys and riding horses. At night the ball room is open. Everything about the establishment is conducted well.

It is under the particular charge of Mr. Hukil, favorably known on the Mississippi river as one of the most accomplished caterers in America. If any of your readers ever took a trip to New Orleans in the Ingomar or John Simonds, they will agree with me in the opinion that Mr. Hukil in his line is without a superior. As far as eating is concerned, your readers may rest assured that there is no hotel in New Orleans or Memphis possessing greater attractions. There is nothing rough about the establishment. The servants, numbering more than seventy, have been well drilled and are remarkably attentive. I have examined the whole establishment. Every thing is in order. The promenade around the buildings under cover is more than a quarter of a mile in extent. The walks are beautifully laid out. The bathing houses, the washing apparatus, the cooking facilities are as good as one could wish. Mr. Hukil is a gentleman of fine appearance, courteous in his manners, obliging in every respect. He is assisted by Mr. Hurd, a young gentleman formerly of the Memphis packet office company. If a handsome appearance, bland manners and attention to his duties be qualifications for the proper discharge of the duties devolving upon one filling a situation like that of Mr. Hurd, he possesses them in an eminent degree. He anticipates all your wants and studies to make your time pass pleasantly.

The terms of board are $50 per month, children and servants half price. Around the hotel are a number of elegant cottages, owned by persons in Nashville and

I was pleased to meet the worthy bishop of Tennessee here. His health is good, and I am told he preaches twice every Sunday at the hotel.

In regard to the springs; the main one is chalybeate, running out of a rock, said to be an excellent tonic. This fountain, together with the freestone spring is about two hundred yards from the hotel accessible by a pleasant road.

In the vicinity of the springs are several objects of curiosity; among them is the stone door, water-falls, caves, etc. I have not as yet paid them a visit. I will try and describe them in my next. Upon the whole I can without any reservation whatever recommend this retreat to the people of Memphis. Gentlemen who are now at Beersheba, and who are familiar with all the hotels in America, pronounce this equal to any. It is a southern enterprise, and this alone ought to induce them to patronize it. The company here is not large, but of the most select character. I have not been introduced to any of the ladies, and therefore can say nothing in regard to them.


Memphis Daily Appeal, July 31, 1861

          26, General Pillow and Tobacco for the troops

General Order No. 29.

Headquarters Army of Tennessee, Memphis, July 24, 1861.

The use of tobacco having become so fixed a habit with a very large proportion of our troops that the deprivation of it is to them a very severe inconvenience, and it being impossible for them to procure it at many of the encampments, the Major-General commanding, after consultation with and with the approval of his excellency, the Governor of the State, directs the various Commissary Staffs throughout the State to purchase by wholesale, from time to time, such amounts of good tobacco as may be necessary, and resell it to the soldiers of the Army of Tennessee at the cost price.

By command of Major-General, Gideon J. Pillow, Commanding the Army of Tennessee.

Gus. A. Henry, Jr., Ass't Adjutant-General.

Memphis Daily Appeal, July 26, 1861.

          27, Letter from R. J. C. Gailbreath [C. S. A.] in Bristol, Tennessee, to his wife Mariah Gailbreath, near Gainesborough, relative to railroad transportation, the first battle of Bull Run, and righteousness of the Southern cause

Bristol, Sullivan County, Tennessee

July 27th, 1861.

Dear Wife and Children-

I again embrace the pleasure of writing to you & as Ink [sic] is scares amongst us, you will pardon me for making this impression with pencil.

I can inform you, [sic] that I am in excellent health, as well as the other boys from your neighborhood.

We left Camp Trousdale on Sunday the 21st. Inst. and arrived her on Thursday the 25, [sic] making 4 days and nights travel by Railroad, [sic] passing through Nashville, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Greenville, [sic] Jonesboro, and other places of minor importance.

Crossing the Tennessee and other smaller Rivers, [sic] on Bridges, [sic] passing the Cumberland Mountains through a gap and tunnel and running under the Frowning [sic] brow of the Iron Mountains [sic] hundreds of Miles [sic] amid the most delightful and Majestic like Cenery, [sic] the Eye of Man ever beheld, in spring the beholder with a deep reverence for the Infinite [sic] wisdom of him [sic] that made us and everything. Could it have been that our thoughts had not occasionally strayed from the cenery [sic] around us and found a resting place, [sic] The Hearth at Home, [sic] where our wives and Children, [sic] with their sweet and lovely Faces, [sic] and the many items of Interest [sic] that bound us to them.

Had it not been for a thought of the Blood, [sic] Death, [sic] and carnage before us, of which I will write on another page, the trip would have been delightful.

No accident of a serious nature occurred until we were leaving Knoxville, when one of our Company, a son of Joseph Law, by the name of Don. F. in attempting to jump the Train, [sic] fell under the Train, [sic] cutting his leg smooth into, [sic] just below the left knee. We carried him into the warehouse where the Seargant [sic] cut it off again just above the knee. I carried his foot and leg in my hand from the Railroad [sic] to the Warehouse, [sic] with a shoe and a sock and a part of the Breeches [sic] leg on it-We left him there and his brother to wait on him, but learned this Morning [sic] that he has since died.

We are within a half mile of the Virginia line, connecting with Washington County sick, in that State, where the State [sic] line crosses the Railroad-There is [sic] two Flagpoles, [sic] one in Virginia, and one on the Tennessee line, and since the decision of Tennessee [to secede and join the Confederacy] the two Flags [sic] have been tied together.

While I am writing, Colonel Newman's Regiment, among which is the Granville Company, [sic] has arrived here from old Camp Trousdale, and while they March through our Camps with Marshal [sic] Music, [sic] [they] had a Warlike [sic] appearance. I stopped to shake hands and to help the other boys to Holow. [sic] They were mighty glad to see us again.

Yesterday we received order to move to Lynchburg, Virginia, and as there was a scarcity of Cars [sic] there was only Seven Companies that got off, and we, with two other Companies [sic] was left-after they got up 15 Miles [sic] into Virginia, They [sic] got a Telgraph [sic] dispatch to come back, and as they are just getting into Camps [sic] again I must stop again, to tell the Howdy Do [sic]-We were as glad to see them as if they had been gone a week.

Last Night Five [sic] of our Boys [sic] caught up with us, Bill among them-They looked like they could stand the Fight [sic] first rate.

As I promised to write more about the Big Fight Manassas [sic] I will now give you all the news as we have it. I have just been down to Town [sic] (Woodrow, Virginia), and red the Richmond Examiner, and give it to you. The Southerners had 30,000 men Commanded [sic] by Beauregard [sic], Davis and Johnston. The Yankees had 65,000 men Commanded [sic] by Scott, McDowell and Patterson. Fight [sic] commenced at 8 O'clock-Morning [sic] (Sunday) about the hour we left Camp Trousdale and lasted all day. The Southerners [sic] lost 500 killed and 1,500 wounded-Then the Northern Men [sic] lost 21,000 killed [sic] and lost 1,000 prisoners-Our side took 63 Cannons [sic] 1,000 Stands of Arms, [sic] Horses [sic] and provisions and etc. worth a Million of Dollars [sic]-Enough to Furnish [sic] the Southern Army for 12 Months. From the General [sic] detail of the battle it was the greatest Battle [sic] fought since the Memerable [sic] Battle [sic] of Waterloo-If Jeff Davis had of had [sic] Ten Thousand Men [sic] more, who was Fresh [sic] and not exhausted, he says he could have taken Washington City in 10 Hours [sic] after the battle-Our side run [sic] them within a few mile [sic] of the Potomac River-Got old Scott's Carriage, [sic] and his walking stick and he run [sic] 40 miles, got 2 members of the Yanks [sic] Congressmen as prisoners, and in fact, whipped them shamefully -- For full particulars I refer you to the News [sic] Paper. [sic]

I do not know where we will go from here. It is rumored that we will go to the Cumberland Gap, some say to Missouri. Governor Jackson of Missouri was here Yesterday [sic] in Company [sic] with Senator Atchinson-They both spoke-Jackson says that he can whip out the Yankees in Missouri if he had Guns-He has gone to Richmond to see Davis. The impression here is that he has gone there to get some of the Guns [sic] we got from the Yankees.

I cannot say now, my Dear Family, [sic] when I will see you again, if ever, but should it be the will of God to cut me off from you, rest assured that you shall never be disgraced by any Conduct [sic] on my part in this War [sic], for you and my Country; [sic] I am willing to do Battle, [sic] and if Fate [sic] be against me, let it be so. Be curageous [sic] and let not private feelings have sway with you, for I believe it is for the Best, [sic] and but performing the Providence of God that this War [sic] is upon us, in other words, it is a Righteous War. [sic]

Take good care of your health, our sweet little Children [sic] raise them up as though they should go, and although the example heretofore set by me to them has not been of that Moral Character [sic] they should have been, Yet [sic] I trust that their superior intelligence will enable them to observe and avoid my errors.

Since writing the above, we have orders to leave immediately for Richmond, and Boys [sic] are bundeling [sic] up to start.

You need not write me until I write again. Give my love to your Mother, [sic] and all the Black Folks, [sic] and to your Friends. [sic]

Should Faith [sic] preserve me, I will see you in May next, if not sooner. May Heaven will it so.


R. J. C. Gailbreath

W. P. A. Civil War Records, Vol. 3, pp. 64-65.

          28, Excerpt from a letter by John Bradford, with the 20th Tennessee in Bristol, to his father in Davidson County

We are now on the Virginia and Tennessee [state] line waiting for cars to carry us to Linchburg [sic], Virginia. We have got along very well this far and I hope that we will continue to do so.

Frederick Bradford Papers, TSL&A

          28,"The poorest people I have seen are in this part of the world." A member of the 16th Mississippi makes observations on conditions in Knoxville and East Tennessee

Correspondence of the Clarion.

Knoxville, Tennessee, July 28th, 1861.

The 16th Mississippi Regiment arrived at this place this morning (Sunday) about 1 o'clock A.M. We left Corinth at 1 o'clock P. M., Friday, in one train….We are now in the disaffected part of Tennessee, and occasionally find a man who is still for the Union.—At all points heretofore, the ladies have turned out to cheer us. Old and young, rich and poor, those dressed in silk and those dressed in homespun, have waved handkerchiefs and banners to welcome our approach. In looking at some of the fair faces who have desired to encourage us by their presence, I have thought I could see anxiety depicted for the fate of a brother or a husband who was far away from the endearments of home in the ranks of the patriot army. I have no doubt, among the hundreds that we have seen, were many mothers, wives and sisters whose sons, husbands and brothers are in our army, and who rejoiced to see us going to swell the ranks of the Southern hosts.—Brownlow lives here, and his paper is full of the most treasonable sentiments.

I think there is a gradual change going on among the people here, but as yet, from all I can learn there is a majority in East Tennessee who are strongly disposed to resist if possible, the secession of the State. They profess to be for peace, and no doubt generally are, but if reverses were to come on us they would take up arms against us. They have no arms, and if the enemy can be kept out of the State may give us no trouble. The country here is unlike any part of the South I have been in. The country people are generally very poor, and ignorant. Grain and stock raising occupy the farmers. There are many coal mines here, and considerable manufactories, while the people are more like the Northern people in pursuits than in any other part of the South. They have no State pride. Cut off by the mountains from the rest of the State, they look on it with jealousy and would no doubt go for the formation of a separate State by a large majority. Sectional feeling against the rest of the State has as much to do with their present condition as anything else.

Brownlow has done much to keep them as they are. They were nearly all whigs and his paper was their organ. They took their position as Union men and were defeated—they do not like to give up the contest. Knoxville is said to have 7000 inhabitants, but where they are I can't imagine. The town is scattered over several hills and hollows, but does not appear to me to have over 2500 inhabitants. There is not in my opinion more than that in the city proper. The poorest people I have seen are in this part of the world. I see white people living in worse shanties than any negro cabin I ever saw in Jasper, and there are some there bad enough. Our boys are all in fine spirits and anxious to report their services in Richmond.


Eastern Clarion [PAULDING, MS], August 9, 1861. [1]

          29, Fayetteville Committee of Correspondence offers to furnish Confederate soldiers with winter clothing

Fayetteville, Tenn,. July 29, 1861

Hon. L.P. Walker

Secretary of War, Richmond, VA:


The undersigned have the honor to inform you that at and by a meeting of a portion of the citizens of the county of Lincoln on this day they were appointed a committee to correspond with you touching the matters embodied in the following resolution and proceedings, which were had and done in said meeting, which proceedings are as follows., to wit:

Resolved: That the chairman appoint a committee of three persons to correspond with the War Department in Richmond touching the following matters, to wit:

Can the said Department furnish all of our soldiers now in the field with shoes, socks, coats, pants, blankets, shirts, and every article necessary to constitute a soldier's winter dress? If not all of them can be so furnished, what proportion can be so supplied by the Department, and to what extent, with each of the articles making a complete soldier's dress? The object of our citizens being, if the Department cannot furnish all of said necessary winter clothing, shoeing, &c., to inaugurate a plan by which the deficit, if there should be a deficit, may be partially supplied.

Jas. G. Wood


Geo. J. Goodrich


Our citizens solicitude about our soldiers and their comfort during the approaching winter, and knowing that our ports were under a blockade, that our manufacturers of woolen goods are on scale of diminution entirely disproportion [sic] to the wants of our people and of our Army, and that our funding and financial system of government are yet without consolidation and organized system, we have apprehended that the Department would be unable to furnish all the comforts of clothing so necessary to shield the soldier from the blasts of winter. We therefore desired to know whether the Government wants aid and cooperation in the premises. If Government is unable to furnish all, we desire to know it an early day, that we may take such steps as to effect all that we can in the premises. From our wool we can make blankets, clothing, and socks, and clothe every man we have in the field (about 900) if necessary, and we trust that the Secretary of War may be pleased to inform us at an early day touching the above inquiries. The committee also respectfully suggests to the Department, if the Government has to rely upon private contribution, that some plan may be adopted at Richmond by the Department looking to the unity and cooperation of the people of every county in the South in the premises, and that said plan be published in all the papers of the South. Pardon the committee and those whom we represent for these suggestions, for, knowing that we are all animated by the one high and holy purpose of achieving and maintaining our independence, we thought we could do no less.





OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 1, pp. 506-507.

          29, A Madison County farmer rationalizes secession

….It must pass into history that the Southern People [sic] withdrew themselves from this Union unwilling longer to live with a people continually agitating & harping on the sin of slavery….Abe Lincoln declaring…"A House divided against itself cannot stand, that the Union could not continue half slave, half free….In less than 3 months from the time he took his seat he userped [sic] powers no former President dared exercise. Let History give impartial record of the Revolution & the South must stand justified before the world. [sic]

Robert H. Cartmell Diary

          29, Shooting at Brownsville

A difficulty occurred at Brownsville, Tenn., on Monday, between John V. Baugh, formerly of Memphis, and Ab. Sheerman, of that place, and while they were engaged, a brother of Sheerman's shot and dangerously wounded Mr. Baugh.

Louisville Daily Journal, August 2, 1861. [2]

          31, V. K. Stevenson Defends Judge Catron in Nashville

Judge Catron.- The Nashville Union and American of the 31st has the following card: I called to see Judge Catron soon after his return from holding the Federal Court at St. Louis, and conversed with him fully relative to his position in the present contest between the North and South, and am fully satisfied that his mission to Missouri resulted in saving our friends there, and that Judge Catron's feelings are with the South. It is true he yet clings to the hope that the Union may possibly be preserved, or a reconstruction may take place, as many other good citizens of his age still hope for, and that a revolution will occur in public opinion at the North, when they will concede to the South all they ask. There are very few left in the South that sympathized with Judge Catron in this wish, but at the same time there is nothing in it inconsistent with his preference for the South in a final division. I many add here that I entertain no doubt whatever, from my conference with Judge Catron, that, when the current of events shall satisfy his mind that this illusion is without foundation, as surely will occur, he will take his natural position by the side of his kindred friends, and countrymen, and will prove (as his feelings now indicate) one of the staunchest and truest friends of the Northern Government.

I write this as a matter of justice to Judge Catron, whose feelings are not generally understood. He wishes to live among his old friends and acquaintances here, and after full conference with him I can see nothing in his wishes in this respect inconsistent with the interest of our community. He will not undertake to hold a Federal Court here again, no matter what may occur, as he stated to me several times.

Judge Catron is too old to form new associations, is earnest and honest, and a better and more reliable friend to our cause than many among us who are not expected to be any.


Louisville Daily Journal, August 3, 1861.

          ca. 31, Report on the strength of the Provisional Army of Tennessee


Infantry at Camp Trousdale.-Colonel Fulton's regiment, 889 men, percussion muskets; Colonel Palmer's regiment, 883 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Savage's regiment, 952 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Newman's regiment, 914 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Battle's regiment, 880 men, flint-lock muskets.

Infantry at Camp Cheatham.-Colonel Rains' regiment, 880 men, 710 flint-locks, 175 minie rifles; Colonel Brown's regiment, 885 men, percussion muskets. Considerable sickness in last named regiment, mostly measles; it might well take place of Colonel Maney's regiment in East Tennessee, although not now in good condition for active, efficient services.

At Fort Henry.-Colonel Heiman's regiment, 720 men, flint-lock muskets. Erecting fortifications at mouth of Big Sandy.

Cavalry at Camp Cheatham.-One company, Captain Woodward, fully armed.

Camp Jackson. Battalion, five companies, Lieutenant-Colonel McNairy, fully armed.

Camp Lee.-Battalion, five companies, fully armed. Our cavalry is armed with sabers, Colt navy pistols, and double-barrel shotguns, English twist.


Infantry.-Col. George Maney, 944 men, rifle muskets; Colonel Hatton, 856 men, rifles; Colonel Forbes, 860 men, percussion muskets; Colonel Cumming, 877 men, flint-lock muskets. Field officers not chosen; ten companies strong.

Cavalry.-Eight companies, about 653 men.

Artillery.-Captain Rutledge's company, 110 men, four 6-pounders, two howitzers.


Infantry at Union City.-Colonel Travis' regiment, 860 men, fling-lock muskets; Colonel Stephens' regiment, 851 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Douglass' regiment, 838 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Russel's regiment, 737 men, flint-lock muskets; Colonel Pickett's regiment, 744 men, flint-lock muskets.

At Fort Wright.-Colonel Smith's Regiment, 802 men, percussion muskets; Colonel Walker's regiment, 541 men, flint-lock muskets.

Cavalry.-Five hundred and fourteen men, flint-lock muskets.

Artillery.-Colonel McCown, 140 men, flint lock muskets; Captain Polk, 67 men, flint-lock muskets; sappers and miners, Captain Pickett, 44 men, flint-lock muskets; riflemen, 493, flint-lock muskets.

The governor called for 2,000 riflemen, each man to bring his gun, to be taken by the State at valuation and converted into minie rifles, shooting sixty balls to pound. In response to this call ten companies are in camp at Murfreesborough, Middle Tennessee, and their guns are being converted into minie rifle[s] at the rate of 300 per week. Other companies more than sufficient to fill the call have tendered themselves and are marching or preparing to march into encampment. It is believed that from 4,000 to 5,000 men armed in this way can be raised in the State as twelve-months' volunteers.

Total infantry, about 19,400; total cavalry, 2,079; total artillery, 558; sappers and miners, 44.

The State is making good sabers at the rate of thirty per day, casting cannon, making powder, and will soon be doing so on a considerable scale, as well as making guns in considerable numbers of superior quality; making caps in large quantities.

OR, Ser 1, 52 pt. II, pp. 122-123.

31- August 20, 1861, Confederate anxieties about the loyalty of East Tennessee


Brig. Gen. F. K. ZOLLICOFFER, Cmdg., &c., Bristol, Tenn.

SIR: I am instructed by the President to make you the following communication:

The great importance of the East Tennessee and Western Virginia road requires that it should be closely guarded wherever there is reason to apprehend its destruction. The movements of the enemy or the sending of arms into East Tennessee should be so closely watched by an adequate force as to render success impracticable. You will know so well the state of things in East Tennessee that nothing more can be said in that regard than to point to you the importance of preventing organization for resistance to the Government and of attracting by every possible means the people to support the Government, both State and Confederate. It may occur that civil process in case of treason may be resisted in which event you will endeavor to be in position to give all needful support to the civil authorities. The President relies on you to give more accurate and exact information in relation to public affairs in East Tennessee than it has heretofore been possible to obtain and you are invited to the fullest correspondence in all matters relating to your command.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen.


RICHMOND, August 1, 1861.


Retain at Bristol under your orders such of the Tennessee regiments now there or that may arrive there until further advised. You are assigned to the command of the District of East Tennessee.

S. COOPER,Adjutant and Inspector Gen.


EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, August 3, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER.

SIR: That there will be an effort on the part of the Federal Government to arm the Union men of Tennessee I have no doubt. For this purpose companies and regiments of Union men are being organized in Kentucky and every day our relations with the people of Kentucky are becoming more complicated and threatening, especially that part of Kentucky adjoining East Tennessee. I fear we will have to adopt a decided and energetic policy with the people of that section. I hope, however, to visit Richmond in a few days, and confer with you upon this and other questions of interest to the State and Gen. Government.

Very respectfully,



KNOXVILLE, August 10, 1861.

Adjutant-Gen. COOPER:

News received that John Baxter is arrested at Lynchburg. This is unfortunate. He is a Unionist but has my permission to go to Nelson and counsel with him as a lawyer and friend. He gave me assurance of conciliatory influence there, and here his arrest embarrasses my plans of conciliation.



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, August 16, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, War Department, Richmond.

SIR: I am satisfied from the movements of the Union men of East Tennessee that more troops should be stationed in that division of the State. If you would establish camps of instruction at different points in East Tennessee and order to them such troops as you may have in camps in States south of us to the extent of 5,000 or 7,000 men the presence of such a force would give perfect security to our railroads and prevent the organization of a rebel army, while the presence of the force we have there at present has the effect of irritating without being sufficient to awe or subdue.

Twelve or fourteen thousand men in East Tennessee would crush out rebellion there without firing a gun, while a smaller force may involve us in scenes of blood that will take long years to heal. We can temporize with the rebellious spirit of that people no longer. If you can order a sufficient number of troops from States south of us to that point, the adoption of a decided and energetic policy (which I am resolved upon so soon as I have a sufficient force to sustain it), the arrest and indictment for treason of the ringleaders, will give perfect peace and quiet to that division of our State in the course of two months. If the suggestion with regard to East Tennessee is to be acted upon at all it should be done at once as every moment's delay but increases the danger of an outbreak there.

Very respectfully,



ORDERS, No. 3. BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS, Knoxville, August 18, 1861.

The general in command gratified at the preservation of peace and the rapidly increasing evidences of confidence and good-will among the people of East Tennessee strictly enjoins upon those under his command the most scrupulous regard for the personal and property rights of all the inhabitants. No act or word will be tolerated calculated to alarm or irritate those who though heretofore advocating the national Union now acquiesce in the decision of the State and submit to the authority of the Government of the Confederate States. Such of the people as have fled from their homes under an apprehension of danger will be encouraged to return with an assurance of entire security to all who wish to pursue their respective avocations peacefully at home. The Confederate Government seeks not to enter into questions of difference of political opinions heretofore existing but to maintain the independence it has asserted by the united feeling and action of all its citizens. Col.'s of regiments and captains of companies will be held responsible for a strict observance of this injunction within their respective commands, and each officer commanding a separate detachment or post will have this order read to his command.

By order of Brig. Gen. F. K. Zollicoffer:



Richmond, August 20, 1861.

His Excellency ISHAM G. HARRIS, Governor of Tennessee.

SIR: Your letter of August 16 has just been received by the hands of Major Bradford. The importance of the present attitude of East Tennessee is not unknown to this Department and the necessity of providing promptly the means of supporting our friends in that section is by no means disregarded. Three regiments have been accordingly already ordered into East Tennessee--two from Mississippi and one from Alabama--and it is hoped that these troops with those already within your State may suffice for the accomplishment of the objects at present necessary.

The Department fully concurs in your view of the necessity of adopting a decided policy to insure the public safety and only regrets that it is not in the power of the Government, to the extent that may be necessary.


~  ~  ~

I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully,

L. P. WALKER, Secretary of War.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, pp. 829-832.






August 1, 1861, Governor Isham G. Harris's comments on the transfer of Tennessee forces to the Confederacy

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, Nashville, August 1, 1861.

Hon. L. P. WALKER, War Department, Richmond:

SIR: Hon. George Gant laid before me you letter of 26th ultimo, upon the subject of transferring the provisional army of Tennessee to the Confederate States.[3] The transfer is now being made as rapidly as Confederate officers can verify our rolls by the inspection of our regiments, and I hope will be completed within a few days.

There is in the hands of our quartermaster and commissary-generals a large amount of army supplies which, of course, must be transferred with the army, and in this connection I wish to suggest to you the propriety of establishing at Nashville a general depot of army supplies. In my opinion no better point for such depot can be selected in the Confederate States. If this policy shall be adopted by the Government the two gentlemen now at the head of these departments should be continued at the head of their respective depots. They are very efficient and reliable men. If, however, the Department shall determine not to continue them, then it is important that some authorized agent of the Government come here immediately for the purpose of taking an inventory and receipting for such supplies as are on hand in these departments.

In your letter to Mr. Gant you say, upon the subject of army appointments, that "Governor Harris has already been requested, in a letter from the President, to present his recommendations for these appointments." I have only to say that the letter of the President referred to has never come to hand, but in obedience to what I herewith transmit a list of the various persons appointed by me whose appointments have been confirmed by the Gen. Assembly to the various official positions connected with the provisional army of Tennessee, the reappointment of all of whom I earnestly recommend except the few that I have marked on the list "Not to be reappointed." Such as are thus marked I cannot recommend.

I regard it as a matter of importance that the army of Tennessee should be organized into brigades and divisions and commanded by Tennesseeans [sic]. Identified as we are by a common interest, sympathy, reputation, and long association, our troops will be more efficient and vastly more contented when thus organized and commanded. I hope, therefore, that the organization will take place immediately, and a sufficient number of generals be appointed from the State to command. I hope, therefore, that the organization will take place immediately, and a sufficient number of generals be appointed from the State to command them.

The President has already appointed five brigadier-generals from Tennessee-Pillow, Anderson, Donelson, Zollicoffer, and Cheatham. I trust that he may find it consistent with his sense of duty to appoint Robert C. Foster, John L. T. Sneed, and W. R. Caswell, all good and true men, and each had discharged the duties of his position well and faithfully in the organization of the provisional army of the State. In this connection you must allow me to suggest through you to the President that Gen. Pillow would be more efficient and can render more important service to the cause as a major-general than he can as a brigadier; and in view of his ability, experience, and past services in that position during the Mexican war, I feel that he is entitled to the appointment and hope that it may be made.

The medical staff of our army was selected with great care and I am sure will not be excelled, if indeed it is equaled, in any State of the Confederacy. It is a matter of importance to the army that it be continued intact.

Very respectfully,


OR, Ser. IV, Vol. 1, pp. 527-528.

          1, Assault and battery in Memphis

A Woman Whipper.—On Monday Recorder Moore had before him Jeremiah Haley, who resides between Causey street and the bayou and Beal and Linden streets, whose achievements as a woman whipper were above the ordinary claims of the abusers of femininity. He commenced by using his doubled fists upon his daughter, a grown up woman. He then entered the house of a neighbor, whose husband died only the day before, and whipped her and her daughter. The recorder sentenced him to one hundred and three days labor on the chain gang.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 1, 1861.

          1, Medical Report of the Mother's Home Association

Medical Report.—Dr. G. W. Curry, the efficient and attentive physician of the Mother's Home Association, has favored us with a copy of his report for the month of July, from which we learn the following particulars: Number of patients in rooms on 1st July, 27; number received during the month, 123; total, 156. The following were the diseases: Pneumonia 25, phthisic 1, intermittent fever 51, remittent 2, congestive fever 8, measles 6, dysentery 9, diarrhea 8, constipation 1, enterites 4, pentenitis 1, anasarca 2, ascites 1, gun shot 5, fractures 1, dislocation 1, debility 6, ulcers 1, abcess 2, paralysis 1, neuralgia 1, sciatica 1, jaundice 1 ptyalism 2, cramp colic 2, oedenia 1, erysipelas 1, contusion 1, tonseletes 1, burn 1, stephrates 1, hermaturia 1; total, 150. Deaths—Congestive fever 2, eutirites 2, debility 1, pneumonia 1, paralysis 1; total, 7. discharged 105, removed to State hospital 16, died 7, remaining in rooms 22; total, 150. The number of deaths in June was 2, in July 1; total 229. The number received in June was 106, in July 123; total, 229.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 1, 1861.

          1, Soldiers Lack of Respect for Gideon J. Pillow; as Witnessed by a British War Correspondent

Who Cares for Gen. Pillow.

Russell, in a letter to the London Times, describes a scene at the camp on the Mississippi where Pillow commands, thus:

Gen. Pillow, in a round hat, dusty black frock coat, and ordinary "unstriped" trowsers, did not look like one who could give any great material secession the physical means of resistance, although he is a very energetic man. The Major General, in fact, is an attorney-at-law, or has been so, and was partner with Mr. Polk, who, probably for some of the reason which determine the rections of partner to each other, sent Mr. Pillow to the Mexican war, where he nearly lost him, owing to severe wounds received in action. The General has made his intrenchments as if he were framing an inducement. Ther is not a flaw for an enemy to get through, but he has bound up his own men in inexorable line also. At one of the works a proof of the freedom of the "citizen soldiery" was afforded in a little hilarity on the part of one of the privates. The men had lined the parapet, and had listened to the pleasant assurances of their commander that they would knock off the shovel and hoe very soon, and be replaced by the eternal gentleman of color.-"Three cheers fro Gen. Pillow" were called for, and were responded to by the whooping and screeching sounds that pass [as] music in this part of the world for cheer. As. they ended a stentorian voice shout[ed] out: "Who cares for Gen. Pillow" and as no one answered, it might be unfairly inferred that the gallant officer was not the object of the favor of solicitude of his troops; probably a temporary unpopularity connected with the hard work found expression in the daring question.

Daily Herald (Cleveland OH), August 1, 1861.[4]



          26, Skirmish at Tazewell

No circumstantial reports filed.

          26, Brigadier-General Grenville M. Dodge initiates confiscation policy for Confederate guerrilla supporters in West Tennessee, General Orders No. 11

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 11. HDQRS. CENTRAL DIV. OF THE MISS., Trenton, Tenn., July 26, 1862.

I. The general commanding has undoubted knowledge that the sympathizers with this rebellion within the limits of this command are aiding in a spies of warfare unknown to the laws and customs of war, the suppression of which calls for more rigorous and decisive measures than have been heretofore adopted. The allowing of bands of guerrillas to encamp in the neighborhood without giving information of the fact, the firing upon pickets, the feeding of parties who are hiding from our forces and the carrying of information to and from the enemy have become matters of daily occurrence. It is therefore ordered-

II. That any neighborhood, town or village that allows marauding bands or guerrillas to remain or camp near them without immediately sending word to the nearest military post will be levied upon, and a certain portion of the property of all known sympathizers of this rebellion than can be used by the U. S. forces, to be determined by the commander of the division, will be taken, and the citizens will be held personally responsible for the acts of the band. Where pickets are fired into the sympathizers of the rebellion being near the place will be arrested and held until the guilty party is brought to fight, and when any injury is done the picket there will be assessed upon the disloyal citizens living near the place an amount not exceeding $10,000, as the commanding general may determine.

III. Citizens who encourage returned soldiers and deserters to hide in the woods and form bands to return to the rebel army will be arrested and held responsible for all depredations committed by these bands; and when it comes to the knowledge of any of the commanders of posts of this command that returned soldiers or deserters are lurking about, hiding and not coming forward as required they will arrest and hold for hostage the nearest disloyal relative to the soldier, such person to be held as hostage till the soldier delivers himself or is delivered up.

IV. Any person, white or black, free or slave, who brings reliable information of guerrilla bands, marauding parties and of citizens who are breaking any provisions of this order, which information proving to be of benefit to the U. S. forces, will receive a liberal reward. If a slave he will be guaranteed against receiving punishment for bringing such information.

By order of Brig. Gen. G. M. Dodge

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 4, pp. 290-291.[5]

          26, Brigadier-General G.M. Dodge requests that gold be taken out of circulation in West Tennessee

COLUMBUS, July 26, 1862.

Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT:

I have just received the following:

TRENTON, July 26.


The gold paid out here by cotton buyers finds it way to the Southern army immediately. Hundreds have left for that army in the counties around here lately, carrying every dollar of gold paid for cotton.

The circulation of gold should be stopped.

G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen.

You will pardon me for again bringing this matter before you.

I. F. QUINBY, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 123.

          26, Confederate cavalry in the Bolivar environs

No circumstantial reports filed.

BOLIVAR, July 26, 1862.


Capt. Townsend has just returned from Middleburg. The enemy, from 500 to 800, but estimated by the citizens and negroes [sic] at a much higher number, left Middleburg at about 1 o'clock and moved southwest, toward Moscow. Four of a foraging party were captured by the enemy about 7 miles from here. I cannot suppress them. I have no knowledge of their present location.

L. F. ROSS, Comdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 124.

          26, Governor Johnson to General Charles E. Hovey, commanding at Memphis, relative to sending "rabid rebel preachers" beyond Union lines

Nashville July 26th 1862

Genl. Hovey

Comd'g at Memphis, Tenn.

I have a number of rabid rebel preachers I desire to send south. Can I send them to your charge & have them turned loose beyond our southern lines with the distinct understanding that if they return or recross our lines during the existing rebellion they shall be treated as spies and punished accordingly. I hope to be in Memphis soon.

Andrew Johnson

Military Governor

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 574.

          26, Skirmish for the Pullet in Pinch

All About a Hen. – Yesterday afternoon [26th], in the classic locality of Pinch, there took place a combat whose varying fortunes only the pen of Homer could worthily trace. The canorous Greek alone affords a fit medium for it, and in Greek we would narrate its thrilling incidents, but that for convenience to our reader, we think it better to indite it in English.

From one of Pinch's palatial halls there did issue, arrayed in beauty and clouded with ancient Bourbon fumes, a magnificent matron of majestic proportions, upon whose attractions mother earth played a wooing influence of 223 pounds and three ounces. We love to be accurate and had the ponderosity ascertained by scales of patented justness. In breadth this Pinchine[6] [sic] Juno might have measured about an inch less than she did in length. Had we dared to penetrate the vapory veil of odors that surrounded her, we would have measured her; as it was, we had her proportions estimated by a practiced architect, the artist Powers not being at hand.

In her hands the queenly and ponderous being held a timid, innocent chicken. The chicken did not seem to like it, but a youth of some twelve summers did like the chicken, and claimed it. The fair one contested the claim, and in classic tone, strengthened by Amazonian anger, called the youth by a name that might evoke doubts as to the quadrupedal or bipedal formation of his maternal parent. The interesting child took offense at this and [took] pull at the chicken, the lady of Pinchine palace took a pull at his hair, and in her general deportment rendered it evident that she had taken several pulls at something else before. Blows, scratches, kicks, shouts and screams, came thick and fast, while the shrill treble of the torn chicken lose above the all in a clear "tuck-tuck-tuckaw- tuck."

Varying were the fortunes of the day, as the gods favored each champion; but at last the worthy spouse of the fiery Amazon reeled forth from the inner vestibule of the Pinchine palace, and the youthful combatant fled with winged hell to the nearest brick pile, and commenced a bombardment, which for its steadiness, has been unequalled in the annals of the war. The youth's maternal parent came forth to aid him, and lo! She proved no quadruped, but a woman, shaped as other women, fighting as other women fight. The double fight continued steadily for some time; but the heavy matron 'gan [sic] to get warm, and the man [sic] did reel, and reeling they retreated to take up a new base of operations, which they did. The retreat was masterly; but this did I mark, the youth got the chicken, and a late courier informs us that the holds that chicken still. Juno is safe from attack – the Pinchine palace uninjured of course.

Memphis Union Appeal, July 27, 1862.

          26, A Lesson in Occupation: Suspension of Specie Payment for Goods Manufactured in the South

Payment of Specie Prohibited for Productions of Rebel States.

Memphis, July 26.-The Commanding General has issued an order progibiting speculators from paying specie for productions in the rebel States. When treasury notes are refused, the parties refusig are to be arrested, and such of their crops not needed for the subsistence of their families will be seized and sold by the Government Quartermasters.

Speculators paying specie in violation of this order, will be arrested and sent North, and the property so purchased will be seized for the benefit of the Government.

Pittsfield Sun, July 31, 1862.

          26, Particulars of Cotton Speculation and Specie Payment in West Tennessee

Cotton and Gold in the South.

Traveling in West Tennessee-Cotton Speculators-Danger of Cotton Being Burned, Etc.

Correspondence Cincinnati Commercial.

Columbus, Ky., July 26, 1862.-Cotton, cotton, is all one now beholds upon the banks of the Ohio and Mississippi. Cotton speculators are plenty, and gold in lieu of Treasury notes, is all that pay for it, and as certain as the party receive gold (which he invariably does for his cotton) it is sunk, and out of sight forever and a long time after. So thought we, when pursing our travels through Jackson, Humboldt, Bolivar and Grand Junction. Nothing was seen but cotton. Thousand of bales at each station, and hundreds of speculators, with thousands of gold, manifested themselves, as the weight-born-down trafficer [sic] wended his way along.

Cotton is cheap-is worth eighteen to twenty cents per pound at these stations-but invariably paying in gold, so that no once can buy a vale for anything less than gold; not even Tennessee money will buy it. We opine these people who buy have placed our coining a high, and unattainable place, while Government funds are at a discount. Speculators in cotton have become alarmed; they feel queer. At Grand Junction we conversed with some. They were afraid less the Rebels will seize upon it, and on the strength of their fears, they called on General Grant and requested him to send two regiments to protect their cotton, which he promised to do. Fire appears to alarm all buyers, because Fayette and other counties had their cotton burned. They are under the impression their's will suffer likewise.

We never saw so much gold; at every station we met six or seven men counting it out, and at every station were asked, "do you think our cotton is safe?" so much so that had we had intention a buy a bale we have gently seceded. But the great feature among cotton brokers here is he who pays the highest gets my cotton, no matter who they buy for. A employs B to buy cotton, and pays him ten dollars per bale for his trouble. B buys and has at the station one hundred vales. C inquires whose cotton it is. B says I bought it for A; says C I will give your fifteen dollars per bale. Well take it along; no consideration for A, but the five dollars is the margin. Principle is nowhere, and many parties who have advanced money to such agents get their money back, but no cotton. Three hundred thousand dollars or more changed hand here and around every day. The feeling among the people, since we don't take Richmond, is adverse to the Union, and it is almost an impossibility to find a Union man in this region. Those that are are gun-boat Union men. We give facts; we were there, and we know. Great fears are entertained at Grand Junction of an attack by the Rebels. They have burned the railroad bridge, and cut the wires so that communication by telegraph from Grand Junction to Memphis is impossible, and we thing that, owing to the few in number left to guard these places, ad their total want of military discipline, the Rebels will take place.

~ ~ ~

Philadelphia Inquirer, July 31, 1862.

26, Trade, Travel and military regulation in the Memphis environs

From Memphis.

Memphis, July 26.-Comunication with the North is very irregular at present, in consequence of all the steamboats having been pressed into service for the use of General Curtis' army. About two hundred and fifty citizens left yesterday, some going North.

Orders have been issued, opening Memphis to trade with the surrounding country, under certain restrictions. Persons will have free intercourse, without papers or any hindrance, save the right of examination and even search, when an officer may judge proper.

Generals Hurlbut and Smith's Divisions are appointed for guard duty. Parties endeavoring to leave the city, except by the roads specified in the order, will be arrested and imprisoned.

The commanding General has issued an order prohibiting speculators from paying specie for the products of the Rebel States. When treasury notes are refused, the parties so refusing will be arrested and such of their crops is not needed for the subsistence of their families, will be seized and sold by the Government Quartermaster. Speculators paying specie in violation of this order, will be arrested and sent North, and the property so purchased be seized for the benefit of the Government.

Philadelphia Inquirer, July 30, 1862.

          ca. 26, Confederates capture Brownsville and burn cotton [see July 28, 1862, Skirmish near Humboldt, below]

          26-30, Small level cavalry fighting in the Bolivar environs; Major-General Clernand's retaliatory order

From Bolivar, Tenn.,

Lively Times Expected-The Rebels very Saucy-Several Little Skirmishes with Their Cavalry-Captain Dollis Twice Wounded-Arrival of Gen. Little's Brigade-A Good Order From Gen. Clernand.

Correspondence of the Missouri Democrat.

Humboldt, Tenn., July 30, [Wednesday] 1862,- Editors Missouri Democrat: -For several days the enemy's troops from Mississippi have been hovering around us. We received information, the other day, that they were marching upon us in three directions, in three heavy divisions, and we put our house in order to receive them. They didn't come. On Saturday [26th] their scouts gobbled up four of our men, and took one of their lieutenants prisoner. On Sunday, Captain Dollins, with a small force of cavalry, met some of the enemy's cavalry, and though far inferior in numbers, gallantry chased them and drove them before him for some distance, killing, drowning, (in a creek which was in their rear,) and wounding a number of them. They were heavily reinforced, and Captain Dollins was compelled to fall back. Our loss amounted to three men killed and some five or six slightly wounded-among the last was the Captain himself. The wound was in the foot, and not much of consequence.

On the same day another slight engagement took place at the station on the railroad, about eight miles from here. The enemy were driven off the ground, but we will lose man, in all probability, who was shot in the arm near the shoulder, and has since had the limb amputated.

On Monday the Rebels made a dash upon the railroad, burning the trestle work of the road in one place, some ten miles distant, and cutting the telegraph wires. These damages have been repaired. This was between here and Jackson.

Yesterday Captain Dollins had another fight with the Rebels, and I learn flaxed them beautifffully. I am sorry to say that the gallant Captain was again and severely wounded-this time in the head.

On the same day Major Stewart had a fight with another force of the enemy, but they received strong reinforcements, and the Major was compelled to retire.

The number of Rebel cavalry in this vicinity estimated at from 2000 to 5000. To meet them we have not over 500 cavalry, and they but partially mounted. These forces of the Rebels are supposed to be principally from the army in Mississippi.

Since penning the above we have been reinforce by Gen Tuttle's Brigade, and have now quite a respectable army here-and all under command of Gen. Ross. Major-General McClarland arrived but a few days ago, and has issued the following order:-

Head-quarters, Department

Bolivar, Tenn., July 30, 1862.-

General Order, No.-:-The lawless and cruel practice of seizing and confiscating among Rebels and their adherents, will be punished by the seizure of twice the value of property of the disloyal men and the appropriation of the same for the purpose of indemnifying the losses sustained by the loyal citizens.

By order of Maj.-Gen. John A. McClernand

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 12, 1862.

          27, Skirmish[7] near Manchester

No circumstantial reports filed.

MANCHESTER, July 27, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

* * * *

Forrest appeared before me this morning and made a successful dash upon one of my reconnoitering parties, killing 3 and capturing 15 men. He was apparently withdrawn in the direction of McMinnville. I sent out a strong detachment a short distance to the front to ascertain his whereabouts. We must concentrate a cavalry force sufficient to chase him down before we can get rid of him. Will I be relieved by Gen. Wood? If so, when? I have the flour all safely stored in the depot.

W. S. SMITH, Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 218.

          27, Affair near Toone's Station, a.k.a. Lower Post Ferry.

Report of Capt. James J. Dollins, Stewart's Battalion Illinois Cavalry, on the "Affair at Toone's Station, or Lower Post Ferry, July 27, 1862.

GEN.: I am at this place. I reconnoitered the ground where I had the fighting to-day. About 1 p. m. found the enemy's cavalry posted on your side of the river. They are about 200 strong. I learn from a reliable source that some had crossed the river by swimming at Estenaula Ferry, where I destroyed the boats yesterday. I have just seen Gen. McClernand's dispatch to Gen. Ross, saying Maj. Stewart is sent to re-enforce me. After reconnoitering to-day I fell back to Toone's Station, 6 miles. They followed us to within 3 miles of that place.

Maj. Stewart had better come there, as I think their intention is to overpower the guards and burn the cotton at that place. What shall I do? Will wait your orders. All here on hand and will wait a few minutes for an answer. My dead are yet on the field.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt, I, p. 25.

          27, Major-General W. T. Sherman seeks cooperation of Memphis municipal authorities in maintaining order in the Bluff City

HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Memphis, Tenn., July 27, 1862.

JOHN PARK, Mayor of Memphis:

SIR: Yours of July 24[8] is before me and has received, as all similar papers ever will, my careful and most respectful consideration.

I have the most unbounded respect for the civil law, courts, and authorities, and shall do all in my power to restore them to their proper use, viz.,:., the protection of life, liberty, and property.

Unfortunately at this time civil war prevails in the land, and necessarily the military for the time being must be superior to the civil authority, but does not therefore destroy it. Civil courts and executive officers should still exist and perform duties, without which civil or municipal bodies would soon pass into disrespect--an end to be avoided.

I am glad to find in Memphis yourself and municipal authorities not only in existence but in the exercise of your important functions, and I shall endeavor to restore one or more civil tribunals for the arbitrament [sic] of contracts and punishment of crimes which the military authority has neither time nor inclination to interfere with.

Among these, first in importance, is the maintenance of order, peace, and quiet within the jurisdiction of Memphis. To insure this I will keep a strong provost guard in the city, but will limit their duty to guarding public property held or claimed by the United States, and for the arrest or confinement of State prisoners and soldiers who are disorderly or improperly away from their regiments.

This guard ought not to arrest citizens for disorder or common crimes. This should be done by the city police. I understand that the city police is too weak in numbers to accomplish this perfectly, and I therefore recommend that the city council at once take steps to increase this force to a number which, in their judgment, day and night, can enforce your ordinance as to peace, quiet, and order, so that any change in our military dispositions will not have a tendency to leave your people unguarded.

I am willing to instruct my provost guard to assist the police force where any combination is made too strong for them to overcome, but the city police should be strong enough for any probable contingency.

The cost of maintaining this police force must necessarily fall upon all citizens equitably.

I am not willing, nor do I think it good policy, for the city authorities to collect the taxes belonging to the State and county, as you recommend, for these would have to be refunded. Better meet the expenses at once by a new tax on all interested. Therefore if you, on consultation with the proper municipal body, will frame a good bill for the increase of your police force and for raising the necessary means for their support and maintenance, I will approve it and aid you in the collection of the tax. Of course I cannot suggest how this tax should be laid, but I think that it should be made uniform on all interests, real estate and personal property, including money and merchandise. All who are protected should share the expenses in proportion to the interests involved.

I am, with respect, your obedient servant,

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17. pt II, p. 127.[9]

          27, "Fighting at Bolivar." [10]

A gentleman who was in Jackson, Tenn., on Sunday [27th], informs us that a telegraphic dispatch received at that place from Bolivar, Tenn., Sunday morning, announcing that the town had been surrounded by a large Confederate force, and that a fight was in progress. Reinforcements were asked for from Jackson, which it is presumed left Jackson Sunday afternoon, before the result was ascertained. The rumor of the fight in progress at Bolivar on Sunday was also prevalent at Trenton the same day. We presume there can be no doubt of the fact that the Confeds [sic] are busy in that section, but what the result was, is as yet a matter of conjecture.

Memphis Bulletin, July 30, 1862.

          27, Destruction of ferry boats at Brownsville, Estenaula[11] and burning of steam mill

BOLIVAR, July 27, 1862.


I am surrounded by a large force. Two thousand infantry, said to be the advance guard, were at LaGrange yesterday morning. Cavalry are on all sides, said to be 5,000 strong. They have also plenty of artillery. We shall have a fight.


BOLIVAR, July 27, 1862.


Dollins has just sent a messenger stating that he tried to capture and destroy the ferry-boat at Estenaula, but was driven back this morning. My forces had not joined him, but were near him. He wants infantry re-enforcements, and says he will whip them before he leaves there.

I can't spare any of my forces.


BOLIVAR, July 27, 1862.


I misunderstood Dollins' messenger. The facts are as follows: The ferry-boats at Brownsville, Estenaula, and at the steam-mill ferry are destroyed. Dollins' skirmish took place at the ferry known as Lower Post, only 5 miles from Toone's Station.


OR, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 124-125.

          27, "The Week."

The week has been one of most varying excitements with the people of this city. The order of General Hovey, and those of General Sherman, have caused a development of Union feeling not expected by many, and effected a clearance of the rebel sentiment in our midst to a very great extent. The number of persons who have taken the oath of allegiance has been great, far greater than was anticipated; and we may now write with truth that Memphis is principally peopled with loyal persons. Business war more than fair, taking the season of the year into consideration, and if we except a few misdeeds of some soldiers, order and quiet have been unbroken.

We believe it to be high time that the Chamber of Commerce was re-opened, and we are satisfied that the records of the present would not show ill in comparison with these of last year at this season.

Memphis Union Appeal, July 27, 1862.

          27, Illegal Liquor Sales in Memphis

SELLING WHISKY. – Notwithstanding the military orders against the selling of intoxicating liquors, there are liquor-vendors in the city, dealing out the intoxicating fluid, as is evidenced by the reeling of soldiers in the streets. Chas Lawler and D. J. Sullivan, for this offense, were arraigned in the Police Court yesterday morning. It appeared that the former was the proprietor of the house, and in accordance with a plain violation of an ordinance respecting the sale of liquors, he was fined $25, while the latter was mulcted to the tune of $10 for vending the liquor. Not having the wherewith to settle their accounts with the Court, they were sent to the Provost Marshal, there being no prison for such, as the calaboose was burnt by the Secessionists of Memphis.

Memphis Union Appeal, July 27, 1862.

          27, "Confederate Money."

Confederate money is, we are told, still offered for sale in Memphis.

Memphis Union Appeal, July 27, 1862.

          27-29, "…when about nine miles south of this place they were attacked by some three or four burned cavalry, and, being entirely without ammunition, were driven rapidly back toward Humboldt." Anti-guerrilla action in the Humboldt environs

Humboldt, Tenn., July 30, 1862.-Editors Missouri Democrat: - Last Sunday evening [27th] Gen Logan ordered parts of two companies of Illinois cavalry, then stationed here, to proceed to Jackson, about eighteen miles south, early the next morning [28th]. In accordance with this order, on Monday morning the squad, consisting of 100 men, left here, and when about nine miles south of this place they were attacked by some three or four hundred cavalry, and, being entirely without ammunition, were driven rapidly back toward Humboldt. A courier, preceding the cavalry about a half hour, brought us the state of matters. It was hardly more than fifteen minutes after the receipt before the energetic Col. Bryant had this regiment, Twelfth Wisconsin, in line of battle, in position on a gentle eminence about one-third of a mile in the rear of the infantry line. Both the regiment and battery were encamped one mile from town, I mention it as showing the celerity of the movement.

In the meantime telegraphic communication had been cut between Jackson and here and here. General Dodge was telegraphed, at Trenton, for a reinforcement of cavalry. Previous to their arrival two companies of the Curtis Horse were sent out, instructed to draw the enemy in after them, if possible, but returned soon after, not having been abler to find him. In the meantime the force that Trenton having arrived, they cavalry started in search of the enemy. Ad this present writing they have not returned, but have captured some fifteen prisoners, some fifteen of them citizens. Four of the latter will be hung at Jackson to day.

Immediately on driving in our cavalry the enemy burned some trestle work on the line of the road where the attack took place. In this they were assisted by the citizens before mentioned, who had all taken the oath of allegiance.

Col. Bissell and his corps of engineers worked all night on the trestle work Monday [28th] night, and finished it the next morning [29th] early, in time for the trains each way. The telegraph was repaired on Monday afternoon by Captain Weller, assisted by others of the Telegraphic Corps, who succeeded in capturing several prisoner, on their hand-car journey to mend the wire. The object of the rascals was undoubtedly to capture the train from the South, which known to have a vast amount of gold aboard, returning North.

There was fighting at Bolivar on Sunday [27th] afternoon. The guerrillas have also burned a railroad bridge between Jackson and Bolivar. Telegraphic communication is also suspended. Reinforcements, when toward Bolivar on Monday [28th] P. M. among which was the sixty-first Illinois.

Col. Bryant seems sanguine that he shall be able to bag these guerrillas whom his cavalry are in chase of, which consummation I shall take pleasure in sending you.

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 8, 1862.

          27-30, Memphis and Charleston Bridge Destroyed and Brownsville Fight[12]

Memphis and Charleston Bridge Destroyed and Brownsville Fight

Bridge Burned on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad-Fight near Brownsville.

Correspondence of the Chicago Times:

Jackson, Tenn., July 29.-Just after the train was able to start for Columbus, about 11 o'clock this morning, another bridge-burning excitement was raised by reports of such and occurrence on the Memphis and Charleston road, about half way between this city and Bolivar. These facts, as I gathered them this afternoon, are these:-The train which usually leaved between 3 and 4 o'clock, P. M. for Bolivar, of course, is mainly loaded with supplies for the troops there. But yesterday [28th], instead of taking supplies, the cars were loaded with troops, and started full two hours in advance of their usual time. The train went safely through to Bolivar. About half an hour after the train had passed over a piece of high trestle-work on a down grade, a short distance beyond a train station called Medon, a Confederate cavalry force, estimated at three hundred and fifty men, appeared, and, destroying the trestle-work and capturing three of the guard, sat down, evidently expecting to see some immediate consequences. They were only just out of range of a company of Federal forces at the station, intrenched being cotton bales, but neither party seemed disposed to abandon their advantages by making an attack upon the other. The Rebels watched their hole till after dark, when they probably concluded that there has been some mistake in their calculation, and then departed. A Dr. Parker, a citizen of Medon, is accused of being the pilot of the band, and a squad is now in pursuit of him.

July 30.-The train came from Bolivar this morning, and reports everything quiet in that quarter. Things must assume a better or a worse aspect with the army here within a few days. These cotton-burning and bridge-destroying raid will undoubtedly be broken up, or the Rebels must appear in such force as to seriously threaten our troops, which to me does not seem probable.

Captain J. J. Dollins, who was wounded in the foot and leg on Sunday [July 27th], in the skirmish, the facts of which I related the other day, but who has kept his saddle up to this time, has just come in, wounded in the side and back of the neck most severely, but not dangerously. He and his cavalry attacked about eighty Rebels yesterday [July 28th], near Brownsville, twenty-seven miles west of this point, and captured forth prisoners and forty horses The enemy were afterwards reinforced by four hundred cavalry, supposed to be under Colonel Jackson, a citizen of this place, who succeeded in recapturing all the prisoners but eleven, and fourteen horses, Captain Dollins brining the eleven prisoners and twenty-six horses with him. General Logan immediately sent reinforcements to our troops and another fight, if not now in progress, will come off. We are waiting anxiously for news from that quarter. Sergeant Goodsell, and two or three of our m en were killed, and six or seven of the enemy were also killed and [here report text ends]

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 5, 1862.

          28, Foraging expedition to Powell's Valley [see June 30, 1862, Affair at Lead Mine Bend of Powell River below]

          28, General Orders, No. 65, relative to travel, Confederate deserters and trade in West Tennessee


I. Hereafter no passes will be given to citizens of States in rebellion to pass our lines at any of the stations from Tuscumbia to Memphis, including Bolivar, except to persons employed on secret service, and to those only by generals commanding divisions.

II. Deserters from the rebel army, or those claiming to be such, presenting themselves to the outer guards will be taken prisoners and sent under guard to the nearest commanding officer, who will give them a thorough examination and will only release them on their taking the oath of allegiance and his conviction that the persons so released take the oath in good faith and with the intention of going North.

III. Goods will not be permitted to pass out in any direction where they may be carried south of our lines, nor persons except when employed in secret service, and then only on permits from division commanders.

By order of Maj.-Gen. Grant:

JNO. A. RAWLINS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p.130.

          28, Skirmish near Humboldt

JULY 28, 1862.-Skirmish near Humboldt, Tenn.

Reports of Brig. Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, U. S. Army.

HDQRS., Trenton, Tenn., July 28, 1862.

The attack was made early this morning about 8 miles south of Humboldt on two companies of my cavalry. They attacked in front and rear, and I have no doubt but our cavalry behaved badly, scattered and ran. Bryant immediately made preparation for them, and is now pushing through to connect with the Jackson forces. There is no doubt of there being a large body of the enemy south of the Hatchie, and that these attacks are made by parties from that force. They took Brownsville two or three days ago and are destroying immense quantities of cotton. I am posted on all their movements so far, but I cannot get a satisfactory account of the strength of the band north of the Hatchie. All my cavalry are under Bryant, and have gone with instructions to open the road to Jackson at all hazards. Loss this morning 10.

G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen.


CAPT.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the movements of troops in my division for the past few days:

After the attack on my forces near Humboldt and their dispersion of the enemy I ascertained that a force had been sent from Jackson to attack the enemy near Ripley, Lauderdale County; also that a force of the enemy was threatening Bolivar. I ordered Col. Bryant to take all the cavalry, with a force of infantry, to follow up the enemy's forces north of the Hatchie River and toward Brownsville, at the same time starting a force from here toward Dyersburg.

Last night Col. Bryant encamped in rear of the enemy's forces at Poplar Corners and is still following them. I trust, in connection with the Jackson forces, he will cut off their retreat across the Hatchie and thereby bag them. The enemy's forces are on the increase both north and south of the Hatchie. Those north I believe I shall be able to attend to, but they are so slippery and dodge through such small holes that they may evade me.

As I have taken charge of the bridge south of Humboldt I shall endeavor to so guard it that no small band of the enemy can take or destroy it. I have in process of erection there a strong block-house, which when finished will add greatly to the strength of the position. The bridge burned I have had rebuilt, and one hour after we obtained possession of the road had telegraphic communication south.

I must say that the strain upon my health and nerves lately has not added much to the state of my health, though I have full faith I shall weather it and get through safe. I would be glad to visit Columbus, as the general suggests, but it is not best just at this time.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. I, pp. 26-27.

          28, Federal correspondence relative to attack near Humboldt.

JACKSON, [July] 28, 1862. (Received at Corinth July 28, 1862.)

Maj.-Gen. GRANT:

My forces have been all sent to Bolivar against my protest; some two small regiments, not enough to do picket duty. My cavalry, including orderlies, have been sent also this morning.

The road has been attacked this side of Humboldt and the bridges burned.

I am sending all the force I have to repair and hold it. What will become of this place you can imagine. I shall hold it or be burned in its ashes.

JOHN A. LOGAN, Brig.-Gen.

JACKSON, July 28, 1862.


A large force of cavalry have attacked the road this side of Humboldt, driven our guards away and burned the trestle-work, cut the wire and destroyed the road. I have ordered a force there with Engineer Regt. [sic] to repair. I feared this when I was ordered to send from here nearly all the troops.

JOHN A. LOGAN, Brig.-Gen.

CORINTH, July 28, 1862.

Gen. LOGAN, Jackson:

Have we any force now at the burning bridge? Keep a sharp lookout for rebel forces, and if they are needed I will send you troops from here at once. I will have all the cars here in readiness to send troops should they be needed.

U. S. GRANT, Maj.-Gen.

JACKSON, [July] 28, [1862].

Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT:

We have about 50 infantry stationed at the burnt bridge. The Engineer Regt. [sic] have gone there, about 300 strong, armed and equipped.

JOHN A. LOGAN, Brig.-Gen.

CORINTH, July 28, 1862.


What was extent of damage done the road? How far north of Jackson? What force was supposed to be engaged? Did we lose any men, and what number? Was the rebel loss anything, or did not men leave without firing? Had the train from Columbus passed?

U. S. GRANT, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.

JACKSON, [July] 28, [1862].

Maj.-Gen. GRANT:

The extent of damages I do not know. The courier left while trestle was burning. Distance from Jackson, 14 miles. Force supposed to be some 300 cavalry. Our loss was said to be some 4 or 5 wounded. I did not learn that any were killed. Rebel loss, 4 killed and 5 prisoners. The train from Columbus had not passed down. I learn that a large cavalry force, with perhaps 200 infantry, crossed Hatchie last night about 18 miles from here. They may be the force.

JOHN A. LOGAN, Brig.-Gen.

JACKSON, July 28, 1862.

Maj.-Gen. McCLERNAND, Bolivar, Tenn.:

Col. Bryant is in pursuit of the enemy and will camp at Poplar Corners to-night. Where shall I order him?

JOHN A. LOGAN, Brig.-Gen.

JACKSON, July 28, 1862.

Brig.-Gen. DODGE, Trenton:

I am informed by dispatch per messenger that Col. Bryant is after the rebels and will camp at Poplar Corners to-night. He requests that I should inform you.

JOHN A. LOGAN, Brig.-Gen., Comdg.

ROSECRANS', July 28, 1862.

CORINTH, July 28, 1862.

Maj.-Gen. McCLERNAND, Bolivar, Brig.-Gen. LOGAN, Jackson:

Return a portion of the forces to Jackson as soon as possible. The two brigades which will reach Bolivar in the morning will enable you to do this. Answer if this is not so.

U. S. GRANT, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 128-130.

          28, Reconnaissance from Manchester to near McMinnville

MANCHESTER [Tenn.], July 29, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

All has been quiet here since Sunday morning. I made reconnaissance 7 miles in the direction of McMinnville yesterday and discovered nothing of importance.

A good cavalry force could easily, rout Forrest and I think recapture the pieces taken at Murfreesborough.

I am making every effort in my power to gather cattle, but cannot find enough to supply my men here. It will be difficult for me to remain here unless supplies, except flour, can be brought from elsewhere.

W. S. SMITH, Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 229.

          28, Confederates burn railroad bridges between Jackson and Humboldt

JACKSON, [July] 28, 1862. (Received at Corinth July 28, 1862.)

Maj.-Gen. GRANT:

My forces have been all sent to Bolivar against my protest; some two small regiments, not enough to do picket duty. My cavalry, including orderlies, have been sent also this morning.

The road has been attacked this side of Humboldt and the bridges burned. I am sending all the force I have to repair and hold it. What will become of this place you can imagine. I shall hold it or be burned in its ashes.

JOHN A. LOGAN, Brig.-Gen.

JACKSON, July 28, 1862.


A large force of cavalry have attacked the road this side of Humboldt, driven our guards away and burned the trestle-work,[13] cut the wire and destroyed the road. I have ordered a force there with Engineer Regt. [sic] to repair. I feared this when I was ordered to send from here nearly all the troops.

JOHN A. LOGAN, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 128-129.

          28, The General, the Senator and the Senator's Wife


Stir Among the Rebels

Since the Richmond battles and the evacuation of Corinth, there has been a great flutter here among the more bold of the rebels, in which Senator A. O. P. Nicholson[14] took an active part. The following speaks for itself:


Order for the Arrest of Ex-Senator Nicholson for Treason.

Headquarters, U. S. Forces

Columbia, July 28, 1862

Captain Bricker, Provost Marshall:

Sir – Place in close confinement, on soldier's fare, Hon. A. O. P. Nicholson, an avowed traitor to his country, and for using the following language: "That he had been a sympathizer with the South, and was still a sympathizer of the rebellion; that he had made up his mind to take the consequences before he would take the oath."

Jas. B. Negley, Brig. Gen.


Gen. Negley's Firm Stand:

The arrest, which immediately took place, caused great excitement. A large number of gentlemen called upon Gen. Negley, many of them, I regret to say, being loyal men, and importuned for his release. But the General informed them all that he would transgress his duty should he release so vile a traitor, and that, as he had deliberately announced that he was prepared to take all the consequences before he would take the oath [sic], he must extricate himself honorably and secure liberty in no other way.


What Mrs. Nicholson Did.

In the afternoon of the day of his arrest, the traitor's wife called upon Gen. Negley and asked permission to take her husband a pillow and some food.

The General informed her that he would permit no such thing; that her husband was prepared for the consequence and must suffer them.

"But," says the lady, "Where is he confined?"

"In the guard-house, madam, with a soldier who has been imprisoned for stealing," was the General's answer.

This enraged the lady, and she vehemently inquired of the officer if he meant to compare the crime of her husband to the petty transgressions of low blackguard of a soldier! "Madam," rejoined the General, "You ask me a direct question, and I am not the least inclined to evade an answer; but you must not consider me indelicate when I inform you that your husband deserves hanging [sic]; and that, in my estimation, there is no crime so enormous as treason to the United States Government.

Mrs. N. is Abusive.

She immediately bestowed upon the General the vilest of abuse, and exhausted the vocabulary of opprobrious epithets in her rage, telling him that her husband "was willing to take the oath with her consent, but that he should rot in jail first."

Memphis Daily Union Appeal, August 15 1862.

          28, "Great skill, energy, coolness and courage were displayed." Federal foraging at Tazewell and an infantry revenge raid upon Clinton

A newspaper report on Federal activity at Cumberland Gap

Correspondence of the Cincinnati Gazette.

Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. July 28.-Colonel De Courcey, of the Sixteenth Ohio-Acting General of a brigade made up of the Twenty-second Kentucky, Forty-second Ohio, and his own regiment-started early on the morning of the 26th, on a foraging expedition. The active and vigorous men of these fine regiments moved early from their encampments. On their way through the Gap they were joined by an efficient corps of artillery, to which place the Rebel pickets extend. These speedily ran in. The next morning the brigade moved in the direction of a camp which the Secesh cavalry had for some time occupied, some for miles beyond Tazewell.

When within a mile of the camp two or three horsemen showed themselves. A line of battle was formed, and General De Courcey sent back for a reinforcement of artillery. For an hour or two he shelled the woods in the vicinity of three terrified cavalry, with what result is not certainly known. Unmolested, the brigade gathered their forage, without the consciousness that they had done any great things! The boys returned to camp this morning, not by any means exultant, for they could find no enemy, and a little chagrined that they threw away so many shells without disturbing Rebeldom.


Clinton, on Clinch river, is about sixty miles from the Gap, and about twenty, a little north by west, from Knoxville. For some time it has formed a rendezvous camp for Rebel cavalry.

More than a year since, among others, the Rebels drove out a young man by the name of Carpenter. At Camp Wild Cat, Kentucky, he was mustered into the Second Tennessee Infantry. He became the Adjutant. Being well acquainted with the country and the men who had driven him from his home, he was quite willing to revisit them. General Carter furnished him with forty men, on whom he knew he could rely. On foot the started and threaded their way through the gaps in the hills and mountain till Friday morning, early, when they suddenly appeared in Clinton. At his time he had but thirty-two men. Foot-sore and tired, eight had stopped by the way. Placing guards at several avenues, he proceeded to arouse some of the more violent of the Secesh. On the opposite side of Clinch river were seventy cavalry; half a mile up the stream, on the same side with himself, were forty of a Rebel picket guard; yet the Adjutant blazed away at the cavalry. His first shot missed the man, but brought down his horse.

At this they all dismounted and began to gather into canoes, &c., to cross the river. The Adjutant's men-much less than half their number – took their positions at house corners, &c., to give the Rebels a proper reception. One of them soon fell and several appeared to be wounded; they then left the river and got their horses, and made good their escape as hastily as possible, leaving one off their number and several horses behind.

Adjutant carpenter informed me that, while sitting on his horse, after they had retreated, four shots, which must have been aimed at him, came so uncomfortably near him that he thought it prudent to change his position.

While he and his men were refreshing themselves in  Clinton, the cavalry sent runners to the forty pickets and to 600 cavalry at Wallace's Cross Roads, on Clinch river, all between the little band and their regiment, that the Federals were marching upon them 2000 strong, and they all ran. The Adjutant arrested the eight men for whom he had made this perilous trip, and brought them all in safely this morning. I have just listened to the examination of several of them.

For a handful of infantry to pierce the enemy's lines by more than forty miles, with cavalry in the rear and on both flanks, and fully to accomplish the object of his expedition without the loss of a single man, is an exploit of rare occurrence. Great skill, energy, coolness and courage were displayed. Many an officer has received several grades of promotion for feats of less daring. All will say that Adjutant Carpenter and his heroic band deserve well of their country. They will not be forgotten by a grateful people.


Philadelphia Inquirer, August 6, 1862.

          28, 29, Fighting at Bolivar and skirmish at Brownsville

~ ~ ~

It was reported that two Federal regiments were roughly handled by a large Confederate force at Bolivar, Tenn., on the 28th….

~ ~ ~

On the 29th of July, there was another skirmish reported between Federal cavalry force, under Col. Collins, and about eighty Confederates, near Brownsville, in, in the forepart of the fight, one-half of the Confederates were captured. They were subsequently reinforced and compelled Colonel Collins to leave the field with a less number of prisoners than he desired. The killed and wounded on each side was about ten. The Confederates sacked the town again, before the skirmish….

~ ~ ~

Desert News August 13, 1862.

          28-ca. 30, Scouts, Memphis to Germantown, to Hernando, Mississippi

SPECIAL ORDERS, No. 147. HDQRS., Memphis, July 27, 1862.

The Sixth Illinois Cavalry, Col. Grierson, will to-morrow morning proceed on a scout toward Germantown, going by the State Line road and returning by the Pigeon Roost or Holly Springs road. The commanding officer will proceed with great caution, falling upon and destroying or making prisoners all in arms, and arresting and bringing in all known to be aiding or abetting the public enemy.

Three days' rations for the men will be taken along, but the horses will be foraged in the country. When forage is taken a receipt may be given, to be settled for in Memphis on the party proving his loyalty.

The scouting party will examine the country from Wolf River to the Pigeon Roost road. The Eleventh Illinois Cavalry will in like manner proceed to scout the country between the Pigeon Roost road and the river, going out well toward Hernando, breaking up and destroying any party they may encounter.

These parties will remain out two or three days and return to their camps, the commanding officers exercising large discretion and making written reports of their scouts on their return to camp. They will be provided with the countersign for three days.

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 128.

          29, Affair at Denmark near Hatchie Bottom

JULY 29, 1862.-Affair at Hatchie Bottom, near Denmark, Tenn.

Reports of Brig. Gen. John A. Logan, U. S. Army.

JACKSON, July 29, 1862.

(Received at Corinth July 29, 1862.)

My cavalry, 75 in number, under Maj. Stewart, overtook the enemy's cavalry to-day some 25 miles from here--down the Hatchie River--attacked and routed them, killing and wounding quite a number, taking 10 prisoners. Our loss, 1 killed 3 or 4 wounded. Our cavalry still in pursuit.

JOHN A. LOGAN, Brig.-Gen.

JACKSON, July 30, 1862.

(Received at Corinth July 30, 1862.)

Yesterday evening Maj. Stewart and cavalry were defeated, having met a large force near Denmark, some 15 miles from here. Our loss considerable in killed, wounded, and prisoners. He thinks the force was about 400.

My information is that Jackson has crossed the greater part of his regiment over the Hatchie on this side, having crossed in squads for several days.

JOHN A. LOGAN, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. I, p. 27.

          29, Skirmish at Brownsville

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.[15]

          29, Anderson's Confederate guerrillas burn depot at Culleoka

COLUMBIA, [July] 30, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

Anderson's guerrilla party burned the depot at Culleoka last night and robbed Dr. Thompson of $650.

JAS. S. NEGLEY, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 233.

          29, Failed Federal attempt to take guerrillas by surprise

COLUMBIA, July 29, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

I am reliably informed that guerrilla parties, numbering in all about 300, are organized and preparing for some movement in the western portion of this and Hickman Counties. We attempted to surprise a small party of 15 within 4 miles of this yesterday, but failed to over-take them.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 228.

          29, Justification for the seizure of the Stevenson Mansion in Nashville

HDQRS. ARMY OF THE OHIO, Huntsville, July 29, 1862.

N. E. ALLOWAY, Nashville, Tenn.:

SIR: In reply to your letter of the 22d instant to Gen. Buell in reference to the Stevenson Mansion in Nashville I am directed to inform you that the property in question is not regarded by the general as confiscated, that act resting with the civil tribunals under the laws of Congress. Mr. Stevenson, however, the owner of the property, was, previous to the occupation of Nashville by the United States troops, and, as it is believed, still is, in arms against the Government; his property is therefore very properly seized, being necessary for the wants of the Government. The transfer of this property was made to you after the rebel army had commenced to evacuate Nashville and when it was quite plain that that city would fall into our hands, and it is therefore regarded as void.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Col. and Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 229.

          29, "The Shadows of Coming Events."

It might have saved many of us a thousand ills, both in public and private life, had we been more observing of the times so as to have hidden from foreseen evils. Coming events do cast their shadow before them, and a proper regard for the warning they are intended to give, would have found many of us quite differently situated to-day.

What do the shadows of coming events now clearly indicate? We have published Mr. Stanton's order under the Confiscation Act of the late Congress. Our readers cannot have tried to see that whether wisely or unwisely, the border slave States, Tennessee included, are exempt from its sweeping provisions. We are not at a loss to divine whys this exemption was made. Like the forbearance of the All Father [sic] towards his rebellious children, it was intended to lead those States to repentance and obedience. In part of those states, the most sanguinary battles have been fought, and hitherto, except by unscrupulous individuals, the most sacred regard to private rights has been maintained by the Federal army. Guards have protected fences and families and property of all kinds, slaves especially, and most severe punishment has been meted [sic] out against the lawless ones who have disobeyed orders, until the complaining of fathers and brothers at home, have extorted from Congress the Confiscation Act, which Mr. Lincoln hesitates to enforce against our State and other semi-loyal States.

When we regard Mr. Lincoln's policy in these exceptions, as wise or otherwise, we are compelled to accord him the best of motives. He desires that the latent unionism of the States shall have time and occasion to develope [sic], and that whatever may be the future necessities of the war, or the future calamites which it may entail upon us, he has given us timely warning, and abundant opportunity to escape them.

Our readers cannot suppose that under every possible contingency, this order of things will continue. If within these States, guerrilla bands are organized and fostered; if the navigation of the river and the use of the railroads shall continue to be impeded, by the open consent and co-operation of our own citizens; if information to our enemies be systemically conveyed; if, in short, such shall be the developments of the future as to clearly prove that a considerable portion of our citizens yet adhere to the fortunes of the rebels, then will this forbearance cease, and the inevitable consequences be the more sweeping and devastating because of the continued long suffering and forbearance of the Federal authorities.

That this is a "coming event" the unmistakable "shadows" around us declare. We do not draw out conclusions from the tone of the Tribunes and Independents of the North, alone, but from the tone no less of the hitherto conservative papers, and the conservative citizens whom business has called to our city, and last, but not least, from men in the army who have spent a life time at home, in battling as they call it, for southern rights and southern institutions, and who entered the army a year ago or less, with the most settled purpose to leave it whenever the war should assume what they would pronounce a vindictive or unconstitutional policy against their "southern brethren."

These are now the most clamorous for what they denominate a "war policy." The speech of Major Gen. Wallace at Washington himself a life-long Democrat, and violent opposer of the party in power, is tame compared with the sentiments. More privately uttered by men of like home antecedents, now occupying high position in the army. The campaignings of a year, and personal intercourse with rebels, and with psuedo-Union men have educated [sic] them to a point of desperation, from which they would have shrunk a year ago, as the self-complacent Assyrian King did, when he indignantly said: Is thy servant a dog that he should do this great thing?" We could give names familiar to our citizens, but we need not.

The sufferers from the presence of the army complain, and not unjustly, that lawless gangs of soldiers pillage their gardens hereabouts, and that now and then a negro comes up missing, and that the satisfaction received from the authorizer is not commensurate with the loss sustained. That is undoubtedly true. Neither did they, in the piping times of peace, get compensation for such things lost at the hands of lawless men. These losses are of the same character, though probably more numerous now than then. But our losses are insignificant compared with those incurred over the river under the act of Congress. There everything is swept away-and it is all due according to the law within our own State, by giving aid and comfort to the enemies of the government: Or shall we by inaction ever and by that neutrality, which is itself the vilest treason, court it?

As one of those instructive shadows of coming events, we clip the following from the Louisville Journal of the 25th. It will be seen that this influential paper does not merely acquiesce in the more vigorous war policy, but demands it. It says:

We have not struck this rebellion as we should save struck. We have not put a quarter of our strength into our blows. Henceforth we must put the whole. What's the use of being a giant if we don't act like one?

Comment is unnecessary. We ask citizens to consider the best line of policy to be adopted. Can we not by an unbroken front of loyalty to the Federal government, meet the policy of the administration in the spirit which has dictated the leniency above referred to, or shall we provoke the rigors of the law until confiscation and its consequent devastation shall leave our vicinity the dreadful waste it is making elsewhere. As yet we have realized but a few horrors of war. Let the shadows of coming events warn us that the substance may yet be averted.

Memphis Union Appeal, July 29, 1862.

          29, "We get no papers and we know but little that is going on." Letter of John A. Ritter, 49th Indiana Volunteers

July 29, 1862 from Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

Cumberland Gap, Tenessee [sic]

July 29, 1862

Dear Margarett [sic],

I take up my pen to write you a letter, not that I have any thing new to write. The mails have been stopt [sic] at this place for some time and I do not Know wheather [sic] the lettes [sic] go through that are started from here. If they have not you may look for a lot of lettes [sic] but they will not be of verry [sic] resent date. I have herd [sic] from home to the 11th of July. Also I got an Eagle[16] of the 17th but I am informed that the rout is now open and that the mails will be regular. We get no papers and we know but little that is going on. We are in Telegraphic comunication. [sic] Also the Morgan raid cut the wire & took possession of the Telegraph office at Cumberland and by that means got all the dispaches [sic] from this division but I presume that we are done with him at least for a while. I expect they got my pants. The man S. S. More was to have made them & sent them by Express to Lexington to Liut [sic]. [sic] Charles. He did not do it. Charles staid two days waiting for them. They did not come. He made arangement [sic] with Capt. Brown to have them sent on. They started for Lexington about the 12th or 15th. I expect they have never come to hand. Charles had a pr. in the same Fix. Also a Liut [sic]. [sic] in our Reg[iment]. had a full suit of clothes that in all probability Morgan got all of them. He got our [sutlers?] wagon & team, four mules & his [riding?] horse and I expect the Box that I sent home to you some time a go. The Box contained a Cap & Feather, some old clothes, several shirts, 1 pr. pants, 2 prs. Drawers, those that you made for me last fall, some [Soldiers?] Bread, a lot of papers, pay and muster Rolls that I wanted for future reference & several little notions. One [Lonal?] pipe [Caven?] out by a Sick Soldier that he presented me with as a token of his respect & gratitude for my attention to him. They were left at Craborchard [sic]. The [______?] got off and the sutler when he started home sayed [sic] that he would remake the Box & forward it on to you and his wagon was on the road between Craborchard [sic] & Lexington when Morgan took it, & I have no doubt but what the Box was in it but if so it is only lent. [sic]

I do not Know but that I am happly [sic] [______?] in some particulars at the time that all seames [sic] to [dispond?]. I am in good spirits, never more so. We are in close proximity to our sesesh [sic] neighbors. We are bringing them in regular almost every day and in this part of the world they are being waiken [sic] up. They are at Taswell [sic] 12 miles from the Gap. Our forces go over to see them every once & a while but they invarbly [sic] run. DeCorsys Brigade went over Saturday and run them a cross Clinch River. He went to their Camp & took their Hay and forage, drove off their guards. Their men are deserting verry [sic] fast. Some of their companys [sic] loos [sic] as high as 18 a week and most of them are willing to quit if they could quit as they say Honorable. Most of their prisnes [sic] that we take do not want to be exchanged. They would rather be sent North. We have a Liut [sic]. [sic] that refusen [sic] to be exchanged. They have been misinformed about the union army. They thought the yankees [sic] would Kill every one of them and they manufacter [sic] many horrable [sic] yarnes [sic]. A very respectable Gentleman told me that the day that the Rebbes [sic] left the Gap that he had been up in Virginia and was on his way home and that the women and children were scared nearly to death. One lady that Knew him ran out to meet him to Know what she should do, that the yankees [sic] had got over into Powels [sic] valley [sic] and was coming up it and Killing all the women &children, burning all the houses, laying waist the whole country as they came. She had Just herd [sic]  that an old lady 70 years old had been Killed and the Sesech [sic] soldiers told this as they were leaving the Gap. He told her that it was all a mistake. To remain at home and behave her self & and he would be acountable [sic] for all damage. The third Ky. went up in to Virgina [sic] and took a lot of prisnes [sic] among others an officer. When his wife herd [sic] that he was taken she suposen [sic] that he would be Killed or verry [sic] badly treated and she concluded that she would die with him. When she saw our soldiers and offices [sic] she [waved?] to an old acquaintance or the man that raisen [sic] her that she had been [imprisoned?] on that were not the monsters as had been Represented, that we were gentlemen and after remaining a few day she went home satisfien [sic] leaving her husband a prisnr [sic] but I am of the opinion that we treat their prisnes [sic] to Kind while if we were to ill treat them they would [______?] but I think if high time that the government should begin to let them Know that it was in [_______?].

I have already writen [sic] more than I antisipated [sic] when I comensed [sic] but there are a number of incidence [sic] that I want to write about. For some day past there has been Flags of truce passing. What the meaning of them all are I have not been able to find out but this much I have found out that there is a better feeling existing between the offices of each army since they have got better acquainted [sic]. One Rebbel [sic] officr [sic] came in with a flag a few day a go and was returning after night with a escort of about 40 men. We had a Regiment out scouting, one co. of the 49, they Knew nothing of the flag of truce. They suposed [sic] it to be Rebel caveralry [sic] trying to capture our pickets. They formed on each side of the road and when the flag escort got in between them one company fell across the Road to cut of any retreat & in this condition open fire on them. Col. Keigwin was at the head of the escort. How many was Killed we were not able to find out. There are some 18 mising [sic]. Capt. Lyon was badly hurt. It was thought that he would not Live but he is Recovering. Col. Keigwin was considerable [sic] hurt though not [seriously?] He is still lame & not able to ride horse back. His horse was shot in three places. There is a mark of a ball a cross the skirt of his coat and a spent ball struck him about the head. His Knee is the worst hurt that he has at present. His horse fell with him and he was run over by other horses. That hurt him worse than any thing. Cap. Lyon was thrown from his horse and was run over by the other horses which came near tramping him to death. Col. Keigwin by hollowing saved all the party that was saved. The Capt. that had command of the company of the 49 Knew his voice & run up and down the lines and orderd [sic] them to seace [sic] firing. The Col. voice was herd [sic] above the roar of the fire Armes [sic]. He says that he was hollowing [sic] for dear life and when the stopt [sic] firing if any poor sinner ever thanked God he was the verry [sic] fellow. He says that if must have been an interposition of an unseen hand that saved him. There is a letter in the Eagle of the 17 that they say that Keigwin wrote. I should not be suprised [sic] if Keenan had a [letter?] on this subject soon.

I have filled an other sheet and have not room to sign my name so you will find it somewhere.

John A. Ritter

*  *  *  *

Perhaps the most important news to you I have intirly [sic] left out. I am in good health & find spirits.

Ritter Correspondence.

          29, Cavalry skirmish in Jackson-Bolivar environs

No circumstantial reports filed.

BOLIVAR, July 29, 1862.

Maj. Gen. U. S. GRANT:

Maj. Stewart has had a hard fight with rebel cavalry. Has taken a number of prisoners and reports that he is pursuing his advantage.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 135.

          29, Report from Knoxville

We have been presented by Lieutenant Rogan with a United States flag, captured last Wednesday by Capt. Phipps and his cavalry company. Captain Phipps and his men, who are by the way, from Hawkins county, went in pursuit of the party who killed Gaston Powell some time ago in Green [sic] county. He broke up their stronghold, Wattenbarger's still house, which they had fortified, capturing 1,500 pounds of bacon, 1 wagon, 4 mules and two prisoners, all of which were brought off.

The flag is the regular United States emblem, with this difference, the blue has the words CONSTITUTION AND UNION, 1861 over the stars. The starts consist of 15 red stars, representing the seceded states and 17 white stars, representing the free States. – Knoxville Register, 20th.

Captain Phipps and Lieutenant Rogan we knew well in other days. Formerly they denounced men for their want of love to the Union, and not it seems, they are themselves leading on the conspirators for its overthrow. When the Federal army passes over to Knoxville, we would like to take a look at that captured flag. Some how we doubt the accuracy of the Register's description.

Memphis Union Appeal, July 29, 1862.

          29, Unauthorized seizure forbidden in the Distrtict of Ohio

Headquarters, U. S. Forces, Nashville, July 29, 1862.

General Orders No. 18.

The officers and soldiers of this command are reminded that no orders authorizing an indiscriminate pillaging and robbing of the inhabitants have yet been promulgated by the Commanding General of this District, or by any authority known to the Army of the Ohio. On the contrary, the orders heretofore issued against marauding and other like practices, destructive of military discipline, detrimental to the public service, are still of binding force in the District of the Ohio, and the penalties imposed for a violation of these orders will still be visited upon all offenders.

No soldier is allowed to make searches or captures except by order of his commanding officers; and all captured property belongs to the Government of the United States, and not to the officer or soldier making the capture, and must be turned over to the Quartermaster's Department.

An illegal or unauthorized seizure is a robbery, and the perpetrator of such a crime merits and will receive the severest punishment authorized by military law. Commanding Officers of Regiments and detachments will be held responsible for the conduct of their men; and it is expected that the orders heretofore issued on the subject referred to, will be rigidly enforced.

By command of Col. John F. Miller, Commanding Post.

Nashville Daily Union, August 3, 1862.

          29, A demanding day at the Nashville Recorder's Court

Recorder's Court.

Another busy day was yesterday at the Recorder's Court, and of a somewhat extraordinary character, all classes and colors being represented.

The first case called up was that of Catharine Duffy, who was fined $6 for being disorderly, in abusing her husband in such manner as to disturb the neighborhood. She very sensibly confessed her sin, and said it was her failing; she could never govern her tongue, when it got fairly under way. We advise her to adopt the remedy prescribed by one of the Fathers, Fill her mouth with clean, cold water, and let it remain there until she becomes cool.

Half a dozen persons were arraigned for using hydrant water without license. Some were fined, others ordered to pay for their license, and one or two went to the Aldermen for certificates, being too poor to pay.

Puss Shelton and Melinda Smith, defendants, with Mary Hill as witness, formed a trio of "yellow gals," brought up to settle a dispute between the first named parties, as to which was the most respectable nigger of the two, and as to which of the twain had "roped in" the largest number of gals. The decision of the Recorder was nearly two to one in favor of Puss, who paid $8.50 for her position, while Miss Melinda was assessed only $4.50….

Hardy Goodswin and Rachel his wife, (the former a slave, the latter free) had a quarrel, which waxed warm and still warmer, until the fair Rachel seized a log of wood and threw it at the feet of her lord. Hardy seized the formidable weapon, Rachel retreated, and from a war of rocks they finally came to close quarters. Rachel is one of the heavy weights, and Hardy, being some hundred pounds lighter, had to bring science and pluck to bear against superior physique. For some time the contest seemed doubtful, until at length Hardy got the tack on her, and down came Rachel with a crash. The involuntary seconds on this occasion were Ellen Brooks and Caroline White, who testified the facts above recorded, and in reply to a closing question by  Recorder Shane, Caroline said that while Rachel was down, Hardy—but no matter about that—he was the smallest and the rules of the Ring ought not to be too rigidly enforced on such occasions. Hardy was fined $15, and the Recorder was ungallant enough to make Rachel pay $6….

Another quartette of Africa's daughters appeared in front of the Recorder for the purpose of detaining in the work-house Abbey Wilson, who it seems, was determined to have a fight. Three glasses of liquid fire had caused her to hurl curses loud and deep upon the heads of the four "innocents" in court, and she needed just one more to elevate her to fighting trim. That was obtained, and she commenced operations by whipping the smallest one in the crowd, when the officers put a stop to further depredations by lodging Miss Abbey in the calaboose….

Nashville Dispatch, July 30, 1862.

          30, Skirmish at Leach's Ford

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

          30, Confederate guerrilla attacks near Mount Pleasant and Leatherwood

No circumstantial reports filed.

COLUMBIA, August 1, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

Anderson's guerrillas, 50 strong, encamped 9 miles south last night, were near Mount Pleasant to-day. They carried off several Union men. Cooper's guerrillas, 80 to 100, were 9 miles west of Leatherwood. I trust you will see the necessity of placing at my disposal a cavalry force sufficient to disperse these bands before they do serious mischief.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 242.

          30, Major-General W.T. Sherman enforces trade restrictions on contraband articles [see August 11, 1862, Major-General W.T. Sherman on gold as contraband below]


July 30, 1862.

Col. JOHN A. RAWLINS, Hdqrs. Corinth, Miss.:

SIR: I had the honor to write on the 25th instant, since which nothing has happened here in the vicinity worth reporting..

* * * *

I have been very busy in answering the innumerable questions of civilians, and hope they are now about through. I found so many Jews and speculators here trading in cotton, and secessionists had become so open in refusing anything but gold, that I have felt myself bound to stop it. This gold has but one use-the purchase of arms and ammunition, which can always be had for gold, at Nassau, New Providence, or Cincinnati; all the guards we may establish cannot stop it. Of course I have respected all permits by yourself or the Secretary of the Treasury, but in these new cases (swarms of Jews) I have stopped it.

In like manner so great was the demand for salt to make bacon that many succeeded in getting loads of salt out for cotton. Salt is as much contraband of war as powder. All the boards of trade above are shipping salt south, and I cannot permit it to pass into the interior until you declare a district open to trade. If we permit money and salt to go into the interior it will not take long for Bragg and Van Dorn to supply their armies with all they need to move. Without money--gold, silver, and Treasury notes--they cannot get arms and ammunition of the English colonies; and without salt they cannot make bacon and salt beef. We cannot carry on war and trade with a people at the same time.

I have had all the vacant houses registered, and the quartermaster will proceed to rent them for account of whom it may concern at once.

Our men have received in great part new clothing, and will soon gain rest and be prepared for the fall campaign. General health good.

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant,

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 140-141.

          30, Cavalry skirmish near Denmark

JACKSON, TENN., July 30, 1862-2 a. m.

Col. HOGG, Comdg. Detachment:

Maj. Stewart has just arrived. He was attacked close to Denmark this evening by Jackson's cavalry, some 300 or 400 strong, and defeated. His loss is considerable in killed, wounded, and prisoners. He thinks the force is still close there.

It is impossible for any of his men to move to your support in their present condition. He is of the opinion that you had better move in direction of ferry or crossing in direction of Medon, where you can have support of infantry. I have two companies at Medon.

I hope you will move cautiously in whatever direction you go, as a defeat of your force would now insure an attack upon the road at different points. If you think proper you can move so as to watch the crossings of Hatchie, not too far, from where you can give information of a superior force. In fact you can judge best of matters yourself, as you can see the face of the country and can judge of the enemy. I am of opinion that the enemy will have support from nearly all of the citizens in that country. Send my orderlies back and let me know in what direction you move.

JOHN A. LOGAN, Brig.-Gen., Comdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p.136.

          30, Federal troops in Murfreesboro

Soldiers were both going &coming today. Nothing of interest especially. The soldiers annoy us a great deal by their stealing in the garden. I understand the Yankees that went to McMinnville are on their way back without accomplishing anything. We haven't heard the result from Tulahoma [sic] yet. I hope our men were victorious. I heard that the Confederates had burnt Genl. Mitchell's cotton at some little town & took three hundred prisoners. Ma & Cousin Ann went up town this afternoon. Bettie & I made a beautiful bouquet, & sent [it to] our sick soldier at Mrs. Crockett's. Sent us word he was not so well today, talked too much yesterday. I'm glad Bettie & I did not call there Monday morning, as we always have so much to say. Old Mr. Fritz is some better today. Uncle Ephe was taken to Nashville this evening.

Kate Carney Diary, July 30, 1862

30 Attack on Confederate forces in Brownsville


Jackson, Tenn., July 31st.-Captain Dollin's Cavalry attacked eighty Rebels, yesterday, near Brownsville, and captured forty prisoners. The Rebels were afterwards reinforced, and recaptured twenty-nine men and fourteen horses. The Federal loss was six wounded, and the Rebel loss about the same.

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 1, 1862.

          30, Reports of guerrilla activity in and west of Hickman county

COLUMBIA, July 30, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

Reports from negroes and Union citizens indicate an early attack by the guerrillas upon the weak posts along this line. A party from Hickman, numbering over 100, came to our stock pasture last night, 4 miles distant, and drove off 50 animals. The country is swarming with guerrillas. West of this they have grown exceedingly bold since I have been deprived of the means of pursuing them. I am just informed that some officers stopped the building of the stockades according to my directions and ordered them to be built otherwise. If any officer has the right to change my orders without informing me, it of course relieves me from responsibility.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 233.

          30, Confederate newspaper report on thwarted cotton brokers in the Memphis environs

Cotton Speculators Frustrated.-Another effort of the Yankee speculators that infest Memphis, to speculate in the staple of the country, was frustrated by a squad of Porter's cavalry on Friday last, at a point some eighteen miles north-east of Memphis. The small party overhauled some twenty-five drays, loaded with sixty-four bales of cotton, en route for the city. The drivers were ordered to unload and pile up the bales in the road, which was done in a workmanlike manner, when the pile was fired and the coveted Yankee prize destroyed. Those accompanying the contraband train were then dismissed, with the injunction that if they were caught engaged in the business again, they would be held personally responsible.-The Yankees find "Jordan a hard road to travel" in the vicinity of Memphis. The love their yellow boys and cotton both!

Macon Daily Telegraph, July 30, 1862.

          30, Newspaper Report on the Rationale for Expulsion from Memphis: A Lesson in Occupation

The Banishment Order in Memphis.-The Memphis correspondent of the Chicago Times, in his letter of the 13th inst., writes:

The late order compelling all persons who have family relations in the Confederate army to remove from the city, was caused by the detection of treasonable correspondence between ladies here and their husbands in the South, conveying very important information. It caused the utmost consternation, as well it, for, if rigidly carried out, it would have depopulated the town. There are hardly twenty families here who have not some members in the Confederate army. Gen. Grant modified it sufficiently to allow persons to remain who will take an oath that they have never conveyed information or aid to the rebel army, and never will do so. This no doubt affords great relief to many who were almost helpless under the extreme stringency of the order.

Daily Delta, July 30, 1862.

          30, Reported Pro-Confederate African-American Payer in Memphis

A Negro's Prayer in Memphis.

Tom, the preacher at the African church in Memphis, delivered the following prayer there on the 15th ult.. The Yankee provost guard, it is presumed, were not "around:"

O, Lord, hab' mercy on us all! Bless our land and country. Grant us rain, and we hab good crops and blessed with plenty in this time of trouble. O, Lord, bless our masters, mistresses, and their children. They have been kind and good to us; bless them in their troublesome times. O, Lord, bless massa Jeff. Davis! Our army and our brave soldiers that are fighting the battle of our country against our enemies that are invading our happy country. O, Lord, give them success! O, Lord, bless our [sic] and wounded soldiers, and grant that they may be restored to health, and enabled to and join their brothers in fighting the battles of our country against our enemies-Bless us all as though thou sees we need, and take care of us, and save us, is my prayer. Amen.

Daily Dispatch, July 30, 1862.

          ca. 30-31, Federal anti-guerilla scout, Memphis to Collierville


Col. JOHN A. RAWLINS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Corinth, Miss.:

SIR: A scouting party returned last night from Colliersvile [sic] and beyond; captured some officers and guerrillas; also intercepted several letters from Tupelo, from which it appears that the whole army was on the point of starting for Nashville via Chattanooga. I take it for granted you are advised of this, and I merely repeat it as confirmatory. I inclose one of the letters.

All quiet here and hereabouts.

I have supplied Gen. Curtis my extra ammunition. Will you please order the ordnance officer at Saint Louis to fill my requisitions for ammunition and ordnance to arm the fortifications now under construction here, either drawing from Pittsburg or the forts above?

I am, &c.,

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 141.

          31, "PITY THE POOR ORPHAN."

The very faces and doleful appeals of some of our citizens, on taking the oath of allegiance, before the Provost, reminds us of the appeal which Patrick made to the Judge when standing up to receive the sentence of the court. Patrick had been arraigned for murdering his father and mother, and the evidence before the jury had shown the circumstances to be of the most revolting character. On being asked what he had to say why the sentence of death should not be passed against him, he said, with most doleful accents: "Nothing, your Honor, except that I am a lone orphan in the world, and mitigate the sentence accordingly." Some of our citizens, who have most coolly stabbed the Government in every possible way, very plaintively plead that the Provost should bear in mind that they are poor orphans in this world, and should, therefore, be dealt with very tenderly.

Memphis Union Appeal, July 31, 1862,

          31, Letter of John A. Ritter, 49th Indiana Volunteers

July 31, 1862 from Camp Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

Camp Cumberland Gap, Ten.

July 31, 1862

Theophilus C., John A., Thomas B., & William V. Ritter

Gentlemen Sir,

I take up my pen to write you a few lines to let you Know that I have not forgotten you and that you still have a father that cares for you though fare a way. I often think of you all and wonder what you are doing & how you are getting a long and am glad that you are not compelled to undergo the hardships & Fatigues of a campaign life for be assured that we see rough times at times and I expect that none that has been out has had a much harder time than we but when we all get home together I will have many things to tell you and till that time be obedient children. Do not disobey your dear Ma. I expect that she has her hands full. I Know if I was their I could take many things off of her but I must trust to you to fill my place as fare as you can and when I shall have spent my life I shall be proud of my sons. You may do much to make her happy. I do not Know when I shall be at home. I have not the remotest Idea. Yet I feel assured that I will get home some time. I am ingaged [sic]. Building fortifications with my Company at Cumberland Gap. The Rebbels [sic] done [sic] a vast amount of Fortifying but it was to Keep us out of the Gap coming up on the other side. Now we are fixing the Tennessee side so that they could not get us out if they were to try which I don't they will. If they do I think they will rue it.

I was down at the Camp a few evenings ago. As I came back stopt [sic] at the 2nd Tenessee Regiment. The men was playing soldier. There were some 80 or a 100 on a side. One party Represented caveralry [sic]. The caveralry [sic] were stradle of sticks for Horses had little bunches of Bushes for swords some of them had staves in the shape of paddles. The Infantry had staves for guns. The Infantry would forme [sic] up in two ranks in line of battle. The Caveralry [sic] would forme [sic] up in to ranks and make a charge on them and such cutting & slashing with the bushes was not see every day by a good deal. Some times the Caveralry [sic] would brake the lines & scatter the Infantry, sometimes the Infantry would scatter the caveralry [sic]. They would soon reforme [sic] and make an another charge in this way. They plaid soldier for an Hour or two and I left them at. I expect that they had a Jolly time but to think that men an[d] sticks for horses Galloping like little boys. Occasionally one would get his horse Killed or crippled and some times they would take each other prisners[sic]. Each party had their commanders and all was done up a good deal like they injoyed [sic] the sport fine but soldiers when they get time must have their sport. I will say to [sic], Theophilus that you must not think of enlisting. You are to young, you cannot stand a camp life at your age and attend to things till I get home and then I will try to get you in at West Point and give you a military education.

*  *  *  *

Jno. A. Ritter

Ritter Correspondence.

          31, Remarks by a private in the 15th Iowa Infantry relative to the greetings slaves made in Hardeman County, on the way to Bolivar

Hundreds of Negroes flock after us and don't seem to be afraid of the soldiers. They yelled and shouted and said "day was glad to see Uncle Sams [sic] boys" With all their ignorance they seem to have pretty good ideas as to what is going on and I think it will not be many months until their influence will be felt in the scale.

About 10 oclock [sic] we came to Bolivar a beautiful town and surrounded by a splendid country. My feet were worn out when we halted and we were all very tired upon this our really first march. Dan and I put up our little tent and will sleep in it to-night. I think our tramp has been as useless as there is no enemy here in arms.

Boyd Diary.

          31, A report on a conversation with Military Governor Andrew Johnson concerning secret Confederate committees, contrabands, defense of Nashville, rigorous treatment of disloyal citizens and guerrilla bands in the Clarksville environs

HDQRS. DISTRICT OF THE OHIO, Nashville, August 1, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Chief of Staff:

COL.: I beg leave to report to the commanding general the substance of a conversation held at this office with Governor Andrew Johnson yesterday. The conversation was protracted, and on the part of the Governor deeply earnest, and the main points were supported by considerable detail.

The Governor is so informed as to have adopted the conviction that an attempt will be made very soon by the rebels to repossess themselves of this State, and that they consider the possession of the capital a necessary incident. He believes that if they should succeed the moral and physical consequence would be disastrous to our cause, and that therefore means to the contrary should be applied which would defeat their designs beyond a peradventure. He is satisfied that the enemy has numerous secret adherents who in a crisis would give them aid, particularly should there be prospect of their success without great sacrifices; but that many of these are not ready for considerable sacrifices, and would be deterred if they were sure these sacrifices would follow.

Hence the Governor argues in reference to saving the city that an evidence of determination to hold on our part at any cost would deter them, and to corroborate this quotes a fact, that when the city was lately threatened members of a secret committee went out to restrain their friends, assuring them that the city would be destroyed by us should they get possession.

The Governor therefore believes that if the enemy is convinced we mean to hold it he would hesitate to attack, uncertain as he would be of adherents within, and suggest the construction of works of defense in the shape of redoubts and other earthworks.

The labor he advises to be taken from those who render it necessary, and that contrabands, of which he has now control of a good many, be used in that way habitually.

The Governor says that recent observation has changed his ideas in regard to treating rebels with lenity. At one time he advised it, but now believes that they must be made to feel the burden of their own deeds and to bear everything which the necessities of the situation require should be imposed on them.

This I believe is the substance of all that was said, but, as I observed before, there was much elaboration of detail and evidence of earnest conviction.

I am, colonel, respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. H. SIDELL, Maj., Fifteenth U. S. Infantry, Act. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

P. S.--Gen. Mason writes Governor Johnson by letter received to-day and sent to me that there is no doubt of the organization of guerrilla bands near Clarksville, and that the wealthier part of the population is disloyal and humbler classes the reverse; that it would be difficult to raise a cavalry regiment there, but there are sufficient horses belonging to the secessionists to mount as many men as needful. He wants Governor Johnson's order to "possess and occupy" the horses.

Gen. Mason says he has but 250 men near Clarksville, on the opposite side of the river. He says further that he is advised by Col. Bruce that he has sent 400 men to Russellville.

I am, respectfully,

W. H. SIDELL, Maj., Fifteenth U. S. Infantry, Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, pp. 242-243.

          31, News Items from Newly Occupied Memphis and Brownsville

~ ~ ~

Fortifications are being constructed at Memphis by a force of negroes who drill every evening. Col. Fitch hung two hostages, citizens of St. Charles, Arkansas, as an act of retaliation upon the Guerrillas.

~ ~ ~

A special to the Tribune, from Grenada, 29th, state that our guerrillas have reoccupied Brownsville, Tenn., and burned 3000 bales of cotton purchased by the Yanks.

Macon Daily Telegraph, July 31, 1862.

          31, Newspaper Report on Confederate Military Activities in Southwest Tennessee

From Memphis.

Operations of the Rebels in the Southwest

Memphis, July 31.-The gun-boat Carondolet arrived yesterday from Vicksburg. She brings no later news of interest.

Several gentlemen from Brownsville arrived last evening, bringing someparticulars of the Rebel raid, under Faulkner, on that place. On Friday last [25th] every man there found buying cotton was taken prisoner. The sum of $120,000 was taken from them, and 400 bales of cotton were burned.

A force of five hundred Union cavalry arrived on the same evening, when the Rebels fled. They were pursued, and a slight engagement took place on the Hatchie and Forked Deer rivers. A number of Rebels were captured, and the ferries and bridges destroyed.

The Rebel Jackson was at Denmark, on Saturday [26th] with three hundred of his cavalry. It was reported that General Villipique was marching on Bolivar. Jackson used a pontoon bridge to cross the Forked Deer river.

Heavy cannonading was heard at Bolivar on Saturday and Sunday [26th-27th]. On Saturday the telegraph line was destroyed, and portions of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad were torn up at Humboldt.

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 4, 1862.





August 1, 1862, Confederate General E. Kirby Smith decries Federal policies toward civilians and threatens reprisals


Brig. Gen. GEORGE W. MORGAN, Cmdg. United States Forces, Cumberland Gap:

GEN.: It has been reported to me that by your orders peaceable citizens without your lines have been arrested on account of their political opinions and are now held as prisoners.

Since assuming command in this department I have arrested but 7 persons for political offenses and of these 6 have been released.

By my intercession many who before my taking charge of the department had been sent South and confined have been released. I have ever given to the citizens of East Tennessee protection to persons and property regardless of their political tenets.

Six hundred and sixty-four citizens escaping to Kentucky, most of them with arms in their hands and belonging to military organizations in open hostility to the Confederate States, have been taken prisoners. All of these have been released excepting 76, who previously had voluntarily taken the oath of allegiance to the Confederate States Government, and are now held as prisoners of war.

This policy has been pursued with an earnest desire to allay the horrors of war and to conduct the campaign with as little severity as is consistent with the interests of my Government. It is therefore, general, with deep regret that I hear of your arresting peaceable citizens without your lines, thereby inaugurating a policy which must bring great additional suffering on the two contending peoples. I cannot but hope that this course has resulted from a misapprehension of my policy and a want of knowledge of my treatment of the Union element in East Tennessee. I have constantly had it in my power to arrest numbers of citizens disloyal to the Confederate States, but have heretofore refrained from so doing for the reasons above stated, and hoping all the while that the clemency thus extended would appreciated and responded to by the authorities of the United States.

It is perhaps needless for me to state that if you arrest and continue citizens from without your lines whom the usages of war among civilized nations exempt from molestation I shall be compelled in retaliation to pursue a similar course toward the disloyal citizens of my department, and shall arrest and confine the prominent Union men in each community.

I hope, however, that this explanation may correct any misapprehension on your part regarding my policy, and thereby obviate the necessity of my pursuing a course which is, to say the least, a disagreeable duty.

This communication will be delivered to you by Mr. Kincaid, who hopes to be able to effect the release of his father, now held as a prisoner.

Inclosed is a list of political prisoners arrested by me since assuming command in this department.

I am, general, your obedient servant,

E. KIRBY SMITH, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, pp. 244-245.

          1, Enforcing oath of allegiance among country merchants in Columbia environs

Columbia Tenn August 1 1862 [sic]

To Gov Andrew Johnson

There are a number of Country merchants turning their oath of Allegiance to profit by Bringing out goods & sending them to secessionists[.] in [sic] many cases [they] have formed partners and One Rebel [sic] who has taken the Oath[.] [sic] the [sic] abuse of permission to pass good has been so extensively abused that I deem it necessary to require every dealer to not only take the Oath but obligate himself not to sell [to] disloyal persons[.]

Jas S. Negley Brig Gen'l [sic]

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 583.

          1, The guerrilla dilemma in Middle Tennessee

Hd. Qrs. Manchester, Tenn, August 1st, 1862

Gen. Andrew Johnson

Mil Gov. of Tennessee

Sir [sic]

By a recent order from the Hd. Qrs. of the Army of the Ohio, I have been placed in command of all the forces guarding the lines of R. Rds [sic] from Nashville to Decatur, Decatur to Stevenson and Stevenson to Nashville.

The troops under my command are necessarily scattered in small detachments and stationed at the vital points mentioned. They are thus exposed to destruction or capture by the guerrilla and marauding bands which infest the whole State of Tennessee. They are surrounded by enemies who in the garb of peaceable quiet citizens run off intelligence of our strength and positions, so much in detail and so accurate as to enable the rebels to kill or capture their pickets and to hurl overwhelming forces upon them--to carry them away as prisoners and destroy our railroads and thus threaten our whole army with starvation. This must so derange our plans at to prevent any successful warfare on our part and throwing us upon the country for support cause us to deprive the people of that which is absolutely necessary of their sustenance. Ten again the presence of those hostile to our government throughout this State serves to keep those cowed and subdued who would otherwise declare in our favor and undertake the quieting of all local difficulties. The guerrillas threaten them and do actually drag them away from their homes or drive them into our camps for refuge. I have many of these refugees now in my camps and amongst them a poor old man by the name of Williams eighty years of age and almost blind. Now Sir, how long shall this condition of things continue in the State of Tennessee? I but expressed the common feeling of the officers of our army when I wrote the Secry. of War a few days ago claiming a release from this service within one month unless a more decisive policy is adopted in the treatment of these mixed communities[.]

With enemies in our rear and in our very midst such success as we should achieve is utterly and entirely out of the question, and I am unwilling for one to put forth aimless, objectless effort.

1st. Let all disloyal person be driven at once across the lines to the rebels where they belong.

2nd. Let the loyal patriotic citizens of the land be organized, armed and equipped for their own home defence  and the protection of our lines of communication.

This much Your State [sic] owes to us who are here to aid you in the preservation of Your [sic] liberties. If the rebels will permit a portion of our army to remain behind their lines unmolested, we can do our country a hundred fold service. And it will take five hundred thousand men to guard our lines of communication alone in the territory occupied by us, unless forays and guerrilla warefare [sic] can be suppressed and prevented by some such stringent measures. There are many true men ready to take up arms and put down the infamous scoundrels who have inaugurated a wholesale system of rapine and murder throughout nearly this while [sic] region of the Country. Guerrilla bands are constantly organizing and stealing all the horses and provisions they can lay their hands on, and escaping with them to the enemy to swell his ranks and increase his resources.

In the name of our country humanity and God [sic] let us tolerate this condition of things no longer. Let home guards be organized everywhere and men drafted into service if necessary rather than endure anarchy any longer[.]

Very Respectfully Yr Most Obdt Svt.

Wm Sooy Smith, Brig Gen

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, pp. 583-585.

          1, "Col. Morgan arrived here yesterday from Kentucky, and looks as blooming and modest as a girl just sweet sixteen." News from Confederate Knoxville

Letter from "J. T. G."

Knoxville, Aug. 1, 1862.

Editor Enquirer: A portion of Colonel Hunt's regiment of Georgia cavalry, belonging to Col. Jack Morgan's squadron of cavalry, arrived here a few days ago from Kentucky, and have gone into camp at the Fair Grounds near this city. They returned loaded with the spoils of their recent successes in Kentucky—overcoats, jackets, swords, sabres, carbines, boots, shoes and blankets, were hanging around everywhere. The day after their arrival they had orders to march, and supposing from the direction in which they were ordered to go that an action would occur, they commenced selling off their stock; their camps were immediately converted into one grand bazaar.

"Camp Convalescence" really resembled a live Yankee camp. You can scarcely turn a corner in Knoxville but what you meet with a man sporting a fine blue overcoat with its long cape. I don't blame the boys much for donning Yankee uniforms when they can be obtained for eight and ten dollars, while the Knoxville merchants are selling ordinary cottonade pants at five dollars per pair….

The soldiers composing the 2d Brigade, Department of East Tennessee, are ragged, hatless, shoeless and penniless, having received no pay since December last, with the exception of two months pay about six weeks ago. Hundreds of these soldiers have large families at home who are altogether dependent upon the cold charities of the public for something to eat and wear.

Numbers of such cases can be seen, I doubt not, in the streets of the patriotic city of Columbus—that, too, in a city, according to population and wealth, I venture the assertion, has done more for the cause of our Confederacy, and the support of the families of those who are defending it, than any other city in the Confederacy….

Col. Morgan arrived here yesterday from Kentucky, and looks as blooming and modest as a girl just sweet sixteen. He is a decided favorite with the ladies, judging from the extravagant language they use when speaking of him, and I suspect many of their dear little hearts go pit-ti-pat, when thinking how Mrs. Col. Morgan would sound. I know the kid glove and silk stocking beaus about here wish he was "the other side of Jordan."

Weekly Columbus [Georgia] Enquirer, August 12, 1862.[17]

1, A Tennessee Union Girl.

The Franklin (Tenn.) correspondent of the N. Y. Herald in a recent letter, pays the following graceful tribute to a heroic young lady living in the strongly rebellious town of Franklin, who like the Angel in the rebellion in Heaven "faithful proved amid the faithless."

["] In the midst of the prevailing sentiment of disloyalty a light occasionally comes, like a ray of sunshine, to dispel its dark and gloomy effects. It is hard, very hard, for young and tender hearts and minds to sever their wishes and hopes from a cause in which friends and kindred are engaged; but occasionally instances are found—pray to Heaven there may be more of them—in which young ladies are willing to repel the popular delusion, although surrounded by a large circle of relatives who were drawn within its vortex. In one family all save one became infected with the prevailing epidemic. One, a brother-in-law, is yet in the Southern army, a brother is a prisoner in Camp Morton, and the remainder of the family, with the exception named, were spotted with the marks of rebellious proclivities, when an angel, in the form of a young and lovely girl, a daughter, infused with the spirit of Heaven-born patriotism, boldly denounced the delusion. Refused admission into church, she made her devotions at home. Denied the enjoyment of the social circles of the town, she wept in solitude; but her innocent and true heart enjoyed the sweet consolation of a happier future. Even denied the privilege of walking the streets unless met by insult, she steadily persevered, under slanderous reports and malicious machinations, until, by her strength of mind, persuasive eloquence and strong arguments, she converted her own family into a social home of love for herself and the cause of the Union. When our army came Miss Ocie L. [?] C_____ was the first to welcome them, and now her beautiful face, lit up with its angelic enthusiasm, has a happy smile for every blue jacket that comes. Nor are the family behindhand, as many a sick and wounded soldier, who has been taken to this pleasant home and nursed, will testify. At present they have under charge two of the Sixty-ninth Ohio who would have died had it not been for their care. Such devotion should not pass unnoticed. The bravery of Grace Darling was not more heroic and deserving of immortal honors than that of the charming Union loving girl of Tennessee, Miss Ocie C_____.

Nashville Daily Union, August 1, 1862.

          1, Oath of Allegiance and passes in Memphis

The Six Days' Order. – Under the operation of the order of General Hovey, about 1,350 persons in Memphis, and among them many of the principal property holders of the city, have taken the oath of allegiance, and perhaps 360 have been passed through the lines. Of the 360, ten per cent may join the Rebel army. Wednesday morning the Provost Marshal so modified the pass as to suffer those wising to leave the city to choose their direction, and a large proportion went northward.

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 1, 1862.

          1, Anderson's guerrillas kidnap Union men near Mount Pleasant, Cooper's guerrillas active in Leatherwood environs

COLUMBIA, August 1, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

Anderson's guerrillas, 50 strong, encamped 9 miles south last night, were near Mount Pleasant to-day. They carried off several Union men. Cooper's guerrillas, 80 to 100, were 9 miles west of Leatherwood. I trust you will see the necessity of placing at my disposal a cavalry force sufficient to disperse these bands before they do serious mischief.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 242.

          1, A War Correspondent's Report from Memphis

The War in the West.

Letter from Memphis.

The Impudence of Treason-vigorous Measures Needed for it s Suppression….The Union Ladies of Memphis-Cotton and Money-Expensive Living-Sad Appearance of the City.

Mildness a Sign of Weakness.

Memphis, Tenn., Friday, August 1.- I held a conversation today with a gentleman from Little Rock and he frankly admits that if he were in arms against the Government, under its past mild policy, he would have no fear whatever of consequences, except hose resulting from open hostilities in the field. He knows men in the Rebel service who have left their families in cities in possession of the Government, without any fear for their person or their lives. He feels assured that if he had a family in Memphis today, and should join the Rebel army, all he would have to do to secure their peace and protection would be to make a simple request of the Commanding Genera.

On the other hand, if a man should so far to forget the ruling spirit of the Rebels, and forsake his family and property in the South to join the Union army, woe betide his unprotected ones.

It may be very magnanimous in us to act as we do in this respect, but we will hardly get credit for it from those we seek to please. They will ascribe out mildness to weakness and fear, and while they accept our benefits, only plan more deeply to destroy the power which confers them.

~ ~ ~

Patriotic Ladies.

The Union ladies of the city-and there are quite a number-are soliciting subscriptions for the purchase of a flag for Capt. Hough's Company for the Second Tennessee Regiment, but their efforts are not very successful. They call principally at private residences-the best places in a community to feel the political pulse, but I feel assured that if the population was thoroughly sifted, very few residents or natives, more strictly speaking, but would be found on the Rebel side.

Cotton and Money.

General Sherman's vigorous proceeding touching on the purchase of cotton for United Stated in real money as notes and gold, is, as I understand it, not meant to apply to the city. The order is special, not general and it has caused considerable grumbling already. The Rebel rascals, in the rural districts, have been chuckling in their sleeves at the idea that they were getting the best of the "d____d Yankees" by letting them have cotton and returning gold in payment, but General Sherman's' order has made them laugh out of  "the wrong side of their face."

Small money is extremely scarce and the greatest flurry was excited day before yesterday [July 31] by the expiration time in which it was legal to circulate bills smaller than one dollar. The Bank of Tennessee had in circulation several thousand dollar bills from five cents to one dollar, and it was learned that the holders of these would lose, but the law was found not to affect these, but prevent the issue of any more. Every one, as you may suppose, is hoarding all the notes he can procure, but this kind of thing soon [illegible] itself, and after a time the "precious [notes?]" will re-appear.

Expensive Living.

The cost of living in Memphis is still very high, concerning the articles of food furnished and the accommodations one gets. The Gayoso Hotel charges its guests $2.50 per day, and spread a very indifferent table at that. Its halls are spacious and its rooms airy and scrupulously clean, essential to life in the South rarely found in a hotel, and these compensate in a great measure for the poor fare furnished at the price.

Bread can be had in private families at $7 and [$10?] per week, but as to the former it is hardly on a par with that found in Cincinnati at $2.50 per week. Table luxuries are out of the question, and people are concerned with plain, substantial food, which, after all, is the best.

General Appearance of the City.

Memphis appears more like a city recently exhumed than aught else. Everything is dusty, and rusty, and old looking. The show windows are filled with articles of utility, piled up pell-mell, without regard to "tempting display." Bank buildings have been turned into recruiting offices and military headquarters, and Irivng Block, one of the most elegant in the city, has been converted into a military prison.

What a sad comment upon the recklessness and treachery of her citizens in attempting to throw off the mild yoke of your benign Government, and inaugurating in its stead the "rule or ruin" system of the Rebel horde who commenced their course in theft and villainy.

The Commissioners of confiscated property are ascertaining what houses and other property there are in the city belonging to parties now within the Rebel lines. Up to last night the number reported by their Ward agents amounted to three hundred and twenty five. The Commissioners lese these homes to applicants for from one to twelve months, the rent to be paid monthly in advance. The lease is conditional "upon the continued loyalty and good conduct" of the tenant.

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 8, 1862.

          1-2, Confederate bombardment of Union positons at Harrison's Landing and Federal destruction of domiciles in retaliation

~ ~ ~

On two occasions, [on August 1] within a short time, the Confederate had, from the south side of the [Tennessee] river, cannonaded the Federal encampments and shipping near Harrison's Landing in the night tie, doing some little damage, and to prevent another occurrence of this kind of detachment was sent over the river on the 2d to scout the forest on the south band and destroy all the houses which could be found, to deprive the enemy of shelter, a service which was faithfully performed, as everything in shape of habitations for man was burned, and no further annoyances from that quarter from the enemy's artillery.

Desert News August 13, 1862.



          26, The Sack of Beersheba

Scenes enacted here today beggar description. Early in the morning the sack of the place began. But a few of the "bushwhackers" were in--the mountain people came in crowds and with vehicles of all sorts and carried off everything they could from both hotel and cottages. Mr. Armfield seeing that the place was going, opened Dr. Harding's and Mr. Bass' cottages, just opposite, and told his negros [sic] to come and remove whatever they wanted. The negros [sic] "pitched in with a will"--and furniture and housekeeping articles changed places rapidly. Mrs. Scott's wagon was here--she had it filled, and Mr. Hadden took it down home for her, going in company with our gentlemen. Darlin' and Mr. Armfield started about 11 o'clock intending to remain over night at Mr. Scotts. In the morning Miss Jane and I went to Sunday school with the children, but no one arriving [sic] but Miss Martha Smartt and Maj. we came home without any school....I left there...but the scenes we witnessed were indescribable. Gaunt, Ill-looking men and slatternly, rough barefooted women stalking and racing to and fro, eager as famished wolves for prey, hauling out furniture--tearing up matting and carpets--running to and fro after entrances into inclosures, the women fully as full of avaricious thirst as the ruffainly [sic] men. Others seated on their piles of plunder, smoked and glared defiance on any one who came near them. One crone, a Mrs. Anglin, a veritable Mrs. Meriless [sic] in appearance, sat on her pile, and crooned a hymn [sic] by snatches and starts! One girl-bare-headed and barefooted took off some dress from B[isho]p Otey's. She could not wait until she reached home to try them on, but put down her bundle in a fence corner, tried one on and had a great overgrown boy hooking them up for her! Satisfying herself as to the fits--she resumed her bundle and marched on! (Speaking of fits reminds me that one of those Yankees who were up here on Tuesday [21st], fell down in a fit at the dining room door--just as he was going to breakfast. He was a frightful object--and they deluged him with water and poured brandy over his face, and beat and rubbed and shook him. They saw Jane and Mollie and one of them said "it was a d____d shame for them secesh women to be laughing at Dare." Mrs. M. asked what was the matter? They said he had a fit in consequence of his night ride, no supper, the storm, the losing of the way--the scare, etc. etc. "Why!" she exclaimed, "soldiers scared--scared into fits!" [sic] "Oh!" if you'd been there you'd been scared too--my horse jumped down a precipice 15 feet high,--etc. etc.) At Mrs. Freeliln's house they held an orgie [sic] the whole night, singing, shouting, and it is believed dancing. I heard the noise among the cottages myself, when I closed my shutters at 11 o'clock. It was a brilliant moonlight--fair and cloudless, with a light breeze blowing. Nature so serene and lovely seemed to smile upon the scene of confusion. They dragged off mattresses--fine furniture etc., into the woods, and left it, coming back for another load, and in this way many who had no conveyances managed to get away a great deal. It called up before me (on a small scale,) visions of the reign of terror and the mob of Paris shouting "to Versailles!" The difference was that blood flowed there so freely--and it would have flowed here--if resistance had been made. And not withstanding [sic] it was so serious an affair, many incidents occurred which provoked me to laughter. Miss Sue White said that one woman had a lot of books from Bishop Otey's residence--many were Latin and French books, and there were some volumes of very profound theological character, and pamphlets of Church proceedings. The woman who did not know a letter to save her life, said "she had some children who were just beginin' [sic] to read and she wanted the books for them--she wanted to encourage 'em!" To crown all imagine one scene of old "Meg Merilees" [sic] sitting on her plunder with a bucket in her hand scooping out greasy boiled cabbage and swallowing it wholesale and clawing it up in her long bony fingers and helping another who being more fastidious rather expostulated as the manner of being helped-- when old Meg cried out "take woman as ye can git it--ye mustn't be so nice these times." Two women went into a regular fist fight and kept it up for an hour--clawing and clutching at each other because one had more than the other! A band would rush up and take possession of a cottage--place a guard, drive off everyone else, stating that this was theirs, and many were the scenes of contest that ensued. The men would have red curtain tassels on their hats--the women beggared description as to costume. I saw one tall, lathy, [sic] figure with a tallow face and hank hair [sic] --bare-footed, bareheaded, --a skirt of faded calico rent in several places, a body of a different material with a belt of red horse girth, vainly endeavoring to "make the connection" between the two incongraous [sic] garments! She went off like a locomotive hither and thither leaning forward until she was half bent in her eagerness to get everywhere before somebody else! All day it was beautiful, sunshine and calm, over the white cottages nestling among the heavy green foliage--but oh! the scenes enacted around that doomed Hotel and among these birds nest dwelling place[s] of luxury and taste in rural retreats! It is that "the masses" had it all their own way on this memorable day, --the aristocrats went down for the nonce, and Democracy--Jacobinism--and Radicalism in their rudest forms reigned triumphant. It has been a memorable day this 26th, July 1863.-when "the master" went down to town "to take the oath" and become in Lincolnite parlance a "subjugated rebel," and Bersheba [sic] was sacked in his absence by a wild onset from the very people he has been building up for years! The "bushwhackers" were in in the evening, and "one Campbell"...went to Hobb's and stole off our magnificent Morgan horse...I have given thus but a faint and feeble as well a disconnected outline of the strange doings of Sunday. I never expected to be in a "sacked city" but I now have a "realizing sense" of what it would be--having witnessed the sacking on a small scale. And having seen something of the demoralizing effect upon the servants, and indeed upon ourselves, I can imagine what its effect would be upon an army if allowed to ravel in the license which has marked the proceedings of this day. I know of nothing which would utterly annihilate the soldier in a man so soon.

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.

          26, Snapping a cap at Union pickets; Confederate civilian resistance near Fosterville; an excerpt from the diary of John Hill Fergusson, 10th Illinois Volunteer Infantry

….one of the guards had a cap snapped at him a little before 10 P.M. by some sneeking [sic] cittizen [sic] who would willfully shoot a picket but after the cap bursted he skidaddled [sic] in a hurry through the under brush as it was dark at the time with rising thunder shower: the guard thought it best not to shoot for fear of missing him and as he suposed [sic] there was more than one they might jump in on him after discharging his peace [sic]

John Hill Fergusson Diary, Book 3.

          26 – 1 August, 1863. Third Tennessee (U. S.) Cavalry in Wilson County; "…almost a constant skirmish…."

From the 26th of July the regiment started out into Wilson County with three days' rations. While in Spring Place, Bird Newman of company "C," in the act of dismounting discharged his carbine, and having the barrel run up under the leather strap over the shoulder the muzzle being near his face, the ball took effect, passing through his head, killing him instantly.

From the 26th of July to the 1st of August [1863] the regiment remained in Wilson county, part of the Seventh Kentucky Cavalry being along during which time there was almost a constant skirmish, or chase after bushwhackers and guerrillas, being the same who annoyed our courier line so much. On returning to Nashville the regiment had about as many prisoners as there were men in the regiment. Among these were Captain Frank Battle, of the Confederate Cavalry, and a son of General Battle. He was brought in and placed in prison in the same manner the Confederates were holding Captain Harris, of our regiment at Libby, and their authorities were notified of the fact, and informed that as Captain Harris was kept and treated so would Captain Battle be kept and treated. The result and what came of it the writer was never informed.

Knoxville Daily Chronicle, June 13, 1879.[18]

          27, The Union League in Nashville

Resolved, [sic] That in the future the Union League meet twice each week, Monday evenings, to be devoted exclusively to the initiation of members, and matters connected directly therewith; and Thursday evenings to be business meetings exclusively; and that those desiring to become members of this order may know when they can be initiated. The Nashville papers, loyal to the Union, are requested to publish this resolution. The Press and Union being such. Passed unanimously, July 27th, 1863.

M. P. Clark, President

Nashville Daily Press, July 29, 1863.


On Monday night last [27th], at about 10 o'clock, a member of the 1st Middle Tennessee Infantry...was assaulted and very seriously beaten with rocks and stabbed in the breast, by some unknown person or persons, beyond Jefferson street in the northern part of the city. The soldier, at the hour mentioned, was in conversation with a grocery keeper, who was sitting in the second story balcony of his house, when he (the soldier) was felled to the ground by a brick-bat, thrown apparently from the shadow of the building. When the man with whom he was talking saw what had occurred, he with all haste ran down to the to the street to offer him assistance; but before he could reach the soldier, his assailants had closed upon him, and beat and stabbed him severely with a knife, in the breast, then rifled his pockets and made their escape. The ill-used man was taken into the residence of the grocer, where he is now receiving the proper attentions, although it is feared his injuries will terminate fatally. When these facts came to the knowledge of Col. Spaulding [Provost Marshal], he showed a commendable interest in the safety of our people by promptly detailing a strong guard to patrol the neighborhood of the brutal occurrence, although beyond the corporate limits of the city, where the jurisdiction of the Provost Guard does not rightfully extend. The Colonel is determined to suppress all future disturbances in that locality, and for that purpose a heavy guard will be permanently stationed there. It is a cause of much regret that such vile assassins, as those who figured in this case, should be exempt from punishment and we hope the guard may be on hand to help them in all future emergencies of the kind.

Nashville Daily Press, July 29, 1863.

          27, "[I]f the hot-headed simpletons of this country had any sense, they might have known that the other party might get the upper hand some time." Panic in Cookeville environs as Federal troops arrive -

The Yankees were in town sure enough, but went out again. Some say they are returning in great force. The roads, woods, and everywhere are full of men getting themselves, their negroes [sic], horses, mules, cattle, sheep, and everything else that is movable out of the way. I guess the Yankees would be amused if they could see the simpletons frightened half to death, and running as if the plague was behind them. I am neither glad nor sorry that they have come. If I was sure that it would be a real injury to the country I should be very sorry, but I cannot think that they will be any worse than our own men have been. The worst is we cannot hear from the army. Some men may suffer, that is my belief, for they had no business to force the war upon us whether we wanted it or not. And they know they have trodden Union men under their feet unmercifully and those who could not stand to be trodden down they have abused, persecuted, and compelled to leave the country and some of them have returned with arms in their hands determined to revenge the wrongs that have been upon them. I do not pretend to justify them for "Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord," but just so long as men are in common humanity, they will take vengeance upon themselves, and if the hot-headed simpletons of this country had any sense, they might have known that the other party might get the upper hand some time. I do not wish any of them any harm, but do hope they will tend to their own business hereafter....

Diary of Amanda McDowell.

          27, "Excitement on the Square."

Last evening, about 8½ o'clock, as the Provost Guard were conveying a number of offending soldiers to the guard house, one of them attempted to escape by running off down College street, starting from near the market house, on the Square. The guard fired one shot at the fellow thus attempting to escape, which did no damage any way, and only had the effect to call together a very large and curious crowd.

Our friend Fred. Clark, however, happened to be passing near, and seizing the soldier by the throat demanded he should stop, which he was not inclined to do, but Fred, always ready for an emergency, thrust a cigar near his throat, which he made the soldier believe was a knife, and said ["]if you don't stop I'll cut your throat["], when he halted, and was delivered back to the guard.

Nashville Daily Press, July 28, 1863.

          27, General Orders, No. 19, relative to regulating traffic speed and saloon hours in Nashville

Headquarters United States Forces,

Nashville, Tenn., July 27 [1863]

General Orders, No. 19

I. All fast driving, riding and racing in the streets of this city by officers, soldiers or citizens, is prohibited.

Mounted orderlies and couriers will travel at a walk, unless a faster gait is designated on the dispatch they are bearing.

Patrols and guards will arrest any one violating this order and carry them to the Provost Marshal's office, if soldiers or citizens; if officer, take their names, ranks, and regiment, and direct them to report immediately to the Provost Marshal.

II. All liquor saloons, bars, and drinking houses, will be closed, hereafter, punctually, at 10 o'clock P.M.

The Provost Marshal is charged with the execution of this order.

By Command of Brig. Gen. R. S. Granger, Commanding Post

Nashville Daily Press, July 28, 1863.

          27, "A Great Mistake."

On yesterday afternoon, Judge M. M. Brien had occasion to chastise a negro [sic] woman, to prevent her abusing a member of his family, when a large mob of negroes [sic] gathered in front of his dwelling and made pretty menacing demonstrations. The provost guard appeared, and after hearing how the matter stood, went their way. But a number of them soon returned and arrested the Judge and presented him before the bar of the Provost Marshal when he was released. Col. Spaulding was not present, but the gentleman officiating in his stead, treated the Judge very courteously, dismissing him with a remark that the time had passed when negroes [sic] could be whipped in this country. [sic] The Judge supposed the guard returned and arrested him at the suggestion of some of the angry negroes [sic] who had assembled near his residence

We would caution the soldier on duty in this city, that it would be wise to pay but little attention to many of the negroes [sic] who have accumulated in and around Nashville. Judge Brien is, and always has been, not only a Union man, but a strong administration man. And we have no doubt, but the "ironclads" and "copperbottoms," who saw the Judge marching up Capital hill has a sharp stick after him, laughed in their sleeves, and grew bolder in their reason [?]. Be careful soldiers, we know your motives are good, but don't punish your best friends by mistake. Done for the present.

Nashville Daily Press, July 27, 1863.

          27, Conditions in the Decherd and Winchester and environs

Winchester, July 27th, 1863.

Dear Press: Leaving your city on Thursday [23rd] last by the 6 A.M. train of the N&C Railroad, and being passed free of charge on the strength of a bit of pasteboard kindly furnished by the worthy superintendent Anderson, who is a perfect gentleman, as is also his assistant, I arrived safely at Decherd, after a most delightful trip in company with Mr. Sinsabaus, who is a perfect brick in his own way, and withal very much of a gentleman. At Decherd everything was noise and confusion, what between the puffing and snorting of three or four engines, the rattle and jam of hundreds of government wagons, and the almost incessant braying and screeching of a thousand or more mules, mingled with the shouts and curses of their contraband drivers, the ding to our unpracticed ear was almost intolerable. But it was surprising to witness the rapidity and accuracy with which all government business was despatched [sic] amid this tumult, and in less than one hour the crowd had dispersed, the mountains of rations had disappeared, and but few remained upon the ground except the necessary guard, and an occasional sutler, who were pretty equally divided into two parties, the one bewailing bitterly the loss of his valuable stock through his own foolhardiness in attempting to smuggle contraband goods through under the very eyes of a score of government agents, who long since have learned all the dodges of the cunning craft, and are ever on the alert to pick up and offending army follower, while the remainder were counting already the profits in perspective upon the sale of their edibles and bibibles [sic] to Uncle Sam's nephews, many of whom have just been paid off, and are consequently quite flush.

But it is time that we, too, be moving, and following one of the many long lines of wagons loaded with "grubb [sic]" for the soldiers. We finally arrived at the pretty little town of Winchester, where we found the headquarters of General Rosecrans in a fine large college building. The General himself not being at present here, having been for some time, as you know, in your city, accompanied by his Provost Marshal General, Major Wiles. The present department is under control of Captain Elias Cooper, an efficient officer and a perfect gentleman, who is never absent from his post of duty. Here, too, we find the headquarters of Colonel Wm. Truesdail, Chief of the Army Police, who has labored so assiduously in the discharge of the many duties devolving upon him, as to win for himself the admiration and respect of all true hearted men and patriots. The Colonel himself is not in Nashville, with a view, as I understand, of making some important changes and improvements upon the present police system established by him.

Everything remains quite at this point; the men an officers having by this time been perfectly recruited-all appear to be feeling well, if not better, than before their late tedious and disagreeable march from Murfreesboro. What the next important movement in this section will be, and when made, I can only guess at, and as a mere surmise is not generally considered "reliable information." I shall wait and see, hoping soon to forward you something of more general interest than I am at present to do

Yours, Asa

Nashville Daily Press, July 29, 1863.

          27, Federal scout Purdy to Lexington-capture of Confederate forces[19]

Monday, July 27, 1863 -- We moved out at 5:30 A. M. to Jacks [sic] Creek 5 miles distant which is a very small town on a little creek. There we took the road to Lexington, Tenn., 18 miles distant. During the forenoon the 15th Ill. Cav. was sent off on the left flank and came suddenly upon the rebels under Col. Newsome 300 strong who fled without offering resistance. We reached Lexington at 3.00 P. M. It is the capitol of Henderson County. The courthouse was burned. Soon after our arrival the rebel Col. Campbell of Brag's [sic] army with two commissioned officers and five soldiers approached our picket post thinking it was their own men. They were all captured. The citizens do not seem to like our presence in their town.

Pomerory Diaries, July 27, 1863.

          27, A Federally Sanctioned Marriage License in Gallatin

A Novel Marriage License—The following is a copy of a marriage license captured on a Yankee by our troops at Gallatin, Tenn., a few days since:

Provost Marshal's Office

Gallatin, Tenn., July 27, 1863

This is to certify that John R. White has permission to marry Milly Walls for two years, or during the war.

Albert Lamb, Capt. and Provost Marshal.

Approved: E. A. Paine, Brig. Gen.

Montgomery Weekly Advertiser, March 30, 1864.[20]

          ca. 27-29, Federal expedition, Wilson County environs

"Gobbled Up"

Col. Lowe's Iowa Cavalry has been out on an important expedition for several days, and the boys have been very successful in picking up stray parties of Confeds. [sic] Yesterday, Colonel Lowe sent in a batch of seventeen prisoners, taken somewhere in Wilson County, ten of whom were Confederate soldiers, and seven citizens suspected of being guerrillas on their own hook. All of them were committed to prison, the latter to be tried by military commission, most likely.

Nashville Daily Press, July 29, 1863.[21]

          28, "By the favor of God you have expelled the insurgents from Middle Tennessee." General William S. Rosecrans issues General Orders No. 175 [see August 15, 1863, General Orders No. 199 below]

July 28, 1863, Winchester, Tenn. GENERAL ORDERS, No. 175. HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE CUMBERLAND, by Major-General William S. Rosecrans:


By the favor of God you have expelled the insurgents from Middle Tennessee. You are now called upon to aid your unfortunate fellow-citizens of this section of the State in restoring law, and securing its protection to persons and property, the right of every free people. Without prompt and united efforts to prevent it, this beautiful region [will] be plundered and desolated by robbers and guerrillas; its industry will be suspended or destroyed, and a large part of the population left without sufficient food for the coming winter. It is true, many of the people have favored the rebellion, but many were dragged unwillingly into it by a current of mad passion they could not, ordered not, resist. The conspirators and traitors, bankrupts in fortunes and in reputation; political swindlers, who forced us from our homes to defend the Government of our fathers, have forced the inhabitants of Middle Tennessee into this unnatural attempt to ruin and destroy it. Remember, we fight for common rights; what we ask for ourselves, we willingly accord to others-freedom under the Constitution and laws of our country-the country of Washington and of Jackson. Assure Tennesseeans [sic] of this. Assure them that, foreseeing the waste and suffering that must ensue from a state of anarchy, you stand ready to aid them in re-establishing and maintaining civil order. Tell them to assert their former rights against an arbitrary and cruel revolutionary party, that has ruined their State, impoverished their families, rendered their slave property insecure, if not altogether valueless; dragged their sons, furthers, and brothers from home, and caused their blood to be shed for an insane project, the success of which would be the proclamation of interminable war, and the death-knell of States' rights as well as individual freedom; and, if they are willing to help themselves, give them every assistance and protection consistent with you military duties.

I. Officers and soldiers of the Army of the Cumberland: Some grave outrages and wrongs have been perpetrated on loyal citizens and help-less [sic] women, by lawless and unprincipled men, wearing our uniform and calling themselves soldiers. Such violation of orders disgraces our country and cause. I appeal to you by your honor, your love of country, and the noble cause in which you serve, to denounce and bring to punishment all such offenders. Let not the slightest stain tarnish your brilliant record. Let no thief, pillager, or invader of the rights of person or property go unpunished. Remember that the truly brave and noble are always just and merciful, and that by a strict observance of orders you will crown your noble work, and establish your claims to the respect and gratitude of our country.

II. Stragglers and marauders, separated from their commands without authority, who go thieving and pillaging around the country, are not entitled to the privileges of soldiers and prisoners of war. They are to be regarded as brigands, enemies of making, and are to be treated accordingly.

III. Deserters, conscript agents, and prisoners of war desirous of abandoning the rebellion and becoming peaceable citizens, will be paroled as prisoners of war, and permitted to return to their homes, on giving bonds and security, or satisfactory assurance, for the faithful observance of their paroles, and will not be exchanged unless they violate their promises.

IV. All citizens are invited to unite in restoring law and order, and in suppressing marauders and guerrillas. All privileges and protection compatible with the interests of the service will be accorded to those who are willing and give assurance, by their parole, oath, and bond, or other satisfactory voucher, that they will conduct themselves peaceably, and do no injury to the Government.

V. Those claiming allegiance to the rebellion, or who cannot or will not give satisfactory assurance that they will conduct themselves peaceably, are, on their own theory, by the law of nations bound to leave the country. This rule will hereafter be observed in such district as come within our control, at the discretion of the commanding officer of troops in the district.

VI. Persons desiring to vote, or to exercise any other right of citizenship, will be permitted to take the oath of allegiance, unless the commanding officer has reason to suppose a fraudulent intent on the part of such person.

VII. Provost-marshals are authorized to parole prisoners of war, to administer the parole to non-combatants, and oath of allegiance to citizens, in accordance with the provisions of this order, under such instructions and limitations as may be prescribed by the provost-marshal-general, or the provost-marshals of corps or divisions detached or acting at inconvenient distances from their corps headquarters, reporting promptly a list of the names and description of all persons so paroled by them, with their bonds, if any have been given, to the provost-marshal-general of the army, at the headquarters of the department, for record.

OR, Ser. I. Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 184-185.

          28, Excerpt from a letter from Robert Jamison, with Company D, 49th Tennessee Infantry, to his wife Camilla, indicating the unhappiness he felt after the Army of Tennessee had been pushed to Chattanooga by the Federal Tullahoma campaign.

[I can].see no chance in the world of our getting whipped if the people of the South will only hold out faithful and be true to themselves. Although many have become disheartened and deserted [the Army of Tennessee], I think there are enough left of the true steel to let the enemy know we are still in earnest and will never be their slaves. If our army is every reduced so that we will not be able to procure our supplies and we have to disband our regular army (which I think will never be the case), we will then annoy them so that they cannot occupy our country in peace and will have to quit it because they can accomplish no good to themselves by trying to hold it. My opinion is that there will always be enough patriots left to poison the heels of all invaders of Southern soul. We are into this thing now and there is but one way to get out, and that is to stand every man firm to his post. The fact is that every man who had any soul at all would rather die than be subject to the US. Government. I would, myself, rather fight the balance of by life and then be killed contending for liberty, than for you and our posterity to be under the rule of such a government Life is sweet to me, but not so sweet that I would prefer slavery for me and mine to dying the death of a patriot....The difficulty with the most persons is that they compare our situation now with last fall instead of last spring and summer. Then speculators and public opinion have reduced our currency so low. I do not pretend to say that our reverses are not great, but I do say they are not as bad as they might have been and have been heretofore. I am very sorry that things are as they are, but as we cannot help it, we should make the best of it as we possibly can and trust to God for the result....

You request me to tell you something of the retreat [from Tullahoma]. After falling back to Tullahoma we commenced fortifying and continued 'til about 12 o'clock one night, shovels and axes were thrown away and we were ordered to leave with little noise, the wagons having gone on before. At day we were near Elk River where we stayed 'til near night and then went to Decherd. Next day we crossed the mountain and we all suffered much that day from hunger and fatigue. The next day to Jasper and the next we crossed the Tennessee River on a pontoon and came in 7 miles of Chattanooga where we stayed two or three days. Hence to this place. We have good water and a nice camping ground. We are doing finely, getting plenty to eat and wear, but have no tents...

Robert Jamison Papers, TSL&A

          28, Confederate deserter provides valuable maps to Major-General P. H. Sheridan

HDQRS. TWENTIETH ARMY CORPS, July 28, 1863--2.15 p. m.

Brig. Gen. JAMES A. GARFIELD, Chief of Staff, Nashville:

The Confederate officer who came to my lines is first lieutenant and assistant topographical engineer on Bragg's staff. He has valuable maps, and information of Chattanooga and country south and west of there. I am satisfied his information is reliable. Shall I send him, with his maps, to you at Nashville, or keep him here until the general commanding returns?

P. H. SHERIDAN, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 564.

          28, Major-General P.H. Sheridan derides management of railroad

WINCHESTER, July 28, 1863.

Maj. F. S. BOND, Aide-de-Camp:

I am in receipt of your dispatch about conductor. I arrested him because he was saucy and impertinent in language and manner. He will be sent up on the first train which is sent of Stevenson to supply the troops stationed there, a portion of which troops have been out of rations for two days, on account of failure on the part of the railroad to furnish the train ordered by the general and Col. Taylor. The road is most villainously managed; conductors dishonest and worthless. Conductor Rice charged Dr. Woodward, sent to Tullahoma a few days got to bring stores for wounded, $2.25 from Decherd to Tullahoma, distance 13 miles. Conductor arrested charged four or five sick men, sent by Col. Laiboldt from Stevenson to hospital at Cowan, 75 cents each, although he was running only a detached engine, and would have put one off the cars had I not been aboard. The conductors are all of the style described, and I am forced to believe that the superintendent is of the same style also.

P. H. SHERIDAN, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 564.

          28, Situation in Winchester

HDQRS. CHIEF OF CAVALRY, Winchester, July 28, 1863.

Gen. D. S. STANLEY, Nashville, Tenn.:

Col. Innes, Michigan Engineers, sent an order and an officer here for the negroes [sic] we have in charge. I refused to send them over without orders from yourself or Gen. Rosecrans. Construction train ran up to Fayetteville last evening. Received a dispatch from Col. Long, when it came down this morning; says he cannot make out oaths and bonds as fast as the rebs [sic] want to take them-bite savagely. Thinks three-fourths of the people of Alabama and Tennessee through which he has passed would vote to-day to come back into the old Union. They are most emphatically sick. He has over 200 American citizens of African descent.

I was at the depot to-day, but did not see you. Will have my carriage there again to-morrow. Will you be here? Passenger train ran up to Winchester to-day.

WILLIAM H. SINCLAIR, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 564-565.

          28, "Fight Near Gallatin-Four Rebels Killed and One wounded."

We learn that on Saturday last, while a small squad of Federal soldier were passing from the Cumberland river to Gallatin, they were fired upon by a party of rebels in ambush, without doing any danger, however, The fire was returned, and four of the rebels were killed, and the other mortally wounded and taken prisoner. It is not known who the assailants were, or to what command they belonged. The Federals were a detachment of Col. Lowe's 5th Iowa cavalry we believe.

Nashville Daily Press, July 28, 1863.

          28, "Playing Soldier."

One of the girls (whose name is Frank Williams [sic]) sent to Louisville on the steamer Idahoe, under the late order, and returned to this city by the authorities of Louisville, on arriving here resorted to a curious mode of avoiding a second deportation. She escaped from her place of duress, by leaping from a window at night, procured a cavalry uniform and horse, and went soldiering on her own hook. The guards arrested her in the city, yesterday, at the instigation of some one who discovered that she was in disguise. She stated to the Provost Marshal that she had been on picket several days. Recorder Shane being the proper official to dispose of Frank, she was remanded to him, and failing to settle the fine imposed for wearing male attire, she went to the workhouse for a few days.

Nashville Daily Press, July 28, 1863.

          28, Re-election of Rev. Mr. Hines as Memphis School Superintendent

Quite a keen election was held among school visitors yesterday for School Superintendent. Rev. Mr. Hines, the late Superintendent, Mr. Scott, and Mr. Moffet, were put in election. A number of ballots were taken, and at last, the Rev. Mr. Hines was declared Superintendent. We are well pleased with the result, for Mr. Hines has made an excellent, careful, and efficient officer, and such he will remain.

Memphis Bulletin, July 29, 1863.

          29, C. S. A. orders security precautions in Cocke County during August 6, 1863 elections


Brig.-Gen. [A. E.] JACKSON:

GEN.: Information has been received at these headquarters that about 200 bushwhackers are expected to meet and control the election to be held an August 6 on the waters of Big Creek, southeast of Newport about 15 miles. The point is in Cocke Country, thirteenth civil district. The major-general commanding directs that you have a sufficient force sent secretly, if possible, to [such] person and prevent illegal voting.

I am, sir, your obedient servant,

J. N. GALLEHER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 936.

          29, Skirmish at Lexington

MEMPHIS, TENN., July 29, 1863--4.30 p. m.

Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Gen.-in-Chief:

Col. Hatch had a skirmish at Lexington; captured two caissons, a Col. [A. W.] Campbell, and 25 prisoners.

A dispatch was captured on Col. Campbell from [Confederate] Governor [Isham G.] Harris, which develops the intention of throwing troops into West Tennessee, and shall keep cavalry moving through the district until the emergency is over. Those men who enforce [Confederate] conscription within our lines should not be treated as prisoners of war.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 560.

          29, Skirmish with guerrillas near Fort Donelson

JULY 29, 1863.-Skirmish near Fort Donelson, Tenn.

Reported of Col. William P. Lyon, Thirteenth Wisconsin Infantry.

HDQRS. UNITED STATES FORCES, Fort Donelson, Tenn., July 29, 1863.

CAPT.: The telegraph line being down, I have the honor to submit my report by letter.

A party of between 30 and 40 mounted infantry from Clarksville arrived here this morning, having traversed the telegraph line, which is on the south side of, and part of the way some miles from, the river, returning by the same route. When 8 or 10 miles from this post, the party was fired upon from an ambush by a gang, supposed to be Hinson's guerrillas, and scattered. Over 20 of them have already arrived here, and stragglers continue to come in. The lieutenant in command has not been heard from. I think the casualties from all accounts, are few. One wounded man has reached here. I think the guerrilla party is about 50 strong. I have sent out a strong force infantry and mounted infantry in pursuit. This gang have their headquarters near Waverly, and they are supported and sustained by the whole community in that vicinity. Waverly is the nest of the vilest and most pestilential set of traitors that live, and the place ought to be destroyed. I find it very difficult to keep up the telegraph wire between this place and Cumberland City. It runs through a country infested with guerrillas, and is cut three or four times a week, usually about 15 miles from here. I beg leave to suggest that the line should be on the north side of the river. That route to Clarksville is 10 miles shorter, and it could be protected there with comparative ease by a few men.

* * * *

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Capt. W. C. RUSSELL, A. A. G., Reserve Corps, Nashville, Tenn.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 844.

          29, Reconnaissance ordered from Winchester to Bridgeport

No circumstantital reports filed.

WINCHESTER, July 28, 1863.


Col. Laiboldt, at Stevenson, reports the enemy removing the remainder of the bridge over the Tennessee at Bridgeport. I have directed him to make a reconnaissance at 2 o'clock to-morrow morning, to ascertain the truth of this report. The remainder of the bridge might be saved by a permanent occupation of Bridgeport and the use of artillery. Should this be order, Bradley could be moved down, via Sweeden's Cove, in which case his position at the University should be occupied at once. The enemy crossed over yesterday, at Bridgeport, 150 infantry, on a small steamboat, to get lumber on this side.

P. H. SHERIDAN, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 564.

          29, "Take a Drink"

Among the many excellent drinking saloons now flourishing in our midst, "The Cumberland," opposite the Adams Express Office, is not to be "snubbed." The proprietors, Messrs. Gettel & Fulgham, are both young gentlemen of the finest business qualifications, and withal genteel, polite and attentive to all who extend their custom. Their stock of Wines, Liquors, Cigars, Tobacco, etc., is not to be excelled by any house in the city, and those who are partial to a pure drink or a genuine smoke, will hardly fail to call at the Cumberland. That superb beverage, "Walker's Cream Ale." should of itself attract a large patronage. A fresh cask always on hand.

Nashville Daily Press, July 29, 1863.

          29, "East Tennessee Wheat Crop Going South."

We have conversed with several gentlemen direct from East Tennessee, all of who inform us that the rebels are making arrangements to transport the wheat crop recently harvested, South, in the event that it becomes necessary [to fight the army?] of the national forces. Indeed, all reports agree that they are preparing to evacuate that country in case of emergency. They have even gone so far as to make all necessary arrangements to convey the present wheat crop South in the bundle, in the straw, in the head [sic], in the event they are pressed by the Union army. Now, the question comes up whether our army will permit them to have things all their own way, or whether they will be attacked and driven out of there in a manner inconsistent to the transportation of supplies with them. Rosecrans has heretofore had a great name, and if he permits the rebels to hold this Eden of patriotism and garner of supplies, until they destroy the one and exhaust the other, his prestige will be gone-his name will no longer call forth enthusiastic applause, and instead of being honored high upon the scroll of fame, and regarded as one of the generals of the age, he will be regarded only as a second-rate man.

Therefore, we are satisfied, he will push his army into East Tennessee, for he certainly understands the issue on hand.

We give this as our opinion, and can say to our friends from East Tennessee, that from the best of our belief the day of East Tennessee's redemption draweth nigh. [sic] Be of good cheer and strong hope. The sky is bright. Rosecrans will yet lead you home, and crush the enemy before him-if he don't, somebody will. All will yet be well.

Mark the prediction. The country is saved at an immense cost of blood and treasure.

Nashville Daily Press, July 29, 1863.

          29, "Richardson About."

The Platte Valley, under the command of Capt. Riley, on her way down from St. Louis to this city, had to stop at Watson's Landing, on the Tennessee side, fifteen miles below New Madrid where the officers were informed that Richardson, with five hundred men, were lying back in the country.

Memphis Bulletin, July 29, 1863.

          29, General Orders, No. 101, relative to banishment from Memphis

Headquarters 16th Army Corps

Memphis, July 29, 1863

I.-The penalty of banishment under General Order No. 65, will not be enforced upon the following classes of persons:

1. - Widows and orphans.

2. - Persons of either sex above the age of fifty years.

3. - Persons dependent for their livelihood upon actual daily labor, manual or mechanical..

So long as persons belonging to either of the above classes conduct themselves quietly within our lines, and obey military orders, they will be unmolested.

II. [sic] - All persons having property, and belonging to the class of registered enemies, will be compelled by assessments, to contributing to the support of the refugees driven within these lines by insurrectionary violence, and for such other appropriations of property as military necessities may call for.

III. [sic] - Lists will be prepared as rapidly as possible, of all persons who have not taken the oath prescribed by General Orders No. 65, and not included in the above classes, or otherwise specially exempted

By order of Major General S. A. Hurlbut

Memphis Bulletin, August 16, 1863.

          29, "UNION LEAGUE."

Resolved, That in the future the Union League meet twice each week, Monday evenings to be devoted exclusively to the initiation of members, and matters connected directly therewith; and Thursday evenings to be business meetings exclusively; and that those desiring to become members of this order may know when they can be initiated, the Nashville papers, loyal to the Union, be requested to publish this resolution. The Press and Union being such. Passed unanimously, July 27, 1863

Nashville Daily Press, July 29, 1863.

          29, All's fair in love and war; self defence in Knoxville

A Sad Occurrence.

On the night of the 29th inst., between the hours of 8 and 9 o'clock, a personal difficulty occurred between J. C. Cole, and Wm. A. Clark, partners in a manufacturing establishment of this city. We regret very much that circumstances lead us to make a brief statement in regard to the sad and unfortunate affair.

From what has been reported to us, it appears Mr. Cole and Clarke were devoted friends until of a recent date. Frequent attentions from Mr. Cole, to a young lady (a sister to the wife of Mr. Clarke) caused Mr. Clarke to make many threats and infringe upon the feeling of the two admirers. On the night spoken of, Mr. Cole was innocently conversing with the lady of his affections, when he discovered Mr. Clarke approaching him with a double barreled shot gun from behind a fence; seeking an opportunity to empty its deadly contents. Mr. Cole then immediately stepped a few paces from the house and commenced firing upon his assailant-several shots were fired-one taking effect in the left side of the lady, and one in the leg of Mr. Clark.

Mr. Cole at once gave himself up to the authorities, and stated he was perfectly willing to abide by the law as he was forced to act as he did in self-defense.

The affair is much to be regretted but it is hoped and believed by many that the wounded lady will recover.

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, July 31, 1863

          30, "Is There no Help for it?" Suggestions for protection from Confederate guerrillas in Middle Tennessee

With entire military possession of the country, from the Kentucky line to Chattanooga, is it unreasonable for the people-the subjugated and submissive rebels, as well as Union men-to expect that the national army shall protect them against the depredations of guerrillas and bandits? Are there sound military reasons why General Rosecrans does not disperse through the country, squads of cavalry, who may render every hole and corner of Middle Tennessee too hot for the marauders? Or is it the policy of the government, and of the commanding general, that the mischiefs of social disorder shall fall yet more heavily on the people, in order that they may be brought more justly to estimate the benefits of a good government, which may secure to them life, liberty and property?

We have proposed the foregoing interrogatories for the consideration of all whom it may concern, without supposing that we are competent, satisfactorily to answer them. Least of all shall we presume to criticise [sic] the movement or the inactivity [sic] of the Army of the Cumberland, or suggest to the commanding general how he shall dispose of his forces. But, as citizens of Middle Tennessee, we find nothing to forbid us from casting about to discover if there may not be some remedy in the hands of the people themselves, aided and guided by State authorities. If the people are not ready to do what may be in their power, to save themselves from indiscriminate plunder and oppression, we see nothing for it but to let matters rip, until further and longer instruction in the school of bitter experience shall incline them to take some care of themselves.

Without pretending to full information upon the subject, we do not see why a State force may not be organized, as has been done in Missouri, sufficient to deal with these detestable land pirates. It could, and, in many instances, would be done by voluntary associations of individuals; but the people are without arms. Even their squirrel-killers have been taken from them, and, in many places, the Federal military power would have to be invoked to free the country from the intrusion of a bear or a wolf. Could not some arrangement be made by which the citizens might be safely entrusted with arms for defence [sic] against wild beasts, and men worse than wild beasts. May not a sufficient militia or volunteer force of citizens be organized to arrest and bring to justice the thieves and robbers, not infesting the country, and who are likely to increase in number and in boldness with every day of impunity? We venture to ask the attention of Gov. Johnson to this crying evil, in the hope that his patriotism and sagacity may devise some means of relief. And, in the mean time, let the people rouse themselves to some show of alacrity in seconding any plan that may be proposed for their protection.

Nashville Daily Press, July 30, 1863.

          29, A federal soldier's comments on life in the field near Decherd and results of  the Tullahoma campaign

Decherd Station

July 29, 1863

Dear friends,

I received your very welcome letter of the 21st inst. I was very glad to hear that you were all well, but sorry to hear that death has taken one so near. Death must sooner or later claim one and all of us, it matters not whether in the army or at home. When we have run the course the Almighty has assigned us, we must leave earth for other shores.

We are camped down as usual & have nothing but our usual camp, & picket duties and occational forage, etc. This is a little different from marching, where the Regt has to march in a close mass, ready to face an enemy on any side and the sun shining down on us hot enough to roast us. We hear nothing of the rebs in this quarter any more. They are all driven far south. They were greatly demoralised. The greater share are ready to desert whenever a chance presents itself.

Well, I hope they have got as well scared or half as well in the east as here.

I would like to help you eat some of your good things. Crackers, coffy and meat is our grub here. If you want potatoes or any thing of that kind, you can get a handkerchief full for $1.00 or 5 for 25 cts. Nice is it not verry. Just let my eyes rest for one minute on a sesesh apple tree or pototoe pach and some of them.....

I wrote you a few lines 3 or 4 days ago, also sent a treasury note of $50. I send in this sheet $10.

L.P. Warner

Warner Papers.

          30, Skirmish at Grand Junction

No circumstantial reports filed.

          30, "The Streets."

It is well known to our citizens that, previous to the war, our public thoroughfares were always kept in a condition of neatness and substantiality; and it is a fact equally notorious, that since armies have entered the State and too Nashville in their pathway, the streets have been worn and cut up, as it were, like some veteran, unconquerable regiment or corps in the face of a stubborn foe. All can now see for themselves that the city is again slowly coming to a point where it can boast of well macadamized and clean avenues of travel. The street committee of the City Council are doing their duty like public spirited officers, and from the rejoicing of pedestrians we take it that their labors are rightly appreciated. But there is a little work for the military to perform, to which we would call the attention of General Granger. The barricades, erected some time ago to prevent the entrance of Morgan or somebody else, seem quite useless at this time. There is not the remotest probability of a raid upon Nashville, and never was, in our humble judgment, and there can be no sort of propriety in keeping some of our most frequented streets blocked up with sand-bags. Both footmen and teamsters are greatly annoyed by these monuments of past alarm, and as General Granger has at all times evinced a readiness to contribute to the well-being of our sometimes ill-used city, we hope he will see the plausibility of our suggestion. Remove the barricades, and the work of street improvement can go ahead.

Nashville Daily Press, July 30, 1863.

          30, "Richardson's Bloody Order"

We are accustomed to hear secessionist talk of Federal outrages, but we challenge the world to afford anything like the tyranny now exercised over the suffering people of the South by their relentless rulers. If ever the demonic spirit which is said to rule in hell had a counter part on earth, it is found among the rulers and petty despots who are now trampling in the dust the rights and liberties of the Southern people. And yet they talk [sic] of liberty! What liberty have they? They have the liberty of being shot, and left to rot like dogs; they have the liberty of being barricaded and burnt to death in the flames of their own consuming homes. Such [sic] is the sweet boon of liberty vouchsafed to those who do not feel willing to leave their families and go forth to suffer toil; and bleed in a hopeless cause. Such are the sweet privileges for which these men have aided by their influence to pull down the freest and best Government the sun of heaven ever shone upon. This is liberty! Yes, such liberty as hungry wolves grant the gentle lamb, or the kite gives to the doves; such liberty as Russia gives the Poles, or death to the victim. The following orders of the day read to the brigade by the Adjutant General to his serene demonship [sic], Richardson [sic] will prove how true are the charges which we have made against the rebel authorities. It seems that Richardson [sic], from being a Saint on the high road to heaven, has let go the ladder which he was ascending, and has descend to hold, converse, and plot cruelty with the infernal council in the lower regions. Let the friends of Southern [sic] liberty read, and ponder these gentle lamb-like orders of a former christian [sic] exhorter [sic]:

1st Every man of this command is expected to strictly obey all orders which the commanding General may deem necessary for discipline or the interest of the cause in which we are engaged.

2nd. Commanders of companies are hereby ordered to make a detail from their respective companies for the purpose of enforcing the conscript laws, passed by the Confederate State Congress * * * [sic] These details shall be empowered, they are hereby ordered, to rigidly enforce the laws of the Confederate States.

3d. Every white man between the ages of eighteen and forth-five in the District of West Tennessee is hereby ordered to report immediately at such places of rendezvous as may hereafter be designated. Commanding officers of companies are hereby ordered to strictly enforce this order. The following rules of procedure are given for the government of company officers and privates who may be engaged in the execution of section third of these orders

If a man should absent himself from his home to avoid this order, burn his house and other property, except such as may be useful to this command. If a man is found to resist the execution of this order, by refusing to report, shoot him down and leave him lying. If a man takes refuge in his house and offers resistance, set the house on fire and guard it in order the recusant may not get out.

Such is the liberty of the chivalrous, noble and free [sic] people of the South. What can be more gentle than Richardson's [sic] rules of procedure? Satan himself with all his attributed good qualities, could not have invented a more kind, satanic and remarkable a code of rules of procedure. This, fellow-citizens, is the boasted liberty of the free [sic] South.

Memphis Bulletin, July 30, 1863.

          30, "Warn your messengers, pickets, and scouts to be very careful." Federal situation report for West Tennessee



COL.: Inclosed I hand copies of official communications regarding the movements of the enemy in West Tennessee.

Maj.-Gen. Hurlbut and Brig.-Gen. Dodge believe the rebel forces are at Paris. Your cavalry found the place deserted. According to my information, Biffle and others are at Jackson, extending from there to Trenton, scouting to Troy and Union City, and co-operating with [R. V.] Richardson's bands between the Hatchie and Obion Rivers. Under these circumstances, Feliciana is the proper position for your command at this moment, to co-operate from there with Col. Hatch's forces against the rebels. You will endeavor to put yourself in communication with Col. Hatch's command. I have already dispatched, several days ago, messengers to meet the Union forces coming from Corinth and La Grange, with orders to report to you anything of importance. Besides the force of Baffle, Forrest, and others at Jackson, and this side that place, you will give your attention also to Richardson's operations on the Obion. His headquarters are at Dyersburg. I have ordered the Second Illinois Cavalry to move immediately upon their arrival from Fort Pillow, upon Richardson. Yesterday four companies of my infantry were at Union City. They found no enemy there. Will send a train again to-morrow with four companies.

On 28th instant, Lieut. [August] Thiel, of Fourth Missouri Cavalry, was fired upon twice, and shot through, the arm, upon the Obion Bridge, on the Clinton road, about sunset. Warn your messengers, pickets, and scouts to be very careful.

Inclosed find Special Orders, No. 159, from headquarters Sixteenth Army Corps, and my General Orders, No. 47. You will see that the ensuing election in your neighborhood is conducted and controlled in accordance with their provisions.

 The detachment of Fifteenth Kentucky Cavalry you will order at once to Mayfield, subject there to Col. Martin's orders, retaining, however, those having their homes in Fulton County.

Col. Martin is directed to send supplies for your command by railroad from Paducah, upon your requisition. Report frequently and fully, and direct your messenger to exchange dispatches if they meet my messengers.

Respectfully, colonel, your obedient servant,

ASBOTH, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 569.

          30, Criticism of the Winchester Convention and method of electing Confederate representatives

Winchester Convention.

We have shown clearly enough, we think, that the Winchester Convention was a "mistake" or a fraud throughout. That its action did not conform to the provisions of the act providing for elections under the general ticket system is as sure as demonstration can make it. Did they know that the published copy of the enabling act in conformity with which they shaped their entire proceedings was a spurious copy essentially, materially [sic] different from the real act passed by Congress. It is scarcely presumable that they were ignorant of this difference; at any rate, there are many reasons why the leading spirits in that Convention ought not to have been thus ignorant. They had been in Congress-were it when the act was passed in due form; were themselves the men who had passed it so-had they forgotten its fundamental character and provisions, whether it was, in reality, a general ticket [sic] law or a special district [sic] system?

It is mere trifling with the rights of both candidates and voters to say that all this is a matter of indifference. With the exception of a few persons who may have been in the secret, the whole body of the people in the State and in the army have been deceived by the publication of a spurious copy of the law, as to their rights and privileges under it. Gentlemen aspiring to be candidates were made to believe by this publication that they must stand only for the district in which they reside; when in fact, so far as the law is concerned, the whole Congressional delegation might be from one district, if the voters [so will it?]. The people, citizens and soldiers have by the way [illegible] and deceived as to their privileges and rights as voters. [sic]

They were led to believe that, they that they were not at liberty if they wished it, to vote for two candidates residing in the same Congressional District; that they must so frame their ticket as to vote for "the names of one person from each district" in the State. This is a fraud upon the right of the voter. He has the by the Law, the State at large for h is district of selection. He has the right [sic] and may exercise the privilege [sic] of selecting eleven [sic] of the best men he knows or can think of any where the in [sic] State and of putting their names on one ticket and voting that ticket for these men as his representatives in the Confederate Congress.

This is the law [sic], the Winchester Convention, we think, must have known it; yet it ignored it and practically annulled [sic] it, and would no doubt, have left the people in ignorance as to this matter till after the election. We have tried to set the matter right before the voters and hope they will remember it on election day. Whether the Convention has acted fairly [sic] and wisely [sic] in assuming thus to misguide the elections in the State, we shall leave the voters among our citizens and soldiers to decide.

We can very well see and point out if necessary, how this spurious copy of the Law and the Winchester proceedings under it might have lost the State one or more Representatives in Congress, and thus have "conciliated" to that extent, "Union sentiment"-which the Register [sic] and Judge Swan's friends make so much ado about just this juncture. But we will not magnify the danger as has been the Register's [sic] wont, to the great discredit and dishonor of our State both in the Congress and in the armies of the Confederacy. We professed to abhor both traitors and treason here and elsewhere to the full extent as much as or neighbor or any nominee or supporter of the Winchester Convention does. But our sense of State pride, concern for its good name among its sister States, regard for the honor of its one hundred and six regiments in distant battle fields, would make us hesitate and shrink from a too oft unnecessary or exposure of any shameful and odious features we might discover in Tennessee. She is a proud state withal, our Mother, God bless her. Disloyalty to the Confederacy is not the rule but the exception in her family, as it is in that of any of heroic sisters now battling against invading tyranny. We lament the fact that a there should exist any disloyalty, tory or traitor in our State, as much as the Register [sic] of any other friend of Judge Swan can do; and dare say our course had done as little to promote any such, either directly or remotely. But we will not to the utter shame of our State, magnify and intensify the evil and danger imminent therefrom, in order that we and our friends may claim and bethought the only loyal and true men in the State, the only champions of all capable, or willing to meet and combat the hydra headed Union monster. Col. Cocke is a loyal and true man. He is vouched [sic] for as such by the Register [sic] itself. He will be voted for as such [sic] by all who vote for him His crime is that he is an independent candidate in Judge Swan's district and before the voters in the army and the State without the permit or sanction of the Winchester Convention. This is the crime also of the other independent candidates. They are loyal and true to their State an country; have proved their fidelity many of them, by hard service in the field. No one in reality doubts the fact. But they are not favorites of the Convention. They have not its word and sanction to run. They have disobeyed its authority and must be visisted [sic] and punished with reproach and contumely, their names cast out as evil and associated with epithets of loathing and contempt. All for war? Will the people of Tennessee indorse such proscription from such a source and by such means? Will they by their votes ratify the proceedings of a Convention founded on error or fraud, and privileges, and which by its friends and advocates aims to put to the torture and bring to the political guilotine [sic] every man who dares disregard its authority.

Will the voters ratify—will they at the ballot box say this is right? We think not

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, July 30, 1863.

          31, Letter to Mrs. G. U. Owen

Chattanooga Tenn

July the 31st 1863

Mrs. U.G. Owen

My beloved wife

I am well today. I have procured a house for you to board at in a private family. No person boarding there. Most of the houses are filled with military officers and their families, but I got a more private place. The Gentleman's name is W.F. Ragsdale.. [he] lives ¼ a mile north east of the depot in town.

I want you to come right off as soon as you get this, let me know where to meet you, fix up &come as soon as you can. I would have written you sooner but we were moving our camp.

I will look for you in a few days don't disapoint [sic] me. Write as soon as you get this or telegraph to me what day you will start. I am in a very great hurry to mail this....

Your husband,

U.G. Owen

Dr. U. G. Owen to Laura, July 31, 1863.

          31, "Safety of Col. Hurst."

We are pleased to learn that Col. Hurst of the 1st Tennessee regiment of cavalry has made his escape from the guerrillas, who it was reported, had shot him. Col. Hurst is yet in the land of the living, and will yet make the prowling bands of rebel bushwhackers who have been annoying the citizens, feel his prowess. We are…pleased to make this announcement as we hope to hear of his finishing…the notorious horse-thief, Richardson.

Memphis Bulletin, July 31, 1863.

          31, Social disorder in Bradley County; an entry from the diary of William E. Sloan

AT HOME. Arrived here last night and found all well.

There is considerable excitement in our neighborhood at present.

The Lincolnites think they will soon be relieved by the Federal Army, and they have become very insulting. Many of them are running away to the Federal lines, but the worst class is lying about the neighborhood, stealing and robbing.

Diary of William E. Sloan.

31, Excerpt from a letter by a Norwegian-Canadian private, George H. Brunsted, in the Union Army, to his sister in Minnesota

Winchester, July 31st/63

I onse [sic] more sit down to address a few lines to you….I must say that my uniform does not look well as it does look more like a seacock grey back than an oriole summer blue. the [sic] stripes on the arms is the sign by wich [sic] non-commissioned officers are distinguished we are still lazing in the same place as when I last wrote to you and have had a pretty good time. you [sic] asked of me in your letter to tell you about my camp but I do not hardly know what to say. O it would fill you with astonishment and surprise to see how the soldier lives. it [sic] would be strange for you to see my present home in a small tent not over 6 feet by 8 lives three men and I can assure you we have it fixed parity comfortable. (excuse my plain way of explainning myself) we have a bed fixed up though it is rough it is comfortable and takes up more than half our room. we [sic] have also table and on the top of the table and one end is our cobord [sic] wich [sic] is made of a crackerbox in wich [sic] we keep our dishes wich [sic] for my part consists a cup and a knife and spoon thus we life for the present. thies [sic] little tents are called dog tents and they are the only shelter we have in camp or on march. the [sic] dog tents of the company are set off in two roes [sic] forming a street between them and our tents we have a cover made of green leaves to keep of the sun. behiend [sic] our tents about twelve yards is the officers tents and also behind them is the Colonels tents. Thus fixed it makes a nise [sic] show especially when the tents are new but anough [sic] of the tents. I will tell what we gennerely [sic] have to do in the morning at five oklok [sic] we are called out to role call and we next sweep out our tents and we also have role call at twelve, 5 and 8 in the afternoon we have also to go on guard every two or three days but I must wiend up with this nonsens….

George H. Brunsted Correspondence[22]

          31, In defense of Col. Cocke's sons' honor; election politics and character defamation


Knoxville, July 29, 1863

M. J. Hughes,[23] Sir:-

I see in the columns of this mornings Register a most scurrilous aspersion upon the character of two of Col. Cocke's sons purporting to emenate [sic] from a soldier in the Confederate service, who seemingly, has grown weary of fighting the common fore in noble honorable battle, and is determined to annihilate the unreproachable [sic] characters and honorable gentlemen through the barrier of newspaper correspondence. The gentleman who receives his opening salute (Lieut. Cocke) has the misfortune to be absent from his locality, otherwise, knowing him to be eminently courageous for intimate association, I would leave him to fight his own battles, and whether they would be decided by "paper bullets of the brain," or in the event the assailant would "dare meet him upon the bloody sand," I for one, would tremble, not for his success, but am confident he would prove that calumniators like chickens, come home to roost. The foul slander of his having acted the dastardly and ignoble part assigned him by the correspondent of the Register, I affirm, from a full acquaintance with the circumstances, to be void of a scintilla of foundation in truth and in fact.

Determined to leave nothing of obloquy unnoticed he throws a parting broad-side at his brother, who, he asserts, "managed to get a discharge, but looks like he is as able to in the service as any other." The aforesaid young gentleman has in his pockets and exemption [sic] from military duty duly signed and endorsed, perfected by all the formula prescribed in the system of that department.

I leave it to public adjudication, whether Col. Blake with his efficient Medical Board, or the sagacious informant in the Register, (who doubtless has mistaken, in the language of Aretmus Ward, "his forte [sic]" in dropping his scalpel to grasp the scimetar [sic]) is better qualified to decide upon such medical considerations.

I sincerely trust the writer is misled from the steppings of propriety by inaccurate information, and spouts not his own bilge-water intentionally upon the reputation of two honorable young gentlemen. He certainly could not have obtained such information from those who saw [sic], and are able to speak truth. The assertions of all of his company who are present fully exonerate Lieut. Cocke from all unsoldierly conduct, and stamp the most glaring falsity upon the alleged villiainous [sic] charges.

A Comrade In Arms

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, July 31, 1863.

          31, Speculation on civil government and emancipation in Tennessee in the wake of Rosecrans' campaign

Tennessee Restored.

The public attention has not, for some time, been called to the civil condition of the State of Tennessee, which since Bragg's retreat, is peculiar and anomalous. There is now no large army, either rebel of Union, planted on its soil. The army of Gen. Rosecrans, though nominally still in the State, is pressing upon and felt by Alabama and Georgia more than by Tennessee. While the State is therefore delivered from the presence of military rule, it has no civil government anywhere erected or respected. There are no courts, no laws, no civil administration, no body politic, no taxation nor representation. The population of the State, reduced by the war to perhaps 800,000, is in utter social and political chaos.

The time is propitious for reorganization, and the worked has fairly commenced. A State Convention met at Nashville on the 1st inst., and continued in session till the 7th, Between forty and fifty counties were represents (about half of the State,) by about two hundred members. The Convention recommended the election of a legislature in August, to form a civil Government, reestablish Courts and laws, and restore the State to the Union. This programme will be carried out. The expulsion of the last strong body of rebels from the State has made it practicable, and the people are already absorbed in the consideration and discussion of the issues presented in this new phase of affairs.

We predict the development of a more intelligent and advanced state of public opinion in Tennessee on the vital question of the times than either Maryland or Kentucky now exhibits. The systems of Slavery has been more thoroughly trampled out in that State than in any other except Missouri, and the policy of emancipation will be declared by the first organized body that speaks for Tennessee. [sic]. East Tennessee has ever been animated by a sincere hostility to the slave oligarchy of the South. Middle Tennessee has long ceased to grow products that called for slave labor. The mass of slaves has been transferred to the Cotton States, and the institution has existed for years more as a domestic than as an industrial one. It can vanish, it has vanished [sic], without shock or deep injury to the resident population of this most rich and highly favored part of the State. In West Tennessee, where cotton has remained a staple, and where Slavery had a strong hold, the events of the war have crushed it out. The marching and countermarching of our armies between Jackson, Corinth, Bolivar, Lagrange and Memphis, has opened the door so wide for the escape of slaves that all have gone that wished, and those remaining are more nominally than actually in servitude.

Under these circumstances the people of Tennessee will not be slow to perceive their policy and duty. They will cut loose from a dead system of society. They have a higher average of political intelligence and firmness than the citizens of most States in the Southwest, and will be bold in maintaining whatever positions they assume. The latent unionism of the State will come u as a strong ally of the new-born policy of Freedom that must soon be inaugurated.

We feel justified, therefore, in foreshadowing amore rapid regeneration of the State of Tennessee than has been witnessed in any border State, Missouri excepted: and when it does return to the Union, it will be with a fidelity and heartiness worthy of the home of that stern on Unionist, Andrew Jackson.

New York Times, July 31, 1863.







August 1, 1863, Skirmish in Hawkins County

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

          1, Skirmish near Winchester

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

          1, Report on North Carolina troops deserting Confederate army in East Tennessee

BELL'S BRIDGE, TENN., August 1, 1863.

Capt. J. N. GALLEHER, Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of East Tenn., Knoxville, Tenn.:

CAPT.: I have the honor to inclosure a letter from a woman living in Madison County, North Carolina, to a soldier in the Sixty-fourth North Carolina Volunteers. This is only a specimen of similar epistles received by men of the North Carolina regiments. These troops are deserting quite fast, and it appears difficult to catch them on the road, as the people harbor and feed along the whole route. The last party I sent in pursuit were told that they had better desert. There are now in Madison County, North Carolina, 106 men of the Sixty-fourth Regt. [sic], who are absent without leave. Many of them are living openly at home, and have made crops this season. Would it not be well to send up a party to bring back these men? I would respectfully submit that these North Carolina troops are too near home.

I am, captain, your obedient servant,

JNO. W. FRAZER, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.



July 20 [?], 1863.


DEAR HUSBAND: I seat myself to drop you a few lines to let you know that me and Sally is well as common, and I hope these few lines will come to hand and find you will and doing well. I have no news to write to you at this, only I am done laying by my corn. I worked it all four times. My wheat is good; my oats is good. I haven't got my wheat stacked yet. My oats I have got a part of them cut, and Tom Hunter and John Roberts is cutting to-day. They will git [sic] them cut to-day.

I got the first letter yesterday that I have received from you since you left. I got five from you yesterday; they all come together. This is the first one I have wrote [sic], for I didn't know where to write to you. You said you hadn't anything to eat. I wish you was [sic] here to get some beans for dinner. I have plenty to east as yet. I haven't saw [sic] any of your pap's folks since you left home. The people is [sic] generally well here at. The people is [sic] all turning to Union here since the Yankees has [sic] got Vicksburg. I want you to come home as soon as you can after you gilt this letter. Jane Elkins is living with me yet. That is all I can think of, only I want you to come home the worst that I ever did. The conscripts is [sic] all at home yet, and I don't know what they will do with them. The folks is [sic] leaving here, and going North as fast as they can, so I will close.

Your wife, till death,


I pen a line, sir. I am well, and is right strait out for the Union, and I am never going in the service any more, for I am for the Union for ever and ever, amen. I am doing my work. There was 800 left to go to the North, so will tell you all about it in the next letter; so I will close.

Your brother till death. Hurrah for the Union? Hurrah for the Union, Union?


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 951-952.

          1, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 177, prescribing changes in flag designations and creation of the Army of the Cumberland Reserve Corps and its flag designations [see April 25, 1863 GENERAL ORDERS, No. 91 changes in flag insignia and unit designations for the Army of the Cumberland above and April 26, 1864 GENERAL ORDERS, No. 6, relative to changes in flag insignia and unit designations for the Army of the Cumberland below]

GENERAL ORDERS, HDQRS. DEPT OF THE CUMBERLAND, No. 177. Winchester, Tenn., August 1, 1863.

I. The flags prescribed for the Fourteenth Army Corps by Gen. Orders, No. 91, current Series, from these headquarters, having been made of dark blue instead of bright blue material, it has been found necessary to change the stars designating the different divisions from black to white to black. General Orders, No. 91, are amended accordingly.

II. A new corps having been created in this department, known as the Reserve Corps, the following-described flags will be used to designate the headquarters of the corps and its various divisions and brigades:

Hdqrs. Reserve Corps, A bright red, white, and blue flag (diagonal), red uppermost, 6 feet by 4, fringed with yellow. A circle of light blue in the center, containing a five-pointed golden star, partially covered by an eagle perched upon a shield, upon which is emblazoned the stars and stripes. In the upper right and lower left hand corners appear the letters R. C., in gold and red.

First Division Reserve Corps, A bright red and blue flag, 3 feet on the staff and 4 ½ feet fly, running to a point at the fly, with a white crescent in the center, points toward staff.

Second Division Reserve Corps, The same as First Division, except there shall be two white crescents, placed perpendicularly one above the other.

Third Division Reserve Corps, Same as for First Division, except there shall be three white crescents, placed in a triangle, the base parallel to the staff.

The flags of brigades will be the flags of their divisions, with the addition of a figure in white, equidistant from the staff and the crescent, to de not the number of the brigade.

Artillery of Reserve Corps, Each battery serving with the Reserve Corps shall have a bright red, white, and blue flag (diagonal), 1 ½ feet on the staff by 2 feet fly, red uppermost, with the name of the battery in black letters on the white stripe.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 586-587.

          1, Payment of Confederate railroad company dividends

Office East Tennessee and Virginia R. R.

Knoxville, Aug. 1st, 1863

The Dividend due to the Stockholders of this Company will be paid at Jonesboro' Tenn., in place of Knoxville, as heretofore published.

John Keyes, Treasurer

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, August 4, 1863.



          26, Skirmish at White's Station

No circumstantial reports filed.

          27, "More trouble for this poor harassed country;" an excerpt from the journal of Amanda McDowell

More trouble for this poor harassed country. The Southern cavalry are in, in considerable force, I reckon. All Southern soldiers in here who have taken the oath are requested to join immediately and will have it to do if they stay long....

Diary of Amanda McDowell

          27, General Orders, No. 20, relative to Mrs. L. G. Pickett and her trial by Military Commission on charges of spying

Headquarters District of West Tenn., Memphis, Tenn., July 27, 1864

* * * * [sic]

III. 2D-MRS. L. G. PICKETT, Citizen of Shelby County, Tennessee

Charge 1st-Attempting to smuggle articles of merchandise through the lines of the United States Military force.

Specification-In this, that on the 15th day of July, 1864, the defendant, Mrs. L. G. Pickett, did attempt to smuggle divers articles of merchandize through the picket line in the vicinity of Memphis, Tennessee, to wit viz.,: One pair of citizens boots, and six or eight wool hats. This in the District of Memphis, Dist. of West Tennessee, in violation of existing orders and regulation of the Treasury Department.

Charge 2d- Smuggling.

Specification-in this, that Mrs. L. G. Pickett did on or about July 14th, 1864, at Memphis, Tennessee, smuggle divers article of merchandise, viz.,: One pair of boots, and six hats through the picket lines, contrary to law and military orders.

To which charges and specifications the prisoner pleaded-Guilty.


The court, after mature consideration of the pleas and other matters and thing involved in the case of the prisoner, Mrs. L. G. Pickett, citizen, as follows:

Of the charges and specifications-Guilty

And the Commission does, therefore, sentence her, Mrs. L. G. Pickett, citizen, to be confined in the military prison at Alton, Illinois, for the period of six months; and that she pay a fine to the United States of the sum of one thousand dollars ($1000); and that she be confined in said military prison until said fine be fully paid.

IV. Finding approved and sentence confirmed. Sentence of imprisonment will be carried into effect under the direction of the Provost Marshal, District of Memphis. At the expiration of the term of her imprisonment, the prisoner will be released from custody upon paying to the proper authorities a fine of one thousand dollars, in accordance with the terms of the sentence.

By order of Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn

Memphis Bulletin, August 9, 1864. [24]

          27, "Facts for the Military Far [sic];" effects of occupation on Nashville streets

For the sake of our good city, and in justice to its officials and people, we desire to say a few words. Our City authorities have been condemned and our people censured, for the deplorable condition of out streets. After stating a few facts, we will leave the public to judge as to where the blame lies. Our City Laws [sic] authorize the employment of persons committed to the workhouse for misdemeanors, on the public streets; hence upon the labor of this class of persons, the city has mainly depended for keeping the streets in repair. In former times, the labor thus obtained was found to be abundant; since the occupation of Nashville by the Federal troops, however, the wear and tear of the streets has been a thousand per cent greater, while the means at command of the City authorities has been much less, mainly because the recruiting officer is, and has ever been, ready to pounce upon every inmate of the workhouse as soon as he becomes lodged there. Some few men thus obtained probably became good soldiers; but the large majority of those recruited from the workhouse are merely furnished with greater facilities for carrying out their vicious and wicked purposes, and thus become a disgrace to the army to which they belong, and a curse to society. Their whole time is devoted to robbery, pillage, and murder, and no portion of it given to the service of the country in whose pay they are. We therefore ask that the civic authorities be permitted to remain in their custody all vicious characters and persons guilty of felony, that may be put to profitable employment upon the streets. We may also state that more hands have been under the pay of the corporation since the Federals have occupied Nashville, than ever before, and still the proper officers are unable to procure sufficient to meet the wants of the Street Overseer.

Nashville Dispatch, July 27, 1864.

          27, The first grand review of U. S. C. T. in Nashville

The grand review of the colored troops in this city took place yesterday afternoon at 4 o'clock. A large concourse of citizens and officers of the army were present to witness the first review of this branch of our service, which has attracted so much attention and comment from all classes. The Reviewing Officer was Brig. Gen. Chetlain, commanding the colored troops of Tennessee. The troops present were the 12th regiment U. S. C. Inf., Col. Thompson; 15th U. S. C. Inf., Col. T. J. Downey; 17th regiment U. S. C. Inf., Col. W. R. Shafter; and 100th regiment U. S. C. inf., Maj. Ford, commanding. The band of the 10th Tenn. Infantry were present and discoursed most beautiful music, and added much to the effect of the review. Col. Thompson, Review Officer present, took command, and right well did he acquit himself. The 12th regiment came upon a special train from section 26, N. W. R. R. To say that the review as good hardly does justice to these gallant troops. We have been an eyewitness of many reviews of veteran troops, but have not witnessed a more creditable review than that of yesterday. The commanders of the different regiment[s] may well feel proud of their commands-and those of our citizens-especially the galvanized portion-missed a grand sight if they were not present; and we would advise them when next an opportunity affords, to be present and see how well some of the sons, grandsons, nephews, &c., of our F. F.'s.[25] acquitted themselves as soldiers of the Union. We trust that these reviews may be frequent hereafter, that our citizens may see that the "nigger" [sic] can and will make as good a soldier as a white man. Gen. Chetlain expresses himself highly gratified with the condition of the troops here, and we can only wish him god speed in his glorious mission.

The different regiments escorted the 12th regiment to the N. W. Railroad depot, and then marched through the streets. We regret to record the fact than an officer of the Army Commis'y [sic] Dep't., so far forgot himself as a soldier and gentleman to give commands to the troops as they passed his office on Cedar street. We trust hereafter that he will discontinue the practice of putting an enemy in his mouth to steal away his brains. We would gladly give an account of the rise and progress of the organization of colored troops in this Department but time will not permit.

Gen. Chetlain and staff, Major Paddock, Inspector General, and Dr. Rush, Medical Inspector, accompany him -- both agreeable and accomplished soldiers and gentlemen. The General leaves for Chattanooga on Friday.

Nashville Daily Times and True Union, July 28, 1864.

          27, Treatment of a U. S. C. T. Slave Family in Maury county

Cruel Treatment of the Families of Colored Soldiers by Tennessee Rebels.-A correspondent of the Nashville Times writes the following:

A recital of the wrongs daily inflicted upon the wives and children of colored soldiers in Tennessee is enough to make a human man weep tears of blood! Rebels who are living under the amnesty proclamation-rebels whose crimes against the State have justly forfeited their property and their worthless necks, appear to take fiendish delight in abusing the wives and children of those noble colored men who have enlisted to fight for a Government from which they have heretofore received on injustice. I will give you one case; I might give many. In 1841, Ira Hardison, who resides in Maury county, ten miles east of Columbia, bought a man named Wilson, and from 1841 to 1863, a period of 22 years, Wilson worked faithfully for Hardison without compensation. No man ever had a more faithful or efficient slave. In November, 1863, after giving to Hardison all the best years of his life, Wilson enlisted in the 15th U. S. colored troops, commanded by Col. Donner, and every officer in the regiment can bear testimony to the intelligence, honest and good conduct of sergeant Wilson. But ever since his enlistment, his wife and children, left in Hardison hands, have been cruelly tormented. A son was driven to work last winter and spring without shoes and almost naked, until he was ready to drop into the grave. A daughter was knocked down last Sabbath a week, kicked and stamped by the rebel brute until her life as almost despaired of. The old scoundrel taunts the mother and children continually about their husband and further being a soldier. As sergeant Wilson is a very intelligent christian man, he feels these wrongs keenly, and asks whether the Government for which he has taken up arms has no means of redress, Hardison is raising a fine crop cotton this year, and is boasting of the large sum of money it will yield him.

Daily Evening Bulletin, July 17, 1864. [26]

          28, Skirmish at Long's Mills, near Mulberry Gap

JULY 28, 1864.-Skirmish at Long's Mills, near Mulberry Gap, Tenn.

Report of Col. William Y. Dillard, Thirty-fourth Kentucky Infantry, commanding First Brigade, Fourth Division, Twenty-third Army Corps.

HDQRS., Cumberland Gap, July 29, 1864.

Col. Davis has just returned from a scout. He fought the rebels at Long's Mills yesterday near Mulberry Gap, whipping them badly, killing and wounding 21, capturing 8 prisoners and 20 horses. No one hurt on our side.

W. Y. DILLARD, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 367.

          28, Memphis and Charleston Railroad opened from Memphis to Grand Junction

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., July 28, 1864.

Col. D. C. MCCALLUM, Director and Gen. Manager U. S. Military Railroad:

SIR: I received to-day a copy of the letter from Gen. Grant to Gen. Meigs, with your indorsement. I have opened the Memphis and Charleston Railroad to Grand Junction, by order of Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn, commanding district, &c. I do not think it is the intention to open the road any farther east than Grand Junction. Think it is opened for the purpose of moving troops supplies for an expedition against Forrest and other Confederate forces in that section. I have an order to open the Mississippi Central Railroad south from Grand Junction to Holly Springs, and possibly to the Tallahatchie River. I think the whole is temporary. I suppose I cannot do less than to open roads wherever the commander directs, and have done so. The road had then been open two weeks. I will try to carry out any instructions I may receive from you.

Very respectfully, yours,

F. GOODHUE, Superintendent.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 208.

          28, "Need of Vigilance."

The frequency of conflagrations, of late, among Government steamboats, warehouses, provision and forage depots, all of vast importance to the welfare and sustenance of our armies, admonish us forcibly of the need of greatly increased watchfulness in guarding such property from the approach of incendiaries. It is highly probable that there is an organization of incendiaries, in the interest of the rebel Government, extending along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers and in all the cities of the North where there are government depots of supplies or manufactories for the army, whose object is to use the torch in any way that will cripple and retard the operations of our armies. There are thousands of rebels from the South roaming at large over the Northern States, and scores of desperadoes who would readily attempt to burn down a shop, factory, or steamboat in the service of the Government for fifty dollars. The rebels could make no use of their money so damaging to us, as to employ a force of incendiaries to destroy Government vessels and work-shops, and it is quite reasonable to believe that they are aware of the fact. If a good steamboat can be destroyed, or a locomotive and car shop, or any army wagon shop, or a depot filled with corn and hay for cavalry, artillery, and transportation horses, or any establishment of equal value and importance connected with military operations, can be burned, delaying the movements or our troops and robbing the Government of millions of dollars, the achievement is a God-send to the rebels. We think therefore that no time should be lost in placing a strong and thorough guard at every place where there is reason to apprehend the application of the torch. Incendiarism would be a tremendous weapon in the hands of desperate men, and the Government should watch out for their movements.

Nashville Daily Times and True Union, July 28, 1864.

          28, Major-General Milroy's Security Order for Nashville and Environs

Major Gen. Milroy, in Tennessee, has issued an order, that guards shall only be placed at the houses and farms of those unquestioned loyalty residing in the city of Nashville and vicinity.

The Ripley Bee, July 28, 1864. [27]

          28, Private Elam's Petition for Release from Prison

Military Prison, Nashville, Tenn.

July 28, 1864

To His Excellency, Andrew Johnson

Brig. Genl. & Mil. Gov. State of Tennessee

Sir: I have been confined to this place for more than five weeks and have had no charges preferred against me, that I am aware of, the circumstances of the casse are as follows: I belong to  Capt. Hambright's Co. "A." 10th. Regt. Tenn. Vol. Cav'y, having been detailed with several others to proceed to this place with some deserters, belonging to the 9th Tenn., after starting back to Springfield, my horse having lost a shoe, became so lame as to be unable to carry me any further and seeing a horse in a pasture by the roadside, I took him, inquired who  he belonged to, was told, where I belonged, and that the horse would be set back to the owner in two days, which I was preparing to do, as there was a detail coming to town that day, when I understood that there was a detail from Genl. Rousseau's Head Quarters, with orders to arrest me. I came to town with detail, brought two letters from Springfield, one from Lt. Martin of My Company, and the other from Mr. Holman, to Genl Rousseau, but as he was not at this office, I could not see him[.] if I had, I do not think that I would have been confined. I have now been in the service for the last fourteen Years[.] as this is the first offence of the kind, that I have ever been guilty of, I would be everlastingly obliged, if you would be so kind as to see Genl. Rousseau, and have me released and sent to my Company, and I promise in the future to conduct myself as a soldier should do, if I had any dishonest intentions, I would not have let my Company officers seen the horse, being fully aware that they would not in any instance, have countenanced me, or any of the other men in the Company in stealing horses, but as that the owner got his horse I wish you would release me.

I am, Very Respectfully, Your Obedient Servant,

Thomas J. Elam,

Prvt. Co. "A." 10th Regt Tenn  Cav'y

Stationed at Springfeld [sic] Tenn

PAJ, Vol. 7, p. 54.

          29, Military Governor Andrew Johnson gains control of the Northwestern Railroad and suggests a policy of sending Confederate sympathizers beyond Federal lines

NASHVILLE, July 29, 1864 Maj. Gen. GEORGE H. THOMAS,

Cmdg. Department of the Cumberland:

Gen. Thomas will remember that the Nashville and Northwestern Railroad was placed by the Secretary of War under my control, with authority to select engineers, &c. The road is now used to its utmost capacity in transportation of supplies for the army. We are making every effort to increase that capacity. The services of Maj. Yates at this time are important, and I hope he can be spared, which will not interfere with Col. McCallum in any way. I hope you will permit me to make one suggestion in reference to persons being sent to Nashville and north of it. The whole population in our front, instead of being sent this way, should be pressed back with the rebel army. Let them hear the cries of suffering, and supply their stomachs and backs with food and raiment. To the extent that we receive and feed their population, which is disloyal, we relieve the Confederate Government. Let them fall back with the army. By sending them here they add to the rebel or Copperhead sentiment and increase opposition to the Government. The rebels who have been sent from East Tennessee north, should have been sent south. They would rather go anywhere else than south, and it would create more terror than sending them north. If this meets your views, I hope you will submit to Gen. Sherman for consideration.

ANDREW JOHNSON, Military Governor of Tennessee


Governor ANDREW JOHNSON, Nashville, Tenn.:

I remember that at first the Northwestern railroad was placed under your charge, but thought that subsequently all the military railroads were placed in charge of Col. McCallum. Maj. Yates will be detailed to report to you. I have always held the same opinion about sending rebels and their sympathizers south instead of north that you do, and have had frequent conversations on that subject with Gen. Sherman. To send them south as our lines advance would require that they be sent through our lines under flag of truce, which he does not like to do at this time. They will probably all be sent south after the campaign is over.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, pp. 210-211.

          29, "Guerrillas on the Tennessee River."

We have reliable intelligence respecting the movements of the guerrilla along the Tennessee river, and in the vicinity of the Northwestern Railroad. The notorious Colonels Biffle and Hays were at Clifton on the 27th, with a considerable force, preparing to attack the garrison of Home Guards stationed there. Clifton is a little town in Wayne county, on the Tennessee river, some sixty miles above Johnsonville.

Biffle is gathering up a good many recruits. He told the people he did not intend to molest the railroad.

His friends say that he is collecting a force to invade Southwestern Kentucky.

Col. Murphy had two skirmishes with him at Centreville, in Hickman county, some ten days ago, but we have no particulars. Col. Murphy had two men wounded what the rebel loss was we do not know.

The sooner the people of that region unite to exterminate these guerrillas, the better it will be for them. If they delay they will be as sorely scourged as Kentucky is.

Nashville Daily Times and True Union, July 29, 1864.

29, Report on One Lady's Retribution for the Murder of her Lover

A Woman's Vengeance.

The Nashville Times publishes a letter from a young woman, who tells how she pursued and shot a rebel to avenge the murder of her lover. The scene of the tragedy was Martin's Creek, Tenn. The woman's lover was a Dr. Sadler, whose Union principles had rendered him obnoxious to the rebel inhabitants, three of whom hunted him down, and killed him. The manner of his death is thus narrated by the young woman.

I had met Peteet, Gordenhire, and Turner on the road, and told my brother there that they were searching for Dr. Sadler to kill him. Sure enough they went to the house where he was; and strange to me, after his warning, he permitted them to come in. They met him apparently perfectly friendly, and said they had come to get some brandy from Mr. Yelton, which they obtained; and, immediately after drinking, they all three drew their pistols and commenced firing at Sadler.

He drew his, but it was snatched away from him; he then drew his knife, which was also taken from him. He then ran round the house and up a stairway, escaping out of their sight. They followed, however, and searched till they found him, and brought him down and laid him on a bed, mortally wounded. He requested some of his people to send for Dr. Dillin to dress his wounds. It is strange to me why, but Sadler's friends had all left the room, when Turner went up and put his pistol against his temple, and shot him through the head. They all rejoiced like demons, and stood by till he made his last struggle. They then pulled his eyes open, and asked him in a loud voice if he were dead. They then took his horse and saddle and pistols, and robbed him of all his money, and otherwise insulted and abused his remains.

 The young woman (whose initials "L. J. W." are only given) determined on revenge, but kept her resolution to herself lest she should be prevented; and on a subsequent day proceeded to a house where she learned Turner (against whom she seems to have especially directed her revenge) was stopping, and deliberately shot him dead. She thus tells the story:

I asked Mrs. Christian if Turner was gone. She pointed to him at the gate, just leaving. I looked at the clock, and it was just 4 ½ o'clock, P.M. I then walked out into the yard, and as Turner was starting called to him to stop. He turned, and saw I was preparing to shoot him. He started to run. I fired at a distance of about twelve paces, and missed him. I fired again as quickly as possible, and hit him in the back of the head, and he fell on his face and knees. I fired again and hit him in the back, and he fell on his right side. I fired twice more, only one of these shots taking effect. By this time I was within five steps of him, and stood and watched him until he was dead. I then turned round and walked toward the house, and met Mrs. Christian, and her sister, his wife, coming out.

They asked me what I did it for. My response was, "You know what that man did the 13th of December last—murdered a dear friend of mine. I have been determined to do this deed ever since, and I shall never regret it." They said no more to me, but commenced hallooing and blowing a horn. I got my horse and started home, where I shall stay or leave as I choose, going where I please, and saying what I please."

New Orleans Daily Picayune, July 29, 1864. [28]

          30, Skirmish at Clifton

No circumstantial reports filed.

          30, "Murder of Union Prisoners on the Cumberland River" near Clarksville [29]

The Louisville Journal has received the following information concerning the killing of Union prisoners on the Cumberland river from headquarters of the post commander of Clarksville:

The scout sent out from the city by Colonel Smith on Monday morning last to search after Lieutenant Gamble, and furnish him safe conduct into our lines, returned early on Tuesday [August 2nd] morning, having been successful in its mission. The Lieutenant was found secreted in the woods not far from where he made his escape from the gang of villainous cutthroats. He was pale, almost devoid of clothing, and appeared to have suffered much in dodging through the brush to elude the watchful eye of those bent on his murder.

He informed the scout that he had been robbed by the guerrillas of his pants, boots, watch, and seventy-five dollars in money. After crossing the Cumberland river, and travelling about six miles in a southerly direction, the guerrillas halted and arranged their prisoner in line, telling them that they were going to parole them. After a short consultation, the leader of the gang, who was called by his men Capt. Porter, ordered the members of the gang to draw their pistols, saying, "We have but one way of parolling [sic] Federal prisoners, and that is with our revolvers." The whole party advanced in line, and commenced rapidly firing. The Lieutenant said that he well knew that there was no hope for life only in precipitate flight, so he started on the full run. A volley of pistol shots was fired at him as he disappeared in a narrow strip of brush, and another as he passed an open space a short distance beyond. Fortunately none of the balls struck him, and he made good his escape. He was forced to lie in the woods, night and day, until the scout relieved him on Monday afternoon. He piloted the cavalry to the spot where the execution had taken place, and three dead bodies, riddled with balls, were found stretched on the green sward.

On the breast of each was pinned strip of paper, dated July 30 with the following words written in pencil mark upon them: "These boys are executed in retaliation for our friends hung in Nashville." The bodies were much decomposed when found, and were buried upon the spot. One of the dead was a soldier of Co. C, 83d Illinois volunteers, named Ira Butler, another was Christopher McCarty, a boy sixteen years old, employed as a teamster in the Quartermaster's department. His parents reside in Abington, Illinois. The third body was that of a laborer in the employ of the Government at Nashville. The body of the fourth prisoner could not be found, and it is possible that he succeeded in making his escape. He was also a citizen in the employ of the Government. When the men were first taken prisoners, Lieut. Gamble informed the guerrillas that but two of the five were soldiers, and begged that the citizens might be released; but the scoundrels would not listen to his words. The execution was one of the darkest transactions of blood that ever disgraced a civilized age, and it was perpetrated with all the nonchalance of hearts fiendish and wholly corrupted. There is much speculation as to who the murderers are. We hear various names mentioned, but as they are mere speculations we will not, without further proof, inscribe their names on the roll so dark with infamy.

Lieutenant Gamble, says that they called their chief by the name of Porter. The friends referred to in the note pinned to the bosom of each dead man are presumed to be the guerrillas recently hung at Nashville, one of whom was named Gossett, a notorious robber and murder of Cheatham county, Tennessee. His career was marked with the darkest crime, as he was proved guilty before the military commission of the murder of several peaceable, unoffending citizens. Every effort will be made to hunt down the fiends guilty of this inhuman outrage of Saturday evening last. [i.e., the 30th]. They are a shame and a curse to humanity, and should be blotted out of existence.

Nashville Daily Press, August 5, 1864. [30]

          30, Legal notice allowing claims against Gideon J. Pillow



Whereas, on July 20th, 1864, an Information was filed by Horace H. Harrison, Esq., Attorney of the United States for the Middle District of Tennessee, in the District Curt of the United States for said District, against all the estate and property money, stocks, and credits of Gideon J. Pillow, and particularly against all his right, title and interest in the realty fully described ins said information, which alleges that in the District aforesaid, on land, said estate, property, moneys, stocks and credits, and particularly said right, title and interest, had been duly seized and forfeited to the United States, for causes in said set fort had averred to be true, to-wit: Because after the passage of an act of Congress, approved July 17, 1862, and entitled "An act to suppress insurrection, to punish Treason and Rebellion, to Seize and Confiscated the property of Rebels, and for other purposes,: the said Gideon J. Pillow acted as an officer of the rebels in arms against the Government of the United States, to-wit: as a Major-General[31] of the armies of the so-styled Confederate States of America.

Now, therefore, I hereby give public notice to all persons interested in said property, so seized as aforesaid, in the Capitol at Nashville, on the 3d Monday in October next, at 10 o'clock, A. M. there and then to propound their claims and make their allegations.

Edwin R. Glascock

Marshal Mid Dist. Tennessee.

Nashville Daily Times and True Union, July 30, 1864.

          30, "To the Sutlers of the Army of the Cumberland."

A. & M. Landsberg & Co., Wholesale Sutler's Supplies, corner Public Square and Market street, have just received an offer for sale, at reduced rates, the following goods, to wit:

150,000 fine Assorted Cigars

100,000 cheap assorted cigars

125 Caddies' Ladies' Finger Tobacco

100 Caddies' Fig Leaf and sweet Tobacco

50 butts Natural Leaf Tobacco

85 gross Fine Cut tobacco in foil

50 kegs fine cut tobacco in bulk

100 gross Smoking Tobacco

50 cases Borden's Condensed Milk

25 cases Sardines

87 boxes Hamburg and Western Reserve Cheese

45 cases Maltby's Cove Oysters

50 cases Fresh Peaches

35 cases New Apple Butter

27 cases Eastern Pickles, pints and quarts.

50 kits Mackerel, Nos. 1, 2 and 3

Also have constantly on hand a large assortment of

Liquors,                         Haversacks,

Negligee Shirts,              Valises,

Suspenders,                   Satchels,

Handkerchiefs,               Pipes,

Wallets,                          Knives,

Boots and Shoes,           Combs,

Socks,                            Diaries,

Blacking,              Hats,

Brushes,                         Stationary, &c., &c.


Particular attention given to shipping. Call and examine our stock.


Cor. Market Street and Public square

Nashville Daily Times and True Union, July 30, 1864.

          30, "Sprinkle the Levee."

We wonder if the City Council cannot adopt some means of having the levee sprinkled once or twice a day, to settle the dust, which is intolerable at present, and has been so for many weeks. Hundreds of people have occasion to cross a dozen times daily on business, and its abatement of the nuisance would be a relief to them, as well as to the merchants doing business along Front Row, and steamboat men who complain vociferously. We suffer not a little ourself [sic]. The dust is on an average about ankle deep all over the landing, and, with the continual locomotion of hacks, and drays and cavalry in every direction, the clods of dust are almost suffocating. On some occasions we would hesitate a long time between crossing the Memphis levee and the Sahara Desert; think there would be little if any choice. Let the levee be sprinkled by all means. It needs it more than the streets do, by all odds. Arise Humanity! Reform! Reform! Reform!

Memphis Bulletin, July 30, 1864.

          31, Lucy Virginia French's return to Forest Home, in McMinnville, from Beersheba Springs

….Everything is pleasant, if we could only now be assured that we would be allowed to remain in peace in our home. Of that we have no kind of assurance however, and the recent house burning which have taken place in White and Van Buren counties, warn us that our turn may come next. I should not be surprised at any time [to] have our house burned over our heads, and if it were to happen, I think I could bear it resolutely. I feel that we are doing right to be at home, and if misfortune finds us in the path of duty, why we must strive to bear it with all the fortitude we can summon to our support. On last Monday we left Bersheba [sic]-two men were engaged to come with their wagons to take the last two loads – one of them came with a one horse team – the other who was to have been there by daylight, arrived about 9 o'clock – having had 2 days to prepare for the trip, found upon getting up his oxen on Monday morning that the yoke was 2 miles off at some neighbors! Give me these mountain people as specimens of reliability and energy! [sic] Well by 11 o'clock the wagons were started – the Bass Cottage was cleared – we said good-bye to our kind friends and took up our line of march down the mountain – I driving one buggy – and Walter the other, Martha, Elnis, Clark and a boy who had been fired to drive the cow and calf down, all after these animals, and all could not get them along until the Col. came up and got them started. Got down to the Chalybeate Spring and found our wagon "broke down" or nearly so, and the man refusing to budge a stem until part of the load was taken off! Right there in the road it had to be done – chairs, and walnut safe, tables, etc. all landed in the road – we drove on and left them to fix it how they would. We had not gone a hundred yards when the cow and calf, eluding their driver came tearing back up the hill, thro' the tick undergrowth and the Col. had to leave us in charge of Uncle Clark, and rush back after the bovine portion of the "flittin'….we had forgotten the dog…poor Bruno was left behind! Walter and Martha were dispatched back up the mt. thro' the heat…after the dog! The Col. gathered the cowboy, the cow and the calf and conveyed them in safety to the foot of the mt., then returned for us….We rumbled and tumbled, (and grumbled some,) over the rocks and stocks and blocks in that "Dry Wash," and finally came out into the valley road, where all mounted into the buggies….We jogged on in this way thro' the hot sun until it began to tell on me in the shape of a headache – which continued until it became 4 P. M., when we stopped at a fine spring and opened out well-filled lunch basket – dealing about buttered biscuit. Broiled chicken, ham, crackers, and June apples. After the lunch, and the afternoon beginning to grow cooler my head was much relieved. We were in a hurry from this time on, to get to the river before dark, because of the pickets were out and would not let us pass after dark….We reached the river just at dusk – found no pickets – drove on up into town – found nobody on guard anywhere, it was quite dark as we passed thro' town and I could not tell how the old place looked except that I had [the] general impression that it had a peeled and scaly appearance. We came in by the bluff road, and I recognized no place, altho' [sic] I knew where we were, until we reached the steps. It was the first place that reminded me I had reached home. There was alight at the front of the house, but no one knew we were in the yard until we knocked at the door. Mammy and Puss were here and Miss Mollies had come out expecting us to get in before dark but gave us up when night set in, because they thought we would not know there were no pickets out, and would stay somewhere on the other side of the river. They were just preparing for bed when we came in – and I need not say there was joy on all hands at our reaching home once more. Exclamations were made on the growth of the children….Good old Mammy seemed overjoyed and hugged the children over and over again. I was very tired – worn out in fact, yet I could not but realize how good a thing it was to be at home. I was "ailing" next day-(having taken a violent cold,) with headache and sore throat, and have been all week – besides being unwell on Friday. Martha took a cold also coming down, but notwithstanding our ailments we have worked hard all week, and indeed there never was a place [that] needed more labor. It was too dirty for any use – but Mammy says "Why Ginnie! Its clean now to what it has been – I wish you'd seen it when I came home first! We have worked 5 days hard, with Mollie to assist us, and have got the place swept, scoured, the matting and carpets down, furniture placed in some rooms, but I think there is a month's work on hand yet.["] The house is so much abused – so dirtied up – walls, chimneys etc. defaced – so that I don't believe that with all we can do it will look at all like I wished it to do, before I had it cleaned up. The furniture we brought tho' [sic] nice, don't seem to "show off" much – but I hope we can be comfortable. The portico being torn away appeared very badly; the hardy shrubbery has grown up, and run wild, making the yard appear like a wilderness, while all the tinder grown has died, from neglect. Weeds are everywhere, burdocks cluster beneath the windows, and mullein grows beside my finest roses, ah! me how carefree and careful I was of these flowers once! Stanley brought my plants down on Friday – they were very much abused and looked badly – not a bloom on one of them. Dugan's wagon, (the one that broke down,) came on Wednesday with its half load….I find that Pussy has been very successful with the blackberries, she and Mollie have put up for me some 30 jars of berries, cordial etc., also 6 bottles of huckleberries. Mrs. A. gave me 2 nice bottles of Cordial before I left the mountain and I have them now, all safe. There is a good promise of fruit – Mammy has been drying some-and the garden is good, notwithstanding the dry weather. The grove has been much cut, yet there are enough trees left yet for beauty – on the bluff the timbers cut quite bare in many places, and the high road now runs right by our gate. I dislike this oh! very much….Mammy's house looks quite comfortable with its new furnishings, new bed-steads, bureau, wash-stand, table, wardrobe, looking glasses, and various etceteras [sic]-I have a good rocking chair too. We are trying to stow away the Murfree things – I don't expect we shall be able to sell any of them – people seem to be, like ourselves, very short of "greenback." [sic]….

War Journal of Lucy Virginia French.





August 1-3, 1864, Pursuit of Rebels from Athens, Tennessee, into North Carolina

AUGUST 1-3, 1864.-Pursuit of Confederates from Athens, Tenn., into North Carolina, and skirmishes (1st) at Athens, Tenn., and (2d) near Murphy, N. C.


No. 1.

Report of Lieut. Col. Michael L. Patterson, Fourth Tennessee Infantry, commanding Third Brigade, Fourth Division, Twenty-third Army Corps, of skirmish at Athens, Tenn.

HDQRS. THIRD Brig., FOURTH DIV., 23d ARMY CORPS, Loudon, Tenn., August 1, 1864.

GEN.: The rebels about fifty strong attacked our forces at Athens this morning at 8 o'clock and fought some time, our forces killing 2, wounding 3, and taking 1 prisoner, and then the rebels retreated southward from that place. I sent a squad of ninety men, commanded by Capt. Bivens, by this morning's train, by direction of Capt. Ammen, assistant adjutant-general.

The following is a telegram I have just received:

ATHENS, August 1, 1864.

The rebels were here fifty strong; eight men fought them, killing 2 and wounding 1, who says they are Capt. Holland's men, Georgia. We mounted seventy-five of our men, under command of Capt.'s Bivens and Preble, and started in pursuit at 1 o'clock. I am in command of reserve. The rebels left at 11 a. m.

B. C. MILLER, Lieut., First Ohio Heavy Artillery Volunteers.

Train passed Athens at 6 o'clock this evening; will be at Lenoir's probably ere this can reach you. I will send it ahead as soon as it arrives here.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

M. L. PATTERSON, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg.

Report of Capt. Joshua S. Preble, First Ohio Heavy Artillery, of the pursuit of the Confederates and skirmish near Murphy, N. C.

HDQRS. CO. L. FIRST OHIO VOL. HEAVY ARTILLERY, Loudon, Tenn., August 5, 1864.

SIR: I have the honor to report that on the 1st day of August, in accordance with instructions from Lieut.-Col. Patterson, commanding post at Loudon, Tenn., I repaired (with Capt. Bivens, commanding a squad of eighty men detailed from Companies M, L, C, and H, First Ohio Volunteer Heavy Artillery, for the purpose of driving a band of guerrillas) to Athens, Tenn. We arrived at the latter place at 12 m. of said day to find the rebels gone. In accordance with my instructions I then took command of the detachment. I pressed all the horses and mules I could find and mounted sixty of my men, and with them and five citizens, at 1.30 p. m., started in pursuit. We pushed on some thirty miles until it became dark, following the trail of the scoundrels, which was a wide one, they having plundered everything indiscriminately which came in their way. At 3 o'clock next morning we again started in pursuit, but owing to the fact that most of my men were poorly mounted, it was impossible for them to keep up. At 11 a. m. I came up with the enemy near the village of Murphy, in North Carolina, sixty-five miles from Athens. With fifteen of my men, all who had come up, I charged on the enemy. We killed 10 and wounded a number more. We captured 18 horses, 6 mules, 20 guns, 4 revolvers, and 2 small pistols, and a number of other articles. We took no prisoners. It is needless to add that the enemy were completely demoralized and fled in every direction. Our loss was 1 citizen-soldier killed. My men being very much fatigued and our horses completely done up, without rations or forage, I did not deem it advisable to pursue farther, and commenced our return, reaching Athens next day at 2 p. m. and reaching Loudon on the 4th instant.

It is with extreme pleasure I give my testimony to the good conduct of the brave men under my command. For three days, over a very rough and mountainous country, with but one meal, did these brave men toil on, yet not [one] word of murmuring was heard, but all anxious for the fray. I have only to regret that my men were not better mounted, so that they could have "been in at the death," for in that event I think I could have rid the earth of all the cursed gang.

The enemy's force consisted of part of the outlaw and murderer Vaughn's force and numbered sixty-three men, all well mounted, but under whose immediate command I could not learn.

All of which is respectfully submitted.

J. S. PREBLE, Capt. Co. L, First Ohio Vol. Heavy Arty., Cmdg. Detachment.

Report of Capt. Samuel Bivens, First Ohio Heavy Artillery, of the pursuit of the Confederates and skirmish near Murphy, N. C.

HDQRS. CO. C, FIRST OHIO VOL. HEAVY ARTILLERY, Loudon, Tenn., August 5, 1864.

SIR: In obedience to your order of Monday, August 1, 1864, I proceeded to Athens, Tenn., and on arriving there found that the rebel forces had left. I then pressed all the horses belonging to citizens that I could find. In all I had sixty-one men armed, equipped, and mounted. We then started in pursuit of the rebel forces, which were reported to be four hours ahead of us. We then marched until 10 o'clock at night, a distance of thirty miles, and finding the roads so bad and a heavy rain approaching we then bivouacked in an old church for the night. We started next morning at daybreak in pursuit, and after traveling a distance of six miles we came to where they had encamped. We then found it much easier to follow them, as a heavy rain had fallen during the night and their footmarks were very plain. We then followed them up and down the gorgeous mountains as fast as our horses could travel, and, in fact, many of them fell by the roadside, being entirely run down, and their riders were compelled to follow on foot. About 11 o'clock our advance (about fifteen men in all) came up with the rebel forces and we attacked them. The first fire the rebels broke in confusion. [sic] We then had a running fight for a distance of one mile, killing 8 or 10 of their number, capturing 18 horses, 6 mules, and about 18 stand of arms, besides numerous articles of plunder which they had stolen from Union citizens. The only casualty that occurred in my command was an old citizen by the name of Rue; he was killed instantly by a ball passing near his heart. Many of the rebels left their horses and took to the mountains on foot. We then dismounted and threw out our men on either side of the road and advanced about one mile. We then found it necessary to turn back, as our horses were run down, having traveled a distance of sixty miles without any food, over as rough a road as there is in North Carolina. After getting together our stock and plunder we started for Athens, and were compelled to travel thirty miles before we could get anything to eat for our men or horses. Many of the horses being run down, we were compelled to leave them on the mountains, which were replaced by those that were captured. We arrived at Athens Wednesday evening, and found owners for all our captured stock expect three mules, which were branded "U. S." I turned them over to Capt. Holloc, acting in concert with the provost-marshal of Athens in raising and mounting a company of scouts for McMinn County. I let the Union citizens around Athens have the captured arms, as they seem very anxious to defend their homes, and are almost without arms.

While gone we traveled a distance of 120 miles, over as rough country as there is in North Carolina, in the short space of forty-eight hours, without food for our horses or men.

I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

SAMUEL BIVENS, Capt., Cmdg. Scouts.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, pp. 367-369.

          1, "Rebel Female Letter"

We publish the following letter from a young rebel of the female persuasion [sic] just as it was captured. The face of the letter discloses the authorship, and the name is not important. It is a fair specimen [sic] of the letters going out from every town and neighborhood, and in nine cases out of ten the writers ought to go South with, or after [sic] their bitter and slanderous letters:

Dandridge, August 1st, 1864

My Dear Pa: [sic]

Mother wrote you and sent it to Knoxville to go out by flag of truce last week, but I think it very doubtful whether you get it or not. The last that we received from you was sent by flag of truce when Maj. White came down to New Market.

Well, Pa, we have been expecting the robbers on us for a month or two. Last Wednesday night [July 27th] they came about mid-night, and plundered the house.-Mother and I were frightened very much. Who would not have been? A band of ruffians at midnight, plundering the house and cursing mother. They have left us scarcely enough sheets to change our beds. The took three hundred dollars in Confederate money, and every little thing they could lay their hands on, even to your Masonic sash.- [sic] Mother had hid your apron and the rest of your clothes. A Union man promised to get the sash back, if she would say nothing about it. If he can get the sash back he can get other things, and maybe stoop them. But no, they say that the authorities at Knoxville approve of it, and boast that it is the only way that they can subjugate us. William informed them that that is not the way to subjugate us. We Southern people are actually afraid to go to bed at night--even the women and children. You need not expect, when you come here (if ever) to find us with anything. I expect that they will be back to-night with wagons and rob the town, at heart that is the general impression. They told us that they were not satisfied the other night--You cannot imagine, nor I describe our feelings at night approaches. I think that their object is to make our family leave. They asked the other night if Bill Bradford [sic] wasn't going to move his family outside of the lines. If they keep on in the way they have begun, we will soon be left destitute -- Cousin Theodore Bradford had to move his family to town. Cousin Shade Inman had to leave his home [sic] and we do not know where he is at [sic] -- he was beaten severely before he left. They make a visit to his house nearly every night, and always leave packed. It is Union citizens who are robbing, they are not Federal soldiers and never have belonged to the army. We recognized the ones who were here. I could tell you, but will wait until some other time. One of our neighbors set them on us, for Dr. Jarnagan and Mrs. Seabolt heard him directing them to our house, he pretended to be distressed about it, but I think it is all pretense. Poor old Mr. Thomas has suffered more than anyone else in town. I hope the rebels may soon move down and give us protection. They will soon be done plundering the town and then they threaten to burn it to the ground. The authorities at Knoxville are aware of all this but do not care. The Union men I think could stoop it as they are acquainted with them, but it is no matter to them and I candidly believe that some of them, at least, are secretly glad of it.

Brownlow's Whig and Independent Journal and Rebel Ventilator, August 31, 1864.

          1, Skirmish at Athens [see August 1-3, 1864, Pursuit of Rebels from Athens into NC above]

          1, Guerrilla attack at Silver Springs, Wilson County

"Attacked by Guerrillas-Narrow Escape"

Dr. Wm. Reynolds, of this city, went to Wilson county several days ago, to purchase some mules. He bought them, eleven in number, and on Monday last [1st] while on his way to this city, he was halted by seven guerrillas who demanded the mules and a negro [sic], whom he had along, driving them. Situated as he was, he had to submit to their demands. The visitors then retired with the spoils, and the Doctor started on his journey to this city, but before proceeding far he was overtaken by two of the same party, who, with drawn pistols demanded his horse told them he had but very little which was in a belt around his body. The guerrillas threatened to shoot him if he did not deliver it instantly. The Doctor put his hand behind him as if in the act of taking off his belt, but instead...drew a pistol and fired, killing one of the men on the spot. The other then commenced to fire upon him, and he continued to return the shots, both firing several times when the guerrilla skedaddled, and the Doctor, glad of his escape from his clutches, made a quick tracks this way, saving his money and his horse. The Doctor's coat shows that the skirmish was rather dangerous; two balls entered his coat sleeve, and another through the coat just above the shoulder. The affair occurred in the neighborhood of Silver Spring where other robberies have recently been committed.

Nashville Daily Press, August 3, 1864.

          1, Guerrilla attack repulsed at Athens in the Athens environs.

We learn from Lieut. Hale, who arrived her last night from the scene of conflict, that on Monday [1st] afternoon a band of plundering outlaws and cutthroats, numbering fifty-four men, made a descent on the town of Athens, on the Knoxville  road. Fortunately, for the safety of the town and its inhabitants from the ravages of the ruffians, the place was guarded by a Spartan band, from the 2d Oho Heavy Artillery, numbering only ten men, headed by a Lieutenant. This handful of men, with the aid of a few patriotic citizens, attacked and drove the invaders pell-mell from the place, chasing then in all directions. The bandits lost in this little affair, 3 men killed and 5 wounded. One brave-hearted citizen immortalized himself by the havoc he made among the plundering wretches. From his window, he kept up a continual fire while there was one of the invaders in sight. He it was who is supposed to have killed two of the unfortunate wretches who came to their end in the melee.

Such determined resistance will have a wholesome effect on the "wild beasts," and restrain them from pushing their amiable intercourse on localities who cant appreciate the friendship of their "misguided" Southern brethren.

Chattanooga Daily Gazette, August 4, 1864.[32]

          1, Railroads, Guerrilla Attack, and Crops in the Mouse Creek Environs

Letter from Tennessee.

Mouse Creek, Tenn.[33], Aug 1, 1864.

Mr. Editor: You must have heard long before this of our arrival at Chattanooga, after several narrow escaped by railroad accidents, some of them of considerable magnitude. By a kind Providence we were preserved and what are left of us are now in our usual health. A goodly number of those who came out, however, have returned-some of them on account of their health-some not liking the business as they thought they would-while some, I think, thought they were too much exposed to capture by the rebels, to risk so for the pay they received; though, when we consider what the soldier gets for his exposure and hard fate, I think the military railroad employees ought not to complain, or to precipitately leave situations which somebody must fill, and which may not be so dangerous after all, as some that they may be obliged to take should they be drafted. I know many thing operated to dishearten those who came out at the time I did, for the roads were being cut almost every day, and trains of m en captured and taken off. Tenmen, whowent only a week previous, were taken on their first trip out, and one – John Bassett, jr., conductor, was captured on his second trip, with his train, and all his clothing, watch and money taken from him but managing to get away from them, he continued to run a train, and is not attending his duties without fault-finding or grumbling. His courage and bravery are equal to his truthfulness and loyalty. Some of the Boston and Lowell railroad men, also, have been men of pluck and have led on to their work amid many discouraging circumstances. Some of them have been several times in imminent danger of a visit to Richmond with an escort of "greybacks"-not the most pleasant way to travel, I must confess-while others have had their trains burned and their own lives nearly forfeited by running into the snares laid for them by the guerrillas. Mr. Rotterbush, Mr. Leach and Mr. Farnum have all had narrow excapes-Mr. R. was captured once. The brakemen, too, run quite as much risk, for the rebels fire the first thing they do after running the train off the track; and, as the brakemen have to ride on top of the cars, they are more exposed than others, except the soldiers, who ride with them also. I think none of those from Lowell or vicinity have been killed, but one fireman and one brakeman were shot-both of them belonging in this state, for whom the enemy have a deep hatred. No person-or, rather, man-who is union in feeling, who has taken any part in upholding the president in the effort to put down this rebellion, is safe for a moment if within their power. Therefore the men in this section have a wholesome dread of being taken prisoners. Yesterday, the truth of this last assertion was illustrated in a rather forcible manner. About nine o'clock in the morning, three men came galloping through the town, calling upon the inhabitants to leave, for at Athens-only six miles below-150 men (cavalry) were cutting and slashing all that they met. The male citizens a commenced to get up their horses and to saddle them, mounting at a bound and skeddaling in considerable confusion. Not having a horse, and not being fully aware of the consequences, should the party come this way and find me, I stayed till not a man was left-when the lady with whom I boarded asked me what I was going to do. I told her that I should stop, I thought; she then said I had best go to the woods yonder, for it they found a live Yankee, the would surely hang him. I thereupon began to think of going, not having much of a desire to ornament the tress of this village, and having also a wish to visit Lowell once more, if for nothing else, to vote in  ht fall for  "Abe." But at noon the train from Knoxville came down, as, we could see it, we all commenced to come in I could but think that if all who had run away from town had gone toward the rebels, they would have been frightened themselves, supposing that we were coming to fight; but few of us, however, had arms, and we could do nothing. It seems to me that it would be the better policy to put guns in the hands of the loyal citizens, and they would take care of all such raiders.

Two men went down to learn if possible the condition of things, and upon their return we found that the alarm had some foundation, for thirty-eight rebel cavalry did enter the town, and going through it upon the run halooing like so many wild men, made a stampede with most of the men in the place. They did not however tarry long-A few soldiers-seven I think- were located in the Court House, in the centre of town which is also surrounded by the stores, and so near to it that the rebs could not plunder them without being in range of the guns of the soldiers. We learn that two of the rebels were killed, and two or three wounded, though none of our men were injured I think they immediately commenced a retreat, being followed by some guards who gathered from among the farmers around for some distance, and since then we can hear nothing from the rebels; yet it may be they will return to some point above or below, and cause some trouble and steal some horses if they do nothing more. Many of the farmers on this line of road-C. & K. R. R. –have feared that their crops would be quite a temptation to the enemy this fall, as last year them came along this road, gathering their wheat, oats, corn and hay. The corn in this vicinity has been suffering for rain these three weeks, and fears were entertained that it would all dry up,, but last week there came copious showers. This week rain has also fallen so that unless something more happens, a good crop will be made. Wheat, oats and grass have all been gathered, and I should judge an average crop raised. The government have advertised to buy has at $1 per on hundred; oats at 80 cents per bushel; oat straw 25 cents per hundred; bailed and delivers at the railroad, 30 cents per hundred. I have seen but few potatoes, and fruit is not plenty in this section. There are more young cattle and hogs than I expected to see, and the men who own land and cut wood or do any kind of work for the government can buy provision at the rates they are issued at, so that with what is raised and bought in that way, a good living may be had, much better than I expected to find here. But my story s getting long and my paper short; therefore adieu


Daily Citizen & News,[34] August 12, 1864.a [35]

          1, Officers of the Second Tennessee Cavalry Petition Governor Johnson

Camp of 2 Tenn-Cav—

Decatur, Ala- Aug 1st, 1864

Hon. Andrew Johnson

Mil-Gov-of Tennessee


We the undersigned, Officers of the 2 Tenn-Cav. desire respectfully, yet earnestly, to represent to Your Excellency, that the portion of the State in which the homes and families of our Regiment are located, viz the counties of Blount, Sevier, Cocke, Jefferson Monroe, and the surrounding country, s the scene of constant and distressing depredations, by roving bands of guerrillas, rebel deserters, thieves and robbers, whose lurking places are in the adjoining mountains, and against whom the small Federal force now in that country affords by slight protection. Although that section of the country is supposed to be by these bands of renegades, Indians and white men still pure savage, whose course is marked by brutal murders, whilst men, women and children are subjected to every variety of plunder and insult, without regard to age sex, or condition. By the greatest exertions on the part of women and children, with the few men now at home amongst them, the prospect was fair for a sufficient crop to subsist the country, but if these inroads continue, the starvation of our people is inevitable. We therefore, humbly yet earnestly ask Your Excellency, that your influence may be exerted with those in authority, to cause the transfer of our regiment, either mounted or dismounted, to the section of the State referred to, for its protection, if such a transfer would not be inconsistent with the interests of the PUBLIC Service. Whilst we remember our duties as soldiers, and are willing to labor, in season and out of season, at all times and places for the cause in which we are enlisted, we cannot forget the claims of our wives and children, from which we have long been separated, nor be insensible to the daily appeals for assistance and protection, from a suffering people, while there remains a hope for their alleviation. Hoping, therefore, that Your Excellency, may see proper to lend our petition which reflect the unanimous feeling of the Regiment. Your favorable consideration, we remain—

Very Respectfully,

Your Ob't Serv'ts &c.

PAJ, Vol. 7, pp. 65-66.

          1-5, Scout from Strawberry Plains to Greeneville

AUGUST 1-5, 1864.-Scout from Strawberry Plains to Greeneville, Tenn., and skirmish (2d) at Morristown.

Report of Lieut. Col. Luther S. Trowbridge, Tenth Michigan Cavalry.

HDQRS. TENTH MICHIGAN CAVALRY, Strawberry Plains, East Tenn., August 6, 1864.

LIEUT.: I have the honor to submit the following report of my operations in attempting to carry out special instructions from headquarters Tenth Michigan Cavalry of date July 31 ultimo, regarding the destruction of the railroad bridges over the Holston and Watauga Rivers:

I left camp with 250 men and one mountain howitzer on Monday morning, the 1st instant.

On the 2d instant, at Morristown, I met a party of the enemy, about 110 strong, under command of Maj. Arnold. I immediately engaged them, and after a short fight they retired with a loss of 1 officer mortally wounded, so that he died two days afterward, and 5 men wounded, who succeeded in getting away. I feared that this early discovery of our movement would prevent its successful execution unless this party could be cut off in some way. Therefore, learning at Russellville that they had taken the Bull's Gap road, I detached Maj. Smith, with four companies, to get in their rear beyond Bull's Gap, but much to my surprise they did not stop, but took the Snap's Ferry road, leading toward Kingsport. Failing to cut them off, I encamped for the night at Blue Springs and went the next morning to Greeneville. Here, from the best information that I could get, I learned that there were from 250 to 300 of the enemy at Johnson's Depot, seven miles beyond Jonesborough, where the headquarters of Vaughn's brigade had been established; about 50 at Carter's Station; about 100 at Zollicoffer; Morgan's headquarters at Bristol, while there were many scattering bands of scouts through the country. The whole number of armed men west of Bristol was estimated at not over 1,000. When at Russellville I heard that there was a party of about 150 at Rogersville, which afterward proved true, though I did not credit the report at that time. That party passed through Bull's Gap on Wednesday, the 3d instant. In view of all these facts I did not deem it prudent to proceed farther than Greeneville. The enemy could easily concentrate a force which, with the aid of their works at the bridges, would give me great trouble, and an attempt and failure would be worse than a withdrawal. I therefore returned from Greeneville on the 3d instant, and arrived safely in camp last evening. While I was very loath to abandon the expedition, it seemed to be the only course dictated by prudence. If it shall be desired to renew the undertaking I shall be glad to do it at any time and with any force which the general commanding may think best.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. S. TROWBRIDGE, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, pp. 370-371.

          1- September 30, Expedition from LaGrange to Oxford, Mississippi[36]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, p. 370.

          1-September 30, Repair and reopening of the Nashville to Clarksville railroad

No circumstantial reports filed.

Excerpt from the Report from the Office of the Director and General Manager, Military Railroads of United States, Washington, D.C., October 31, 1865, relative to the repair and re-opening of the Clarksville to Nashville railroad in 1864:

* * * *

In August and September, 1864, the Nashville and Clarksville Railroad, sixty-two miles long, was opened, by order of Maj.-Gen. Sherman, to reach another line of water supply for the depot of Nashville.

* * * *

OR, Ser. III, Vol. 5, p. 297.



          26, Newspaper report on Tennessee Governor W. G. Brownlow's opinion on the fate of African Americans

Gov. W. G. Brownlow, of Tennessee, takes this view of the future of the negro, in a late letter to his Knoxville Whig, upon the presumption, we suppose, that they are to remain among the whites:

["]The negroes, like the Indian tribes, will gradually become extinct, having no owners to care for them, and no owning property in them, the will cease to increase in numbers-cease to be looked after and cultivated-while educated labor will take the place of slave labor, Idleness, starvation, and diseases, will remove a majoirt of the negroes in this generation. The better class of them will got work and sustain themse.lves[."]

Macon Daily Telegraph, July 26, 1865.

          27, Military forces placed on duty to guard polls in Benton, Henry, Weakley, Gibson, Lauderdale, Henderson, and Carroll, West Tennessee; Humphreys, Dickson, Stewart, Montgomery, Shelby, Fayette, Williamson, Davidson, Wilson, Sumner, Robertson, Cheatham, Bedford, Lincoln, Marshall, Giles, Maury, Hickman, and Lewis counties in Middle Tennessee

NASHVILLE, TENN., July 27, 1865.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE STONEMAN, Knoxville:

Governor Brownlow having applied to me for a sufficient military force to insure that the approaching elections be conducted legally in certain counties throughout this State, I wish you to send a sufficient force to the election precincts of each of the following counties to be present at the holding of the election for the purpose of enabling legal voters to hand in their votes, and also to insure them protection whenever they choose to challenge the legality of votes of other parties when offered; also to see that the judges of elections conduct them fairly and preserve propriety during the election, viz.,: Benton, Henry, Weakley, Gibson, Lauderdale, Henderson, and Carroll, West Tenn.; Humphreys, Dickson, Stewart, Montgomery, Shelby, Fayette, Williamson, Davidson, Wilson, Sumner, Robertson, Cheatham, Bedford, Lincoln, Marshall, Giles, Maury, Hickman, and Lewis, Middle Tenn. A copy of this has been sent to Gen. Smith to expedite matters. You will please see that the order is executed in the other counties named.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. II, p. 1093.

          31, The New Politics in Columbia, excerpt from the diary of Nimrod Porter

[I] went to town…The candidates for Congress together with the secretary of State made speeches, said amongst other things that he would rather have the negroes [sic] vote than the Rebels[.] Arnell said the same thing….

….Genl [sic] [Gideon J.] Pillow was permitted to define his position he made himself out now the best of Union Men [and] was willing to fight under the old flag & particularly against France (all this was for the effect to alay [sic] the feelings of the authorities against him)….

Diary of Nimrod Porter, July 31, 1865.





August 1, 1865, Tennessee's ex-Confederate governor Isham G. Harris and other prominent leaders successfully flee to Mexico from San Antonio, Texas

HDQRS. MILITARY DIVISION OF THE GULF, News Orleans, La., August 1, 1865--1 p. m.

(Received 10.55 p. m.)

Lieut. Gen. U. S. GRANT, Cmdg. Armies of the United States:

Since my telegram of this morning the following information has reached me from one of my scouts. He says there is no doubt about its truthfulness. It is the list of prominent Confederates which have gone to Mexico through San Antonio: Governors Allen and Moore, of Louisiana; Governors Edward Clark and Murrah, of Texas; Governor Harris, of Tennessee; J. P. Benjamin, late Secretary of State of the Confederate States; Breckinridge, Secretary of War of the Confederate States; Harrison, Jeff Davis' private secretary; Gen.'s Smith, Magruder, Price, Shelby, Wilcox, and Harris; Col.'s Terrell, Flournoy, and Walker, Col. J. J. Hine, Majs. T. J. Davins, Green, and Rains, Maj.'s Green, Sackfield Maclin, Col. Elliott, of Missouri; William A. Broadwell, Payne, Harrison, and J. D. Elliott, Jackson, Miss. The whole number of pieces of artillery taken by these parties was fourteen, which all fell into the hands of the Liberals. The Governor of Nuevo Leon sent commissioners to Brownsville to see me, but I did not see them. They came to ask protection from the United States. I will send you a communication from the Governor by mail.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

P. H. SHERIDAN, Maj.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 48, pt. II, p. 1149.


[1] As cited in:

[2] As cited in PQCW.

[3] See OR, Ser. I, Vol. IV, p. 375.

[4] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[5] See also: Soldier's Budget [Humboldt], August 14, 1863.

[6] Meaning "from the Pinch district." Juno was the principal goddess of the pantheon and the wife of Jupiter.She was worshiped as the goddess of women, marriage, childbirth and the moon, and as the protector of the state.

[7] This event is not listed in the OR General Index and is referenced only in passing in the following excerpt from official correspondence. The event was called a "dash," which here will be determined to be a skirmish.

[8] Not found.

[9] See also: Memphis Union Appeal, July 30, 1862.

[10] Listed in neither the OR nor Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

[11] The spelling of this word in the OR is both "Estenuala" in Haywood county, and "Estanaula,."the latter apparently in McMinn County. There is reference to "Estenuala" in the OR General Index, p. 292, but not to "Estanaula." Between 1827 and 1846 there was U. S. Post Office in "Estanaula" in Haywood County. Netiher has been precisely located. I am endebted to my colleague Steven Rogers for his help in this perplexing matter.

[12] This report apparently encompases the following entries: 27, "Fighting at Bolivar;" 28, Confederates burn railroad bridges between Jackson and Humboldt; 29, Skirmish at Brownsville; 29, Cavalry skirmish in Jackson-Bolivar environs; 30 Attack on Confederate forces in Brownsville

[13] Known thereafter as "Burnt Bridge."

[14] State representative, 20th-22nd General Assemblies, representing Maury County; State Senate 25th Geneal Assembly, representing Maury and Giles counties; Democrat. He was an attorney and newspaper editor as well and co-edited The Life and Character of Captain William B. Allen (1853). He was elected to the U. S. Senate, 36th Congress, serving from March 4, 1859 to March 3, 1861, leaving because of his secessionist views. He died in Columbia on March 23, 1876. Robert M. McBride and Dan M. Robison, et al, Biographical Directory of the Tennessee General Assembly, Vol. 1, 1796-1861 (Nashville: Tennessee State Library and Archives and Tennessee Historical Commission, 1975), pp. 553-554.

[15] This skirmish is not listed as an event in the OR. However, in Brigadier-General G.M. Dodge's report of July 28, 1862 concerning the skirmish near Humboldt [see above] it is revealed that Rebel cavalry forces had taken Brownsville around the 25th or 26th. Perhaps this is the event to which Dyer alludes. Thus, there might have been a skirmish at Brownsville, but most likely not on the 29th of August, 1862.

[16] Unknown.

[17] As cited in:

[18] The "Reminiscences of the Third Tennessee Cavalry," by Adjutant William A. McTeer, appeared in installments in the Knoxville Daily Chronicle. [Hereinafter cited as Knoxville Daily Chronicle, date, etc.]

[19] This event is referenced neither in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee nor the OR.

[20] As cited in:

[21] There is no reference in the OR to this event.

[22] As cited in: Doris Fleming, ed., "Letters from a Canadian Recruit in the Union Army," Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. 16, no. 2, 1957, pp. 159 – 166.

[23] Editor and owner of the Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle.

[24] See also Nashville Dispatch, August 4, 1864.

[25] Most likely an abbreviation for "Fighting Forces."

[26] GALEGROUP - TSLA 19TH CN (San Francisco, CA)

[27] TSL&A, 19th CN

[29] See also Louisville Journal, August 4, 1864. [See too: December 23, 1863, "Skirmish with guerrillas, Mulberry Village, Lincoln County" above, for an account of a similar event demonstrating some remarkable similarities.]

[30] See also Nashville Dispatch, August 5, 1863.

[31] Pillow never rose above the rank of Brigadier General. Probably a good thing.

[32] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[33] Mouse Creek Valley, Bradley county.

[34] Lowell, Massachuetts.

[35] TSL&A, 19th CN.

[36] This mission originated in Tennessee while all action occurred in Mississippi.


James B. Jones, Jr.

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