Friday, August 7, 2015

8.4-7.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

August 4-7, 1861-1864




          4, The "Huyett Battery."

No people whose country is invaded and whose homes are threatened with all the evils of a desolating war, hail with pleasure every new and formidable means presented of overcoming and destroying their enemy. The more destructive the means, the more welcome the announcement of their availability. We have just learned that an engine of war, terrible in the work it will do, but simple and easy in construction and management, has been invented by Col. D. H. Huyett[1] of this city. It may not be prudent to state thus publicly the precise modus operandi of this new weapon, but according to the judgment of well-known military gentlemen, it is entire feasible, and will supply a want long felt in the army and naval service. After the close of the war it may not be imprudent to give a full description of the instrument.

We have seen a drawing of this battery, and if certainly promises to be a very powerful engine either of defense or attack.

Chattanooga Gazette, August 4, 1861.

          4, Shelter for Memphis' homeless

Home for the Homeless.—The Association of the "Home for the Homeless," will be held at the First Presbyterian Church, on Monday, August 5th, at 10 A.M. This institution, thus far, has been kept up by the contributions of its members almost entirely, and we hope they will not allow their interest to flag now. The Home is now in such a flourishing condition, and we trust, will remain so, notwithstanding the unsettled condition of public affairs. The poor we have always with us, and they must be cared for. As the Treasurer will make a report of the financial condition of the association, a full attendance is earnestly requested. By order of the President,

Mary L. Bayliss, R. Sec'y.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 4, 1861.


          6, Arrest of prominent East Tennessee Unionist Thomas A. R. Nelson[2]


Knoxville, August 6, 1861.

Adjt. Gen. S. COOPER, Richmond, Va.:

SIR: Thomas A. R. Nelson, with an escort of three men, supposed to be on his way to take his seat in the Federal Congress at Washington, was arrested about midnight night before last in Lee County, Virginia, by a company of Home Guards of that county. He was brought to a camp under my command at Cumberland Gap, and was from there sent, under a guard of 60 men, to Abingdon, Va. These facts are to-day communicated to me by Lieut.-Col. Walker, of Cumberland Gap. The knowledge of the event has apparently produced much excitement among Nelson's adherents here, giving rise to menacing language.

I have information from various sources, apparently reliable, that different bodies of men in the counties of Southeastern Kentucky, estimated to amount in the aggregate to several thousand, are under military organization, and are threatening to force a passage through the mountains into East Tennessee. The Federalists here, I am now well advised, are awaiting such a movement. My impression is that a large number of Union men are opposed to it, but there are very many Lincoln men here who will be restrained from co-operating only by considerations of policy or apprehensions of the consequences. A very large amount of arms and ammunition has been placed by the Lincoln Government in Kentucky. Anderson (of Sumter memory) is by the Federalists here believed to be the leading military man. A Kentuckian named Nelson, late a lieutenant in the U. S. Navy, by some said to be Anderson's aide, by others said to be a newly-appointed general, having his headquarters at Cincinnati, is the most prominent man in getting up the threatened invasion of East Tennessee. My information goes to show that they contemplate a movement very soon, but I am not sufficiently advised of their state of preparation. It is becoming difficult to command reliable information, on account of the apprehension felt by spies in that region.

I send you a copy of the best map I am able to have made of the topography of country about the Kentucky line. It has been gathered from the best information I could get from scouts, but think it may be imperfect. The centers of their military organizations seem to be Crab Orchard, London, Somerset, Barboursville, Albany, Columbia, and Boston. The principal gaps in the mountain are Cumberland, Big Creek, Elk, and the passes by Chitwood's and Camp McGinnis, but the top of the mountain is comparatively flat and 30 or 40 miles broad, and there are innumerable bridle-path passes intervening between Cumberland Gap and Camp McGinnis. My purpose is to form a chain of infantry posts at Cumberland Gap, Big Creek Gap, Elk Gap, Camp McGinnis, and Livingston, for which I have 33 infantry companies, all but one regiment very raw troops. There are six cavalry companies, which I propose to use as scouts, advanced posts, and to pass intelligence rapidly along the line of infantry posts. I will have a constant patrol at Archer's Gap, Chitwood's, and at other advanced posts near the Kentucky line, patrolling scouts of cavalry traversing the various paths leading across the mountains, the objects being to cut off communication between Kentucky and Tennessee Federalists, seize arms, or prevent them from being brought over, &c. Should there be an approach of Kentuckians in much force, I could soon concentrate upon the line of approach. I have a regiment here, one I am disposing at different bridges on the railroad, and sixteen other companies of infantry, the latter entirely undisciplined and some of them without arms. I hope in a few days to have a battalion of cavalry for service in connection with the road. There are three field pieces of artillery at Cumberland Gap, used as a fixed battery, with no experienced artillerists. Here there is a field artillery company with six 6-pounders, which might be taken to the Kentucky border when required.

I have great reason to fear that our friends in Kentucky are powerless to resist the complete dominancy of the Lincoln forces. I have thus far obtained no knowledge of the state of things in Southeastern Virginia or on the Kanawha.

Very respectfully,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 4, pp. 381-383.[3]

The Nelson Arrest

The Knoxville Whig of 24th contains the promised address of the Hon. Thomas A.R. Nelson to the people of East Tennessee. It occupies two columns of the Whig. After stating the causes which led to his flight the mode of his arrest, the reason for his Unionism, with which the reader is already familiar, he says:-

"While on the way to Richmond I had some conversation with a portion of Tennessee delegation to the Southern Congress, and other public men connected with the Southern Confederacy. The intense solitude which was expressed, especially by the most prominent and distinguished of the original Secessionists, who, without any request on my part, volunteered their kind offices, with generous liberality, in regard to the  (not legible) of the people of East Tennessee, and the unusual kindness and consideration with which I was treated as a prisoner, convinced me that I was in error in supposing that the military power would be exerted for any other purpose than that of retaining the railroad and of aggressive acts on our part.

"Acting under this changed conviction, believing that, if I were retained as a prisoner, or punished with death, under any strained construction of the treason laws, my friends in East Tennessee would in either event retaliate by arresting public men of the opposite party here, that this would lead to counter arrests, and that the horrors of civil war would immediately exist among us, I felt that it was due to you and to myself that I should obtain my release as soon as possible, on the best terms I could effect without dishonor; and, after various informal propositions, I finally addressed to President Davis the following letter:-

"Richmond, Aug. 12, 1861.

"To His Excellency Jeff Davis, President of the Confederate States."

"'Sir: I have been arrested, and, as I learned since my arrival in this city, upon the charge of treason, but whether against the State of Tennessee or the Confederate States I am not advised, I am conscious of no act, either against the State or the Confederacy, that will support or sustain such an accusation.

"'I am sincerely anxious to preserve the peace and quiet of East Tennessee, the section of the State in which I reside, as best promotive of the peace and interest of the entire State. I ask to be discharged from a vexatious prosecution, that I may return home peacefully to follow my private interests and pursuits, assuring you Excellency that I will not, directly or indirectly, by counsel, advice or action, encourage, aid or assist the United States Government to invade or attain success in the present struggle with Confederate States, nor will I counsel or advise others to thwart or cripple the Confederate States in the pending contest with the United States, nor will I do so by own acts.

"In view off the increased majority in the election which has just taken place in Tennessee, I shall feel it my duty, as a citizen of that State, to submit to her late action, and shall religiously abstain from any other words or acts of condemnation or opposition to her Government.

"'The parties arrested with me, with the exception of my son, who acted by my command, were mere guides and conductors through mountain passes, on my way to my place of destination; and, whatever view may be taken of my own course, they are innocent-in no way responsible, legally or morally-and have committed no offence against the laws of the Confederacy or the State of Tennessee; and I ask that they also be discharged from custody by your Excellency.

"'Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

"'Thos. A R. Nelson.'"

"To which the following answer was returned:

"Richmond, Aug. 13, 1861.

"'Sir:-I have received your letter of the 12th inst., in which you ask to be discharged from arrest and prosecution, and make promise that you will, as a citizen of Tennessee, submit to her late action, and religiously abstain from any further words or acts of condemnation whatever, or opposition to her Government.

The desire of this Government, being to maintain the independence it has asserted by the united feeling and action of all its citizens, it has been its policy no to enter into questions of differences of political opinions heretofore existing.

"'I am, therefore, pleased to be spared the necessity of inquiring whether the accusation against you will be founded or not vexatious or not, and to rest content with your submission as a loyal citizen of your State to her recent action in adhering to this Confederacy, and adopting its permanent Constitution by an increased majority. I have ordered your discharge, and that of your companions, from custody. I am, &c.

"'Jefferson Davis.


"' Since my return home, I am thoroughly satisfied that my friends would have risked the action I dreaded; and, upon the most mature reflections, am content with my own course in the premises. But whether it was right or wrong, wide or unwise, I feel bound, as an honorable man, to act up to the spirit and letter of the obligation I assumed. I shall offer no plea of duress; because neither the Southern Confederacy nor any other earthly power could have compelled me to make an agreement that my judgment and conscience did not approve in the situation in which I was placed.

"No terms or conditions, expressed or implied, public or private, attended my release other than those plain expressed in the two above quoted; but I have thought it due to our past relations and painful solitude many of you have felt in my behalf, that I should thus briefly address you

"While, I do not promise allegiance or active support to the Southern Confederacy, and will not advise you to assume any obligations contrary to your convictions of duty, I feel perfectly free to say that the failure of the Government of the United States for four long months to sustain us in our positions; its apparent inability to do so, since the battle of Manassas, within any reasonable time; the deliberate scion of our State in the August election; the assurances of public men that no test oaths or drafting measures will be adopted or required, the mutual hatred which has grown up between the antagonist sections of the Union, and the recent confiscation laws which have been either adopted or proposed on both sides, as well as other causes, have painfully impressed my own mind with the belief that unless some wonderful and improbable change is effected, our beloved Union is gone forever, and it is our policy and duty to submit to a result which, however we may deplore it, seems to be inevitable.

Aware that my advice as well as my motives may be liable to misconstruction, I would still respectfully recommend to my friends the propriety of abstaining from all further opposition or resistance to the Confederate authorities, or the action of our own State, and should this be done, although I have no authority to speak for them, I am satisfied that no military power will be exerted among us, except such as may be indispensably necessary to retain military possession of East Tennessee. And to those of our citizens who have gone beyond the limits of the State, either through fear or the purpose of arming themselves to resist a course of action which is disavowed in Gen. Polk's letter, I think I can safely say, without arrogance, that from the course which was adopted towards me, they would risk nothing by returning to the State and submitting to a result which they have in vain endeavored to prevent. Thos. A.R. Nelson.

Knoxville, Tenn., Aug. 7, 1861

The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 2, 1861

          6, Prominent Memphis capitalists seek immunity from induction into Confederate army via formation of "Memphis Legion"

MEMPHIS, TENN., August 6, 1861.

Gen. L. POLK, Cmdg.:

SIR: The undersigned, officers of the Memphis Legion, beg leave to represent that since the war proclamation of President Lincoln in April last, nearly 4,000 citizens of Memphis and vicinity have gone into the Army of the Southern Confederacy, leaving at home only the heads of families and business men, who cannot go into regular service until compelled by dire necessity. Of this class about 700 have formed a military organization, known as the Memphis Legion, many members of which are men of prominence and influence, who have large amounts invested in the commercial and manufacturing interests of this place and cannot leave without great pecuniary sacrifice, and, as we believe, without great inconvenience to the public. We think it is essentially necessary that the great commercial and manufacturing interests of Memphis should be encouraged and sustained to the utmost extent, that we may continue to furnish that portion of the surrounding country with the supplies and means which are expected of us to maintain the various relations existing between this and other communities. Hence it is, we think, important that as many of our enterprising merchants and manufacturers should remain at home and so arrange their military connections as to enable them to give a considerable portion of their time to business operations. As originally intended, our organization contemplated no other object than the protection of our families and our homes. It is thought, however, that we can make our legion more effective for this purpose and more useful to the public by placing ourselves under your command, which we will cheerfully do, provided that the War Department will receive us on the terms proposed or suggested in your memorandum to Col. Worsham, namely, to be subject to the other of the commanding general at this place, and to be detailed for duty mainly for the defense of Memphis and immediate vicinity (with the understanding that when not on duty our members may be allowed the privilege of attending to their ordinary business). We are led to believe that there are duties required here which can be performed by us under this arrangement. The subject of pay and subsistence, together with those of uniforms and arms, we leave to be settled by yourself and the Department, but would remark that we are poorly armed and equipped; in fact have not enough, nor but few of the right sort. We hope you are in possession of facts enough to appreciate our motives, and will only add that if you approve of these suggestions and they are practicable and proper, we will feel grateful if you will ascertain the views of the War Department of the subject, the same to be agreed upon for the term of one year.

Respectfully, your obedient servants,

L. V. DIXON, Col.

J. J. WORSHAM, Lieut.-Col.


JOHN B. WELD, Adjutant.

[AND 9 CAPT. S.]

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, pp. 127-128.

6, Bawdy House Police in Memphis

Be it Ordained &c That the Mayor is hereby empowered and authorized and by and with the consent of the Board of Aldermen [to] appoint and employ as addition to the police force of the city one policeman for each and every bawdy house in the city of Memphis.

Be it further ordained That the Mayor and Committee on Police be authorized to prescribe the districts in which each of Said Policemen shall serve

Be it further Ordained That a tax shall be levied on the several bawdy houses of the city for the security and protection of which said policemen are appointed of an amount sufficient to pay the salaries of the policemen to be appointed under the provisions of this Ordinance – the said tax to be paid monthly and in advance to the City tax Collector and in the event of the failure or refusal of the property of any such bawdy house to pay the said monthly installment promptly in advance as herein before provided for the house kept by such recusant  shall be suppressed in such manner as the Mayor and Police Committee Shall direct.

Bet it further Ordained That the policemen herein provided for shall be subject to the rules and regulations governing other police officers of the city and before entering on the duties of their office shall take the oath prescribed by city ordinances for other city officers.

Memphis City Council Meeting Minutes, Meeting of August 6, 1861, p. 510.[4]

6, Northern newspaper report on impressment of Negroes in Tennessee

Negroes Impressed in Tennessee. – A number of colored persons have arrived in Cincinnati from Tennessee, having fled to escape the conscription ordered by the Tennessee authorities of all free colored men between the ages of eighteen and fifty-five for the Confederate army, and of all women who are fit for service for camp and hospital service. They state that the impressment was without previous notice, and so sudden that very few escaped. Those who came here had to abandon everything, some of them considerable property. They state that the free people of color are promised that if they serve faithfully through the war they will be made citizens. In the North colored companies have been offered to the Government and rejected. – Cincinnati Gazette.

Daily National Intelligencer (Washington DC) August 6, 1861.[5]

          7, Camp Hatton, Knoxville. John Bradford writes to his brother Abram in Tank, Tennessee, Davidson County about his recent experiences:

....We came back to Knoxville about two days ago and are now encamped a mile and half north of that City. I expect we will go from here to Wheeler's or Cumberland Gap on foot about forty miles. A tramp that I don't like much. We have got the wagons and mules all ready. We are allowed two wagons to a company. John Russell tells me that [you] are getting to be a very good rider. You must be careful and not get hurt. I want you to have old George and Mc [sic] fattened up by the time I come home so that we can ride around and see the girls....It rains here nearly every night. Tell Andy Russell that John is very well. We have a few sick yet....My health and John's and I believe of all that are in camp now is very good. You must take good care of the dogs so we can hunt next winter. You have no idea how many troops pass through here. From the Southern states one or two regiments pass up every week....You must tell me about the corn. [A neighbor] has just come back and says he thinks there will be more corn made up there than was every made before. Direct your letter, Battle's Regiment, Knoxville.

Frederick Bradford Papers, TSL&A

          7, On Tennessee Volunteers, by "TWELVE MONTHS" [6] [see May 20, 1861, Confederate Secretary of War L. P. Walker to Governor Isham G. Harris relative to twelve month enlistments for Tennesseans and provision of muskets above]

In addition to the thirty thousand men that Tennessee already has in the field, fifty thousand more can readily be furnished to the Confederate States, for the common defense if needed, provided the tern of enlistment shall be fixed at twelve months.

Our people do not, and never did, like the idea of volunteering for three or five years, of "for the war: because it implies the idea of their being considered "Regulars," a term not popular in the "Volunteer State."

Let Jeff Davis call on Tennessee for fifty, or sixty, or even one hundred thousand twelve months' volunteers and the call would be responded to before the muster rolls could be arranged; but as our people have an aversion to the "Regular service" and that aversion cannot be overcome. Old Hickory implanted the "volunteer" idea into our people, and there it sticks, a monument to his influence to this day. Let the Confederate States say how many "twelve months" men they want, and Tennessee will gladly and promptly furnish them, but our people will never generally be willing to go in for long terms of service. The "Volunteer State" will be true to her name, but have the authorities at Richmond look at this matter in its true light. We can and will furnish the troops, but let us (the volunteers) fix the term of service.


Nashville Union and American, August 7, 1861.

          7, Governor Isham G. Harris' proclamation raising and organizing the Reserve Corps of Tennessee.

Whereas, by the act of the General Assembly, passed May 6, 1861, it is made the duty of the Governor "to raise, organize, and equip a provisional force of fifty-five thousand volunteers, twenty-five of whom, or any less number which the wants of the service may demand, shall be fitted for the field at the earliest practicable moment, and the remainder of which shall be held in reserve, ready to march at short notice;" and, whereas, the provisional force which has been organized, armed, equipped, and fitted for the field has been transferred to the service of the Confederate States; and, whereas, the President and Congress of the United States have been deaf to the promptings of justice, and notwithstanding their troops have been ingloriously defeated in their plans of subjugation by the intrepid valor of the South, have appropriated immense amounts of money and are bringing into the field large additional armaments to effect their purpose of overriding and trampling upon the rights and liberties our people;

Now, therefore, I, Isham G. Harris, Governor of the State of Tennessee, by virtue of the authority in me vested by the above-recited act, do issue this my proclamation, appealing to the patriotism of the people to raise, organize, and thoroughly prepare a reserve force of thirty thousand volunteers, to be styled the "Reserve Corps of Tennessee," which shall be organized in companies, battalions, regiments, and brigades, and mustered into the service of the State, and held ready to march at short notice; but not put on pay or subsistence, or withdrawn from their ordinary vocations until the necessity for actual service shall arise, when they shall be ordered out on duty, and place on the same footing of the other twelve-month volunteers.

Officers will be appointed to visit the respective counties in which companies may be raised and organized, and muster them into service, after they shall have reported themselves by companies to the Adjutant-General. When thus mustered into service, they will be required to drill by companies at least once a week, and by battalions and regiments as often as once a month, and, when on duty, will be subject to the rules and articles of war.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the great seal of the State to be affixed at the Executive Office, in Nashville, this, the 7th day of August, 1861.

By the Governor, ISHAM G. HARRIS

J. E. R. Ray, Secretary of State

Rebellion Record, Vol. 2, p. 489.[7]

          7, Poverty in Memphis

The Poor.—We have frequently expressed regret that the city council should have refused to sanction and employ a city almoner, on the plan in operation sometime since, by which means, with the kind and liberal co-operation of our citizens much good was done at a very small cost to the city. The mayor yesterday reported to council that from five to ten persons suffering from poverty were appealing to him for aid, and he recommended that steps be taken for their relief. We hope steps will be taken at once. The poor must be attended to, and the destitute relieved. The duty to prevent starvation and misery is a public one, and if council have not the necessary chartered powers in this matter, they ought to make the acquisition of those powers a portion of the improvements of the city charter about to be applied for.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 7, 1861.

          7, "Ought these ladies to want the money necessary to carry out their Christ-like scheme of beneficence?"Benefit for the Southern Mothers

The Southern Mothers' Benefit.—We have before now had the satisfaction of calling public attention to the profound claims of the Southern Mothers to the liberality of our citizens. They take the sick soldier and administer to his wants; they supply him with food, with medicine, with a comfortable bed, with attendance. Day and night the kind ladies leave their parlors and their boudoirs, and lay aside the elegancies and enjoyments of life, to spend the weary hours among the sick. There they sit with kindly beaming faces, sweet, low voices, and gentle hands, assisting, comforting and soothing the sick soldier. They literally fill to the sufferer the place of the absent mother. Ought these ladies to want the money necessary to carry out their Christ-like scheme of beneficence? Every man and woman in Memphis will say no! On Saturday night the ladies who recently gave a most acceptable concert for the Second regiment, will give a second concert for the benefit of the Southern Mother's Home. Let the success be such as so holy a cause deserves. Let the thousands of the city set their fact toward the theater on Saturday night, that the great undertaking of the Memphis mothers may have its treasury amply filled. Prof. Winkler, to whose efficient superintendence former success was so greatly owing, will on this occasion again give his valuable services.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 7, 1861.

          7, Memphis Inquest

Recorder Moore yesterday held an inquest on the body of an unknown man found floating in the water at the steamboat landing. A long scar was visible on the right arm below the elbow, and on the left cheek was a natural mark the size of a dime; the dress was that of a laborer. The verdict was death from drowning. There were no marks of violence.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 7, 1861. [8]

          7, Troops from Grand Junction Insurrection held in Memphis [See August 2, 1861, "Grand Junction Insurrection."]

Rowdy Troops. - A number of the Grand Junction prisoners, concerned in the late melancholy affray there, arrived here on Monday night [5th]. A portion of them were sent away the same evening; the remainder proved very mischievous and quarrelsome yesterday. The worst of them were put in close custody. The guard of the Guerrillas[9], under Captain Hailman, convinced them that no Grand Junction tricks would be played in Memphis. They will be sent out of the city today.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 7, 1861. [10]

          7, Escaped Convicts Loose in Memphis

A Couple of Precious Scoundrels.-Yesterday, at 3 o'clock in the afternoon, two m en, John Hussell, and Martin Dalley, alias Pat Hughes, entered a house of ill fame near Patterson's stables, and searched the place for money, even turning up the mattresses of the beds. Leaving that place, they attacked an old man in the street, in the same neighborhood. They threw him down, when one of them said to the other, that the poor old fellow did not lie right for his pocket to be got at. They next proceeded to an old woman's house on Jefferson street, near the bayou, her name is Kelly. They said they were policemen, and must search her house for lost property. (One of the consequences of abandoning the police uniform.) The turned the place upside down, searching no doubt for money. From thence they went on to Poplar street, where they passed off a counterfeit ten dollar note of the State Bank of Louisiana, for drinks at a coffee-house. About this time officer Sullivan heard of their proceedings and got a description of the men. With Captain Klink and detective officer Causey, he went in search of the two very active men, who were found in Poplar street and taken into custody. On being arrested they acknowledged that they were a portion of a party of over twenty men who recently escaped from the St. Louis jail.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 7, 1861.[11]

          7, Arms Manufacturing Pipe Dreams in Nashville

Manufacture of Arms.

The Nashville Patriot calls attention to the necessity of the South relying upon her own resources and industry in the manufacture of arms, and in this connection says that Mr. L. B. Woodfolk, of that city, who has just returned from Richmond, has been commissioned to set foot measures that will bring the largest amount of mechanical industry to bear upon the manufacture of rifle muskets. He proposes to restore to the principle of division of labor, by which each portion of the gun will be manufactured in a different establishment, and all the parts "assembled" in one central shop.

This method, says the Patriot, presents great advantages to those who may engage in the manufacture and in enabling a smaller outlay for machinery, and in enabling those who will engage in it to commence operations within a few weeks, thus affording the quickest possible returns, and by the exclusive use of machinery diminished the cost and increasing the profits in proportion.

By this method every foundry in the State may be made a branch of one immense armory, which operation may commenced within six weeks, and once begun may be extended so as to furnish promptly any quantity of arms that the public interest may demand.

There can be no doubt of the eminent practicability of this plan, and Mr. Woodfolk[12] will, within a few days, be ready to furnish and arrange the best parts of the gun, and will receive bids from founders, machinists, and others prepared to engage in the manufacture.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 7, 1861. [13]




          4, Dispersal of Confederate guerrillas near Williamsport

COLUMBIA, August 4, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

Yesterday was informed of a concentration of guerrillas at Williamsport, 12 miles west. Started in the evening with one company of infantry, one of cavalry, and a section of artillery to surprise them. Found about 150 of them in the neighborhood. Drove in their pickets; captured a noted fellow. They scattered in every direction. Crossed the river and pursued Cooper's and Anderson's party for 3 miles. The darkness enabled them to escape. There was a force of over 200 at Kinderhook yesterday evening. Kinderhook is 7 miles east of Williamsport, on the Nashville road.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 261.

          4, Skirmish at Sparta

CAR, p. 22. [14]

          4, Ignorance and superstition as the source of pro-Union sentiment in East Tennessee

From Our Special Correspondent "T.D.W."

Morristown, Tenn., Aug. 4, 1862.

Dear Confederacy:

I have noticed, during my stay in East Tennessee, one remarkable fact: that ignorance of the masses is the primary cause of all the toryism in this section. Nearly all of the respectable and well informed are true to the South. In no instance have I found an educated gentleman, or one who has much at stake, [who is] a follower of Lincoln. This must be, then, the effects of education. I find here more or less of the class called superstitious. They see ghosts, hobgoblins, trees on fire in the heavens, stars falling, worlds burning up, and a thousand other illusions that portend a large development of the supernatural. An old lady in this neighborhood discovered her dog lying east and west on his back, with his feet up towards the heavens. Straightway she announced to my horror that there would be a death in the family. One remarkable circumstance, however, she forgot to mention: the time the death would occur. If a cock comes in the house and gives a lively crow, straightway it is announced that a stranger is coming that very day. Horse shoes are abundant over the doors, and on inquiry I found it to mean the frightening off of witches. I find but few schools--few churches, and an enlightened gospel is seldom, if ever, heard in the mountains. This, then, is the truth of the whole matter: ignorance and superstition. Follow the chain of mountains, even in Virginia and North Carolina, and as the people in and on the mountains are more or less ignorant, unrefined and superstitious, the demagogue seeking an office finds his victims, and appeals to them by placing himself on a level with them.

T. D. W.

Southern Confederacy [Atlanta, Georgia], August 9, 1862.[15]

          4, Forrest's and Wynkoop's forces skirmish at Sparta[16]

Skirmish Near Sparta.

On last Monday [4th], Col. Wynkoop, with one hundred and eighty cavalry, attacked a detachment of Forrest's command seven hundred strong, driving in their pickets and carrying on a sharp skirmish for some time. The guerrillas attempted to flank Col. Wynkoop's force with ten pieces of artillery, when he retreated in good order, having killed and wounded more than thirty of the rebels and losing only one man. Col. Wynkoop had an excellent position, and his long range carbines did excellent work. Hurrah for the glorious Seventh Pennsylvania and their brave Colonel!

Nashville Daily Union, August 10, 1862.

          4, False Confederate newspaper report on Federal abduction of slaves in the Memphis environs

KIDNAPPING NEGROES.-The Yankee authorities have engaged largely in this business recently at Memphis. We learn that on several occasions boat loads of contrabands, men, women and children, have been dispatched up the river to Cairo, and that the work is still going on. Our informant witnessed the departure of a portion of this new commercial commodity, and assures us that the fact can be attested by hundreds of witnesses.

The negroes were gathered from plantations in the vicinity of the enemy's lines at Memphis and on the river-principally the latter. Near some of the landings most of the plantations have been entirely stripped of servants. The robbery has been a wholesale one, so far as they could safely accomplish it. A few negroes were enticed away by the promises of the thieves, but most of them were carried off forcibly, against their own will as well as the remonstrances of their masters. For what purpose they are to be used at the North, it was not stated; but some of the unguarded of the Federal soldier intimated that they were to be scattered among the farming comminutes of Southern Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.

Granada Appeal, August 4, 1862.

          ca. 4, Burning Cotton in West Tennessee


*  *  * 

A gentleman, who arrived at Jackson, Tenn., last Tuesday, reports that Captain Faulkner, (Secesh) with seventy men, entered Brownsville, Tenn., the day previous, and arrest all the cotton buyers in the place, six in number, and let two of them off on bonds of ten thousand dollars not to buy any more cotton, and took the other four off with him. He burned all the cotton in Brownsville about three hundred and fifty bales, and reported there that he had burnt at Grand Junction and intermediate points, a distance in all of about twenty-five miles, fifteen hundred bales-said his orders from General Bragg were to burn all the cotton; arrest all the cotton buyers and cotton sellers and bring them before him; and also to burn and destroy all the wagons that had been used in hauling cotton. They burnt at Brownsville five or six wagons.

*  *  * 

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 5, 1862.

          ca. 4-7, Pursuit of Confederates near Sparta[17]

No circumstantial reports filed.

HDQRS. FOURTH DIVISION, McMinnville, August 6, 1862.

Col. FRY, Chief of Staff:

COL.: The dispatch of Gen. Buell overtook me yesterday 9 miles from Sparta, to which point I was pursuing the enemy. In five minutes after the reception I commenced the counter march and arrived here again at 10 p. m., crossing for a second time the Collins River, whose banks are limestone cliffs 150 feet high. I had intended that the cavalry should arrive at Sparta the same day that I arrived here; had that been done I would have killed or captured the enemy in toto. But it seems my orders were misunderstood. I sent a dispatch to Gen. Smith and asked him to telegraph you the force I have here. I am ready for any orders.

* * * *

W. NELSON, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, pp. 270-271.

          5, Skirmish at Sparta

No circumstantial reports filed.

          5, A House Search in Federally Occupied Memphis

House Searched-The House belonging to Boettner's beer garden, called the "Green House," at the head of Poplar street, is now kept by a woman named Fanny Freeman. The soldiers in that neighborhood had observed that from time to time individuals obtained bottles of liquor there. On Tuesday night (5th) a number of them applied for whisky, but the owner of the bar refused to sell it to them. After midnight several of them entered the place and proceeded to help themselves and made considerable disturbance. At ten o'clock yesterday (6th) the visit was renewed, and we learn from the police that a scene of outrage and riot was the consequence. The men proceeded to roll out a cask that appeared to be a half barrel of beer. On taping, it proved to be filled with whisky. The effect of freely drinking from this may be readily imagined. The boys became excessively frolicsome and proceeded to demolish the contents of the Green House. Tumblers and bottles sprung through the air in company of other articles belonging to the bar.

The ice chest was smashed and the counter overturned. An officer was sent for, and when he arrived, aided by the police, he cleared the house of its disorderly company, locked the doors and gave the keys to the policemen; a guard was also put over the house. The house was afterwards attacked again, the guard knocked down, the doors and windows broken in. Such are the particulars of the affair as we learn them from the statements of the police engaged on the spot.

Memphis Bulletin, August 7, 1862.

          5, "…the charge was made with such dash and vigor that the enemy could hardly recover from the shock until it was over." Small scale skirmish on the Tazewell road.

I have just learned of a very daring exploit that was made to-day by a small squad of mounted men consisting of Brothers Fielding, Jim and Flavel, and three or four other boys from Bro. Jim's company, which is Company D, 2nd Battalion Tenn. Cavalry. They were every one private soldiers except Fielding and Flavel, who are not members of the army at all, though Fielding was formerly a lieutenant in the same company, but was discharged because of ill health.[18] The exploit consisted of a reckless charge on a yankee picket post on the main road leading from Tazewell toward Cumberland Gap, and they killed three Yankees, wounded two more and took one prisoner.

Our boys lost one killed, a young man named Carter. The picket post being on the main road between the two opposing forces, was of course a very strong one, and was supported near at hand by a very strong picket base, but the charge was made with such dash and vigor that the enemy could hardly recover from the shock until it was over.

They were soon in readiness, however, and our boys had to beat a hasty retreat, but they succeeded in bringing out their prisoner whom they compelled to mount behind one of the boys, as there was no time to bring him out afoot. They were compelled to leave the body of their dead comrade. Brother Fielding led the charge, as he is always ready for a chivalrous deed, and Brother Jim is credited with killing one of the men with his revolver. Bro Flavel is too young for a soldier and this is his first visit to the army, but he went into this daring exploit of his own choice. The only regrettable feature of the adventure is the death of young Nels Carter, who was a great favorite with his comrades.

Our regiment is ordered on to Tazewell, but I am detailed for guard duty at the river, where our baggage is left.

Diary of William E. Sloan.

5, Report on the cotton burning activities of Confederate Captain Faulkner, West Tennessee

Cotton Burning in Western Tennessee

A gentleman who arrived in Jackson Tenn., last Tuesday [ca. July 29], reports that Captain Faulkner, (Secesh) entered the town with, the day previous [ca. July 28th] and arrested all the cotton buyers, in the place, six in number and let two of the off on bonds, and took the other four off with him. He burned all the cotton in Brownsville about three hundred and fifty bales and reported that he had burnt at Grand Junction and intermediate points a distance in off twenty-five miles, fifteen hundred bales-said his orders from General Bragg were to burn all the cotton; arrest all the cotton buyers and cotton sellers and bring them before him; and also to burn and destroy all the wagons that had been used in hauling cotton. They burnt at Brownsville five or six wagons.

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 5, 1862.

          5, A Yankee Officer in the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time during Forrest's Raid on Murfreesboro

A Federal Officer "Turned Up" in a Queer Place.

We learn, from a source deemed authentic, an interesting incident respecting Captain J. C. Rounds, of the 9th Michigan regiment, who, as provost marshal of Murfreesboro, was guilty of the grossest oppression toward the citizens, male and female, of that city and it vicinity, as well as Confederate prisoners falling into his hands. The tale, as told to us, is that, when Col. Forrest attacked the Federals at Murfreesboro, the captain exhibited gallantry of a kind indicating a nativity under the horoscope of Venus rather than of Mars. Shrinking from the fierce presence of the malignant god, he sought refuge under the influences of his benignant star-but not his lady's bower.

Laying aside metaphor and mystery-'tis said, that Capt. Rounds had been captivated the charms of a Miss____, of no particular age, residing at Murfreesboro', and she by his military title, gilt and brass-and a matrimonial alliance was contemplated-at least, on the lady's part. Pending the fight, several ladies of true Southern sympathies and spirit espied the captain, skulking, like a cowardly cur, from the presence of danger and dodging into the house wear dwelt his fiancé. They communicated that fact to our officers, and a detachment of soldier was sent in his pursuit. Search was made, but the soldiers left the house without fining him. The ladies who witnessed the captain's entrance into the house, insisted the he was there, and a second search was made, but in vain, and the soldiers again retired. The ladies urged a third effort, and the soldiers, yielding obedience to their importunities reluctantly prosecuted their search into "my lady's chamber," and there they found "my lady" sitting on the side of her bed, and her lover still invisible. Our soldiers deemed it a public duty to make a thorough search, and, to their surprise and gratification, found the captain sweating profusely between two mattresses. He was one of the officer brought here as a prisoner and sent on to Madison, Georgia.-Knoxville Register,

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 5, 1862. [19]

          5, Pass to Lorenzo Sibert and three others from the Confederate Provost Marshal of East Tennessee allowing Lorenzo Sibert and three others permission to travel from Knoxville to Sweetwater Tennessee.

No. 7164

Head-Quarters, Department East Tenn., Office Provost Marshal,

Knoxville, Tenn., Aug 5, 1862.

Permission is Granted L Sibert & 3 Men to visit Sweetwater,Tenn, upon honor, not to communicate in writing, or verbally, for publication, any fact ascertained, which, if known to the enemy, might be injurious to the Confederate States of America.

Valley of the Shadow[20]

          5-6, Foraging, reconnaissance and skirmishes near Tazewell [see also August 2-6, 1862, above]

HEADQUARTERS TWENTY-SIXTH BRIGADE, Cumberland Gap, August 7, 1862.

CAPTAIN: In continuation of the daily report which Gen. Morgan directed me to send in of the foraging expedition which I was ordered to make in the vicinity of Tazewell, I have the honor to state as follows:

About 10.45 a. m. yesterday [6th] the enemy made a sudden attack in great force on the Sixteenth Regiment Ohio Volunteers on the entire length of the line of advanced posts furnished by that corps. The attacking force consisted of at least three infantry regiments, with some artillery, supported by other regiments and more artillery. The enemy had been secreted during the previous night in the dense woods in front and on the flanks of the advanced posts and their pickets. The manner of the attack showed evidently that the intention was to cut off the advanced gun. In this the enemy would have succeeded but for the courageous coolness of the men serving the gun, and the companies placed there to protect it. So well did these companies comport themselves that the gun was enabled to fire one round at the enemy at a distance not greater than seventy-five yards. The gun was then limbered up and retired in good order (Major Kershner's horse was shot during this part of the affair), but the companies protecting the retreat of the gun were themselves surrounded by two regiments and completely cut off. Here began a most desperate combat betwixt the companies of the Sixteenth Regiment Ohio Volunteers and the enemy's two regiments. Finally more than four-fifths of the officers and privates of the two companies cut their way through and rejoined later in the day their regiment, in rear of Tazewell.

Whilst these brilliant deeds were being performed on the right as severe an engagement was taking place on the left. There Major Kershner (who was in command of the Sixteenth Regiment Ohio Volunteers) had taken position with three companies on a high knoll commanding the roads by which the enemy was advancing. The conduct of these companies and their management by Major Kershner was excellent. For one hour and a half they held two regiments at bay, and compelled one of these regiments to fall back to reform; but the companies having exhausted all their ammunition, were finally ordered to fall back in skirmishing order. I arrived near the scene of action about 11 o'clock. It was at once apparent that the position in front of Tazewell was not any longer tenable. I immediately ordered the Fourteenth Regiment Kentucky Volunteers to form in line right and left of the road, placing at the same time two guns near the center to cover the retreat of the Sixteenth Regiment Ohio Volunteers. As soon as the latter had reached this line I ordered the guns to retire, and shortly after the Fourteenth Regiment Kentucky Volunteers followed and took up position on the heights in rear of Tazewell, where the remainder of the brigade, with the artillery, were posted. Having received information that the enemy had massed troops on the Knoxville road with the design of getting in rear of my right, I gave up all idea of advancing, and determined to hold these heights as long as my line of communication with Cumberland Gap was not endangered. This was accordingly done, and the First Wisconsin Battery, ably commanded by the gallant Lieut. Anderson, with a well-directed fire, first stopped the enemy's advance, and finally compelled him to retreat over the hills and out of sight. The enemy's artillery fire was good, both as to range and direction, and the caliber of their guns was larger than ours. About the time the enemy began to retire almost all stragglers had rejoined, and all stores and wagons had been sent well to the rear. The artillery ammunition being nearly all expended, and the men much exhausted from want of food, having lost their rations during the action, and their physical powers having been taxed to the utmost during the hottest part of the day, I resolved to retire slowly. The movement began about 7 p. m.; was effected in excellent order, and in a direction through the woods which completely concealed it from the observation of the enemy's scouts. Several hours previous I had again received information from loyal citizens and colored people that several regiments of the enemy were in rear of my right flank, which would have rendered this movement imperative had even the above reason not compelled it. I have called upon officers commanding regiments to make a detailed report of the doings and conduct of their respective commands, and copies of these reports will be forwarded to you without delay. A return of killed, wounded, and missing will be furnished you as soon as possible. Amongst the missing the name of Capt. Edgar, Sixteenth Regiment, will appear. This able, zealous, and gallant officer was seen to fall when his company was breaking through the enemy's regiments.

I have the honor to be, sir, yours, respectfully,

JOHN DE COURCY, Col., Commanding Twenty-sixth Brigade.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. I, pp. 43-44.

HDQRS., Huntsville, August 15, 1862.

Gen. NELSON, McMinnville:

Rebel accounts of affair at Tazewell are false. The facts are as follows: Morgan sent De Courcy's brigade to Tazewell to reconnoiter and get forage; they procured 200 loads, and had a slight skirmish[21] on 5th; on morning of 6th, as he was returning, De Courcy was attacked, not vigorously, considering vastly superior force of enemy. Our object was accomplished and the affair a success. We had but one brigade and a section of artillery. Loss not serious. Nothing has occurred there since.

It is of highest importance for you to verify the report of Bragg's movement to Richmond; spare no labor, means, or money to do so. Send Gen. Jackson at once to report to Gen. Boyle in Kentucky to command a light brigade for active operations.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 341.


Entries from the diary of William E. Sloan, member of the 5th Regiment of Tennessee Cavalry [C. S. A.][22]

Aug. 6.-The Tazewell battle took place today. Brothers Fielding and Flavel came to our camp early this morning, and I got Flavel to loan me his horse and taker my place a baggage guard, and I went with Fielding to join the cavalry, which we found near Tazewell on the left of the line of battle. The enemy occupied Tazewell, and a heavy artillery fire was kept up on both sides. The cavalry was not engaged during the day, and the infantry lines did not join in hard battle until toward evening. Our 3d Tenn. Regiment did the principal fighting, and the enemy was driven from the field at nightfall, but still occupied the town, and our infantry did not try to follow them in the dark.

Aug. 7.-Brother Fielding and I mounted our horses this morning before day-break and started off alone to reconnoiter.

Passing our picket line we cautiously rode toward Tazewell, expecting to find the enemy's pickets near the edge of town. Finding no resistance we entered the town just after day-break, and learned that the last of the enemy left town before mid-night. We were the first rebels to enter the town, in fact the first to find out that the enemy was not still occupying the town. We took breakfast with a family of Southern ladies in town, and some of the young ladies picketed the streets while we ate breakfast, lest the yankee cavalry should charge and capture us. We then mounted and started back to report our discoveries to the cavalry colonel, and before we got out of town a very amusing circumstance occurred. We discovered three infantry soldiers approaching town in a rather straggling manner, and on seeing us they took to their heels as fast as they could run, thinking that we were the advance of a column of Yankee cavalry

We charged them, as a joke, and soon came up with them. They are [sic] very much relieved in mind on discovering that we were friends but evidently did not relish the joke as well as we did. We then reported to Col. McKenzie of the cavalry, and by his leave we immediately started out again and passing through Tazewell we took the Cumberland Gap road and followed up the enemy as far as Powell River, and found that they had retreated to Cumberland Gap. When Bro. F. and I returned from this scouting trip we found that our troops had just advanced into Tazewell

Diary of William E. Sloan.


Louisville Journal Account

Louisville, August 16 [1862]

We have had the pleasure of an interview with Capt. J. H. Ferry, Quartermaster of General Morgan's division, who left the Gap at noon on Tuesday last, the twelfth instant, and he gives a full and explicit denial to the rebel reports of our reverses in that vicinity. Since the fight at Wallace's Cross-Roads, in the middle of July, there has been no regular engagement near the Gap until last Saturday, when Col. De Courcy went out on a foraging party with his whole brigade, consisting of the Sixteenth and Forth-second Ohio and Twenty-scent Kentucky, Col. Lindsey, and the Fourteenth Kentucky, Col. Cochran, of Gen. Baird's divisions.

Col. Cochran was in advance with his regiment, about a mile and a half beyond Tazewell, on picket-duty, when he was attacked by four rebel regiments under Col. Rains, comprising the Eleventh and Forty-second Tennessee, Thirtieth Alabama and Twenty-first Georgia. Col. Cochran immediately formed his command on each side of the road, each flank supported by a piece of artillery from Foster's Wisconsin battery, under command of Lieut. John D. Anderson. The rebels advanced upon the Fourteenth Kentucky in extended line, and their flanking regiments thrown forward, with the evident intention of surrounding and cutting off the whole regiment and artillery. Col. Cochran, seeing this, retired his regiment in perfect order, as soon as the artillery had placed itself in his rear, and took position where the movement could not be repeated against him.

The rebels, then changed their plan of attack, and charged by column of regiments, until when within two hundred and fifty yards, Col. Cochran, who had stood without discharging a gun, poured a terrible fire upon them, which checked their advance and threw them into disorder. In the mean time, Foster's entire battery of six guns had been place in position on an eminence in the rear, and opened fire, which turned the rebel disorder into a rout, and no more was seen of them. Rebel officers who came in under a flag of truce, acknowledged a loss of from two hundred to two hundred and fifty, and the Knoxville Register, a copy of which Captain Ferry had read, published the names of one hundred and nine killed.

We lost but three killed....

Lieut.-Col. Gordon, of the Eleventh rebel Tennessee regiment, was taken prisoner by two men of the Sixteenth Ohio, and though their company was completely surrounded, they udexterously managed to bring him in to Colonel De Courcy. The rebels offered to exchange all prisoners taken by them for their lieutenant-colonel, but the arrangements had not been completed when Captain Ferry left the Gap. Gen. Morgan issued orders complimenting Cols. Cochran and De Courcy and their men for their bravery, but it is universally conceded that to Col. Cochran belongs all the credit and the splendid repulse of the four rebel regiments.

Rebellion Record, Vol. 5, p. 573.



Morristown [Tenn.], August 8, 1862

The enemy has been met and defeated-in fact, routed; but it has not been as extensive an engagement as at first supposed; neither has there been the cutting to pieces [sic] of this regiment and that battalion, as stated. The fight was a gallant one, while it lasted, which, according to the generals despatch, was about four hours. The enemy were getting bold in the vicinity of our forces, and was gradually extending his lines and committing depredation upon the property of private citizens; so Gen. Smith ordered an attack, to put a check upon his movements. The skirmish of Colonel Ashby's cavalry, some days ago, was the forerunner of a movement on him, and shout after shout went up from the ranks of men almost disheartened that our government would not let them have a brush. As I learned, the third Georgia and Fourth Tennessee were in advance, and waded Clinch River, which, being swollen a little, came up to their arm-pits.

It is impossible to draw the Yankees in a fair, open field fight, but they are always found in strong position, as in this instance. Two miles from and overlooking Tazewell, is a ridge called Waldren's [sic], and it is the scene of several little artillery duels between the opposing forces. Here Gen. Stevenson, with his brigade, consisting of the Eleventh Tennessee, Fourth Tennessee, Forty-second Georgia, Eighth Georgia battalion, and Yeiser's battery, with the Eufala artillery, met the enemy. Taylor's brigade acted in conjunction. All went to work to dislodge the enemy with such a furore [sic] did they attack him, that in a few hours the Federals, consisting of about three brigades, turned and fled, the majority at a run, and some in great disorder. The Sixteenth Ohio was the only regiment that left in any manner appertaining to good order. As usual, they left a good portion of their dead on our hands, taking seven or eight wagon-loads off previous to their defeat.

We have not captured any artillery, as announced; neither did the Third Tennessee regiment lose one hundred and nine men in killed and wounded, as reported; but they fought gallantly, and I have been told that, had they been supported, they would have taken the enemy's guns in a charge made by them. Capt. Corput's battery did fine execution, and poured the shot and shell into their disordered column as they put out in a double-quick for the Gap. Forty prisoners were captured, a good many stand of arms, and some commissary stores. Lieut.-Col. Gordon, of the Eleventh Tennessee regiment, (Col. Hains) was captured by the enemy.

I cannot call this a battle, as it does not come up to my idea of what a battle is; I denominate it more like a heavy skirmish.[23] I have asked as high as fifty person what our losses are, and after putting myself to the trouble of comparing all statements, I strike a balance of nine killed and thirty or forty wounded.

The loss of the enemy is estimated at from fifty to one hundred and fit in killed and wounded. It was a brilliant affair, and reflects great credit upon our arm. It has come like a thunderbolt on the Unionists in this section who were making their boasts of soon shaking hands with their Federal friends. It has relieved a large section of the country from the depredations of ravaging foe. The boasted threat that this railroad would soon be in their hands, coupled with the congratulatory promises of Andy Johnson to dine with his tory friends, is all exploded now, and pray "where now is heard the scream of Montgomery's eagle?"

The Federals fled to the Gap, and our forces now occupy Tazewell. They have advanced in a few days over twenty miles in the enemy's front, and I should not be surprised if this affair, small as it appears, will cause General Morgan to leave Tennessee, and let his hope for junction with Buell go by the board. The decisive battle of East-Tennessee is now "trying not to try"-not to find out where to attack us, but to avoid it and get safely away.

Rebellion Record, Vol. 5, pp. 573-574.


A Confederate Reporter's Account of Combat at Tazewell


News from the West.

Mobile, Aug. 7 [Thursday].-A special dispatch to the Advertiser and Register from Knoxville the 6th says, heavy skirmishing heavy skirmishing commenced on Tuesday [6th] with a large portion of the enemy at Tazewell, seven miles from Cumberland Gap. One brigade of Gen. Stevenson's force was engaged on our side; the design was to gain the enemy's rear, and cut them off from the Gap. Artillery firing was very heavy. ; Several prisoners have been brought in from Tazewell. No particulars of the fight. Gen. Rains at the latest accounts, was making forced marches for the purpose of gaining the enemy's rear.

Brig Gen W. R. Carswell [sic] was assassinated this afternoon by some unknown person, near this residence, six miles from Knoxville.

Mobile, 7th- A special to the Advertiser and register, from Knoxville, 7th says, that the B rig Gen Stevenson states that, after a gallant action of four hours, on yesterday near Tazewell the enemy were repulsed with great slaughter and are in full retreat. A courier reports that a battery of four guns was taken after being twice repulsed, with the loss of one hundred and nine men. Gen Burton has succeeded in gaining the rear of the enemy. Gen. Stevenson being reinforced, flanked Bowen's command and captured the Federal army of East Tennessee.

The murderer of Gen. Carwsell was arrested last night.

~ ~ ~

Macon Daily Telegraph, August 9, 1862.[24]


Letter from "J. F. G."

Camp Convalescence, near Knoxville, Tenn., Aug., 8, 1862

Editor Enquirer:

I wrote you a few days ago about the brush a portion of the 2d Brigade had with the enemy beyond Clinch river on Monday evening last, and our forces moving forward again on Tuesday morning to fight their way thro' to Tazewell if necessary. Tuesday about noon Gen. Stevenson received information that the enemy (three brigades strong) had taken position upon a very high ridge one mile and a half east from Tazewell, on the road leading to Morristown, and had placed two batteries of 6 and 12 pounder thereon, the position of which commanded the road and the approaches thereto for at least two miles. In front, as well as upon their right and left flank, were extensive old fields, with nothing intervening to protect our men from the deadly missiles of the enemy. During the evening Gen Stevenson reconnoitered the enemy's position, and at night make all necessary preparation to attack him the next morning. Early Wednesday morning the 3d Georgia Battalion was ordered forward to take a position near the enemy 's left Georgia boys had met the enemy and were dealing death into their ranks. And almost instantly the battle became general along our whole line. The 11th and 4th Tennessee, and the Bloody 29th North Carolina regiment, had posted themselves and were playing havoc in the enemy's ranks. About 9 o'clock Colonel Vaughn's 3d Tennessee came upon the filed of strife. Gen. Stevenson, perceiving the necessity of capturing their batteries, ordered the gallant Col. Vaughn to charge them. He immediately wheeled to his men and ordered them forward at a double quick. They were compelled to fall back in consequence of the severe fire of the enemy. Again was the charge sounded and again they fell back in some confusion; yet their intrepid Colonel, not to be discovered, again led his men to the charge, and with a terrific yell they bounded forward, bayoneted the enemy's gunners, and put his infantry supports to flight. His left wing had already given way before the unerring aim and matchless courage of the Georgia  regiments, and the enemy fled in utter confusion through Tazewell and on towards the Gap, leaving large numbers of his dead and wounded on the field.

The engagement lasted four hours, commencing at 8 oc and ending at 12M. At the present writing I have not been able to abstain the details in full. The  3d Tennessee, Col. Vaughn, in their charges lost 100 men in killed and wounded. The losses of the other regiments I have not been able to obtain; I have, however, been promised a list, and as soon as it reaches me you shall have it. Two companies from Columbus participated in the fight-Jackson Avengers, Capt. Bradford, and Lula Guards, Capt. Phelps, belonging to the 3d Georgia Battalion. I am inclined to the opinion that no one was killed in either of these two companies; if there had been I would have been informed of ere this time.

In reference to the report telegraphed to us the other day, he says: "A report was current this evening that Brig. Gen. Barton had succeeded in getting in their rear of the enemy between Tazewell and Powell's river, and that he was engaged in a fight with reinforcements from the Gap that were coming out to assist their troops This report, however, need confirmation.

I had the pleasure on Sunday last, of greeting upon the streets of Knoxville, Capt. F. W. Dillard, the popular and efficient A. Q. M. at Columbus. He looks as blooming as a rose, and as jolly and genial as in days of yore. Prosperity to the Captain; may his shadow never grow less.

Col. Morgan if off again; where to I will not say. Some fine morning your readers will wake up and find in the Enquirer that he has been playing the very old Harry with some one's ducks.[25]

Capt. Nelson's command has returned from a scout in the neighborhood of Clinton. His company is enjoying excellent health; they, like many others, are impatient at the inactive life they are undergoing. Captain Tom is a chip off the old block, and has at his back as valiant a set of men as ever bestrode a horse or drew a saber. I am betting my last dollar on him and his, whenever Gen. Smith severs the cable that binds them here.

I saw Gen. Humphrey Marshall here a headquarters yesterday. Those of your readers who remember fat John Ward, that lived twenty years ago on Battle Row, can for some idea of the Generals appearance by calling the said fat John to mind.

Hilliard's Legion were busy yesterday; but as they are now gone – in the right direction.

P. S. -A very brutal murder was committed about four miles from our camps yesterday evening, upon the person of Brig. Gen. Caswell. The perpetrators have not been arrested yet.

Daily Columbus Enquirer, August 13, 1862.



A Fight Near Cumberland Gap.

The Rebels Worsted.

Morgan Again in Motion and Threatening Kentucky.

He Captures 300 U. S. Troops.

Nashville, Aug. 12. - A despatch from General Morgan, dated at Cumberland Gasp, says DeCourcey's Brigade and the Fourteenth Kentucky Regiment, on the 5th and 6th instant, had several engagements with Stevenson's Division, in force, the Rebels outnumbering four to one.

The rebels lost 335 killed and wounded.

Our loss was 3 killed, 15 wounded, and 50 prisoners.

Two companies of the Sixteenth Ohio Regiment were surrounded by two regiments, but succeeded in cutting their way out.

We captured a lot of forage, tobacco, and mules.

John Morgan left Knoxville on the 2d, with 2000 cavalry, en route to Kingston. Kentucky is to be invaded

Louisville, Aug. 12th.-John Morgan, with a force of 1800 cavalry and four pieces of artillery, entered Gallatin, Tennessee, early this morning and captured Colonel Boone, commanding that post, with about 300 men of the Twenty-eighth Kentucky Regiment, and a United States freight train, containing sixty horses and a lot of oats and corn.

There was no fight. Morgan was still in possession of the town at noon, to-date.

Adjutant-Genera Fennel declines to accept the resignation of John Boyle, a nephew of General Boyle, as Lieutenant Colonel of the Ninth Kentucky Cavalry, and orders him to join his regiment.

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 13, 1862.

          ca. 5-19, Anti-guerrilla scouts in Benton, Dyer and Lauderdale counties, and on Obion River, Federal situation report


Capt. M. ROCHESTER, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Columbus, Ky.:

I have had my cavalry out day and night for two weeks past after different rebel bands, and in this way have so far kept them down and prevented them from joining their forces. I have not reported all the movements but only results, which I suppose the general prefers. The cavalry keep on their track, but it is hard work to catch them. These swamps and canebrakes are almost impenetrable, and when they once get in them it is useless to hunt farther. So far what fights we have had have been decisive and greatly in our favor. I have now some 100 horses and mules taken from them, besides a large number of arms. I have given to well-known Union men some of the arms that they had been robbed of, and have turned over some to the Tennessee troops by request of Governor Johnson. That these bands are being largely re-enforced I have no doubt. They obtained some 500 good arms out of a rebel boat sunk by us in the Tennessee River and have made good use of them.

I now have four companies of cavalry on the Tennessee, in Benton County, following up a force said to be 600 strong; four companies in Dyer and Lauderdale following Porter's band, 300 strong, besides separate companies on the Obion. If it is possible I wish one more company of cavalry could be sent to Col. Harris at Union City. He needs another company, but I cannot spare it. If 100 saddles could be sent me I would mount some infantry on the contraband stock and could use them to good advantage.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen., Comdg. Division.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 180-181.

          6, Initiation of planning for Federal forts in Nashville

HDQRS., Huntsville, August 6, 1862.

Capt. MORTON, on Chattanooga Road:

Go at once to Nashville and select sites and give plans and instructions for redoubts to protect the city. For the present I only propose to throw up small works to hold from four to six companies and from two to four pieces of artillery. They should be in the edge of the city, to command the principal thoroughfares and other prominent points. They should not be within musket-range of houses that could be used to fire into them. They should have easy communication with the city. See Governor Johnson, and if he approves, devise some defenses also around the capitol; devise also some defenses for the bridge. These works must all be practical and as simple as possible in the beginning, so that they can be constructed with the greatest promptness and occupied immediately by a small force. They can then be elaborated and made more formidable. Start the works at once, the most important first. The commanding officer will call in slave labor on it. Look to your bridge defenses at the same time. I shall want you here in a very few days.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 268.

          6, Confederate guerrilla activity near Lewisburg, Marshall County, Kinderhook, Maury County

HDQRS., Huntsville, August 6, 1862.

Gen. NEGLEY, Columbia:

Gen. Cruft, at Manchester, reports a large force of guerrillas at Lewisburg, Marshall County. Send Wolford's cavalry and the artillery to Murfreesborough through that place, with orders to destroy the guerrillas if they can be found. Let the companies with you go with the regiment to Lewisburg and return to you when the affair there is settled. They must be careful and not expose the artillery to loss. Let them act promptly and secretly.

JAMES B. FRY, Chief of Staff.

COLUMBIA, August 6, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

Yesterday between 400 and 500 guerrillas were near Kinderhook. If the First Kentucky Cavalry can be used against them, dividing the force so as to attack them at several points simultaneously, they could possibly be surprised.


HDQRS., Huntsville, August 6, 1862.

Gen. NEGLEY, Columbia:

Wolford's cavalry is to look after a large guerrilla party reported at Lewisburg, Marshall County, and cannot go to Kinderhook. There is no more cavalry to send you.

JAMES B. FRY, Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 268.

          6, Federal plans to begin construction of forts in Nashville

HDQRS., Huntsville, August 6, 1862.

Maj. SIDELL, Nashville:

I will send Capt. Morton to select sites and lay off works. Examine the ground yourself, so as to enable him to understand the situation readily, as the time is short and he is greatly occupied elsewhere. My notion is that for the present the works should consist of small redoubts in the edge of the city or very close to it, and commanding the main avenues of important points.


HDQRS., Huntsville, August 6, 1862.

Maj. SIDELL, Hdqrs., Nashville:

Capt. Morton, Engineers, is ordered to select sites and lay out works for defense of Nashville.

Direct Col. Miller to see that the works are pushed with all possible dispatch. Tell him to call in regular from upon slave-owners for hands to work, and put as many on the works as can be employed.

JAMES B. FRY, Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, pp. 268-269.

          6, General Bragg seeks better division commanders for the Army of Tennessee

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT No. 2, Chattanooga, Tenn., August 6, 1862.

Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen., Richmond, Va.:

GEN.: I have the honor to inclose herewith a list of the general officers serving with the troops in this department, and a statement of the organization, by which it may be seen at a glance how deficient these forces are in commanders. These papers are submitted in view of the objections made to appointments recommended. No allowance has been made for sickness or other disability and none for the men absent from the ranks. Were the men borne on the muster-rolls present for duty, as they should be, our brigades would be largely increased in numbers. I do not hesitate to assert that a fourth of our efficiency is lost for want of suitable brigade and division commanders. Scarcely a disaster has befallen our arms that cannot be graced to this cause. It is, in my judgment, a pernicious rule to rely for commanders on established rank. No appointing power can avoid errors through which in time each grade must become incumbered with some incapable and inefficient officers, who cannot be employed without material prejudice to the service. For this reason alone our division commanders should be selected from the best brigadiers available, which cannot be done unless the rank of major-general is conferred upon them. It will add nothing to their pay and emoluments or increase the expense to the Government, while all experience convinces me of the advantages that may be anticipated.

Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 667-668.

          6, Expectations regarding Confederate forces on the Cumberland Plateau

....The country is alive with soldiers, they are looking for a [battle] down about Sparta, but the Yankees have not advanced much this side of McMinnville yet, and to my opinion when they do come, the will see nothing of the Southern soldiers but their tracks, and hear nothing of them but the complaints of the people whose substance they have consumed....

Diary of Amanda McDowell.

          6, General Orders, No. 69, relative to strict limitations on the circulation of coin currency

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 69. HDQRS. DISTRICT OF WEST TENNESSEE, Corinth, Miss., August 6, 1862.

I. Hereafter no coin will be permitted to pass south of Cairo or Columbus except such as is carried by Government agents and for Government use. The same restriction will be observed at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson.

II. Neither coin, Treasury notes, or [sic] goods will be permitted to pass south of Memphis except for the use of the army. The payment of cash for any article of use in aid of the rebellion for Southern products will be discouraged in every way possible.

III. All cotton and other articles coming from points below Memphis will be seized and sold for the benefit of whom it may concern, the proceeds being used by the quartermaster until directed by proper authority to turn them over to other parties, unless the same has been passed by Special permit from the Treasury Department.

By order of Maj.-Gen. Grant:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 155.

          6, Skirmish at Salem

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

          6, Skirmish at Rickett's Hill

Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.

          ca. 6, Murder of General William R. Caswell of Knoxville

"Horrible Murder" [From the Knoxville Register]

This community was inexpressibly shocked today by intelligence of the murder of Gen. Wm. R Caswell by some unknown fiend, near his residence some six miles east to this city. The only particulars we have of the affair is that here was found about a half mile from his own home with his throat cut. His servants report that they saw him struggling with some one in the road, but before they could reach him, he was extinct and the murderer fled.-Immediately upon the receipt of the intelligence here, a party of our citizens mounted horse and started out to scour the country in search of the assassin.

The general was in the city yesterday and interchanged greetings with numerous friends.

Gen. C. [sic] was about 51 or 52 years of age. He was one of the most universally esteemed and respected of our citizens. Perhaps no man who occupied as prominent a position as a public man ever enjoyed more personal popularity. Affable in his demeanor to everyone, kind and generous and upright and just in all his transactions, it is remarkable that he should have an enemy so desperate a character as his slayer must have been. The affair is inexplicable as horrible.

Gen. Caswell was a distinguished soldier, having served through the Mexican campaign. He was one of the earliest in this city to embrace the cause of the South at the breaking out of the war. He was appointed by Gov. Harris a Brigadier in the State service, and commanded the forces rendezvoused here until they were turned over to the Confederate Government when he retired to private life.

P.S. Passengers by the train last night from above say the report at McMillans [sic] station was that Gen. Caswell had been assassinated by a party of men, who fired upon him from the woods, and after he had fallen from his horse, rushed upon him and mangled him with their knives. A company of cavalry has been sent to search for the perpetrators

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, August 9, 1862.[26]

          ca. 6-8, Unsuccessful guerrilla attacks on Federal wagon train, Reynold's Station to Decherd

DECHERD, August 8, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

Three hundred wagons are now arriving here from Reynolds' Station.

Are they to be sent to their divisions or to remain here? They were attacked three times by guerrillas, but got through safely.

GEO. H. THOMAS, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pp. 290-291.

          7, Confederate guerrilla attack on Federal mail train near Spring Hill

Columbia, August 7, 1862

Col. J. B. FRY:

The party of guerrillas, between 300 and 400, reported to you yesterday at Kinderhook, attacked the mail train this morning 12 miles south of Spring Hill at 9 a.m., having first placed a large number of ties in the road. Two hundred balls were fired into the wood and iron work of the locomotive. The brakemen was wounded with four balls. Twelve passengers, citizens and soldiers, were wounded. The engine forced the obstructions off the track and came to this place under high speed.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 282.

          7, Correspondence relative to meeting Confederate guerrilla threat in Middle Tennessee

COLUMBIA, August 7, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

The officer I sent along the line last night to prevent surprise has just returned, stating that the guerrillas were at several points last night with the evident intention of destroying the bridges, but were prevented by the vigilance of the men.


COLUMBIA, August 7, 1862.

HDQRS., Huntsville, August 7, 1862.

Gen. NEGLEY, Columbia:

Two hundred men Kennett's cavalry go to Nashville on train to-morrow for horses. They are ordered to come back by way of Kinderhook. An officer will stop to see you, and get information and concert plan to destroy guerrillas there. Don't detain Kennett's cavalry longer than necessary for this one scout.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, pp. 282-283.

          7, Skirmish at Trenton


          7, Federal attack on Confederate guerrillas five miles east of Dyersburg at Wood Springs and suggestion to initiate scorched earth policy in West Tennessee

AUGUST 7, 1862.-Skirmish at Wood Springs, near Dyersburg, Tenn.

Reports of Brig. Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, U. S. Army.


CAPT.: I have the honor to submit the following report:

Yesterday, August 7, between 2 and 3 o'clock p. m., Capt. Peck and 50 men attacked Faulkner's company of Jackson's cavalry 5 miles east of Dyersburg, in the river bottom, and completely surprised them. They report that they killed some 25 to 30, took 53 horses, a large number of guns, arms, &c. The dispatches taken show that this company crossed the Tennessee line five days ago, with orders to get into Kentucky to recruit and to burn all cotton they could find. At the time they left, Col. Jackson was in Senatobia, Miss. Most of Faulkner's men who escaped left without their clothes, arms, or horses. They were receiving recruits in large squads from Dyer, Lauderdale, and Hickman Counties.

I believe our only policy is to burn up these counties. They pay no attention to the oath, feed and guide the rebels. Two negroes [sic] led our cavalry to them, guiding them around their pickets. No white man had the pluck to do it. Most of Faulkner's company were asleep. They travel in the night and sleep day-time. North of Dyersburg is another band, 100 strong, waiting to join Faulkner. I expect to trap them before to-morrow morning unless the news of Faulkner's rout gets to them. Faulkner's horse and equipments were taken, and one of the prisoners says he was killed or wounded.

The three prisoners taken are Fielding Bland, who lives within 7 miles of Blandville; Henry Torpley, 6 miles from Feliciana, Hickman County, Ky., and W. S. Bennett, 3 miles from Baltimore, Hickman County, Ky.[27] Our loss was 7 men wounded, 2 mortally. Our cavalry under Maj. Bush is now following up the scattered band.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen., Comdg. Division.


Trenton, Tenn., August 10, 1862.

Capt. Peck with 53 men of Sixth Illinois Cavalry attacked Faulkner's company of Jackson's cavalry on Thursday between 3 and 4 o'clock p. m., 5 miles east of Dyersburg, completely surprising and routing them. He reports 20 killed; has sent in 53 of their horses, most of their arms and ammunition, with 3 prisoners. Those that escaped left without their clothes, arms, or horses. Their company roll showed them to be 127 strong. Our loss was 7 wounded, 2 mortally. Their dispatches taken show they, with Porter's band, crossed the Tennessee line five days ago; left rest of Faulkner's cavalry at Senatobia, Miss. They were ordered to burn all cotton west of Tennessee River, and if possible get into Kentucky to recruit their commands. One of the prisoners taken says he saw all of Cheatham's army on their way to Richmond via Chattanooga.

I forwarded dispatches by telegraph and letter to the district headquarters promptly. Will hereafter forward to you as directed. Faulkner's band is used up and we are catching the stragglers from it.

G. M. DODGE, Brig.-Gen., Comdg. Division.

OR, Ser. I. Vol. 17, pt. I, pp. 29-30

From Trenton, Tenn. Special Dispatch to the Chicago Times.

Trenton, August 8 (via Cairo, August 8) Gen. Dodge sent our Capt. Peck and fifty-three men of the Sixth Illinois Cavalry to attack Faulkner's company of Jackson's cavalry, who have been burning cotton, who burned the bridge near Humboldt, and who are committing other depredations in this vicinity. They surprised Faulkner's band five miles east of Dyersburg yesterday afternoon [7th] while they were resting and sleeping, as they travel nights and sleep in the day-time, and completely routed them, killing 30 of Faulkner's men, taking 55 horses, and a great portion of their arms, also Faulkner's horse and his orders from Jeff. Thompson and Jackson, which are very important to us.

Faulkner was trying to get into Kentucky, but was cut off, and most of his men shot. He escaped, but left without arms, horses, or clothes.

Gen. Dodge was informed of this camp by two negroes [sic], who guided the cavalry around the rebel pickets. He has freed the negroes [sic].

Capt. Peck and men, though outnumbered, fought very gallantly, and gave no quarters. [sic] His loss was seven wounded, two mortally.

Memphis Union Appeal, August 12, 1862.

          7, Major-General W. T. Sherman establishes occupation policy relative to property rights in Memphis

HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Memphis, August 7, 1862.

Capt. FITCH, Assistant Quartermaster, Memphis, Tenn.:

SIR: The duties devolving on the quartermaster of this post, in addition to his legitimate functions, are very important and onerous, and I am fully aware that the task is more than should devolve on one man.

I will endeavor to get you help in the person of some commissioned officer, and if possible, one under bond, as he must handle large amounts of money in trust; but for the present we must execute the duties falling to our share as well as possible. On the subject of vacant houses Gen. Grant's orders are:

Take possession of all vacant stores and houses in the city, and have the rented at reasonable rates; rent to be paid monthly in advance. These buildings, with their tenants, can be turned over to proprietors on proof of loyalty; also take charge of such as have been leased out by disloyal owners.

I understand that Gen. Grant takes the rents and profits of this class of real property under the rules and laws of war and not under the confiscation at of Congress; therefore the question of title is not involved--simply the possession, and the rents and profits of houses belonging to our enemies which are not vacant we hold in trust for them or the Government, according to the future decisions of the proper tribunals.

Mr. McDonald, your chief agent in renting and managing this business, called on me last evening and left with me written questions, which it would take a volume to answer and a Webster to elucidate: but as we can only attempt plain, substantial justice I will answer these questions as well as I can, briefly and to the point:

First. When ground is owned by parties who have gone South and have leased the ground to parties now in the city, who own the improvements on the ground?

Answer. The United States takes the rents due the owner of the land; does not disturb the owner of the improvements.

Second. When parties owning houses have gone South, and the tenant has given his notes for the rent in advance?

Answer. Notes are mere evidence of the debt due landlord. The tenant pays the rent to the quartermaster, who gives a bond of indemnity against the notes representing the debt for the particular rent.

Third. When the tenant has expended several month's rent in repairs on the house?

Answer. Of course allow all such credits on reasonable proof and showing.

Fourth. When the owner has gone South and parties here hold liens on the property and are collecting the rents to satisfy their liens?

Answer. The rent of a house can only be mortgaged to a person in possession. If a loyal tenant be in possession and claim the rent from himself as due to himself on some other debt allow it; but if not in actual possession of the property rents are not good liens for a debt, but must be paid to the quartermaster.

Fifth. Of parties claiming foreign protection?

Answer. Many claim foreign protection who are not entitled to it. If they are foreign subjects residing for business in this country they are entitled to consideration and protection so long as they obey the laws of the country. If they occupy houses belonging to absent rebels they must pay rent to the quartermaster. If they own property they must occupy it by themselves, tenants, or servants.

Eighth. When houses are occupied and the owner has gone South, leaving an agent to collect rent for his benefit?

Answer. Rent must be paid to the quartermaster. No agent can collect and remit money South without subjecting himself to arrest and trial for aiding and abetting the public enemy.

Ninth. When houses are owned by loyal citizens, but are unoccupied?

Answer. Such should not be disturbed, but it would be well to advise them to have some servant at the house to occupy it.

Tenth. When parties who occupy the house are creditors of the owner who has gone South?

Answer. You only look to collection of rents. Any person who transmits money South is liable to arrest and trial for aiding and abetting the enemy; but I do not think it our business to collect debts other than rents.

Eleventh. When the parties who own the property have left the city under Gen. Hovey's Orders, No. 1, but are in the immediate neighborhood, on their plantations?

Answer. It makes no difference where they are so they are absent.

Twelfth. When movable property is found in stores that are closed?

Answer. The goods are security for the rent. If the owner of the goods prefers to remove the goods to paying rent he can do so.

Thirteenth. When the owner lives in town and refuses to take the oath of allegiance?

Answer. If the house be occupied it does not fall under the order: if the house be vacant it does. The owner can recover his property by taking the oath.

All persons in Memphis residing within our military lines are presumed to be loyal, good citizens, and may at any moment be called to serve on juries, posses comitatus, or other civil service required by the Constitution and laws of our country. Should they be called upon to do such duty, which would require them to acknowledge their allegiance and subordination to the Constitution of the United States, it would then be too late to refuse. So long as they remain quiet and conform to these laws they are entitled to protection in their property and lives.

We have nothing to do with confiscation. We only deal with possession, and therefore the necessity of a strict accountability, because the United States assumes the place of trustee, and must account to the rightful owner for his property, rents, and profits. In due season courts will be established to execute the laws, the confiscation act included, when we will be relieved of this duty and trust. Until that time every opportunity should be given to the wavering and disloyal to return to their allegiance, to the Constitution of their birth or adoption.

I am, &c,

W. T. SHERMAN, Maj.-Gen., Comdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 156-157.[28]

          7, GENERAL ORDERS, No. 66, Major-General W. T. Sherman establishes policy relative to corruption in public office in Memphis

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 66. HDQRS. FIFTH DIVISION, Memphis, Tenn., August 7, 1862.

I. The general commanding announces with shame and mortification that he has discovered a case of bribery in one of the public offices in Memphis, viz.,: the payment of $100 to a clerk in the office of the provost-marshal-general for a pass to Helena.

II. All officers, soldiers, and employes in the service of the United States are salaried persons and cannot charge a fee for any official act whatever. It is not only a crime but a disgrace to the whole country. In like manner it is a crime for a citizen to officer a bribe; and if any citizen has ever paid or is ever asked to pay a fee, bribe, or has afforded an opportunity to make profit, to corrupt or influence any person in the service of the United States, he is hereby notified that he must give notice thereof to the commanding general forthwith, that justice may be done and the honor of the nation protected against even the suspicion of corruption.

III. To guard against corruption in the future it is ordered that no house taken possession of by the quartermaster under general orders from Gen. Grant, "To take possession of and let to loyal tenants the vacant houses in Memphis," shall be occupied by any officer or employe of the United States Government except by regular assignment under the army regulations by the quartermaster, approved by the commanding general. No rents will be paid except to the quartermaster in person or to one of his clerks on the written receipt of the quartermaster, signed by himself and not by proxy.

IV. Anonymous communications will not be entertained, but any citizen or person having cause for grievance will reduce it to writing, stating names and facts, and signed with the proper name, when redress will be given if necessary. Such communications will be addressed to the adjutant-general of the division, Maj. J. H. Hammond.

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman:

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 158.

          7, "Why History Should be Rewritten."

In the study of history we are led to conclude that-for the following among other reasons-it should be rewritten:

First is canonizes martial heroes too much. Is there any good reason, for example, why the son of Philip should be called Alexander the Great? If one murder makes a villain, ought thousand to make the hero? Ought a man to be immortal because he monopolizes all wickedness? And yet the pages of history are full of eulogies in honor of the valorous deeds of martial men, whose fame rests on their brave feats in war. They scarcely tell us of anything else than their many bloody wars, their great battles, their great victories, the number of their captives, and the number of their slain. The mind thrives by what it feeds on, and this has fired many with a ruinous ambition to run the same sanguinary career. History should be re-written so that the horrors of war may be properly depicted, and the characters of men of blood properly drawn, in the light of the great model, the Prince of peace.

History should be rewritten, because it traduces the martyrs of liberty. Nearly all histories except those written on American soil are subject to this indictment. [sic] Who has given us such a history as we should have of the Waldenses, or of the Lollards, or the Huguenots of the Covenanters, or of the Puritans? Are they not traduced and calumniated, noble representatives as they were for the right and the truth, in the volumes that weigh down the shelves of French and English libraries? Who has written as we would like to read, a full unvarnished history of the wrongs of Poland, of Robert Emmett and other martyrs of the Emerald Isle? O, how history, written under the shadow of thrones, has belied the noble Magyars of Hungary and the martyrs of liberty in fair Italy and sunny Greece? It is time that the martyred dead had a righteous verdict in their favor.

But again, History should be written, because it favors monarchy too much. Most of the histories that we put in the hands of our youth were written by those who were either hostile to republican institutions or indifferent to them. When we read in them a few sentences favorable to liberty, we exult over these choice periods and draw a mark around them, and feel comforted by them while we read a hundred pages more which are written to reproach republics and fortify Monarchies. Reges Jure Divine[29] [sic] is a sentiment that should be expunged from all out text books of history.

History should be rewritten because it is too slow to recognize the hand of Divine Providence in human affairs. We refer to Hildreth's United States as defective here. The same criticism may be passed against other histories now held in high esteem as the classics of the world. Note Gibbon, Hume and Rotteck. We crowd their margins with religious cautions against the covert infidelity, and then we take them into our families and place them in the hands of our children. No wonder that so many of our public men are so unscrupulous and apparently so regardless of the Supreme Ruler. The histories they have read have ignored the Almighty, and they have never been taught to trace the relation between transgression and retribution. We need and must have more our histories written after the model of D'Aubine, somewhat after the manner of Macaulay, but more after that of Bancroft.

But once more, history should be re-written because it has too little philanthropy in it. It has canonized martial heroes whose chief boast was the number they had slain, and it has too often mentioned without the least enthusiasm names whose eulogies should be written letters of light. It lingers with delight around a Cortez and Pizarro, making them heroes of romance for centuries, and it passes over in silence those nobler and truer men who, without royal protection, almost alone, through a "night of toil" embracing years of the severest suffering and privation, went forth beyond the New World into the broad Pacific, to civilize and christianize with an open Bible the lost islands of the sea. It is often lavish of its praise on men whose lives were a burden to others, and whose death a relief. But the time has come when we demand histories redolent of goodness and overflowing with humanity. All honor to the men who will meet this demand. All honor to those who will give us biographies and such chronicles of the past as will represent God in action as well as man, in the history of the world.

Memphis Union Appeal, August 7, 1862.

          7, "TENNESSEE MONEY."

Editor Appeal: A currency article in Tuesday's Bulletin is worth of a few thoughts, if for nothing else than to elicit further remarks on a subject effecting every man's interests. It is simply ridiculous to lay the discredit of Tennessee Money at the door of the cotton buyers, the fault lies nearer home. I charge it upon cotton sellers, and there let it stick, until the producers of cotton will receive Tennessee money for their cotton at a fair valuation, as compared with other great marts of trade. For the evil alluded, the people have a remedy, which only need application.

The moment Tennessee money will purchase cotton in Memphis the same as other bank paper, it will pass very nearly at par in St. Louis and Louisville, in exchange for the goods those cities furnish to Memphis merchants. In any thinking person fool enough believe, that our money will pass current abroad, so long as a Memphis broker quotes it at twenty-five per cent discount in our daily papers. How is it, that one man is permitted to discredit our money twenty-five percent, when all the solid men of Memphis insist that the paper is good and should pass current for its face. [sic] It was very sharp to invest Confederate script sick in sugar and cotton, and it is still sharper to sell the cotton and sugar for gold and green backs only, but it is ungenerous to sell the gold or Treasury notes for Tennessee bank notes, and then insist on dealers taking this currency at par for articles that cannot be, or are not furnished by, or produced upon Tennessee soil, and which cannot be replaced by Tennessee money, until the paper in question will buy cotton at home.

The high prices that consumers complain of paying merchants, is directly chargeable to their own action, and the sooner they are apprized of it the better. The cotton and sugar goods consumed her five times over. Now for an exhibition of State pride and genuine and enlightened patriotism, that will frown down by action a war upon our own money. More anon.


Memphis Union Appeal, August 7, 1862.

          7, Federal restrictions on the use of specie for making purchases in Tennessee and Alabama

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 40. HDQRS. ARMY OF THE OHIO, In Camp, Huntsville, Ala., August 7, 1862.

The use of specie by any person in the purchase of cotton or other products of the country within the limits of Tennessee and Alabama is forbidden, except for the purpose of making change in sums less than the smallest United States Treasury note. Violation of this order will subject the offender to arrest and expulsion from the lines of this army, and the property purchased will be seized as the result of contraband trade and disposed of for the benefit of the Government.

United States Treasury notes are by act of Congress a legal tender, and they are to be so recognized by all persons whomsoever. All persons in this district are required to report to these headquarters any violation of this order which may come to their knowledge.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Buell:

JAMES B. FRY, Col. and Chief of Staff.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, pp. 284-285.

7-9, Federal expedition to resupply General Nelson's division in McMinnville; an excerpt from Surgeon William M. Eames' letter to his spouse in Ohio

Union Coll. Hospital

Aug. 9th, 1862

Dearest Wife,

* * * *

There was a large number of teams went [sic] out to McMinnville yesterday & the day before, not less than 200 with provisions for Nelsons [sic] Division. The teams filled the road for at least 4 miles & must have carried a very large amount of good things [sic] such as hard bread – bacon – pork – beans, coffee & sugar –

* * * *

William Mark Eames Papers


          4, Anti-guerrilla initiative launched in the Union City, Trenton, Troy, Dyersburg environs to stop August 6 Confederate elections

HDQRS. SIXTH DIVISION, SIXTEENTH CORPS, Columbus, Ky., August 4, 1863.

Col. GEORGE E. WARING, JR., Cmdg. Brigade, Feliciana, Ky.:

COL.: Your report from Feliciana of 3d instant estimates the rebel forces moving from Huntington toward Trenton and Jackson at 1,500 to 2,000 strong, and Col. Hatch's forces about 2,500 strong, moving west from vicinity of Huntington toward Trenton, in pursuit of the rebel forces. You will, therefore, at once march your command to Union City, informing Col. Hatch, if possible, accordingly, and act in concert with him, if required, this side of Trenton. Meanwhile you will endeavor to immediately clear the country around Union City, Troy, and Hickman of guerrillas and of [R. V.] Richardson's marauding parties, thus securing railroad and telegraphic communication to Columbus and Hickman.

A hand-car is reported to be in the possession of the rebels between Union City and Trenton; endeavor to secure it. A telegraph operator will be ordered at once to Union City. The required forage will be sent by train to-morrow to Union City.

In regard to fresh clothes for officers and men, make your own arrangements; they can be forwarded by train. Our cavalry at Fort Pillow (five companies of Second Illinois) is directed to start heavy scouting parties toward Dyersburg and Troy on the 6th instant, and prevent any rebel election. Move your cavalry accordingly with the same view, and as far as you can prudently operate. Make it impossible for the rebels to hold the elections in Tennessee alluded to in Gen. Hurlbut's letter, communicated to you on July 30, and numbered 3279.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 590-591.

          4, Scout to Bolivar environs

SAULSBURY, August 4, 1863.


My scout has just returned from within 4 ½ miles of Bolivar, and report from 150 to 200 Confederates there. The Third Michigan was there yesterday, and the rebels had scattered in this direction, and returned this morning.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 576.

          4, Condition of the Army of the Cumberland in Middle Tennessee

One hundred miles south from Nashville the National lines now reach...into Alabama. To this point, Winchester, which I have just reached, trains run regularly every day. It is a very interesting to observe the effects of war upon a country, and I was especially interested in noting them upon a State which, like Tennessee, has important a part to play in the future.

The region south of Nashville is a beautiful country-a land of oak covered hills and running streams, and valley green with vast fields of Indian corn. For a great portion of the way there is no trace of war; the scene is the most peaceful and fertile. You pass long meadows of indifferent grass, then perhaps a neglected corn-field, which, in ordinary times, you would have merely noticed as an evidence of the idleness of the population; then a clover patch, a graceful, rolling hill, with oak, beech and chestnut covering it; a wide stretch of green corn; a dashing turbid stream, a field of weeds -- again corn or clover, and so on in picturesque succession for mile after mile. You seldom see wheat, though there is no doubt much of it in neighboring districts, and only here and there a cotton plantation. (I counted but five for a hundred miles.) For all that appears, you might be traveling in Southern Indiana.

The only growth unusual is a low tree, with broad tropical leaves, and a bright red fruit of a cucumber shape -- the "wild cucumber tree." The bridges alone remind one that he is within military lines, and in an enemy's country; the brown tents on the nearest slope, the stockade fort, the sentinel, the figures in National blue lolling about, tell us that we are not one of the great links of military communication. A few of the villages show very clearly the grim features of war. Lavergne [sic], which must have been a pleasant little rural hamlet, has mostly disappeared -- one house alone being left; some of the towns show deserted stores or houses with the clapboards gone, or here and there a melancholy brick chimney where rafters and beams had been carried off. One little place beyond Tullahoma -- Estelle Springs [sic] -- has a peculiarly plucked and plundered look. Some of the towns -- such as Murfreesboro -- are stripped of the beautiful groves which were once their glory, in order to give free sweep to the artillery. Now and then the high brick walls and chimneys of some storehouse or factory, burnt, probably by the enemy themselves, rise gloomily from a village street.

Yet, on the whole, the evidence of desolation and plunder are extremely small; they may be more plentiful near the pikes, yet near the railway, gardens are untouched, peaches are in bushels from orchards; and that highest test of a soldier's forbearance -- rail fences -- are whole and sound as in their first estate. So far as damage from war is concerned, this part of Tennessee could recover in a single season, and have a surplus for the future. In fact, the money brought in and freely expended by Rosecran's immense army, must more than pay off the losses by fire and the thieveries of the marauders.

As you advance, you discern more and more the evidences of the vast military power accumulated here. Camps on every hill side, brown and brawny soldiers swarming at every station, groves filled with thousands and thousands of horses, mules and waggons [sic]; soldiers everywhere, bathing in streams, riding over the distant hills, lying under the shade, crowding the trains, eating, drinking, and reading the newspapers; by every village [is] the red line of earthworks and stockade forts. In Murfreesboro you seem to have entered a town of boxes, bales and bags, heaped up and scattered about without number or order, and beyond all measurement or calculation. An army of teamsters is dragging them away, and stalwart contrabands are lifting and arranging them under the boiling sun.

Murfreesboro is said to be the strongest fortress on the continent. The only indications of it to the civilian are heaps of read earth on every hill on in the vicinity, with long ditches, stockades, and mounds crossing the railroads. But, even to the uninstructed eye, heaps of earth and sand with black object protruding from them have come to have a much more threatening look than the most ponderous piles of stones and masonry. Gen. Rosecrans evidently means to keep what he possesses, and he has already laid a hand on Tennessee, whose imprint several centuries will not wear away. Tullahoma gives a like scene of pleasant cottages, country stores, and crowds and throngs of soldiers, horses, mules, and wagons, without number. Winchester is still prettier, in the midst of a beautiful, rolling country, with oak and beach groves, and a few miles beyond, the heavy low line of the Cumberland mountains, the rich shadows filling its deep gaps lined with green forest. Soldiers' camps in Summer are by no means romantic or interesting things; villages of arbors, covered with brown branches, dirty, hot, and sweltering, with tin cups, newspapers, blankets, and equipment lying about in confusion; long lines of horses and mules kicking and fly-bitten, the men sauntering under trees or about the stations in flannel shirts and trowsers [sic]. Every one who could was reading newspapers, and all was orderly and well behaved. They looked wonderfully well and vigorous; in fact, I believe this army is now the healthiest of the great armies. The great want of every camp is good reading matter. "The Christian Commission" are doing a grand work in the Western armies, and have been the means of producing a deep religious influence; but it has often occurred to me that their reading was of too childish a nature, too Sunday schoolish for the camp. The best thing for the soldiers would be some publication -- newspaper or other -- with the army news, and then a great deal of moral and religious instruction connected with it. To this might be added practical directions for the soldier about securing his pension, if wounded, or about leaving his pack to his friends. Such an army gazette might accomplish a world of good in our idle camps. And camps must be idle in such weather as this. If any one of our impatient Northern strategists would be at Winchester today and take a short walk, with no more than a straw hat and linen coat, under this sun he would be convinced that there was very good reason for quiet on the Cumberland. It is such a sun as we never know at the North, burning, blazing, wilting, the thermometer from 95o to 100o and no air stirring. Fancy what a march must be in this weather with a musket, dart-ridge box, blanket and knapsack.

The great obstacle in this army, as in all our armies, to movement, is the amount of transportation. The Army of the Cumberland has had thirteen wagons to a regiment, or some 150 miles of trains. This is partly owing to the army rations being about 25 percent more than is needed for food, and partly to the great amount carried by officers. An army wagon has been known to carry a heavy cast iron stove for the officers' use, and it always takes a medley of all sorts of articles. Nothing will ever give us rapid marches and efficient movements but a reduction of transportation. The men in this climate have already abandoned their knapsacks. The officers ought to be equally cut down in their comforts and luxuries.

The only great and brilliant piece of brilliant piece of strategy yet performed on the Union side, it should be remembered (Grant's famous march to Jackson and Vicksburg), was made utterly without transportation even the Commander-in-Chief it is said, carrying only a tooth brush. We hope yet for a lightening of the luxuries of our officers, and a greater use of the "army's legs," as General Halleck calls it, Correspondent for the New York Times.

Nashville Daily Press, August 21, 1863[30]

          4, "Memphis and the Dogs."

Our city is a general thing, as free from vices as any city of the same extent in the land. And her citizens are equal in refinement to those of any other city east or west, north or south. But yet they seem to have a strange penchant for dogs. These roam about the streets, in the back portions of the city in packs, and as soon as the sable vial of night is thrown over the scene, these dogs set up a yelling and howling which, in truth, renders "night hideous." Not only this, they beset the way of the belated pedestrian, in such numbers, and of such formidable size as to render it almost dangerous to walk the streets after night. We wonder if there is not some way to stop their infernal howlings. We can't help dreaming of hydrophobia. And no wonder, for the last sounds we hear, when we retire to sleep, is the howling of dogs.

Memphis Bulletin, August 4, 1863.

          4, "Melancholy Accident."

Capt. Daniel Meadows, of the 4th East Tennessee cavalry, came to his death by drowning in the Cumberland river, in this city, on Saturday (4th) evening. The circumstances attending the death of our esteemed friend are these: - it appears that at the time alluded to – the evening being very warm – he rode his horse out into the river for the purpose of washing and cooling him off, and the horse plunged beyond his depth, either throwing his rider, or he was otherwise carried off by the sweeping current; although his remains were soon recovered, it was not until his spirit had departed to the God who gave it.

Capt. Meadows was a citizen of Campbell county in this State, and in his death the State loses an honorable and useful citizen; the service a gallant and useful officer, and the social circle an warm hearted and true man. His funeral will take place with military honors, from his regiment today

Leaves have their time to fall, and stars to set

And flowers wither in the North wind's breath

But all – thou hast reasons of thine own, oh, Death!

Nashville Daily Press, August 10, 1863.

          4, Confederate deserters wanted

$240 REWARD.

Headquarters, Thomas' Legion

Zollicoffer, July 25th, 1863.

A Reward of thirty dollars each will be paid for the following named deserters from Capt. Love's Company, (D,) of Col. W. H. Thomas' Legion who deserted their encampment July 22d, 1863.

Sergeant John H. Lyons, aged 26 years, 5 feet 9 inches high, complexion dark, eyes dark, hair dark, residence Knox county Tennessee.

James Reed, aged 32 years, height 5 feet seven inches, complexion fear, eyes blue, hair light, residence Knox county Tennessee.

Leander Reed, aged twenty-one years, height five feet eleven inches, complexion fair, eyes gray, hair light, residence Knox county Tennessee.

Joseph Hooker, aged 46 years, height 5 feet 6 inches, complexion fair, eyes blue, hair dark, residence Union county, Tennessee.

Thomas Simmons, aged 38 years, height 5 feet 8 inches, complexion fair, eyes gray, hair dark, residence Jefferson county Tennessee.

John C. Lee, aged twenty-four years, height 5 feet 4 inches, complexion dark eyes dark, hair dark, residence Jefferson county Tennessee.

Also the following named men who deserted on the 17th day of July 1863.

William Hatcher, aged 22 years, height 5 feet 8 inches, complexion fair, eyes blue, hair light, residence Jefferson county Tennessee.

George Hunter, aged 26 years, height 5 feet 7 inches, complexion fair, eyes gray, hair light, residence, Claiborne county Tennessee.

Arrest these men and bring them to justice.]

C. C. M'BEE 1st Lt., com'dg Co. "D"

W. W. STRRINGFIELD, Major, com'dg Thomas' Legion.

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, August 4, 1863.

          4, Union bushwhackers murder a Confederate officer near Carter's Depot

Murder of Lieut. Robt. Tipton.

The following particulars of this horrible affair have been communicated to us:

On Thursday night last [July 30] Lieut. Tipton was roused from sleep in his father's house four miles from Carter's depot, by some one pretending to be a friend who told him that the Yankees were at Carter's depot and that if he wished to save himself, he had better be getting away.

Lieut R. Tipton thereupon roused his brother Lieut. E. Tipton who was sleeping in the same house and the brothers started up the road.-They had proceeded about half a mile it appears, when they were set upon and captured by a band of about twenty four men. These men took Robt. Tipton off the road half a mile to a skirt of woods and them murdered him, shooting him once through the breast and one shot through the forehead. His body was found next day about a mile from his father's house.

Nothing, we learn, has been said or heard of the other brother Lieut. E. Tipton up to this time. Our informant thinks it is certain that these foul deeds were committed by George Hetherly and his gang of bushwhackers, who have some time past, been operating in Carter and Johnson Counties. They ought to be diligently hunted up and brought to punishment.

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, August 4, 1863.

          4, Stopping horse thieves in East Tennessee

Headquarters Department East Tenn.,

Knoxville, August 4, 1863.

General Orders No. 100

I. It has been represented that certain persons from a neighboring Department have been engaged without proper authority, under the pretense of impressment for public use, in illegally taking the horses of citizens without compensation.

II. Such proceedings are prohibited; and all officers of this command are directed to apprehend and send to these headquarters all persons, whether of officers or soldiers who may be found so employed.

Any horses which may have been so illegally seized will be returned to their owners.

II. In all cases of the impressment of public for the public use the provisions of the impressment act will be strictly followed, and just compensation rendered for such property.

By command of

Major General Buckner.

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, August 7, 1863.

          4-5, Reconnaissance Rock Island Ferry

AUGUST 4-5, 1863.-Reconnaissance to Rock Island Ferry, Tenn.

Report of Col. Robert H. G. Minty, Fourth Michigan, Cavalry commanding First Brigade, Second Cavalry Division.


SIR: At 4 p. m. yesterday, the 4th instant, I marched with 1,096 men for the purpose of surprising the camp of Col. Dibrell's regiment at Clark's Mill, 1 mile northeest from Sparta. The rebel pickets were known to be posted at Rock Island Ferry and at the ford at the month of Collins River. Scouts reported that there were no pickets at Dillon's Ford. I arrived at Mud Creek, 3 miles from the lower ferry at 9 p. m., and from thence detached Col. Klein, with a battalion of the Third Indiana, with orders to cross at Dillon's move up to the cross-roads at J. Charles', and from there take the pickets at Rock Island and the lower ford in rear. I promised to meet him at the lower ford at 12 o'clock.

Dillon's and the lower fords were represented to me as being practicable, in fact, good, whereas they were so impracticable that 5 men could hold either of them against any cavalry force that could be brought against them; they could shoot men down faster than they could enter the river.

Fortunately the rebel pickets at Dillon's Ford ran without making any resistance further than firing one shot. Col. Klein crossed the river, but made only 14 prisoners. Between 40 and 50 escaped by scattering through the country, and thus frustrated my design of surprising camp. I therefore recrossed at the lower ford, bringing Col. Klein's force back with me, and returned to camp at 11.30 this a. m.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

Robt. G. Minty, Col., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. I, p. 846.

          5, General Orders, No. 105, relative to medical issuance of bitters to soldiers

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 105. HDQRS. SIXTEENTH ARMY CORPS, Memphis, Tenn., August 5, 1863.

By the advice of the medical director of this army corps, the following regulations are prescribed:

I. All working parties will invariably be supplied with rations of bitters, prepared as prescribed below, and to be given twice a day to the individuals of each party under the direction of a commissioned officer, in quantities not to exceed half a gill at a time.

II. All guards and scouting parties out at night will likewise have administered to them, under the direction of a medical officer, a half ration of bitters. It will be given to them between retreat and tattoo.

III. The bitters to be issued will be made as follows: Ninety-six grains of sulphate quinia, 160 grains of sulphate cinchona, to each gallon of whisky; or, for each barrel of 40 gallons, 8 ounces of quinine, 13 ounces of sulphate cinchona; this will make about thirteen hundred full rations.

IV. Medical directors of divisions will make prompt requisitions for the necessary supplies to carry this order into effect.

V. Division, brigade, and detachment commanders will see to the execution of this order, and direct the issues under it to be accurately stated in the weekly sanitary and inspection report.

By order of Maj. Gen. S. A. Hurlbut:

HENRY BINMORE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 577.

          5, Railroad accident between Nashville and La Vergne on the N&C Railroad

A correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette, of the 7th [Friday], writing from this city, records the following terrible accident on the Chattanooga railroad, of which we had not learned:

A sad casualty occurred on the road between here and Lavergne [sic] last Wednesday [5th] last morning. There must have been great recklessness, or at least reprehensible carelessness on the part of the engineers, and the day well advanced-fully eight o'clock. Two trains were on the road, both moving in the same directions. These facts were known to all the employees on the road, and yet, ten miles from Nashville, the second train ran into the first with such force as nearly to lap one car over another. The excuse is that there was a short curve on that part of the road, and the speed of the second train was so much greater than the first, that it was not possible to "check up" in time to prevent the crash.

The place where the accident occurred has many sad remembrances. Here a large train was captured by guerrillas in April. Immense booty was obtained and the cars all burned. The dense cedars nearby had for a long time been the hiding place of McCann's robbers, from whence they frequently fired upon the trains of cars.

The cedars have been cut down and Dick McCann has been compelled to seek other fields for his prowess and robberies.

The guard, however, has been continued, and so intent were the eyes of our brave Ohio boys on the natural hiding and shelter places of the rebels, that no danger from any other source was apprehended, till the locomotive dashed into the forward train with such velocity and power, and the resistance of the slowly moving cars ahead was so great that couplings were all broken; and the car preceding that on which the guard sat, was instantly so raised up as to crush to death three fine young men who sat on the roof of the car with their feet and legs hanging down in front.

They all belonged to Company D, 52d Ohio volunteer infantry....

Lieut. David Neighbor, of the same company and regiment, was also severely injured, having suffered a compound fracture of the lower part of his leg. Two convalescent soldiers, going to the front, were among the sufferers....

Nashville Daily Press, August 15, 1863.

          5, "What Tennessee Loyalists Have Done."

The State of Tennessee has in the service ten regiments of infantry, ten of cavalry and two batteries of artillery. Organized as many of them were of refugees beyond the limits of their own State, and at a time when there was no competent State authority to recognize their existence, they rushed into the fight regardless of the forms taken in such cases. The result was that six "first Tennessee" regiments appeared in the field from the East, Middle and West grand divisions of the State. Col. Alvin C. Gillem, of the 2st [sic] West Tennessee infantry, has lately been appointed Adjutant General under Governor Andrew Johnson, and general order "No. 2" from his office reads:

"In order to present confusion in adjusting the future claims of the Tennesseans in the service of the United States, as well as to remove a misunderstanding at the Adjutant General's office in Washington, it is ordered that the regiments from Tennessee bye designated as follows, to-wit:

1st Tennessee infantry. Colonel Byrd, late 1st Tennessee.

2nd Tennessee infantry, Colonel Carter, late 2nd East Tennessee infantry.

3rd Tennessee infantry, Col. Cross, late 3rd East Tennessee.

4th Tennessee infantry, Col. Stover, late 4th East Tennessee.

5th Tennessee infantry, Col. Shelby, late 5th East Tennessee.

6th Tennessee infantry, Col. Cooper, late 6th East Tennessee.

7th East Tennessee infantry, Col. Cliff, late 7th East Tennessee.

8th Tennessee infantry, Col. Reese, late 8th East Tennessee.

9th Tennessee infantry, Col. Rogers, late 1st Middle Tennessee.

10th Tennessee infantry, Col. Gillem, late 1st West Tennessee.

1st Tennessee cavalry, Col. Johnson, late 1st East Tennessee.

2nd Tennessee cavalry, Col. Ray, late 2nd East Tennessee.

3rd Tennessee cavalry, Col. Perkins, late 3rd East Tennessee.

4th Tennessee cavalry, Major Stevenson, late 4th Tennessee.

5th Tennessee cavalry, late 1st Middle Tennessee.

6th Tennessee cavalry, Col. Hurst, late 1st West Tennessee.

7th Tennessee cavalry, Col. Hawkins, late 2d West Tennessee

8th Tennessee cavalry, Col. Strickland.

9th Tennessee cavalry, Col. Parsons.

10th Tennessee cavalry, Col. Bridges.

With twenty regiments of loyalists becoming refugees from their own State to volunteer in the service of the Nation, Tennessee well maintains in this struggle, as she has in all the past, her right to the proud title of "Volunteer State." Is it not time that the redemption of her soil should be made complete by the liberation of long suffering East Tennessee?

Memphis Bulletin, August 5, 1863.

          5, A Chattanooga woman in Confederate uniform

Sometime since a Mrs. P. Williams was arrested and found in army uniform and passing herself as Lieut. Buford. She was sent to [the] castle.[31] No charges being preferred against her. She was released and is now in Chattanooga with her uniform and still persists in being known as Lieut. Buford.

Van Buren Oldham Diaries.[32]

          5, Skirmish on the north fork of White Oak Creek eight miles southeast of Jack's Creek with Captain Stinnett's Confederate guerrillas [See August 2-7, Scout from Lagrange to Hardin and Chester Counties above.]

          5, Newspaper report on Federal efforts at purging bushwhackers and recruiting in the Shelbyville environs

Fayetteville. Colonel Galbraith with the First Middle Tennessee was sent to Shelbyville to rid the country of bushwhackers and to recruit, while the balance of the command moved on to Salem.

The expedition brought into camp, on the 22d [July], between five and six hundred negroes and one thousand horsed and mules.

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 5, 1863.

          5, Report of murder below Island No. 10

A letter published in then. N. Y. World, dated on board the Steamer Liberty, 5th inst., reports the murder of the entire family of Benjamin Beckham, on their plantation in Tennessee, twelve miles below Island No.10, by a party of eighteen black United States soldiers from that Island. Six persons were killed, four of them children. Most of perpetrators of the outrage were apprehended by Federal cavalry.

Boston Daily Advertiser, August 13, 1863.

          5-9, Expedition from Decherd to Nashville, Alabama

AUGUST 5-9, 1863.-Expedition from Decherd, Tenn., to Nashville, Ala.

Report of Lieut.-Col. Jonathan Biggs, One hundred and twenty-third Illinois (mounted) Infantry.

HDQRS. 123d REGT. ILLINOIS VOL. INFANTRY, Near Decherd, Tenn., August 10, 1863.

COL.: As directed, I took my command, starting on the evening of the 5th instant at 4 o'clock, and passing through Decherd and Winchester took the Bellefonte road, encamping at Brazilton's for the night. On the 6th crossed the mountain, leaving the Bellefonte road, and descending by an almost impassable road (one over which not more than two or three wagons of any kind had ever before passed), struck the Paint Rock Valley at or near the head of the Hurricane Fork, encamping soon after getting into the valley. I found the valley well populated, but nearly all males away from home, said to be in the mountains to avoid conscription or arrest for desertion. Several gave themselves up, expressing themselves as fearless of harm from the Yankees. They were released without parole. The farms here are quite small, and the inhabitants are in very destitute circumstances, and almost universally profess loyalty. On the morning of the 7th moved on down the valley a few miles, and, finding forage for our animals, halted and fed. Gaining the main Paint Rock Valley, moved cautiously down until near night, when my advance encountered a picket of about fifteen or twenty men two miles above Nashville. They belonged to a force represented at from 300 to 500 strong-a battalion of the Eleventh Texas-and had just arrived at the place of our meeting them, had dismounted, but had not thrown out any outpost.

We captured most of their horses and arms. The men, with the exception of one who was shot through the ankle, made their escape to the mountains. Two of my scouts were wounded. David Lefever, of Company G, was shot in the right shoulder, making a serious wound, and Robert Adkins, of Company C, was considerably bruised by a blow from the butt of a musket. I sent three companies forward as far as Nashville, where it became too dark for them to see longer, when I returned to where I could get forage and encamped. On the 8th returned to the mouth of Estill's Fork, taking and paroling several prisoners during the day. On the morning of the 9th I divided my command, sending two companies and my scouts up Estill's Fork road to Salem, and thinking the force we had encountered near Nashville might be following to observe our movements, I thought to intercept his advance by moving back to the mouth of Larkin's Fork. Not finding him, I took the Larkin's Fork road to Salem. The detachment sent up Estill's Fork captured two armed men, and in company with a notorious bushwhacker named Woods, who, being mounted on a fleet horse succeeded in escaping. I returned to camp on the evening of the 9th, having marched about 120 miles.

Respectfully, &c.,

JONATHAN BIGGS, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. 123d Illinois.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. I, pp. 75-76.

          6, Confederate soldiers' letters home, West Tennessee, Obion, Troy, Dancyville

"The Contents of a Rebel Mail – Sentiments of Bragg's Army"

The Chicago Tribune publishes some extracts from letters captured in a rebel mail bag near Obion, Tenn. The letters are written by soldiers in Bragg's army, in June last, just before Rosecrans' advance took place. Their contents are not particularly important as showing the feeling of the army in regard to the war, most of the letters being occupied with references to a revival of religion in the rebel camps. We make a few extracts:


H. G. D. Collins writes to the Rev. James Thomas, Da[n]ceyville, Tenn, under date of June 19 [1863]:

"For the moral and spiritual benefit of those in the army, there is a revival going on here. Many have found the Saviour precious to their souls and are rejoicing in the hope of a glorious rest from the toils of earth and the dangers of war on the shores of immortality. Since our Chaplain has been taken from us, some of the officers and privates have organized themselves into a Christian organization, for the purpose of counteracting the various vices of the camp, and the promotion of Christian morality, mental improvement and personal salvation. In the constitution and by-laws they solemnly pledge themselves to abstain from profane language, under all circumstances from the use of alcoholic liquors as a beverage, from all games of chance and amusement, and from violating the Sabbath. The leaders in the movement are Captain Hall, Captain Harland, Lieutenant Day, Lieutenant Ingram, and some private soldiers of like noble spirit. I hope your prayers will follow our regiment, aye our whole army, that much good may be done, and many souls be converted to God, so that when in His mercy peace shall be granted, our army will be able to disband and appreciate the great blessing."


Emory writes to his Pa and Ma:

* * * *

"As to our thinking about your being any ways Union, such a thing never entered my brain-and never will, even if the Yankees were to take every cent from you and burn your house and send you South and the rest of the family to Camp Chase. And were I in your place, I would let them do that before I would help them in the least. I was sorry to hear that the Yankees treated you so badly. Oh, that I could have been there to have a shot. Pearse [sic] through the heart while he was not at my house enjoying the things of this life that I worked so hard for in past years. But still I am willing to put up with that, provided that [they] take nothing else. They will hardly stop at that.

But say that they will take all that you have, I am willing to fight for ten years longer, and then come home to support you, ma, sisters and Sam, by the sweat of my brow-yes more than willing-for the way you have been treated and the way you have acted during the Yankee stay in West Tennessee, inspires confidence.

You have no idea what confidence I have in Jeff. and his final success. Yes, before twelve months roll round, we will all be disbanded and sent home on honorable terms. Oh, how we will enjoy ice-cream, peach preserves, etc. etc. When I get home I think I will know how to appreciate home and its pleasures. But I will never leave like Buck D_____ did. No, never! My bones shall bleach upon some battle-field first."


D. B. Currie, writes to R. L. Wood, Ripley, West Tennessee, under date June 20, 1863:

* * * *

"When I left home the people thought that the war would not last more than six months, but there has been more fighting done since I got back than during the whole of last year. We only know that the war is still going on, and nothing about when peace will be made. I rest easy with the assurance that I will have to stay two years longs."


In a letter to T. C. Coppledge, Da[n]cyville, Haywood county, Tenn., written by the same man, H.D.G. Collins, mentioned above, occurs the following significant sentence:

"Vallandigham, an exile from the North to Dixie, has been nominated of Governor of Ohio. Oh, that the Yankees would get into a war among themselves!"

This is the religious [sic] gentleman.


J. D. C. writes to Miss Nan, evidently his sweetheart, whom he has not seen for two years, residing at Troy, Tenn.

"If I could get a letter from you I should have a thousand things to ask you about, especially concerning the girls in Lincolndom. I would lie to know how many have married, and who there is that talks of marrying. We, out here, have understood that if any young man wants to get him a wife all he has to do is to desert the army and go West. There he can have his pick among the ladies. I believe this to tollerably [sic] true, for I have heern [sic] of several in Obion and you my think it very strange that I hev [sic] not been there before [this] time, for you may be sure that I hate to stay here [sic] in the army as bad as any person.

I hope this war will soon come to a close and we may hope to talk as we hev [sic] afore."


And the writer says:

"I honestly believe our cause are [sic] just, and why should we despair? The race are [sic] not to the swift nor the battle to the strong. God will evidently deliver [us] out of the hands of the enemy. I know you believe this. Then why turn back? Why begin to sink in despair. [sic] Is it because the tide are [sic] boisterous? Although the anaconda has almost accomplished its desire, and have but a few more miles to expand, yet, like Moses, if we will put our trust in the Lord, he [sic] will make a way for our deliverance."

Nashville Daily Press, August 6, 1863.

          6, "Soldier Killed"

As the Patrol were performing their accustomed duty of visiting that accursed locality known as Smoky Row, yesterday evening at three o'clock, they saw a soldier who had gone there against orders and without a pass. He was told to show his pass, which he refused to do, and started off; one of the guards then ordered him the requisite number of times to halt, which not being heeded, he fired and killed the disobedient instantly. The ball entered the back of his head and ranged through the brain. We have not learned the name of the deceased, and it were well if it could be forever unpronounced.

He has not been identified, but is supposed to have been a member of the Seventh Kentucky Cavalry

Nashville Daily Press, August 7, 1863.

          6, Special Orders, No. 42, Stewart's Division, Hill's Corps, forbidding depredations by Confederate soldiers


The brigadier-general commanding has heard with painful surprise that daily and nightly depredations are being committed by Confederate soldiers upon the fields and gardens of citizens of this vicinity, some of whom are aged and helpless widows, and all of them poor and unable to sustain without future suffering the serious losses now being wantonly inflicted upon them. Such conduct is only worthy of the Abolition barbarians who are now so remorselessly plundering from our wives and our children and from our aged and helpless parents. Shall soldiers of the Confederate States imitate these inhuman monsters, and, instead of being the proud defenders, become the base plunderers of the widows and orphans, the aged and helpless? Shall not the recollection of our exposed mothers, wives, sisters, and aged fathers restrain these excesses hereafter? The brigadier-general commanding [believes] that many of these acts have been the result of thoughtlessness, and hopes these suggestions may cause a cessation of them. But to insure this, all officers of this command are strictly enjoined to exert themselves to prevent the destruction and plundering of gardens and corn-fields, now being practiced in this vicinity. If necessary, guards should be strengthened and incited to vigilance in the discharge of their duties. Company officers especially should be active in their efforts to prevent those disgraceful offenses, and when offenders are discovered they should be promptly and severely punished.

Patrol and provost guards should be sent out frequently by day and night, to hunt up offenders and stragglers without passes and bring them into camp for punishment.

By order of Brig.-Gen. Brown, commanding division

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 954.

          6, Home Guards (Union) from Henderson County ordered to "use up the rebels"

CORINTH, August 6, 1863. (Received 7 p. m.)


Order Col. Clayton, with all his Tennessee Home Guards, to meet the Henderson County Home Guards and some troops I am sending from here, at or near Purdy tomorrow. They are being sent up into Tennessee to collect together the Union men and use up the rebels.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, pp. 579-580.

          6, Confederate tax collection in Confederate Hamilton County

R.P. Jones, Collector of the Tax for Hamilton County, gives notice to the Farmers of the county, that Chattanooga is established as the permanent Depot for the reception of the tax in kind required by the Government. Tyner's Station, Ooltewah, and Thatcher's Landing, are established as temporary Depots for a like purpose. Farmers living within eight miles of any of these points, will deliver without delay at the Depot nearest his residence, one-tenth of their farm products as required by law. Those living more than eight miles will deliver their tax to the nearest Depot designated, and will be paid for hauling for the distance above eight miles. The necessities of the Army require that the Farmers comply immediately with this order. A failure to comply will subject the Farmer to money payment and fifty per cent. in addition.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, August 6, 1863.

          6, Mrs. Clara Judd of Winchester released from prison on spy charges

MILITARY PRISON, Alton, Ill., May 15, 1863 Col. W. HOFFMAN,

Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners, Washington, D. C.:

COL.: I have the honor to forward herewith an application of the female prisoner, Mrs. Clara Judd, now in confinement in this prison, for a parole to go to her friends in the State of Minnesota. She desires this indulgence on account of her health which for some time past has not been very good. The parole is recommended by her attending physician, Assistant Surgeon Wall, of the Seventy-seventh Ohio Volunteers, the prison physician. I inclose also a copy of the charges against Mrs. Judd. From what I have seen of Mrs. Judd since she has been under my control I am inclined to think if she were permitted to go to Minnesota she would probably remain there and give no further trouble during the war.

I have the honor to be, sir, with much respect, your most obedient servant,

T. HENDRICKSON Maj. Third Infantry, Cmdg. the Prison.

[Inclosure No. 1.]

ALTON MILITARY PRISON HOSPITAL, Alton, Ill., May 12, 1863 Maj. T. HENDRICKSON, Third Infantry, U. S. Army, and Prison Commandant.

MAJ.: I beg leave to respectfully represent to you that the condition of Mrs. Judd's health (a prisoner of war confined in the above-named prison) is such that in my opinion she had better be paroled outside the prison walls. The utter impossibility of having any of her own sex to attend her in sickness makes it impossible for her medical attendants to render her that assistance they could under other circumstances.

Respectfully, yours,

AND. WALL Surgeon in Charge Military Prison Hospital.

[Inclosure No. 2.]


Capt. WILLIAM M. WILES, Provost-Marshal-Gen., Fourteenth Army Corps.

SIR: The following is the substance of the testimony elicited in the case of Mrs. Clara Judd, arrested by the army police on charge of attempting to carry through the lines articles contraband of war such as quinine, morphine, nitrate of silver, besides other goods, and one knitting-machine carried as a pattern, which articles, were found and have been purchased by her and brought within these army lines upon a pass obtained under false pretenses.

Mrs. Judd is the widow of an Episcopal clergyman who resides in Winchester, Tenn. He died some two years since leaving a large family of some seven children. Mrs. Judd passed through our lines with permission to take her three youngest children to Minnesota, from whence the family originally came. She took them, leaving them with a sister, she herself returning and passing through our lines to the rebel army. One of her oldest boys had found employment in the rebel establishment at Atlanta, Ga. During her absence her premises were seized on by the Confederates and her children remaining were taken by this young man to Atlanta. In the autumn of 1862 she returned to Winchester, went thence to Atlanta, claims to have received some $500 Southern funds of her son, which she exchanged for money current in the North. She also received funds from persons who desired her to purchase articles from the North for them. Having thus provided herself she came through our lines and was, under her representations that she wished to go to her children in Minnesota, granted a pass North. She states that from conversation of officers of the Confederate service whom she met on the cars going from Atlanta to Murfreesborough she learned I was the intention of John Morgan to strike at our railroad communications near Gallatin at a certain time. She found a traveling companion in the person of a Mr. Forsythe northeard. She went as far as Louisville and Jeffersonville or New Albany, procuring the goods specified, returned on a pass to Gallatin. She states that her intention was to stop at Gallatin and set up the knitting-machine and manufacture stockings, &c., for a living, her object in doing so being that she would be near her children in Atlanta; that her living would be cheaper than in Nashville; that she supposed it would be lawful for her to hold her goods in expectation that the enemy would occupy the country and that she would then fall into their lines. It appears that she was tolerably well informed because about the time she expected it Morgan did make an attempt on Gallatin and shortly after broke the road above there.

It is respectfully submitted that she is a dangerous person to remain in these lines; that she is probably a spy as well as smuggler; that cases of this kind being of frequent occurrence by females examples should be made, and that as there is at present no proper tribunal for her especial trial or proper place of imprisonment at Nashville, she be committed to the military prison at Alton in the State of Illinois, for trial. It is well to state further that Mrs. Judd represents her son at Atlanta to be a very ingenious mechanic and that it was her intention to furnish him with the knitting-machine for the purpose of manufacturing others from it taken as a pattern.

Very respectfully,

JOHN FITCH, Provost-Judge.


DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, January 3, 1863.

Mrs. Clara Judd will be confined in Alton (Ill.) Military Prison during the present war or until tried, unless sooner released by the commanding general of the department.

By command of Maj.-Gen. Rosecrans:

WM. M. WILES, Capt. and Provost-Marshal-Gen.

[Inclosure No. 3.]

U. S. MILITARY PRISON, Alton, Ill., May 11, 1863

Statement of Mrs. Clara Judd, who has been a prisoner in Alton Military Prison over three months as a spy.

She denies being guilty. Her health is failing very fast (having been in feeble health for several years) from confinement. She wishes to be paroled and go to her parents and little children who are living in Minnesota. She makes a statement here how she came in the south and how she came to be arrested:

"I am the widow of the Rev. B. S. Judd and a native of the State of New York. My parents live in Minnesota where I also resided with my husband seven years prior to going South. We moved to Winchester in November, 1859, on account of my health and on account of there being a chance of educating our children and board them at home and keep them under home influences. We had eight children. Six of them were going to school in 1861, when my husband went to Nashville on business and while there he went to view some statuary at the capitol; accidentally stepped off the parterre and was injured so that he died in just four weeks, leaving me with seven children (one having died in the fall) without money, with a great deal of unfinished business and not a relative or Northern person that I ever saw two years before. My friends in the North wrote to have me come home, but I had taken out letters of administration and had no means and the blockade soon closed all communication. I struggled on with my children's help who went to work at anything they could get to do until Christmas, 1862. I was censured very much because I did not put my oldest children, being boys, into the army. I could not think it my duty to let them go on either side my health being so poor and I liable to die at any time with heart disease. I thought they ought to preserve their lives to take care of those younger. At Christmas I put two of them into a Government factory to keep them from being conscripted. The factory was removed to Atlanta, Ga., in May. I was blockaded from there and in the meantime I had sent the next oldest into the same business. I could not hear from them or from the North and I had no means to support my four remaining children but what I could to myself. Winchester was taken possession of five different times by the Federals. I always treated them as brothers; had a house full every time they were there. (I never had a Confederate soldier in my house.) The 1st of August Thomas took possession of the town. Among his troops I had many acquaintances who told me they were going to destroy all of the crops except enough to last six weeks. They advised me to get my little children to my parents in the North. I could not stay to dispose of anything. I had three cows and seven acres of crops and my household goods and husband's library. I got a protection from the provost-marshal for my things and a little boy twelve years old; borrowed money and took my three youngest children out on the second train through from Decherd to Nashville. I was to be gone four weeks. I arrived in Minnesota on the 11th of August. Three days after I got there I had to take my children and flee from the Indians, which detained me three or four weeks instead of two. I then started with money enough as I supposed to take me to Nashville. I intended to go back and dispose of my effects if possible and get my boys out and go to Nevada Territory for two years. I had made arrangements for my sister to take care of my little children for three years, but when I arrived at Louisville they were expecting an attack from Bragg.

"I went to New Albany and was taken sick; was there six weeks. I after incredible trouble succeeded in hiring some money to pay my expenses and take me to Nashville where I was acquainted with the clergy and would get help there. I started but could not get my trunks through farther than Mitchellville. I was very deficient in clothing myself. I thought I would go to [Louisville] and get me some funds and come back to New Albany and pay the borrowed money and get a few clothes for myself and a hand knitting-machine which I had been talking of getting for several years. I accordingly did so. Told the offices at Nashville my whole business and tried to get a pass to go and come back, but could not get one to come back. When I got to Winchester I found everything destroyed except my husband's library and the son I left gone to the same business the others were at and that I could not get my sons out. When I left I supposed Buell would keep the country. I came back and was detained at Murfreesborough three days in trying to get a pass. When I got one I could not get any conveyance but walked eleven miles after 10 o'clock, the last three miles in my stocking feet, having blistered my feet the first three miles. I got a carriage at La Vergne to take me to where the flag officers were, as there was a flag that day. Just before I got there came a Carriage from Murfreesborough bringing a gentleman who was said to be a prisoner of the South. The Federal officers would not let me through until they had been to headquarters. I wrote a statement to Rosecrans. While waiting there the person from Murfreesborough commenced questioning me. He told me he was from Connecticut. My husband and parents were from there. We soon seemed like old acquaintances. He wished to know where I stopped in Nashville. I told. Said he stopped there, and then said he would see Rosecrans about my pass; said he thought he had more power there than Col. Hepburn. The second day after this the flag officer came out; told me that I could go, but would have to go under guard. I told them I would; I was perfectly willing. I had nothing but some open letters-those I sent to Rosecrans. I walked almost seven miles, my guard mounted. After giving a statement to headquarters of everything I saw while in the South I went to the same hotel where Mr. Forsythe (that is the name of the prisoner from Murfreesborough) put up. He was not there and the house was full. I went to a private house where I was slightly acquainted. The next morning I went to the provost-marshal's office and got a pass to go to Louisville. I found there was a battle near and that I would either stop in New Albany or go to a god-son's in Illinois and wait until times were settled after the battle, but when the clerk gave me my pass he said I could not go. The next day I wanted to go to Mitchellville on account of getting some clothes. I accordingly sent a note to Mr. Forsythe asking him to call wishing to have him provide me with a private conveyance to Mitchellville, he having informed me while out with the flag that he had been a merchant in Nashville for some time before he went to Murfreesborough. When he called he said he was going to Louisville the next day but one wanted to see my pass. I finally told him my hurry to get through was mainly because I had heard about what time Morgan would interrupt that road and that I feared I would be left South which would trouble me very much on account of paying the money I had borrowed by a certain time, as the people had placed confidence in me. He said he was very glad I had told him as he had $30,000 worth of goods on the road or about to start, but wanted to know why I did to come back. I told him that at that time I feared to try and that I thought I would stop in Indiana. He urged me to come back; told me before he was a widower; said he would like to become better acquainted with me; said Rosecrans had given him a pass to take my pass and have it changed to come back to Gallatin, where I could get to Murfreesborough after awhile. He went to headquarters and came back with the pass changed but laughed about the wording of it. He said he would go with me in the morning and would be happy to render my any assistance I might need, and would introduce me to a merchant where I could get my things at wholesale.

"After we started in the morning I asked him how he came to have so much influence with Rosecrans. Said they were old neighbors, but after a little told me he was a Southern man as strong as any dared to be. I found I was in a close place. I could turn neither way, for the conductor would not wait for me to take my trunk aboard at Mitchellville, so that I could leave him in Louisville. He finally after we got there told me not to get anything contraband, but I told him there was nothing contraband while in the United States, and if I stopped finally urged me to buy. I told him I had no means; he offered me some money but I refused it. He then urged me to take the money I had brought to pay the debt I had contracted in New Albany. I was in debt in Winchester and thought if I had money it was a great temptation to buy and to stop in Gallatin and if Morgan took that part of the country it would help me out of debt but I did not yield at first. I went to New Albany and found the lawyer gone from home. Forsythe went with me when he found now things were. He told the gentleman in the office that I had to sacrifice a great deal of my money so that I had not got the clothing I needed and that he would vouch that I would send the money back in two or three weeks through his name to Cahill and Hues, Louisville, and gave his name and theirs in writing. Then as soon as we were In the street [sic] told me to buy drugs, and he would send me whatever I wanted In the drug line, and as soon as I could get to Atlanta he would visit me and set me up in a commission store. I supposed it was all understood between him and Rosecrans.

I need not worry about it when I bought my drugs. I traded where I had bought 50 cents worth of goods while I was boarding in town. He did not stop in the store when I traded; I wondered at it. We did not get back to Louisville till 12 at night on Saturday; the ferry-boat detained us. I had agreed to receive my knitting-machine at 7 o'clock that night; I could not get it on Sunday. On Sunday evening he told me he had got a pass to go from Boyle, but he telegraphed to Nashville to see if it was all right; seemed very much elated. I ought to have mentioned before that my drugs were brought from New Albany in a carpet bag. He carried it for me and some little bundles besides. While I lighted the gas he set my things into my room and bid me good night. Suddenly in the morning I wanted to open my satchel; it was not in my room. I called the landlord. He said the guard found it standing on the out door step. I told him he did not for there was a light in the hall; Forsythe preceded me upstairs and that he set it down by my door while I was unlocking it, and that after he bid me good night I looked to see if there was anything left but there was nothing there. The landlord said [he] had it put in the office. The facts were when he bid me good night he took the satchel to the office; had it examined (the key was in it); then telegraphed to Nashville. When I saw my pass I was astonished. It was to go to Louisville and back to Gallatin without molestation fortheith. My trunk was not opened. I told him on Sunday night I had to stay until Tuesday night on account of my knitting-machine. He said I must go with him and he would leave a line to have it expressed on the next train but I took a carriage and got it before the cars started. The officers from Nashville met us at Bowling Green and arrested me at Mitchellville, fifty miles this side of Gallatin; took me to Nashville where they confiscated everything.

"I was arrested on Monday before Christmas and have never known what evidence there was against me nor on what footing I was here until to-day. He has sworn falsely and misrepresented other things then said jocosely [sic]. The officer told me at Nashville that the fact of Gallatin being attacked the very night I would have got there made it look like a preconcert plan, but it was a feint of some of his men while he attacked Elizabethtown, but I knew nothing whatever more than what I had learned by Morgan's adjutant two weeks before and I had been delayed and so had he by the Hartsville fight, and it was purely accidental my starting that day. I never spoke with Morgan nor any other officer of the Confederacy higher than a lieutenant-colonel and then only about my pass. Perhaps I ought to except Gen. Polk. He is an old acquaintance, but politics were never mentioned. I never had anything to do with political affairs, neither do I wish to have.

"I am perfectly willing to make oath that this is as near the truth as I can get it from memory.


OR, Ser. II, Vol. 5, pp. 619-625.



Respectfully referred to the Secretary of War. The release of Mrs. Judd is not recommended.

W. HOFFMAN, Col. Third Infantry and Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners.

[Second indorsement.]

Referring to the opinion of the provost-judge (Fitch); to that of the commanding officer of the prison (Maj. Hendrickson); the probable state of health of Mrs. Judd, as certified by the physician; the length of time she has been in the prison; the position of Gen. Rosecrans and his duties (not enabling him to examine personally into the matter), I am of the opinion that Mrs. Judd may with propriety be discharged, and I accordingly recommend it.

E. A. HITCHCOCK, Maj.-Gen., &c.

[Third indorsement.]

WAR DEPARTMENT, August 6, 1863.

The recommendation of Gen. Hitchcock is approved. Respectfully returned to the Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners.

By order of the Secretary of War:

JAS. A. HARDIE, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 6, p. 150.


Mrs. Judd, of Nashville, Tennessee, who has been confined in the Alton military prison for some time on the charge of being a spy, has been paroled to the limits of the State of Minnesota, there to remain during the war.

Memphis Appeal [Atlanta, Georgia] September 2, 1863.[33]

          6, "Returned."

The Steamer Idahoe [sic], with its cargo of frail women arrived here from Louisville on Tuesday, in charge of Lieut. Ludkin, of Col. Marc Munday's regiment. We understand that the military authorities will soon establish a system to govern and regulate the houses of prostitution in this city. The plan suggested and now under consideration is well calculated to meet the exigency into which the government has fallen on account of these women. As soon as the proposed plan is settled and approved, it will be made public by Col. Spaulding.

Nashville Daily Press, August 6, 1863.

          6, Capture of telegraph operator at Fort Henry by Henson's Guerrillas [See August 19, 1863, "News from Nashville" below.]

6, "Can you imagine how these southerners feel seeing their homes and families destroyed?" Excerpt from the letter of Captain Thomas A. Cobb, 10th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, to his cousin regarding his thoughts on the wastefulness of war

Winchester, Tenn.

Aug. 6, 1863

Dear Cousin

….We have been encamped here three weeks. After a very hard march from Murphreesboro [sic], was in the fight at Hoovers Gap and skirmishing before Tullahoma. All is being quiet here since July 4th. You ask me what I think of the war and if I think it will soon be ended. Things look more favorable now than when you wrote. I think the omen is good and a steady termination will greet our country with rejoicing. The war is vertually [sic] ended though it may be kept up for some time, but not very much severe. I give you this as my opinion, not that I have any better knowledge of matters pertaining to the close of the war, then people at home have, but I think they cannot hold out too much longer. My company is made up of ordinary men, who were living normal simple lives as laborers, farmers, and blacksmiths just as the rebel companies are. We see farming seasons come and go and good crops going to waste and it makes us itch to be home and working our own fields. Imagine, this rebellion has taken nearly four years from our lives. Can you imagine how these southerners feel seeing their homes and families destroyed? Even though they started this rebellion their wives and children don't deserve to starve. I cannot see how they can hold out much longer. These people are deluded and misguided.

*  *  *

John C. Seibert

Letters of Thomas A. Cobb[34]

          6, Reward for Army of Tennessee Conscription Deserters

$750 REWARD – The named men have deserted from my works, and $30 each, reward, will be paid for their arrest and delivery at Conscript Camp, either at Cleveland or this place.

W. W. Hewindelk – Aged 30 years, 5 feet 7 inches height, light complexion blue eyes, black hair, residence in Madison co., Ala.

J. C. Walker – Aged 36 years, height 5 feet 7 inches, light complexion, blue eyes, brown hair, residence in Rutherford co., Tenn.

T. W. Lam – Aged 33 years, height 5 feet 6 inches, light complexion, blue eyes, sandy hair, residence in Knox co., Tenn.

W. McMillen – Aged 29 years, height 5 feet 8 inches, light complexion, blue eyes brown hair, residence in Coffee co., Tenn.

John W. Street – Aged 28 years, height 5 feet 10 inches, light complexion, blue eyes, black hair, residence in Williamson co., Tenn.

Geo. JN. Davidson – Aged 26 years, height 5 feet, 6 inches, light complexion, blue eyes, brown hair, residence Coffee co., Tenn.

Henry Cook – Aged 31 years, height 5 feet 10 and a half inches, light complexion, grey eyes, brown hair, residence Coffee co., Tenn.

Jos. Wilds – Aged 23 years, 5 feet and 10 and a half inches, light complexion, blue eyes, sandy hair, residence Knox co., Tenn.

H. H. Gill – Aged 25 years, 5 feet 8 inches, light complexion, brown eyes, light hair, residence Madison co., Ala.

W. Wilcox – Aged 31 years, height 5 feet 9 inches, dark complexion, black eyes, brown hair, residence Knox co., Tenn.

J. W. Monegan – Aged 28 years, height 5 feet 6 inches, dark complexion, blue eyes, brown hair, residence Knox co., Tenn.

Thomas Works – Aged 25 years, 5 feet 9 inches height, light complexion, blue eyes, light hair, residence Knox co., Tenn.

Sam'l. York – Aged 30 years, height 6 feet 2 inches, light complexion, black eyes, black hair, residence Anderson co., Tenn.

Milton Wilde - Aged 23 years, height 6 feet 1 inch, light complexion, blue eyes, residence Knox co., Tenn.

James Wilde – Aged 19 years, height 5 feet 11 inches, light complexion, blue eyes, sandy hair, residence Knox co., Tenn.

H. W. Parham – Aged 27 years, height 5 feet 11 inches, light complexion, gray eyes, brown hair, residence Bradley co., Tenn.

John Fuka – Aged 20 years, 5 feet 6 inches high, light complexion, gray eyes, brown hair, residence in Franklin co., Tenn.

W. D. Mitchell – Aged 26 years, 5 feet 11 and a half inches high, light complexion, black eyes, brown hair, residence Hamilton co., Tenn.

J. P. Cowan – Aged 34 years, 5 feet 9n inches height, light complexion, gray eyes, brown hair, residence Rutherford co., Tenn.

Irwin Jackson – Aged 28 years, 5 feet 9 inches, light complexion, gray eyes, brown hair, residence Franklin Col, Tenn.

F. G. Robinson – Aged 26 years, 5 feet 10 inches high, dark complexion, black eyes, black hair, residence Bradley co., Tenn.

W. C. Pollard – Aged 25 years, 6 feet 1 inch high, light complexion, gray eyes, black hair, residence Madison co., Ala.

James Akerd – Aged 34 years, 5 feet 6 inches high, light complexion, gray eyes, black hair, residence Madison co., Ala.

J. C. Miller – Aged 26 years, 5 feet 7 inches high, light complexion, gray eyes, light hair, residence Hawkins co., Ala.


Brigade Contractor.[35]

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, August 6, 1863.

          6, Poetry for a Grief-Stricken Confederate Mother

For the Chattanooga Rebel.




Addressed to Mrs. S. F******

[Whose only son, a boy of seventeen, fell at Hoover's Gap, June 25, 1863.]


The eve is calm, the wind is still,

And gently flows the murmuring rill

That sweeps the base of on green hill,

Then wanders to the sea


Beside the stream, beneath the shade,

Emblossom'd in the flowery glade,

A mother's fondest hope is laid.

Deep in the grassy lea.


He's resting with the silent dead,

The turf is green above his head,

And lonely in his narrow bed,

He's sleeping quietly.


The flowers around unheeded grow,

And fragrance o'er the valley throw,

Their sweetness he can never know,

Nor yet their beauty sees.


The birds may warble in the grove,

And sing their artless notes of love –

Responsive he can never prove,

By fount or forest tree.


But where the flowers are fairer still,

Where birds enchanting sing at will,

Where perfumes sweet each valley fill,

He's where I long to be.


Beyond the reach of fancy's wand,

For in a bright and happy land,

Enlisted in an angel band,

From mortal trammels free


Where summer flowers ne'er cease to grow,

Where limpid streams for ever flow,

Where never enter grief or woe,

In immortality.

Chattanooga Daily Rebel, August 6, 1863.

          6, "…his gladiatorial manifestations were unseen …."

A Collision. – We have all along deceived ourself [sic] with the agreeable idea that our neighborhood was too highly civilized ever to become the scene of a pugilistic rumpus. The illusion passed away at about four o'clock yesterday evening. The long maintained quietude of Post-office corner was disturbed. A fracas occurred; combatants, two nephews of their big uncle, attired in martial blue. Not much of a prologue before the drama commenced. One of the pugnacious gentlemen quietly, deliberately, and decidedly coerced the other one to take a horizontal attitude on the stone pavement. Didn't go through the customary form of "dragging out" the recumbent victim. Numerous persons witness to the "striking situation" gathered about the fallen hero to raise him to his "continuations" that had failed to support him in the trying moment. He did elevate himself, but his gladiatorial manifestations were unseen by the man that "threw the last brick," for said personage had made his exit at the earliest opportunity, which was presented simultaneously with the downfall. Large crowd dissolved, and tranquility resumed its empire over the rarely disordered post office corner.

Nashville Daily Press, August 7, 1863

6, Confederate cavalryman held as hostage [see: July 22, 1863, "Confederate Recruiting Notice, Chattanooga" and July 26 – 1 August, 1863, "Third Tennessee (U. S.) Cavalry in Wilson County," according to William A. McTeer, above]

Change of Rendezvous.

Capt. Frank Battle advertises in the Chattanooga Rebel for recruits to fill his company. We are not in the habit of advertising free of charge, but feel it our duty to inform the friends of the Captain that he has changed his camp of rendezvous, and that his headquarters will be in the future, in the Penitentiary, firmly ironed down upon his back, and that he will not change his base any more until Capt. Harris, of the 3d East Tennessee cavalry, is released from the Knoxville jail.

Nashville Daily Press, August 6, 1863

          6, Newspaper report on Confederate conscription

Rebel Conscription – All Must Go.

The following documents will give some idea of the rebel conscription. They care no more for precedent than a Moor does for Christianity. Look at this:

To All Whom it may Concern!

I certify that E. T. Hall, born in Knox County, age 40 years, height 6 feet, complexion fair, eyes grey, hair red, or light color, occupation Deputy Register of Knox County, and Attorney at law, enrolled in the 1st District of Knox County, in the State of Tennessee, is this day discharged and exempted from conscription by reason of his being Deputy Register, and an executive officer so said County and State. Given at Knoxville, this 1st day of November, 1862.

Now, notwithstanding Mr. Hall was thus exempted the following document was served upon him:


KNOXVILLE, Feb. 23, 1863.

Mr. E. T. Hall will report himself at this office without delay.

By order of Lieut. Colonel E. D. Blake, Commandant of Conscripts.

T. S. Webb, Adj't.

In obedience to this order our friend Hall reported to Lt. Col. Blake, and asked permission to arrange his business. The following document was handed him:


KNOXVILLE, February 23, 1863

Mr. E. T. Hall will report to the commanding officer of Camp of Instruction, at once.

By order of Lt. Col. Blake, Comm'd't of Conscripts

T. S. Webb, Adj't.

It was endorsed as follows:

February 23d, '63.

Leave of absence granted until 25th instant, 12 M.

By order of Lt. Col. Blake, Comm'd't of Conscripts,

T. S. Webb, Adj't.

While the time was expiring, LIZE[36] [sic] made his way to Kentucky. He is a man and a patriot. The authorities of the nation can see what the East Tennesseeans [sic] have to undergo, by looking at these documents. When will these patriots be freed? Oh, when?

Nashville Daily Press, August 6, 1863.

          6, Amnesty for Confederate soldiers absent without leave and deserters

Headquarters, Dept. E. Ten.,

Knoxville, August 6th, 1863

General Orders No. 102

The President of the Confederate States having, by his proclamation, granted amnesty to all military persons who have been guilty of absence without leave, or desertion, excepting those who have deserted twice, provided [sic] they return to their command within twenty days after the publication of the proclamation in the State in which the absentee may be at the time of publication, it is therefore ordered that all soldiers and officers in arrest for absence without leave or desertion, and all who are undergoing punishment for those offences, be released and ordered to return to duty.

It is further ordered that all charges in the hands of subordinate officers against those within the benefit of the President's amnesty, will be returned to the persons who preferred them, and all such in the custody of Courts Martial and the Military Court, be returned to these Headquarters.

By Command of


Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, August 8, 1863.

          6, Henson's Confederate guerrillas raid and occupy a deserted Fort Henry [see August 19, 1863, "news from Nashville" below]

          7, "Thanksgiving Day"

Yesterday was appointed by the President as a day of thanksgiving and prayer for the recent substantial victories achieved by the armies of the United States, but in this city the occasion seems to have been slighted. We heard of no religious service being held at any of the places of worship, few of the business houses were closed, and the town worked away in its usual week-day style, heeding not proclamations from the head of the nation, or the monitions of patriotism. Of course there were exceptions and we are glad to mention as such the officers of the military departments who in accordance with General Granger's order, suspended all business save that which did not admit of postponement. We regretted to perceive that many soldiers and citizens devoted the day to drunkenness and fighting. Several very disgraceful affrays occurred between riotous citizens and soldiers who had forced their way into the city lines. Livid frontispieces and tattered garments were almost unlimited, and the streets were very often blockaded with excited crowds of belligerents and spectators. The Provost Guard were energetic in dispersing and arresting all turbulent characters, and their report for the day showed that their vigilance was rewarded by a large number of captures. Major Horner sent about twenty or thirty-recruits to the jailor. It is more than probable that these violent demonstrations ended with the day; if not, General Granger will discard a little of his mercy, and bring them under a rigid code.

Nashville Daily Press, August 7, 1863.

          7, Bigamist tried and convicted in Nashville

Capt. Bartholomew Scanlan, has been tried before the Criminal Court of Davidson County, now in session in this city, and convicted of bigamy. He has been sentenced to the Penitentiary for four years. From this judgment he appeals to the Supreme Court. In default of bail, he remains in prison until the meeting of the Supreme Court-rather an indefinite period.

Nashville Daily Union, August 7, 1863.

          7, "Col. Gibbs at LaGrange – A Loyal Speech made by a Middle Tennessean."

LaGrange, Tenn. Aug. 8

Editors Bulletin:

On last evening it was my good fortune to listen to Col. T. H. Gibbs, of the 7th Congressional District, while he addressed the citizens of this town, the soldiers comprising this regiment and those of the 2d Iowa and 3rd Michigan. The occasion forcibly reminded me of former times when Tennesseans by their style of stump-speaking and force of argument were want to carry their hearers to the highest pitch of enthusiasm. A large proportion of this regiment knew the Colonel; they had often listened to him in former times as he descanted upon the issues that used to divide the old Whig and Democratic parties, and now, the pleasure of listening to his voice and words of counsel and cheer again, and upon Tennessee soil, after an unwelcome separation of two years, was a privilege and a delight that expressed itself by cheers, hurrah and applause. It was the days of old lang syne to many a soldier and citizen heart, and forcibly and painfully did the Colonel's plain and convincing words bring to the mind of his hearers the occasion of former speakings [sic], when he made the canvass with Jno. V. Wright, for Congress in 1859, and when he branded that gentleman and other Democratic politicians with the charge of disunion doctrine and disunion practices. His course, then and his position now, standing bravely and squarely up to the unity of these states, demanded and challenged their admiration. The remarks of Col. Gibbs were aptly interspersed with simile [sic], figure and illustration, which elicited spontaneous plaudits from his large and delighted audience, and such was his hold upon them that we venture to the assertion that when another election shall be held the people of his district will reward the courage with which he has held to the faith of the of the founders of the republic. While we in Middle and West Tennessee cannot have the benefit of his speaking ability just now, we are glad to know that he will not be idle, but having put his hands to the plow, he looks not back until the supremacy of the law be fully restored and enforced.

A Citizen.

Memphis Bulletin, August 11, 1863.

          7, "I may endure." Life in the Confederate army in Chattanooga

Notwithstanding, the regiment has had nothing to eat but corn bread for more than two days. They have sent us to work on fortifications. Being on guard yesterday and barefoot, I was excused and managed to get a quart of milk. I may endure.

Van Buren Oldham Diaries.

          7, "One of the Demoralized."

A member of Breckenridge's rebel cavalry gave himself up as a deserter to General Pane, at Gallatin, a few days ago. He is an intelligent citizen of Maysville, Ky., and seemed well conversant with the fact of Bragg's late skedaddle. He substantiates all the rumors that have reached us regarding the utter demoralization of this vast arm of Tennesseeans [sic] and Kentuckians, and he further "lets the cat out of the bag" by stating that soon after the retreating policy was announced, the regiment of which he was a member, mutinied to a man, officers and all. The mutiny was advised and organized by the line officers of the regiment, and when the army of the Tennessee [sic] commenced falling back before "Rosey" and his legions, the discontents began a retreat in the opposite direction, intending to surrender in a body. The plan was detected, however, and Bragg sent a detachment in pursuit, placed the officers under arrest, and threatened to hold them responsible for the return of the men. One battalion of the regiment numbering two hundred, succeeded in eluding he force sent after then, and those of them who have not delivered themselves up as deserters are only seeking the opportunity to do so. The balance of the men, learning that the lives of the officers depended upon their return, followed the retreating forces, and, through their devotion to the officers who commanded them and endured hardships with them, they again joined their fate with a defeated and morally weakened army. Such is the material now under the iron rule of Gen. Bragg. This deserter knowingly asserts that he whole rebel army in Tennessee is as much dispirited and mutinous as was his own regiment, and its utter disorganization and return to loyalty is only dependent on the future activity of Gen. Rosecrans.[37]

Nashville Daily Press, August 7, 1863

          7, "Foul Death of a Negro."

The Captain of the steamboat Havana, now in port, employed a contraband, calling himself Joe, to work as a fireman on the trip out from Cincinnati, and on the morning after the arrival of the boat at this point, the negro was missed, when a search was instituted, and on Wednesday evening (5th) his body was found near the shore, a short distance astern of the Havana. He was taken from the water, and an examination of his person showed that he had been knocked in the head with an iron wrench or hammer, and thrown overboard, on Monday night (3rd) by some one unknown….Marshal Chumbley [?]…procured squire Southgate, who summoned a jury and held an inquest upon the body. The verdict was rendered in accordance with the above facts.

Nashville Daily Press, August 7, 1863

          7, Nashville's German Union League State Council

Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 7, 1863.

To the President of the National Union League, Tennessee State Council No. 1 at Nashville, Tenn. [sic]

M. Park, Esq., Dear Sir: - The (German) Union League Tennessee State Council No. 2 at Nashville, Tenn., begs herewith permission to state that is has been organized under the charter granted by your League, and under the rules adopted by the National League. We have to-night made the first initiation of members under the new charter. We are willing to co-operate in any efforts made by our brethren organizations, to crush out the accursed rebellion, and to aid them in sustaining the Government, which is sustained by the Constitution and the sentiments of the people. We are willing to use our utmost power to have the old flag of freedom flaunt over every inch of proud, free America, as it was and will be unto eternity.

A. Bohr, President

John Ruhm, Corr. Secretary.

At a meeting of the Union League Council, No. 1, it was resolved that the communication be published in the Nashville Press and Union.

By order of the President,

Wm. W. Leonard, Secretary

Nashville Daily Press, August 11, 1863.

          7, Changes in the Confederate Commissariat


Office of Chief C. S., C. S. A.

Loudon, Tenn., Aug. 7th, 1863

The organization of the commissariat in the State [of Tennessee] by dividing into Districts and then subdividing it for the purchase and proper distribution of subsistence of stores and conformably to the circular of commissary General of Subsistence approved by the Secretary of War, is now in operation.

This system is administered by officers of ability and experience and is deemed adequate to meet such emergencies as may arise. The orders in force indicate but one method by which commissaries from other States; whether at depots or with armies in the field, can obtain supplies from this State, and a state adherence to them is indispensable to develop the resources of all the Sate alike. It is hereby enjoined upon District commissaries to see that this method of collecting supplies be observed and to report all officers and agents disregarding the same for arrest and punishment.

R. T. Wilson, Chf Comy.

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, August 14, 1863.

          7, Meat procurement and government prices in East Tennessee [See February 1, 1865, "Confederate Board of Commissioners for Impressment for Tennessee issues price schedule no. 10" below]

OFFICE of CHF Com'y S., C. S. A.

State of Tennessee, Loudon

Aug. 7, 1863.

To all whom it may concern:

I beg the attention of meat raisers to the extraordinary inducement offered by tariff of prices No. 2, published by the Commissioners for Tenn.

Hogs at 30 c. per pound and cattle at 15c. per, pound gross will pay the farmer nearly one hundred percent profit over the corn as set by the commissioners. Now is the time for the farmers to make money and to do their duty to the country. Let the large medium and small size hogs be put up to fatten at once-feeding the two latter until late in the season. By these means the quantity of meat can be increased, at least, double over the amount which is made ordinarily, when only large hogs are selected for fattening, and they only fed until fat enough to kill, without any special aim at increase of weight. These remarks are equally applicable to beef cattle. The price paid will certainly pay the farmer well to feed, as to increase every animal as much as possible.

The wants of the country demand that all the meat be produced which can possibly be made out of the stock of animals on hand. A beneficent Providence has blessed us with an abundant crop of wheat and a promise of an unprecedented large crop of corn and it is hoped the farmers will appropriate it as above indicated and thus relieve the country  [from the] pressure for meat.

I am authorized to say that the price of meat will not be reduced. As chief commissary of this State it will become my duty to have all suitable animals impressed, when they are not being prepared from any cause whatever, for users above.


R. T. WILSON, Maj. & Chf. C. S.

Knoxville Daily Southern Chronicle, August 14, 1863.

          7-8, Expedition from Fayetteville, Tennessee, to Athens, Alabama

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. I, pp. 76-77.[38]




4, Skirmish at Triune

No circumstantial reports filed.

          4, Skirmish at Tracy City

No circumstantial reports filed.

          4, Care of the insane in Nashville

The crazy woman arrested the other day and lodged in the workhouse by Marshal Chumbly has a decided passion for "nothing to wear." The city marshal has furnished several outfits for the lady, but so soon as the clothing touches her back she tears it off. She is said to be destructive to rage as a first class paper mill. [?] The hot weather, no doubt, had something to do with making her a lunatic.

Nashville Dispatch, August 4, 1864.

          4, "Miscegenation in Nashville"

About three months ago, Mr. William Scruggs, who resides...fourteen miles from town on the Hillsboro Pike, hired a refugee named Nash to work upon his farm. When the work was finished, Nash was paid off and discharged. He loitered about the place until Tuesday evening last [August 2], when he and one of Mr. Scrugg's negro girls disappeared. Mr. Scruggs came to town yesterday morning, and with the aid of a police officer, succeeded in finding the two in bed, in a house on the alley between Church and Union streets in the rear of the Maxwell house, or Barracks No. 1. The woman was taken in charge by Mr. William Thillet, a friend of Mr. Scruggs, and the two of them had taken shelter from the rain in the saloon of P.B. Coleman, when three soldiers came along, in company with a negro boy, who pointed the girl out to the soldiers, and the later immediately took possession of the girl, told her she was free, and at liberty to go where she pleased. The matter was laid before the military authorities who declined to inquire into the subject, or to have anything to do with it.

Nashville Dispatch, August 4, 1864.

          4-9, "…we were received with great enthusiasm the poor people bringing their few bundles of oats as a gift." Federal foraging expedition in Wilson and White Counties

Camp Near Sparta, Tenn.

Aug. 9, 1864


I arrived here today at 9 a. m. On the 4th I left Nashville at 3 P.M. and that night encamped near the Hermitage. The next day the 5th I met Col. Miller at the intersection of Gallatin & Lebanon Pikes-& proceeded to Lebanon. I found as we had conjectured that there would be difficulty in subsisting the entire Command on one road. I therefore sent Col. Miller with the 9th Tenn. Cav. (Brownlow.) and the Battery by way of Alexandria, Statesville & Stigo to Sparta-whilst I took the 13th Tenn Cav and by way of Trousdales Ferry Chestnut Mount, Pekin, & Bunker Hill to Sparta- The 9th being much smaller than the 13th I sent the Battery with it thus equalizing the number of animals to be fed. Col. Miller is not yet in and therefore I must keep this letter open to report his success. I obtained a bountiful supply of oats (unthrashed) which makes excellent forage, the straw serving for hay. There is no corn in the Country. The people are in absolute want of bread. Those who have no wheat can only get corn by going down on the Cumberland river.

Wilson County shows but slight signs of the war, everywhere the fields are cultivated & fine crops of Corn will be made. In Lebanon everything indicates peace. The houses have never been disturbed, but with the exception of Mrs. Stokes every door & window blind was closed- The same prosperity seems to pervade Putnam County, but there we found nine tenths of the people loyal & for Johnson & Lincoln. In my fathers district of Putnam there were but four votes for seperation [sic] and two hundred and four against Secession.-

In that County we were received with great enthusiasm the poor people bringing their few bundles of oats as a gift-I have ordered everything paid for except in case of disloyalty & in some instances I have fed notoriously disloyal men almost out of house and home, by way of furnishing them a contrast with their loyal neighbors. Most of the disloyal men of note have protections. I hope they have benefited by them, among the number Col Golliday late of the Confederate army.

Sparta is most emphatically a "deserted village". One half of it was burned by Stokes & the other half is abandoned, there is I believe but four families in this once flourishing village. So much for the practical working of Secession.

I was most disagreeably disappointed to find that Garretts Regiment of "Home Guards" as they call themselves are doing excellent service. I find them scouting out as far as this place thirty six miles from their "base" on foot. I have not heard of a single instance of depredation by them. they [sic] are killing many of the worst men in this part of the State, & will soon drive all the Guerrillas out. They are passing through the Country in small parties killing (they take none) all the robbers & Scoundrels. I am convinced of their usefulness.

The 9th & 13th Tenn Cavalry Regiments are not so well disciplined as I had expected-Their officers seem to have but little control over them, nor do they seem to endeavor to obtain any-I shall do all in my power with the means at my disposal, no stone shall do nothing to bring discredit on you whilst I am with them.

Col. Miller has just arrived with the remainder of the command, and to-morrow morning at 5 am we will set out to cross the mountain-"we are now encamped at the base of the mountain-I will Telegraph you from Le Noirs." In the mean time all shall go well. A very favorable impression has been made by paying loyal men for their property.

Very Sincerely Alvan C Gillem

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 7, pp. 86-87.

          5, Criticism of a Federal mission to Sevierville

HDQRS. SECOND Brig., FOURTH DIV., 23d ARMY CORPS, Knoxville, Tenn., August 5, 1864.

Respectfully forwarded for the information of Brig.-Gen. Ammen, commanding Fourth Division, Twenty-third Army Corps.

It will be seen that the reports sent in by the commanding officer at Sevierville were not based upon facts, proving that he did not take the steps necessary to ascertain the number and character of the enemy before forwarding his urgent requests for aid. This, with the additional facts that there is a force of eighty men of the Second Tennessee stationed at Sevierville amply sufficient not only to drive away the rebels, as was done by a few citizens, but to have entirely destroyed them, excite suspicion both as to the courage and competency of the comment are to be mustered out of the service in a few days the general commanding this brigade would deem it his duty to institute an official examination into his conduct, and to prevent its repetition in future.

DAVIS TILLSON, Brig.-Gen. of Volunteers, Cmdg.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. II, p. 225.

          5, "Depredations by Negro Troops-A Negro Corporal Killed."

We understand that Mr. S. P. Ament, who lives a mile and a half from the city on the Granny White Pike, has suffered greatly from the depredations of negro troops (the 15th United States colored troops [sic]), stationed in the vicinity of his farm. He had a guard stationed at his house who had driven them off frequently, and Mr. Ament had reported that fact to the commander of the regiment. Sunday night [July 31] a number entered Mr. Ament's premises and destroyed and carried off about $25 worth of vegetables. Tuesday [2nd] night the same parties, or others, or others, came back and helped themselves. When about to return to camp, the guard commanded them three times to halt, and failing to do so, her fired, mortally wounding one of the party, who proved to be a corporal in one of the companies of the regiment. He lived but a few hours. During Wednesday [3rd] about a dozen of the negro [sic] soldiers called at Mr. Ament's house and notified the guard that they intended to burn Mr. Ament's house that night, and destroy everything on his place. The guard informed the Colonel commanding a battery, stationed nearby, of the threat, and he promptly furnished a guard sufficiently strong to protect Mr. Ament's property in the event they should attempt to carry out their threat, but they did not make their appearance Wednesday night [3rd].

We hear that other parties beside Mr. Ament have suffered from the depredations of these negro soldiers. It is represented to us that they are becoming a perfect terror to the neighborhood.

Nashville Dispatch, August 5, 1864.

          5, "Special Orders, No. 187"

Headquarters District of Memphis

Memphis Tenn., August 5, 1864

I. Monday of each week being devoted to drill and instruction of the enrolled Militia of the District of Memphis, it is hereby ordered that all business in the city be suspended at four o'clock that day. The firing of the gun at Headquarters, Second Regiment, will be the signal at which time all business will cease and business establishments close, and so remain until after Militia hours

* * * *

By Order of Brig. Gen. B. P. Buckland

Memphis Bulletin, August 11, 1864.

          5, Horse thieves thwarted in Memphis

On Friday [5th] several thieves, wearing military jackets, to appear as soldiers, attempted to steal a horse and mule from the premises of Mr. Owen, on Poplar street. Mr. Owen observing them stepped out to interfere, when one of them discharged a pistol at him, but without effect. They then decamped having failed to secure any booty.

Memphis Bulletin, August 7, 1864.

          5, The murder of a Confederate soldier at Thompson's creek, Bedford county; the letter of Mollie Dean to her sister Ailey Dean

Thompsons Creek

Aug. 5th, 1864

Beloved Sister Ailey

I this golden evening lift my pen to respond to your sad yet thrice welcome letter which came duly to hand. Your missive found us yet living but still in great distress. Mother and my self are up but not well. Father has been very ill for several days. The medical attendants think with strict care he will recover. Though he never has seen one well hour since our great trouble and I fear he never will. I sincerely hope when [missing words] from your great thunderbolt of utter dispair. Though you may live to number the gray hairs of three-score and ten you can never out live the memorable year, 64, never, no never. Such is the fate of men. Sister as you request it I will as plainly as possible give you the detail in full. As to why your beloved was drest it was very neet but decently plane. I having made him clothes to return to you in. His vest was gray mixt his pants wee [sic] shoot-about [sic] gray and bright brown and made in the nicest order well lined and stitched. When I made them he told me to lay them by he would save them to meet Ailey in. And he would keep them as long as he lived to remember me. He would say when I go to see Ailey she will have plenty for me to wair so I need not take every thing only what I have on. His shirt as fine as you ever could wish to look at. His coat was black cloth, black kid gloves, white hose which sister Lizier had given him which he was saving to ware home. A white swis winding sheet and talton veil completed his burial attire. His coffin was black walnut raised lid lined with white a case of poplar. Sister it was the best we could do under existing circumstances. You also requested to know how many times he was shot and where. He was shot through the right arm, the left rist, the middle finger on his right hand, in his bowels by the right hip, four shots in his brest one in the hollow of his neck, four in the head three above the left eye one in the crown, two in the back, supposed to pass through his body. As to his talking after he was shot I am satisfied he never spoke. He never talked any thing much to me after he was arrested more than to ask me to get his clothes for him and to tell me not to grieve so hard about him for if they did not send him to prison he would be back in a few days. (Some words are missing) him which I did as soon as he was gone but all help came too late. The deed was done in hast. When he was ready to start I went to the road and huged and kissed him. He said dont be so foolish about me. I will come back some time if I live. They had told their orders was to shoot him, but I knew it not until he was dead. One of the detail told a cousin of ours that he pled inocince to the last and when they told him to dismount they were going to shoot him. He did so telling them they had the power but they would kill an inocent man. He raised his hat stroked his hare and dropped his hands by his side and fell a life less corpse. Thousands and tens of thousands must and will and has come and gone on--both sides since this bloody war began. Sister I centure not the men who did the deed, but those who reported and I have no idea on earth who did it for I dont think he had an enemy in this state that would have sought his ruin so harshly. He told me the night before his death he was going to wind up his affairs and start home in two or three weeks, he was always talking about you and the children. Catherine's conduct seemed to distress him more than any thing in all his trials. I knew not the cause of her removal. When he heard of Dan starting so long a journey he said let him go I don't blame him for traveling for that was my one great passion. he left no evidence behind of his future welfare more than the smile on his face when we was dressing him he smiled as fair a smile as you ever saw in your life and it remained on his features until he was laid under the sod. I am perfectly satisfied in my mind his anglic [sic] form is flying around the throne of him who doeth all things well while we grieve. I am sending a lock of his hair and whiskers also. I will send you his degarotipe [sic] as soon as I can have one copied from it. I will keep yours if you have no objections and send you mine. Tell your babs to be good children try to live a pios life and make useful men and women. Sister call your baby Allen instead of Allice as that was the name I and him selected Mary Allen. Give our best regards to Samuel and family, tell them we have written to them. Father and mother send their compliments to you all and sais they would give everything in the world to see you and the children. What must I do with what is coming to you here? Write soon and fail not,

Your Affectionate Sister

Mollie Dean


5, Bristol Gazette deprecates changes in Knoxville after 11 months of Federal occupation

From the Bristol Gazette.


The Federals in Knoxville are carrying with a high hand, as usual, "treasuring up wrath for the day of wrath."

They are continuing their dastardly course towards the Southern women, whom the fortunes of war have left in their hands by reason of their occupation of East Tennessee. It is understood that they have dragged from their homes the wife and daughter of Brig. Gen. J. C. Vaughn, and have consigned them to the walls of one of their many bastilles, while the females of Judge Van Dyke's family have been like their aged and venerable father, tore from their hearthstones and spirited away to some unknown prison, without the shadow of a trial, or even the formality of an accusation.

Mrs. Dr. J. GF. M. Ramsey and her daughter, Mrs. Bruce, arrived here under flag of truce from Knoxville, a few days since. They were accompanies by Miss Carrie Law, who has, for more than three months past, been held, without any charge whatever against her, as a close prisoner, during all which time she has been treated with much rigor and severity, the inhuman officials not suffering her clothing to be sent to her or even allowing her a change of raiment for five weeks.

It is reported that large numbers of wounded Yankees are being transferred from the rear of Sherman's army to Knoxville, one account being that 3,000 have already reached that point, a large number have already been sent to Athens, Tenn.

The work of plunder and rapine continues to go on through all lower East Tennessee, under the immediate eye of Yankee officers, who are inspired to commit their bloody atrocities by the fatuous tirades of the infamous Brownlow, who weekly urges them to kill, murder and destroy southern men whenever and wherever found, often designating by name, dozens of individuals personally obnoxious to him, whom he call upon all Union soldiers to shoot down on sight.

Brig. Gen. Sam Carter defends himself over his own signature in a late number of Brownlow's paper, for having arrested one of Billy Heiskell's negroes who was, pistol in hand, hunting his former master for the purpose of killing him.

The churches have been taken and converted into school rooms for negroes. Upon special application to General Carter, the negro wench who acts as head school marm was recently placed in full possession of the old Strong mansion on Cumberland street, as a residence for herself, General Brooks and family being summarily ejected to make room for her sable majesty. Yet the low lived dogs who have come under this Federal despotism by remaining in Knoxville tamely submit to such acts, with but here and there a word of remonstrance.

Fort Sanders has been greatly enlarged and strengthened, and now covers several acres of ground. There have been few deaths a month the old residents, and but one marriage to the invaders since Lieutenant Baker's negro girl united her destiny with the yankee Lieutenant McWilliams. The old tories of the town seem to fear the contamination, as they are sending off their marriageable daughters to Cincinnati, Pottsfield, Lexington and other points under pretence of placing at school.

J. C. Grant is endeavoring to be made a Judge by appointment form Andy Johnson, in the Cleveland circuit, whilst Dan Trewhitt is an aspirant for the position of Chancellor, I n room of Hon. A. G. Walker, deposed.

Macon Daily Telegraph, August 5, 1864.


          5, On negro suffrage in the Volunteer State

Negro Suffrage in Tennessee.

"Parson Brownlow" has published an article in the Knoxville Whig, in which he shows that until 1835 negroes had a right to vote in Tennessee. He says that John Bell once defeated Felix Grundy for Congress by the aid of negro votes. General Andrew Jackson once defeated Colonel Jno. Williams for the Legislature by seven votes only, and these seven were negroes, among whom Jackson was popular in consequence of his eulogies upon the black soldiers at New Orleans. Governor Carroll, a popular man with the negroes, carried a closely contested election by their votes, a friend of his leading sixty or seventy of them to the polls at one time. Cave Johnson, he says, led negroes to the polls "arm in arm."  The proposition to abolish negro voting was carried in the State Convention, he says, among others, by the vote of Robert M. Burton, who ran as the friend of negro suffrage and pledged himself to stand by them and maintain their rights. He received something less than four hundred negro votes, being successful by a majority of not more than two hundred. Yet in the Convention he turned against his back constituents, and voted to disfranchise them. They had a right to vote under the old State Constitution but were disfranchised by the Constitution of 1835.[40]

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 5, 1864.

          6, Major-General Robert H. Milroy's Plan for Organizing Home Guard Units

Headquarters Defs. N. & C. RR

Tullahoma    August 6, 1864

His Excellency Andrew Johnson

Military Governor of Tennessee,


Enclosed please find the draft of a plan for organizing home guard companies, which I drew up and had copies sent to my Brigade Commanders, about a month ago, with instructions to encourage the organization of all the companies possible in their vicinities, in accordance with the plan. I am informed that a number of such companies have been formed, and, among others, three were formed in the vicinity of Bridgeport, under the direction of Col. Krzyznowski, whose application for arms to arm these companies was refused, to be forwarded by Ten. Rousseau, and returned for the reason that Gen. Thomas had refused a similar application some months ago.

I am well convinced, from y experience in Wester[n] Virginia, that home guard companies formed of trustworthy loyal men, is the most effective and sure method of putting down guerrillaism, and of giving protection, and confidence to Union Citizens. Home guard companies formed on the guarded plan suggested, cannot be otherwise that loyal, and I think it is of the utmost importance to the reconstruction of the State Government, and the establishment of civil authority, law, and order, that loyal home guard companies should be multiplied as rapidly as possible, and armed as fast as organized, that they may protect themselves, their families, and civil authorities, and put down marauding [sic].

I feel sure that your Excellency will concur with me in these views; I therefore ask whether you cannot, as Governor of the State, furnish as many of these companies, and to as many others as are organized, and become a part of the organized loyal militia of this State,?  I desire to organize as many of these companies as possible, in the country adjoining, on both sides, this line of railroad, as the best means of ensuring it protection[.]

I have the honor to be, sir,

Very res'p. y'r ob'dt sv'rt,

R. H. Milroy, Maj.Genl. U.S.V.

PAJ, Vo, 7, pp. 77-78.

          7, Confederate Raid in Union County

AUGUST 7, 1864.-Confederate raid in Union County, Tenn.

Report of Capt. James W. Branson, First Tennessee (Union) Infantry, Deputy Provost-Marshal.

OFFICE PROVOST-MARSHAL, Maynardville, Tenn., August 8, 1864.

GEN.: It is my painful duty to report to you one of the most shameful and disastrous rebel raids yet made in this section of the country. This raid was headed, as I understand, by the notorious Bill Gibbs, at the head of about eighty of the most villainous gang of cutthroats, robbers, and assassins with which our country is cursed. They came within three miles of this place about daylight yesterday morning. They came down from the neighborhood of Thorn Hill, Grainger County, about which place some of them may be found at any time. Their headquarters are said to be Rogersville, but they are seldom so far off. Their whole aim in this raid seemed to be to do all the devilment possible, murder and plunder their chief characteristic. Up to this time I am advised of their brutal murder of three men, and they threaten to kill all prisoners, and I greatly fear they will do so. The three men thus murdered are Scott McPhetridge, Samuel Bunch, and James Ford (citizens). They also have taken off as prisoners the following loyal citizens: Rev. William Hickle, William Hickle, jr., John Richard, A. Maj.'s (soldier), C. Dyer (soldier), H. Jones, N. Branson (soldier), F. Harsell, F. M. Buckner, Jacob Shelton and son, and Z. Nedeham, besides others whose names I have not yet learned. They were more fiendlike than any ever known in this country, robbing houses in such a wanton manner as to show that destruction was their aim. They went on shooting at any and all who tried to get out of their way.

Now, general, the Union citizens of this country call aloud for retaliation in so far as to arrest immediately as many rebel citizens as they took of ours, to be held as hostages, that the return of ours may thereby be secured. This is the prayer of this community, and they respectfully ask the same of you through me. Will you give an order to this effect, accompanied with the means to carry it out? It will be impossible to find enough in the neighborhood of this devilment who have not taken the oath, but I am of the opinion that there are some who have taken the oath whom it would not be amiss to arrest as hostages, yet there might be enough found without taking such. Would it not be proper to proceed in this way? At the same time let them know what they are arrested for, and that as our men are treated so will they be.

Your most obedient servant,

J. W. BRANSON, Capt. and Deputy Provost-Marshal.


Respectfully forwarded to department headquarters for consideration. It is recommended that a small mounted force be sent to Union County to arrest the hostages, in case the major-general commanding approves the policy. There are only about twenty infantry at Maynardville, Tenn. It is also very desirable to rid the country of the armed rebels who have committed so many depredations in Grainger and Hawkins Counties.

S. P. Carter, Brig.-Gen. and Provost-Marshal-Gen. of East Tennessee.

HDQRS. ARMY OF THE OHIO, August 16, 1864.

Respectfully returned.

This policy may and should be adopted if we have the power to execute it so thoroughly [as] to secure protection to loyal citizens. Otherwise it will simply result in general murder, plunder, and depopulation of East Tennessee. If small bands of robbers and murderers cannot be driven out or destroyed, retaliation will only beget retaliation, by which the loyal majority of East Tennessee must necessary suffer the most. Gen. Ammen, commanding District of East Tennessee, is authorized to adopt such measures as he may deem wise and expedient for the protection of the loyal people.

J. M. SCHOFIELD, Maj.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 39, pt. I, pp. 460-461.

          7, Initiation of U. S. N. gunboat patrols, Johnsonville to Reynoldsburg

NASHVILLE, August 7, 1864.

Maj.-Gen. SHERMAN:

The Northeastern Railroad is now run by Mr. Anderson, though not formally turned Over by Governor Johnson. A depot is established at Johnsonville, and supplies are arriving by that line. The navy has been notified to patrol the Tennessee River to Johnsonville and Reynoldsburg[41] Gen. Gillem has been guarding the road, and I have had several conferences with him as to increasing the force there, as the increasing importance of the line seemed to require more. Will confer with Gen. Rousseau and see that all is done which can insure safety and full working of the road. Col. Donaldson fully appreciates its importance.

J. D. WEBSTER, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 38, pt. V, pp. 410-411.

          7, "Sanitary Improvements"

We have succeeded in obtaining the following statement of sanitary improvements effected by Health Commissioner Underwood during the month of July. It will be seen on perusal that much good must have resulted therefrom:

Two cellars on Poplar street, east of North Market, have been drained of filthy matter. All offensive flat boats have been removed. A sewer ordered across Third street, near Market, was complete. A lot near Union and Second streets, was cleaned and fenced. The guards stationed at Auction street bridge, to prevent the depositing [of] filth there, have been removed as no longer necessary. At the Bazaar stable in Monroe street, a well has been sunk for the reception of waste matter. A sewer was laid for the draining of Causey [?] street. The sewer ordered constructed from the Worsham House to the Washington street sewer, was completed. The sewer at the Commercial Hotel was opened and cleaned. The privy at the Marine Hospital was drained and is in good order. A tenement at the corner of Front Row and Adams street, long known as a nuisance, was cleaned out, and the [lessees fined?]. The nuisance complained of at the foot of Beal street was attend to; an additional dredge boat was put by the side of the former one, and there is now room for the largest vehicles to drive on, turn, load and unload with ease. A well was sunk at the barber shop, 355 Main street, to receive waste water, etc. All the cellars on Main street from Union to Beal were inspected, cleaned and limed. The throwing of slops and filth into the basement of the Post office has been stopped. Many other improvements of a less important character, and too numerous to mention, were effected, and there is not the least doubt in our minds that the present clean and healthy condition of the city is owing entirely to the energy and efficiency of Commissioner R Underwood.

Memphis Bulletin, August 7, 1864.

          7, "An Unwelcome Visitor"

An unmarried lady, boarding at the corner of Second and Beal streets, was awakened from her slumbers, about three o'clock, Saturday morning, by a noise in her room, and saw, by the light of a night lamp, what seemed to be a figure of a female standing at the table, with a stiletto in hand. The figure turned to quench the light when the face of a man was revealed. The lady was terribly frightened, but managed to scream loudly for help, when the intruder, who had evidently been intent on murder or robbery, stepped from the window to the sidewalk, and escaped. Nothing was missed. The lady's room is situated on the first floor of the house, and fronts the street. The windows were left open on her retiring. This fright will, undoubtedly, move her to keep the closed hereafter. It would be well for people, generally, to use the same precautions as many cases similar to the above have occurred within a few weeks.

Memphis Bulletin, August 7, 1864.

          7, "Monthly Mortality Report."

The number of deaths in this city for the month of July, 1864 was 463 [?] as follows: Diarrhea, 88; fever, 39 [?] measles, 12; consumption 9; congestive chills, 3; sun-stroke, 2; pneumonia 9[?]; small pox, 8; spasms, 3; teething, 6; diphtheria, 2; dropsey [sic], 2; erysipelas, 1; hooping [sic?] cough, 1; wounds, 2; railroad accident, 2; all others, 29[?] Unknown, 105; died in U. S. Hospitals, 154[?]; Aged: Under the age of ten, 419; between ten and twenty-five, 39; between twenty five and fifty, 58; Between fifty and seventy-five, 14; age unknown, 238; Nativity; Tennessee, 112; Ireland, 22; Illinois, 12; Arkansas, 13; Mississippi, 19; Germany, 4; Mexico, 1; Italy, 1; Indiana, 2; Alabama, 6: Virginia, 2; Ohio, 3; Iowa, 3; Missouri 8[?]; Louisiana, 3; North Carolina, 2; South Carolina, 2; New York, 2; Wisconsin, 5; Maryland, 1; England, 3; Chickasaw Nation, 1; refugees, 10; unknown, 234. Number of deaths during the month July [1864] less than the month of June 4

We are indebted for the foregoing to the active and efficient Health Officer, Mr. W. Underwood.

Memphis Bulletin, August 7, 1864.

          7, "Opium in Cigars."

It is generally known that the best Havana cigars are made from tobacco dipped in a solution of opium. Natural leaf tobacco never has that peculiar effect, as will be noticed upon smoking the best okan [?] leaf in a pipe. It is the opium in a first-rate cigar, and not the tobacco, which smokers get enslaved with, and cannot do without. In some of the Havana establishments, twenty thousand dollars of opium per year in used.

Memphis Bulletin, August 7, 1864.

          7, "Almost a Duel."

One of our citizens was guilty of a breach of etiquette a day or two ago, against another citizen, who feeling indignant, threatened to chastise his former friend. The odds in a pugilistic encounter being in favor of the insulted, whom for convenience sake, we will call Jack, the other party, Been, declined to enter into any such blackguard proceedings, but proposed a gentlemanly and equitable mode of adjusting their difference, namely, by the use of navy revolvers at ten paces. Nothing daunted, Jack accepted the challenge, and in a few hours seconds were procured, a time and place selected and last wills and testaments made and set preparatory to meeting at nine o'clock yesterday morning for the deadly encounter. A few minutes before nine, Jack was on hand, revolver loaded and primed, he and his second pacing the room, and conversing on the settlement of business matters, in one of certain contingencies. Up and down the room they walked, and walked, and walked again, but still Ben came not, and the two began to "smell a mice" – they were "sold" sure. At length Jack proposed to hunt up his late friend and administer upon him a sound thrashing, when the door opened, and in rushed Been; he had been ransacking the city for a pistol, but could find none, not one, which he could buy or borrow, even for a few moment – long enough to send his friend to "kingdom come." What was to be done? Jack swelled with rage, and Ben claimed a postponement, when friend interfered and ended the difficulty.

Nashville Dispatch, August 7, 1864.

          7, Prisoner of war hostages


Brig. Gen. S. P. CARTER, Provost-Marshal-Gen. of East Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.:

GEN.: Some time since I had occasion to communicate with the commanding officer of the Federal forces at Knoxville in regard to Capt. J. T. Reynolds, of the Sixty-fourth North Carolina Regt., who was reported to me as under sentence of death at Knoxville for the discharge of his duty as enrolling officer of Greene County, Tenn., and in which communication I requested to be notified whether the facts were as stated, and at the same time remarked that if he was executed as indicated I would inflict retaliation in kind upon the first Federal officer of equal rank who fell in my power. The commandant of your department had not seen proper to reply to said communication, and I would therefore inform him through you that I now hold in custody Capt. Benjamin Rogers, of Tennessee Union Guard, who was caught recruiting within our lines, and would state that he is held as a hostage for the safety and good treatment of Capt. Reynolds. I would again request that I may be informed as to what disposition has been made of Capt. Reynolds that I may act understandingly with Capt. Rogers.

Very respectfully,

J. H. MORGAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 7, p. 561.

          7, Report on negro philanthropic fair in Memphis

Fair by Colored People

A fair was held at Barrett's Hall, on Main street, near Union, on four evenings last week, for some charitable purpose, but the colored people in this city. The enterprise was successful beyond all anticipations and everything passed of quietly and pleasantly.

Memphis Bulletin, August 7, 1864.

          7, Confederate Authorities Propose Mutual Release of Noncombatant Prisoners


Abingdon, Va., August 7, 1864.

Brig. Gen. S. P. CARTER,

Provost-Marshal-Gen. of East Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.:

GEN.: I am authorized to submit through you to the commanding general of the U. S. forces in East Tennessee the following proposition:

There are now held by the Federal and Confederate authorities quite a number of non-combatants, who have been arrested at different times upon slight offenses within the district referred to. Such arrests contribute very slightly to the solution of our present difficulties either way, and only tend to the oppression of the individuals in question. I would suggest that an arrangement be made whereby all non-combatants now held by either party be immediately released, and that in future no more arrests of this character be made, except for crime committed against the authority of the Government of the respective powers within their regular military lines. If this proposition meets with approval I request that two commissioners be appointed and a time and place set where they may meet a similar commission to be appointed by me, and that they be empowered to arrange some equitable plan whereby the desired object can be accomplished. An early answer to this communication is requested.

Very respectfully,

J. H. MORGAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 7, pp. 560-561.

          7, Confederate Threat of Retaliation if Federals Execute Confederate Recruiter Captured at Greeneville


Abingdon, Va., August 7, 1864.

Brig. Gen. S. P. CARTER,

Provost-Marshal-Gen. of East Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.:

GEN.: Some time since I had occasion to communicate with the commanding officer of the Federal forces at Knoxville in regard to Capt. J. T. Reynolds, of the Sixty-fourth North Carolina Regt., who was reported to me as under sentence of death at Knoxville for the discharge of his duty as enrolling officer of Greene County, Tenn., and in which communication I requested to be notified whether the facts were as stated, and at the same time remarked that if he was executed as indicated I would inflict retaliation in kind upon the first Federal officer of equal rank who fell in my power. The commandant of your department had not seen proper to reply to said communication, and I would therefore inform him through you that I now hold in custody Capt. Benjamin Rogers, of Tennessee Union Guard, who was caught recruiting within our lines, and would state that he is held as a hostage for the safety and good treatment of Capt. Reynolds. I would again request that I may be informed as to what disposition has been made of Capt. Reynolds that I may act understandingly with Capt. Rogers.

Very respectfully,

J. H. MORGAN, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 7, p. 561






[1] There is nothing to indicate Huyett's "battery" was ever produced. It was most likely a land mine discharged from a distance by means of electricity or it was set off by a pressure detonator.

[2] Aug. 4, 1861--Arrest of Hon. Thomas A. R. Nelson on his way to the Union lines.

Aug 13, 1861.--President Davis orders Nelson's discharge.

[3] See also: OR, Ser. II, Vol. I, p. 825.

[4] City of Memphis Records, September 1860 to July 1862, roll 182, Tennessee State Library and Archives. [Hereinafter Memphis City Council Meeting Minutes]


[6] See December 11, 1861 Tennessee Adjutant General Washington Curran Whitthorne to General A.S. Johnston relative to difficulties in raising volunteers in Tennessee below.

[7] See also: Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, D.C.), August 26, 1861 and Memphis Daily Appeal, August 11, 1861.

[8] As cited in PQCW.

[9] This is an unexpectedly early reference to "guerrillas" in Tennessee Civil War history. It would seem guerrilla bands in West Tennessee would not have formed until sometime just after the fall of Island No. 10 or perhaps just after the fall of Memphis in early June, 1862. The use of the word is puzzling. Perhaps it was meant to translate into "home guard."

[10] As cited in PQCW.

[11] As cited in PQCW.

[12] It appears as though Mr. Woodfolk was a confidence man, taking advantage of anxieties caused by a lack of weaponry and the industrial capability to produce them anywhere in Tennessee. On the other hand, he may have been a stalwart patriot with stars in his eyes; he did seem to have grandiose plans "to furnish promptly any quantity of arms that the public interest may demand."

[13] As cited in PQCW.

[14] The OR places the date at the 5th of August, 1862. No circumstantial reports filed. Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee has no reference to this event.

[15] As cited in:

[16] Not identified in Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee or the OR.

[17] The precise dates for this pursuit is unknown, but it is reasonable to infer that given the distances, terrain, and hostility of the natives to Federal forces it most likely would have spanned a few days before and a few days after the date of the report.

[18] See June 15, 1862, "Willam E. Sloan's furlough home to Bradley county" above.

[19] As cited in PQCW.

[20] Valley of the Shadow.

[21] A Confederate newspaper report, below, calls this a "heavy skirmish."

[22] Sloan was earlier a member of the 3d Regiment of Tennessee Infantry.

[23] The method of determining if a fight was a "battle" or a "skirmish," an "engagement," an "affair" or, as in this instance a "heavy skirmish" was very subjective. Thus one man's "skirmish" could be another man's "battle." Perhaps this can be explained by understanding that people in the nineteenth-century did not have the same cultural compulsion for exactness and standardization as people in the twenty-first century do.

[24] See also: The Charleston Courier, Tri-Weekly, (Charleston, SC), August 12, 1862.

[25] The meaning of this expression is not known.

[26] Nothing is known of the outcome of any criminal investigation; moreover, this is apparently the only public record of Caswell's murder known to be extant. The Macon Daily Telegraph, August 9, 1862 [see above] reported that his assailant had been arrested. There seems no other extant information on the case.

[27] Today Graves County, Kentucky.

[28] This policy statement appears also in the Memphis Union Appeal for August 9, 1862, however, it is incorrectly dated in the newspaper as August 7, 1863.

[29] The divine law of kings.

[30] This article first appeared in the New York Times, August 4, 1863.

[31] Most likely the name for the Confederate prison in Chattanooga. Oldham provides no further information.

[32] Dieter C. Ulrich, comp. and ed., and Elizabeth Kitts, transcriber, The Civil War Diaries of Van Buren Oldham, Company G, Ninth Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, C. S.A., (D. Ulrich, 1999). [Hereinafter cited as Van Buren Oldham Diaries.]

[33] As cited in:

[34] As cited in:, Letters of Thomas A. Cobb, with permission from Judy Phillips.

[35] A "brigade contractor" was apparently a civil service official charged with gathering conscripts for the Confederate army. It might also have been an arrangement whereby the private sector carried out such work for profit.

[36] Not identified. Perhaps an allusion to the character "Eliza" in Uncle Tom's Cabin.

[37] The results of the battle of Chickamauga, only 6 weeks in the future, demonstrated that the morale of the Army of Tennessee had improved greatly.

[38] All action took place in Alabama, although the mission originated and terminated in Tennessee.

[39] John Dean had been before the Union Provost in Shelbyville but had been cleared of whatever charge had been laid against him. However, orders were given for him to be killed. Some of the family thought that John Dean's son-in-law, James Jeffries, a Union soldier, had reported Dean to be a Confederate scout. His body had been left on the porch of a neighbor's house and these neighbors sent word to Mollie Dean to come for the body. She and a female friend brought the body home in a wagon in the middle of the night.

John Dean is buried in the Bomar Cemetery in the Raus community on State Highway 130 in Bedford County, Tennessee. His epitaph reads

In Memory of John A. Dean son of John and Sarah  Dean Born Feb 28th 1818 Departed this Life June 27th 1864 Aged 46 years 3 mons 27 days. MSCC/CWRC.

[40] This article neglects to point out that only free blacks had the franchise, that right being abrogated in 1835. The slave population was far and away larger than the free black population before and after 1835.

[41] Reynoldsburg was located within five miles of Johnsonville, on the east (right) bank of the Tennessee River. Some citations put it as the site of Johnsonville before Nathan Bedford Forrest's forces destroyed it in November 1864. The site no longer exists, having been destroyed by Forrest and later inundated by the TVA and Corps of Engineers in the process of creating Kentucky Lake. It is not synonymous with New Johnsonville.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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