Saturday, August 8, 2015

8.21.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

August 8, 1861-1865





8, The Tennessee Military and Financial Board appeals for homespun clothing for the Volunteer State's Confederate soldiers

Military and Financial Board, Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 8th 1861

The Military and Financial Board of this State, impressed with the necessity of preparing to protect the patriotic volunteers now in the service from the rigors of the approaching winter, appeals to the wives, mothers, and daughters of Tennessee to manufacture woolen goods and stockings for those who are defending their homes and protecting them from the horrors of armed occupation of our soil.

It is suggested that each lady in Tennessee shall prepare goods for one suit of clothing and knit two pairs of stockings. If this shall be done, every soldier will be amply clothed and provided against the sufferings of a winter's campaign.

Shall this appeal be made in vain[?] It is by undivided exertion alone, that our wants can be supplied.[1]

Neil S. Brown

W. G. Harding

Jas. E. Bailey

Clarksville Chronicle, August 16, 1861.

          8, "There is constant talk here about the war, some of the people is scared half to death I aint scared." Robert F. Jared's letter to his cousin David H. Nichols

Sparta, Tenn. White County,

Aug. 8, 1861

Dear Cousin:

Your letter came to hand July, 20th, I and Pa was glad to here from you. We are all well at present but Pa he is in very bad helth [sic], he is out at the Mountain now 12 miles from Sparta, he has been there two weeks and he aint coming home till frost, Crops looks very well here at this time, we have not suffered for rain but little there has been more wheat raised here this year than has been raised for many years. Wheat is worth 75 cts here corn a dollar.

There is constant talk here about the war, some of the people is scared half to death I aint scared. I never think about it much. I go about my business like I allways [sic] did. I hope these few line find you all well so far a I have no more to write at present I will bring my letter to a close, excuse my bad writing, and look over mistakes and as I am in a hurry so no more at present, I remain

Your friend untill [sic] death,

R. F. Jared to D. H. Nichols

Jared Correspondence.[2]

          8, Journeymen taylor's union contributes to the Southern Mothers association

Southern Mothers.—Mrs. Mary Pope, of the Southern Mothers' association, desires us to state that the society thankfully acknowledge the handsome present of one hundred dollars from the journeymen tailors of the city, by the hands of Messrs. T. Kelley, John Cook and William Rushhaupt. The interest in their work, manifested by the people from all parts of the country, is most cheering to the Mothers, and most grateful to the brave men in arms for the defense of our firesides. A donation from LaGrange, by the hands of Mr. Richmond, was also received. The ladies will accept the thanks of the Mothers.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 8, 1861.

          8, Cotton factory destroyed in Bolivar environs

Factory Burnt.—The Normant cotton factory, belonging to P. Miller, located near Bolivar, Tenn., was consumed by fire on Thursday night last (8th). This is a great misfortune now when the South is compelled to manufacture for herself, and owners of such property should guard it with redoubled vigilance. Loss, $25,000, without insurance.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 11, 1861.

          8, Apparel for the Confederate army

Clothing for Our Army.

The important subject of preparing clothing for our soldiers during the approaching winter campaign, is not, we fear, attracting that degree of attention which it deserves. We have recently learned from various sources that many of them are sadly deficient in this respect already. This may possibly be tolerated to some extent in the warm months of summer, and even in the early part of fall, but during the winter the preservation of the health and efficiency of our army absolutely requires that it should be clothed and equipped with every regard for its comfort.

It is ample time that the people in the various Southern States, independent of the Government, should turn their attention to this matter. The bleak and chilly days of October, will soon overtake our gallant soldiers who are now in the mountains of Virginia, and upon the western plains of Missouri, sustaining our cause at the point of the bayonet against a sturdy people who are inured to the hardships of the climate.

To further this object, let the citizens of every county, city and town that has furnished one or more companies, form clubs, raise subscriptions and enter upon this work immediately. Exertions should be made to gather up all the wool that can possibly be obtained, and if necessary, with a little admixture of cotton which will be plentiful—let it be knit into socks and woven into a stout and durable material, suitable for warm and comfortable clothing. The spinning wheels and looms upon every plantation should be brought into requisition, as they must be relied upon to a considerable extent in expediting this matter.

We make these brief comments merely to awaken attention to the subject, rather than point out the means of executing the scheme suggested. We feel confident that the patriotic people of the South will not stop to calculate the cost involved, but will rather look to the urgent necessity of the case. May none dishonor the draft that will be made upon their liberality.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 8, 1861.

          8, Unionist Activity in Confederate East Tennessee

"The Ball Opened in East Tennessee."

[From the Knoxville Register of 13th]

For some time it has been known that Capt. Thornburg, of Union county, a strong Lincolnite, has been organizing a military company , for the avowed purpose of aiding in the subjugation of the South. The arrangements being complete, on Friday last [8th], they took up the line of march for Kentucky, to unite with the Lincoln forces there being organized, and to return to their own native section, to re-enact upon the soil of East Tennessee the damnable deeds that has [sic] marked their course in Missouri, Virginia and Maryland.

Fortunately, however, a report of their movements reached the ears of Lieut. Col. F. M. Walker, in command at Cumberland Gap. Forthwith he dispatched the gallant Capt. H. M. Ashby, with a portion of the cavalry under his command, to intercept the passage and if possible arrest the ringleader. They came in contact with Capt. Thornburg and his traitor band of eight men, near Roger's Gap in Scott county. They were armed with John Brown pikes, and pistols, bowie knives and some few rifles. A surrender was demanded. It was refused and a charge was made upon them, which put the whole party to flight. Several shots were fired, one of which took effect in the neck of Capt. Thornburg, checked his locomotion and forced his surrender, some seven or eight others were captured, besides 14 horses, rifles, satchels, saddles. In fact it was a miniature Manassas affair.

Lieut. Gibbs was the hero of the battle. Capt. Thornburg had a valuable horse, which Lieut. Gibbs was anxious to purchase when he entered the Confederate service. Thornburg asked $400 for him, but refused to let Gibbs to have him at any price. The lieutenant told him he would have the pleasure of riding him. That whenever Thornburg attempt to cross the Cumberland mountain, on his hellish mission, he would capture him and take his horse.

What he told him in jest has been realized. Lieut. Gibbs made a gallant charge upon the captain, took him prisoner, and parades on his fine horse.

This is but the beginning in East Tennessee, and unless better counsels prevail, no man can tell the end. This man Thornburg is represented as one of the leading rebellious spirits of this section. He was found in arms against the government which he owes allegiance; he has committed treason against the State and the Confederate government, and the full penalty of his crimes should be visited upon him. There is no excuse or justification or his acts. Toward his deluded followers we have different feelings. They "know not what they do." They have been misled and deceived, and are the victims of misplaced confidence. The truth has been a sealed book to them,, and their minds poisoned with false representation.

Memphis Daily Appeal, August 15, 1861. [3]

          8, Nashville Presbyterians Rationalize Support for Secession

Important Action of the Presbytery.-

We find the following in the Nashville Union of the 11th [Sunday] inst.:

The Presbytery of Nashville, being called together by the circular letter of the Moderator, and a very large number of the ministers being present, and many ruing elders, adopted the following report unanimously; and by an almost unanimous vote dissolved its former connection with the Danville Theological Seminary. Those voting against such action preferred to wait till the stated fall meeting of the Presbytery, which will convene in Charlotte, Dickson county, on Friday, September 20, 1861, before taking the step: but a large majority decided to withdraw the support and countenance of this Presbytery from everything connected with the General Assembly

From which they had unanimously and formally withdrawn.

Rev. Joseph Bardwell and W. A. Shapard, Esq. are the Committee of Presbytery to cooperate with other Southern Presbyterians in the speedy formation of another General Assembly.

Preamble and Resolutions as unanimously adopted by the Nashville Presbytery of Nashville, Aug. 8, 1861

Christ says, my Kingdom is not of this world.

That Kingdom is one and indivisible, and is destined to subject all things unto God. Hence, all schism of Needless division among the visible members is sinful and to be avoided. Still we cannot close our eyes upon the manifold causes and irritation and division at present existing, the evidence of which meets us on every hand.

Who has not long witnessed the earnestness with which the leading men of the North, not to say the mass of the people, have opposed the institutions of the South? So intense and widespread has this opposition become that even the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, once so distinguished, both for wisdom and charity, and for conservation, civil and religious, has not escaped the dreadful contagion, as may be seen by a reference to its late action and the tenor and spirit of the debate on those remarkable resolutions introduced by the venerable Pastor of the Brick Church.

Without dwelling, however, upon this painful spectacle, we call the attention of the Presbytery to the second of the spring resolutions, to wit:

"Resolved, That this General Assembly, in the spirit of that Christian patriotism which the Scriptures enjoin, and which has always characterized this church, and which has always characterized this church, do hereby acknowledge and declare our obligations to promote and perpetuate, so far as in us lies, the integrity of these United States, and to strengthen, uphold and encourage the Federal Government in the exercise of all its functions under our noble constitution: and to this constitution, in all its provisions, requirements and principles we profess our unabated loyalty."

In reference to his resolution, your committee are in opinion it assumes obligations, on the part of the Assembly, altogether inconsistent with the declaration of our Savior when He says, "My Kingdom is not of this world." The Church and State, being entirely distinct from each other, the courts of the former, as such, are not under obligation to "promote and perpetuate" any form of civil government. Much less was the highest court of the Presbyterian Church, at its late meeting in the city of Philadelphia, under obligation to "promote and perpetuate the integrity of the United States."

What did the Assembly in the action named but declare the whole Southern movement unconstitutional and treasonable?

To admit the obligation assumed is to admit the right of the Assembly to decide as to the citizenship the obligation assumed is to admit the right of the Assembly to decide as to the citizenship of its members, the great political question now dividing the country; and as to the moral character of the fearful civil war waging between the North and the South.

Moreover, for the Assembly "to uphold and encourage the Federal Government, in all its functions," in the existing state of things, was to make itself party to that war, in all its terrific consequences; and was an attempt to bind us to the necessity of uniting with our enemies in the subjugation and destruction of all we hold dear. Therefore, resolved:

1. That this Presbytery does solemnly protest against the assumption of powers not set forth in the above resolution as exceedingly dangerous and despotic.

2. In view of all this, that the Presbytery, in the exercise of its inherent rights, does now withdraw from the jurisdiction of the General Assembly to the U. S. A.

3. We are now prepared to united with all sister Presbyteries in the Confederate States and elsewhere, like minded with ourselves, in the formation of a General Assembly, on the basis of the Westminster Confession of Faith one minister and one elder be appointed to confer with other Presbyteries in reference to the meeting of the proposed Assembly: and that this Presbytery expresses its preference for the day of December as the time, and the city Augusta, Ga., as the place of holding said Assembly.

4. That one minister and one elder be appointed to confer with other Presbyteries in reference to the meeting of the proposed Assembly: and that this Presbytery expresses its preference for the 4th day of December as the time, and the city of Augusta, Ga., as the place of holding the Assembly.

5. That all moneys contributed to foreign missions, in our bounds, be sent to Rev. J. S. Wilson, D. D. for disbursement, until other arrangements are made, and that all contributions to domestic missions and educations, be disbursed by the Committee of Presbytery appointed for that purpose.

Daily Picayune, August 17, 1861. [4]



8, Instructions warning Federal cavalry conducting anti-guerrilla operations not to commit depredations against civilian population in Decherd environs

HDQRS., Huntsville, August 8, 1862.

Gen. THOMAS, Decherd:

Place the strictest injunctions on the cavalry officers going out to-morrow against committing any outrages whatever. Under no circumstances will they be tolerated. Only suspicious or notoriously disloyal and hostile persons are to be arrested. In taking horses it must be done in such way that orderly persons shall not be deprived of what my be necessary for their ordinary work, and in every case a formal receipt will be given. A quartermaster or acting quartermaster will take charge of every horse so taken and be responsible for him and the commanding officer will see that the horse is accounted for.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 290.

          8, Skirmish and civilian partisan attacks, Chattanooga to McMinnville


Maj.-Gen. BUELL:

Lieut.-Col. Stewart, Second Indiana Cavalry, has just returned from direction of Chattanooga. He has been within 12 miles of Chattanooga. Captured 12 rebels; killed 1. From the current testimony of all the rebels have not crossed the river. Col. Sprague, with 300 cavalry, crossed a few days since and passed up the Spencer road to join Forrest. Reports place Bragg's force at 30,000. I will send a copy of Col. Stewart's report by mail. Three of the prisoners were discharged soldiers, and left Tupelo 25th of July, where they report a very large force. Some of the prisoners are bushwhackers, belonging to no organization. Shall I try them by military commission?



Maj.-Gen. BUELL:

The Second Kentucky Regiment, belonging to Manson's brigade, is guarding the railroad from Nashville to Murfreesborough. The condition of the country is as bad as possible; it is in arms almost to a man. Bragg's army is expected by the people and our extinction to follow. They are behaving accordingly. Three wagons have been cut off close to camp; patrol fired on, 4 killed; 2 sentries shot. Forrest between here and Sparta with 2,500 to 3,000 men. Three regiments of infantry expected to re-enforce. I ordered Col. Hazen to Liberty, where I intended to send Gen. Johnson with cavalry and artillery to meet him, and for him to move on Sparta by that road. I sent a regiment of cavalry and artillery to meet him and for him to move on Sparta by that road. I sent a regiment of cavalry yesterday to Caney Fork to attract Forrest's attention, and intended, as soon as Johnson was in position, to move myself and envelop him.

There would still have been 1,800 men at Murfreesborough after Hazen had marched. I have sent 200 cavalry down the Chattanooga road to gain news of the enemy. I solicit instructions.


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 293.



A Dash at the Rebels by Col. Wyncoop – A fight expected at McMinnville, Tenn.

Nashville, Friday, Aug. 8.

Col. Wyncoop's Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry attacked the rebel Forrest's force, on Calf-Killer River, near Sparta, killed thirty, and then withdrew and rejoined Gen. Nelson, at McMinnville, where an attack by rebels in large force was hourly expected.

It is reported that Gen. Buell has possession of Chattanooga, but it needs confirmation.

The train from Columbus was fired into by guerrillas, and about twenty passengers wounded. The brakeman died of his wounds today. He received fourteen shots. Cross ties were piled upon the road to obstruct the passage of the train. The engineer, knowing his only safety was in going ahead, opened the valves and dashed through the obstructions, thus saving the train.

A small Union force, guarding a wagon train, was to-day driven from Lebanon back to Nashville.

The body of Gen. McCook was forwarded to Cincinnati this morning. The Ninth Ohio regiment, of which he was Colonel, inflicted severe chastisement upon the people residing at the scene of his murder. Seven dwellings were in flames at one time.

New York Times, August 10, 1862.

          8, Expedition to Anderson County [See August 13, 1862, Skirmish at Huntsville, below]

          8, General Orders, No. 67, Memphis, relative to use of slave or fugitive slave labor by the United States Army


Memphis, August 8, 1862.

Inasmuch as by law of Congress recently enacted the President of the United States is authorized to receive and employ the labor of slaves or fugitives from slavery, and such fugitives on coming to our camps seeking protection, the following rules will be observed at and near Memphis until the President prescribes other rules, when these will necessarily be superseded and made to conform to the pleasure of the President:

I. All able-bodied negroes [sic] who apply for work at Fort Pickering will be received and put to work by the engineer in charge, Capt. Hoopner; the names of owners and slaves registered, with date of commencement of work, and a general description by which the negroes [sic] can be known. Such negroes [sic] will be entitled to rations, to be drawn on provision returns similar to those used for soldiers, and will be supplied with necessary clothing and tobacco at the rate of one pound per month. An account will be opened with each negro, and his wages will be charge with the value of the clothing and tobacco; but no wages will be paid until the courts determine whether the negro be slave or free. The negroes [sic] employed on the fort are working as laborers, and will be allowed to return to their masters or mistresses at the close of any week, but masters or mistresses cannot be allowed to enter the fort in search of their slaves, because it is improper that any one not belonging to the garrison should enter Fort Pickering or even follow its lines and ditches on the outside. A list of negroes [sic] so employed will be kept at headquarters, which may be seen by parties interested.

II. The post quartermaster, Capt. Fitch, will in like manner employ a force of about 100 negroes [sic] out of those who apply to him for work or he may on occasions take by force when he thinks it absolutely necessary to have an increased for work on the levee, loading and unloading steamboats, coal-boats, and such like labor, a list of whom, similar to that referred in Paragraph I will be kept by the quartermaster and a copy sent to headquarters for reference. These will in like manner be entitled to rations, necessary clothing, and tobacco, but the pay must be reserved until the proper judicial tribunals determine to whom such labor and wages belong.

III. Division quartermasters may employ fugitives to drive teams and attend to horses, mules, and cattle, keeping accurate accounts under the rules of their department applicable to "Persons and articles employed and hired," and subject to the condition of Paragraph I of this order, this list of persons so employed to be sent to headquarters for reference; the number of negroes [sic] so hired not to exceed one per team and one to every six span of animals herded or stabled.

IV. The commanders of regiments may cause to be employed as cooks and company teamsters not to exceed 5 per company and 10 per regiment for extra wagons, and 5 for staff wagons; in all, 65 per regiment; which negroes [sic] shall be borne on the muster-rolls and supplied with provisions and clothing as soldiers, but in no case will they bear arms or wear the uniform. The quartermaster of the division will supply regimental quartermasters with clothing suitable for such negroes [sic], an account of which will be kept separate and distinct from that of the soldiers. These negroes [sic] must be kept to their appropriate duties and place, and the question of wages must remain open and unsettled until the orders of the President are received, or until fixed by subsequent regulations.

V. The commanding general here thinks proper to make known to the people of Memphis the principles by which in the absence of instructions from his superior officers he will be governed in all cases arising under these complicated questions. It is neither his duty nor pleasure to disturb the relation of master and slave; that is for the courts, which having been destroyed here by our enemy, are inoperative for the present; but in due course of events there must and will be tribunals re-established here that will judge and decide in cases which have already arisen or may arise under the laws and Constitution of the United States. Then loyal masters will recover their slaves and the wages they have earned during their temporary use by the military authorities; but it is understood that all masters who are in open hostility to the Constitution of their country will lose their slaves, the title to which only exists by force of that very Constitution they seek to destroy.

No influence must be used to entice slaves from their masters, and if fugitives desire to return to their masters they will be permitted to do so; but on the other hand no force or undue persuasion will be permitted to recover such fugitive property.

Officers of the army, from generals to lieutenants, must not employ such fugitives for servants. The Government provides to each officer a distinct pay for his servant, and this is ample for the hire of a free man. Were we to employ such fugitives as servants our motives would be misconstrued, whereas their employment by the Government as in pursuance of law, is clearly within the rules of war, and will increase our effective force by the number of negroes [sic] so employed.

By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 158-160.[5]

          8, Governor Isham G. Harris expresses doubts concerning Confederate recruiting and conscription in Middle Tennessee

CHATTANOOGA, TENN., August 8, 1862.


SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 29th ultimo. This would be more speedily done here than by the policy which you suggest, but I hope the latter may be successful. I shall certainly give all the aid in my power to make it so. The ranks of most of the Tennessee regiments now in the service are thinned by disease and the casualties of the field, and as we advance into Middle Tennessee I confidently expect a large number of volunteers, yet not a sufficient number to fill all of our now skeleton regiments, and apprehend that it will be found necessary when we shall have regained possession of that part of the State to order the conscripts of the State into service, in order that those regiments may all be promptly filled. The Government shall have all the facilities in my power to give to enforce this order when it shall be made. While we are thus recruiting old regiments I doubt the policy of attempting to raise a new regiment to complete the Tennessee brigade in Virginia. If a fourth regiment shall be necessary, it is better to order some one of the old regiments to that brigade. I am gratified at the assurance which you gave me that Gen. Whitthorne should be appointed to command this brigade. His appointment is sought and desired by the brigade, and I am confident he will make an efficient officer who will acquit himself with credit.

Very respectfully,


[First indorsement.]

Secretary of War for attention and reply.

The expectation was that the new brigadier and the officers sent would be effective to obtain recruits. The conscripts of East Tennessee might be better employed here.

J. D.

[Second indorsement.]

Inform Governor Harris that Gen. Bragg has been authorized to enroll conscripts in Tennessee whenever it is deemed advisable to do so, and that the conscripts from East Tennessee will probably be more valuable here than in Tennessee. These regiments here might be filled up so soon as East Tennessee is cleared of the enemy.

G. W. R.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 52, pt. II, p. 339.

          8, Military Governor Andrew Johnson's policy toward seized Confederate property

Nashville, Augt. 8th 1862

Genl. Negley,

Columbia, Tenn.

In every instance, after exercising your best judgment, where secessionists have robbed and plundered Union men of their property, you will out of the property of secessionists compensate them to the full extent of the loss and damage sustained. In Making [sic] arrests you will make them to the extent that the public interests require--Let them be many or few. There is a man now in Columbia recently from the South and intends returning-His name is Squire Guest.[6] He ought to be arrested if he can be identified.

What has become of Nicholson?[7] Did he express any desire to see me?

Andrew Johnson Mil: Gov'r. [sic]

Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 601.

          8, Federal couriers fired upon near Vervilla [Warren county]

TULLAHOMA, August 9, 1862.

Col. J. B. FRY:

Col. Hambright, Seventy-ninth Pennsylvania, commanding at Manchester, telegraphs that three couriers left McMinnville between 4 and 5 o'clock p. m. yesterday with dispatches from Gen. Nelson to me. After passing Vervilla, 14 miles from Manchester, they were fired on by 10 or more rebel cavalry. Two of the couriers fell and the returned one thinks the one having the dispatches was killed. Dispatches were in the courier's boots, but whether in cipher or not I am not informed.

W. S. SMITH, Brig.-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 16, pt. II, p. 300.

          8, General Braxton Bragg plans for the reorganization of the Army of Tennessee

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT No. 2, Chattanooga, Tenn., August 8, 1862.

Gen. S. COOPER, Adjutant and Inspector Gen., C. S. Army:

GEN.: I regard it my duty to submit the following for the consideration of the War Department:

Many of the regiments of this army are mere skeletons, but with complete regimental organization, which makes them costly without corresponding benefits to such a degree as to call for a speedy and radical remedy. There are two methods by which the evil may be cured: The weaker regiments may be broken up; the men, with a limited or restricted choice between regiments and companies, may be permanently distributed among the troops of the same State and the officers discharged; or such regiments may be temporarily broken up, the men assigned for the time to such other regiments as may most require them, and the supernumerary officers detached to assist in collecting and enrolling conscripts and establishing and conducting camps of instruction, from which men shall be drawn to fill up the regiments in the service, and to reorganize the old regiments, in which case all the old soldiers scattered in other regiments shall be restored.

To the first plan, which has been partially authorized in this department, there are some patent objections in operation. By it very many incapable, inefficient officers are retained and some of the best officers in the army are necessarily discharged. Injustice is done to some worthy, zealous officers, and material injury wrought to the service, which can ill afford to lose one capable officer at this juncture. In several instances, in view of an existing deleterious condition, I have recommended resort to this plan, but am satisfied some better one must be sought. That, I think, will be found in the second reamed proposed, namely, the temporary breaking up of all these skeleton regiments, the dispersion of the men among the several regiments from the same State, and the retention and employment of all effective, competent officers, with a view to the ultimate restoration of men and officers to their regiments when recruited from conscripts and volunteers. This method appears to be in harmony with the spirit of the act approved April 16, and I feel assured will have all the advantages with none of the defects of the other plan, while it will be more satisfactory to officers and men. To continue these costly skeleton organizations in the field I trust will not be thought of, and I cannot hesitate to ask that I may at once be invested with authority to inaugurate the proposed system of reform.

In connection with this I must suggest another and much-needed reform measure: The rolls of every regiment are encumbered with officers absent sick, many of whom have been absent for months. Men thus absent unfit for duty would be discharged on surgeon's certificate, and there can be no good reason why the same rule should not apply to officers, and a regulation established requiring the discharge of all field and company officers who remain unfit for duty [except from wounds in battle] for the period of ninety days. Such a regulation would work no hardship to the officers, and be fruitful of benefits to the service and a great contribution to the efficiency of our arms in the field.

Respectfully, general, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, pp. 671-672.

          8, General Bragg's GENERAL ORDERS, No. 109, relative to equipment distribution within the Army of Tennessee

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 109. HDQRS. DEPARTMENT No. 2, Chattanooga, Tenn., August 8, 1862.

I. Until otherwise ordered the forces in this department, when taking the field, will be provided with the following:

Means of transportation.-One wagon for cooking utensils, &c., for 100 men; one wagon for extra ammunition, &c., for 400 men; one wagon for each regimental headquarters; one ambulance [or light two-horse wagon] for 300 men; one wagon each for brigade and division headquarters; two wagons for headquarters Army Corps.

Camp equipage.-One tent to each regiment for medical department; one tent to regimental headquarters; two tents to brigade headquarters; two tents to division headquarters; six tent-flies for every 100 men.

Ammunition.-One hundred rounds ammunition of proper description for small-arms; a full supply for artillery, and 100 rounds for infantry and 50 rounds for the artillery [extra], to be transported by the ordnance train.

II. All surplus wagons and teams and other means of transportation not prescribed in the first paragraph of these orders will be turned in immediately to the quartermaster's department.

III. All surplus tents will be transferred to the division quartermasters, to be turned into the nearest depot quartermaster, or for disposition by the chief quartermaster of the forces.

IV. Division and brigade commanders will be held responsible for the prompt and faithful execution of the foregoing orders. They will have a thorough inspection made before taking the field of every regiment, company, and man to see that these and previous orders fixing the marching outfit of officers and soldiers are complied with.

V. All quartermasters will be required on the march to remain habitually with the rear of their trains, unless specially detached, moving promptly along to the front whenever the train is interrupted, to ascertain and correct the difficulty if in their trains.

By command of Gen. Bragg

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17, pt. II, p. 672.

          8, Guerrilla Depredations in Haywood County


A Young Woman Outraged by an Entire Gang of Guerrillas, and afterwards Burned to Death-Her Father Hanged-Miraculous Escape.

[From the Cairo Gazette, August 16]

We have the particulars of a Rebel outrage committed in Haywood county, Tenn., about 20 miles from Jackson, which are well calculated [sic] to chill the blood of every person who claims the possession of a human heart.

On the night of the 8th instant, a gang of marauders, believed to be part of Faulkner's band, visited the house of Marshal Waters, an old and respected citizen of the locality, and without any ceremony dashed in the door, seized the old man, tied his arms behind him, and then securely lashed him to the back of a horse standing in waiting. The old man's daughter, the only female about the house was violated by no less than ten of the gang, being first so tied as to render resistance impossible. This shocking and fiendish business accomplished, the house was burned to the ground, the young woman perishing in the flames.

In a few minutes the whole party were under way, adding to the old man's terrible distraction by reciting to him in detail their shocking outrages upon the person of his daughter, and begging him in a tantalizing style not to take on about it, as he ought to know that he deserved it all for his treason to the Southern Confederacy. He protest[ed] that he had taken no part in the war, had aided neither one side of the other; that he was an old man and had sought to conduct himself in such a manner as to avoid any of the consequences of the war.

The party and prisoner stopped when about a mile distant from the ruins of the house, and unlashing Mr. Waters, they told him to pray three minutes, for at the end of that time they would be ready to hand him. The old man plead in vain for mercy. The rope was placed about his neck, then thrown across a projecting limb, pulled down and fastened to a convenient sapling. Thus the old man was left to die by inches-to choke to death!

Scarcely had he been drawn from the grown when a crashing was heard among the undergrowth near by, which caused the murderers to fly precipitously. The old man finding his hands disengaged, made an effort for life, and actually succeeded in drawing himself to the limb above. It was but the work of a moment now to unfasten the rope from his neck and to regain the ground, all of which he did, thanking God for his escape even thus far. On the succeeding day, exhausted by the severity of the ordeal he had just passed through, he reached Trenton, where he now lies dangerously ill and delirious.

These details furnished us by a gentleman direct from Jackson, who assures us that they may be relied upon as being true in every particular.

Memphis Bulletin, August 19, 1862.[8]

          8, Disruptive Federal soldiers in Nashville

Some of the soldiers in our midst are not at all particular as to their treatment of citizens. On Wednesday night last, a party of them went into the house of one of our cleverest business men, and demanded liquor, which they were denied, of course. They thereupon left, but shortly afterward returned with a bottle of whisky, over which they enacted quite a disgusting farce; ordered supper, devoured it, and, after insulting the host and hurling a beef-steak at another person, they abruptly took their leave without paying a farthing for what they had eaten.

Another soldier yesterday engaged one of our colored hackmen to drive him about in a prince-like manner for two or three hours, and unkindly refused to pay his bill. The negro tried to have him arrested, but the civil authorities could not, and the military guards declined to do so. Cases of this sort are met with every day, but do not show a faulty discipline or a want of subordination, so much as a wonderful nack [sic] of evasion on the part of soldiers. In a great many instances of the kind, the city authorities have taken these disobedients into power and administered justice, but very often they go unpunished for their malefactions. There is a joint understanding between the military and civil authorities in regard to such infractions of the soldiery, by which they can and do act independently or in concert, whenever the bounds of reason are overstepped, as in the cases above cited. Persons who may be imposed upon in this way, have only to enter complaint at the office of the Provost Marshal, and on their identification of the offender, their wrongs will be promptly redressed. If this is not done, they can expect but little protection from the evil-disposed men who accompany all armies. By a strict conformity with the measures adopted by the civil and military police, and increased watchfulness and determination on the part of those who may be subjected to these unsoldierly abuses, we trust that a feeling of safety and harmony will henceforth be cultivated.

Nashville Dispatch, August 8, 1862.

          8, The Tennessee Penitentiary, Murder and catching Rebel spies in Liberty

A High School of Treason.

Correspondence of the Cincinnati Gazette

Nashville, Aug. 8.-The other day I visited for the first time, that part of the penitentiary used for imprisoning Rebels, and was greatly enlightened by my observations while there. It had occurred to me frequently, when observing the manners of men released after a term of confinement, that they were two-told more than the children of hell than they were before; but I could not precisely tell what it was that so wonderfully nurtured their treason and gave it rank growth. A very hasty glance of the academic beauties of the State Prison relieved me of wonder. I beheld and was enlightened.

As I entered the gate of the yard, I could see a reverend child of Belial packing back and forth casting "the witching moonlight of his countenance: over several groups, some pitching quoits, some engaged in jocular conversation. His smirking phiz seemed to say, "Bless you, children, be of good cheer, my master (the devil) smiles on you." His greasy countenance shed impudence on theirs. They felt assured they were fine fellows. Among them strode a physician who had been a professor of medicine and of treason in one of our medical schools. He pitched quoits with them, and strutted backward and forward as if he knew what quoits would ever after be an honored game. His countenance would give it more renown than Grecian games. And the aping traitors about him would pass the smile of triumph round, which clearly said "Tis here we mingle with the demi-gods" – the fools meant demijohns.

The games of recreation and mutual admiration are chiefly managed n a spacious front yard which contains some shade trees and a well of fine water. Outside the enclosure maybe seen a number of carriages and buggies, which have come ministering angels to the traitors' paradise. Having gone thither with a desire to win a foolish, harmless sort of man from the error of his way, I inquired for him, and was directed, patronizingly, but some smooth-pated young gentleman who had the winning manner of a first-class counter-hopper. I took him for the chief custodian, but soon learned he was only a member of the happy, glorified collection of Southern "patriots."

In one of the rooms set a lady, weeping by her husband, who was but an entered apprentice and who thought it so smart [sic] to be a schoolmate of the D. D. 's Sehon and Howell and the M. D. Ford, he had been learning rapidly in the elementary branches of treason, so that he talked stiffly of staying there or going up North, while his affairs suffered at home. He had doubtless heard Doctors Sehon, Howell and Ford, say with pompous swagger, "they would rot before they would take the oath." Without reflecting that those gentlemen were morally rotten already, he thought their stubbornness worth of imitation.

While this lady pleaded in tears with her husband not to be a simpleton, but to consider his duty to his country and his wife and children half a dozen grinning jackanapes gathered round and began to encourage the gentleman to hold against his wife's entreaties, and not consent to take the oath. Close beside the wife sat a Union lady, who had accompanied here in her effort to reclaim her husband. When the Rebels had gathered pretty thick around him with their officious sympathies in wickedness, this lady disturbed them by saying "Well, gentlemen, if I had the management of this prison I would confine you in separate rooms. Yours should not encourage one another in treason." The well-timed hint dispersed them

Commonness of Murder.

Sometimes the Secessionists affect to doubt guerrilla barbarities as they are reported; and some of our dignified Brigadiers and Major-Generals are wont to imitate their assumed incredulity. I suppose it will be had to throw doubt on the subject of McCook's assassination. Our army should make his name their battle cry, and let it nerve the arm of vengeance. But the other day I heard of a similar case in Smith county at Dickson's Springs, between Gallatin and Carthage. A guerrilla band had a prisoner whom they forced to march till he was exhausted. He informed them he could walk no further, and if they would have go on, they must furnish conveyance. At this, one of them deliberately drew a pistol and shot out the prisoner's brains. I have these facts from an unquestionable source.

A Good Expedition.

Last week Colonel W. B. Stokes took one hundred men of his embryo cavalry regiment and escorted two hundred and fifty cavalry horse, to the Federal army at Murfreesboro. At that place his men got their first scent of gun powder, by the Federal pickets firing on them, about one o'clock in the morning, through misunderstanding. One of the new cavalry had a lock of his hair taken off, and a Minie ball played Yankee Doodle close to the Colonel's ear; but no damage was done. In the morning, when the pickets found they had been shooting at friends, they apologized handsomely.

From Murfreesboro' Col. Stokes stepped over to Liberty, to see how a physician is honored in his own country and among his kinsfolk. At Liberty he captured an active Confederate emissary, and Smith, who had been conveying information to Forrest, at Sparta. Smith comes into the village in the evening, passing two men of the neighborhood, (members of Stoke's cavalry), with "Hailoo-I thought you were in Nashville with Stokes!"

"O, that's all played out," said the soldiers. "The whole thing is bursted up. Stokes was trying to get up a regiment, it made out so poorly he has dropped the subject."

The Rebel seemed pleased with the news, and passed on to his residence. At a late hour of the night, Mr. Smith came out by the same road, with his shot-gun on his shoulder, as he went in, not expecting to find the youths still at the place where he left them earlier in the evening. This time they [sic] game him the hailting sign – "Halt!" When he found himself in the hands of soldiers, he begged piteously for a release, and even went to far as to try the Secessionist's most powerful lines – a proposition of bribery. But the boys did their duty, and conducted him to the Colonel's quarters. About three others were caught in the country around Liberty.

At Lebanon the remarkable R. Emmet Thompson was captured. When Morgan entered Lebanon, the evening before General Dumont gave him such a thrashing, it is said Mr. Thompson rode out to meet him, and, with other leading Rebels, tendered a hearty welcome. When Stokes approached Lebanon he sent a select posse of five to Thompson's house, with orders to enter the yard at once and surround him. Just as the took their position, the Reel ran out by the back door and endeavored to escape, but one of them presented a pistol and "prevailed on him to stop." I am informed Thompson pretends to be quite an innocent fellow, now that he is caught. Hasn't done anything at all. Our Union soldiers have been trying in vain to catch him for months.

Expeditions of this character throughout Middle Tennessee and Southern Kentucky will do more to theart the purposes of Rebel sympathizers than the occupation of the country by large armies of men who know not the people. It is true, there should be a strong force within supporting distance; but the sneaking agents of the enemy can only be caught [sic] by their loyal neighbors, who know their habits. I repeat what I have already told your readers, that the guerrilla chiefs do not bring with them half the force used by them in Middle Tennessee; and I suppose the same may be true of their operations in Kentucky. They are numerously joined by citizens who return to their farms and merchandise when a retreat is necessary. Neighborhood cavalry is therefore necessary everywhere, to catch to scoundrels in their Protean shapes

Last night there was a slight alarm here about eleven o'clock. The long roll was beaten at the barracks of the Provost Guard, and in a few moments a considerable portion of Colonel Campbell's Regiment marched out upon the Franklin turnpike. In half an hour two pieces of artillery followed. I could not learn the cause precisely, but am informed our pickets had been fired upon somewhere a little south of the city.

Since writing the above I learn the alarm last night was caused by two drunken teamsters discharging their pistols. An excited contraband hearing the reports too fright, and before he had run far, imagined, and so declared to the first white man he met, than nineteen hundred Rebel cavalry were approaching our lines. Hence long roll, &c.

Philadelphia Inquirer, August 15, 1862.

          8,"Either the rebel chieftains and newspapers have grievously underestimated the attachment of the people of West Tennessee to the secession cause or human selfishness and love of profit has prevailed over political prejudice and predilections." The cotton trade in West Tennessee


Correspondence of the Missouri Republican.

Corinth Miss., July 20, 1862

During an excursion on the Mobile and Ohio railroad to Jackson and thence to Grand Junction over the Mississippi Central, on yesterday [19th] and the day before [18th] I had a fine opportunity to observe the progress made in West Tennessee in the solution to the cotton question. Having the assurance of the rebel leaders of the furious and universal hatred of the natives toward the invaders, I was prepared for evidence of rigid non-intercourse on the part of the latter with everybody bearing the stigma of northern sympathies. What a grievous delusion I found myself laboring under! Either the rebel chieftains and newspapers have grievously underestimated the attachment of the people of West Tennessee to the secession cause or human selfishness and love of profit has prevailed over political prejudice and predilections.  King Cotton's boasted almightiness is [golden?] at least in this latitude.  The proud aristocrat is succumbing to the iris table power of gold. Witness the piles of the staple at every station from Corinth to Jackson, and Jackson to Grand Junction under the guardianship of northern speculators. Witness the trains after trains loaded down with the coveted bales moving in the direction of Columbus. Witness the official returns to the office of the military railroads showing that over a hundred carloads have already been sent northeard, and that many times that number would have already been shipped were it not for the lack of rolling stock.

There can be no mistake on this subject, the greatest part of last year's cotton crop of West Tennessee will find its way to northern markets, provided the military authorities will manage to keep the various railroads in operation during the summer. This is the opinion of the majority of Northern buyers that have visited the country adjacent to them during the last three weeks. At first there was hesitancy on the part of the producers to dispose of their stocks, partly from fear of rebel vengeance and partly from political antipathies.  But they could not long resist the tempting ring of had money, and now the question with many is no longer to sell, but to realize the highest possible prices. When the cars first commenced running to Columbus, some lots were bought at twelve to fifteen cents per pound. But since the planters have learned the state of the cotton market, and its steady, upward tendency, from twenty to twenty-five cents has been paid. Even at this rate, very handsome profits, will of course, be realized. Voluntary destruction of the staple upon the alter of secession seems to be of rare occurrence in West Tennessee.

Daily National Intelligencer, August 8, 1862.[9]




8, STATEMENT OF R. HENDERSON; the condition of the Army of Tennessee after the Tullahoma Campaign

McMINNVILLE, August 8, 1863.

Gen. Bragg reached Chattanooga on his retreat from Tullahoma with about 28,000 or 30,000 men. The army has been distributed. A portion of cavalry at Gadsden, Ala., the amount or commander not known; about 1,000 cavalry at Rome, Ga.; one brigade sent to Atlanta, and small bodies of infantry at Marietta, Calhoun, and Dalton, on the Western and Atlantic Railroad; from 3,000 to 4,000 infantry at Loudon; a small force at Knoxville and Concord; about 4,000 cavalry at Kingston, under Forrest. The remainder of the army is at Chattanooga and vicinity. A body of cavalry, say about 1,000, camped 5 miles south of town, and one division, consisting of about 3,000, camped from 1 to 4 miles south of town; but the larger portion is camped at Tynersville, 9 miles from Chattanooga, on the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad; two regiments on the river, 6 miles above Chattanooga, fortified on the south bank; two regiments at Harrison's, with fortifications above and below town, at Johnson's and Nelson's Ferries, and two regiments at Lyon's Ferry; and also two regiments at Blythe's Ferry, or Georgetown, 11 miles east of the ferry; or perhaps these last two regiments are at both places. The fortifications at Chattanooga are good, occupying the eminence on the river, there being three of them. The fourth, which is much the highest and farthest down the river, is not occupied, but probably will be. There are also rifle-pits and works for artillery in the flat below the upper and lower hills, commanding the river and ferry.

The army may be said to be demoralized, being but little, if any, better than a mob. The common soldiers feel and say that they are not able to contend with Rosecrans' army, and the prevailing opinion with officers and men is that Bragg will retreat as soon as an advance is made, and they expect a movement in the direction of Rome, Ga., which they all fear. Neither officers nor men have any confidence in Bragg's ability, and many doubt his courage.

The wheat and oat crops are unusually good, but are being fast consumed by the army. The corn crop is good, but will be short, from the fact that a less quantity has been planted than usual, and not well tilled. The hay crop was only moderate, and for miles around Chattanooga has been consumed, or nearly so. The crop in East Tennessee will be short.

I left Chattanooga on the 29th of July. Gen.'s Bragg, Polk, and D. H. Hill were there. Hardee had been sent to Mississippi--no force went with him--and Hill took his place in Bragg's army. Twenty-three persons came over the mountains with me, six of us being over forty-five years of age. The army is not increasing rapidly; the desertions amount to more or as much as the new recruits. The expectation is to raise from 70,000 to 100,000 men, under the late call for conscripts, from forty to forty-five years of age. The troops for special service or home defense may be regarded as a failure in East Tennessee, but it is said a large force has been organized in Georgia. It is not probable that Bragg's army will be materially strengthened, unless a large portion of the new recruits are given him, which is not probable, because the army under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston is being very much weakened by desertions. There is a strong probability that Johnston's army will be sent to East Tennessee with the intention of making a move into Kentucky. This is the opinion held by many of the officers and citizens. It is very much desired, and an effort to satisfy the public that Kentucky and the States north of the Ohio are to be invaded. Bragg's army has only one-third rations issued to it. Supplies are scarce and growing more so. Atlanta is the magazine for supplies. The feeling of the people of the northern counties of Georgia, bordering on Tennessee, has undergone some change, and is softening down. There is a strong Union sentiment in those counties but it is suppressed and kept down. It will manifest itself the first favorable opportunity. The feelings of the mass of the secessionists in East Tennessee are abating, and would entirely disappear in the presence of a Union army.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. III, pp. 48-49.

          8, "The Darkey [sic] Registering."

The darkies have been greatly exercised for the past few days to know what would become of them if they could find no masters, the order for registering making it incumbent on them to find some responsible white person to vouch for them. The Provost Marshal's office has therefore organized a scene which the public of Memphis has never before seen -- thousands of negroes [sic] anxiously waiting to learn their destiny. We are informed by the polite officer who superintends the registration office that the negroes [sic] have somehow or other got up the idea that they will not be free, if a white man has to have his name on their passes. The consequence is that they make applications for passes of a kind of general character that will permit them to go about and seek work where they can find it without being responsible to anybody. About six thousand negroes [sic] have already been registered.

Memphis Bulletin, August 8, 1863.

          8, "Arrest of Rebel Soldiers in Memphis."

Yesterday two men who were riding along Main street were recognized by some of our officers as having been among Chalmers' partisan rangers. Captain Blackburn, of the 9th Ill. cavalry, kept his eyes upon the movements of the young men not exactly fancying the proceedings of the fellow, especially as one of them was mounted on a U. S. horse. The captain then proceeded to arrest them. They were recognized by Lieut. Marshall as being a portion of a band which had captured him not long since. The lieutenant also recognized the horse which one of the men was riding as being his own. Of course they have been placed in a position where they can do little harm to Union soldiers for some time. Their names are respectively, C. S. Davis, and Wm. Dumont. We presume they came here for bad purposes, and have succeeded so far as to obtain lodging gratis from Uncle Sam at his hotel known as the "Irving."

Memphis Bulletin, August 8, 1863.

          8, "Family Difficulties."

Mrs. Lanigan and Mrs. Callaghan are near neighbors on a certain street, in a certain portion of the city. Well, Mrs. Lanigan and Mrs. Callagahan don't get along just as good neighbors should, and are consequently not the most pleasant people to each other. Scarcely a day passes by they get into a neighborly quarrel. Why, as late as yesterday, they managed to raise a slight tempest about a clothes line. Mrs. Lanigan was so much incensed that she caught the line in her own strong hands, and broke it into several short lines, esteeming the other too long. Mrs. Callagahan, of course, felt incensed, and resented the outrage on her rights by pouring out a perfect tempest of wordy wrath. Kind husbands of course, would interfere for their respective spouse, so that events were thickening around that locality to such an extent that the people began to think that war, unrelenting civil war, was inevitable. Diplomacy, however, succeeded in procuring an armistice, during the existence of which, the surrounding neutral powers interfered for the preservation of the peace of the domestic circles which seemed to be so seriously threatened by the tempest cloud of domestic trouble. Just to think of it, and all about a piece of cord. We left the scene of action, thinking of ten dollars and -- no matter what.

Memphis Bulletin, August 8, 1863.

          8, A day in the life of a member of the 9th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry in Chattanooga

The regiment went to work again today. Although barefoot I had to accompany them and I feel quite sick from the effects of walking on the rocks. I saw at the depot some prisoners captured at Union City and notwithstanding all I had suffered in their hands. I could hardly sympathize with the wretches.

Van Buren Oldham Diaries.

          8, Taking the oath en masse in Gallatin

On Saturday (8th) last there was a considerable "flutteration" at Gallatin, caused by the arrival of a tremendous delegation of adult males from the country of Wilson [county]. The "dropped in" to get iron clad – General Payne took them in hand, and sent them home wiser and several degrees more loyal than they ever were. As we were told, the sight was strangely novel, and well worth seeing – the number embracing nearly half the county of Cedar Snags [sic] and consisting of many rare types of the genus homo.

Nashville Daily Press, August 10, 1863.

          8, Mrs. General John Morgan

[From the Dayton Journal.]

Mrs. General John Morgan is a very bewitching woman. She used to be quite a belle in Washington when the South ruled the nation. At that time she would have refused an introduction to John indignantly. She belonged to the "blood stock" of the South. Her father, Hon. Charles Ready, a Cassius like man, resided – and still remains there – in Murfreesboro, where he ranked with leading lawyers. His dwelling was occupied by the Provost Marshal General of the Department of the Cumberland, jointly with himself, wife and two of their "niggers" until the army  moved "up South" – to use General McCook's language describing that country. He was considered a snake – not a copperhead – and our detectives watched his operations, but they never could convict him of conveying information to his son in-law. Nevertheless, he received letters from him. But it was not of him whom we intended a discourse. His daughter, not Mrs. General John Morgan, was fascinated by John's rank and reputation, and consented to marry him. Last November she ran the blockade into Nashville and provided herself with an elegant wedding trousseau – aided by her elegant and beautiful sister, Mrs. Cheatham, of Nashville – who is not imprisoned at Alton, Illinois for disloyalty. Endeavoring to go back under a flag of truce, she was unfortunately captured in suspicious company, one of the party being charged with smuggling goods to the enemy under a flag of truce. The timid creature was sadly frightened, but was finally permitted to proceed with her own wearing apparel. She was married soon after in great state at the Court House, the walls of which were decorated with evergreen wreaths encircling inscription in evergreens of town which John had captured. All the generals, lieutenant generals, major generals, brigadiers, colonels &c., in Bragg's army gave éclat to the occasion, and Mrs. Morgan, true Southern woman as she is, was supremely happy – Southern women loving éclat as well as other women do.

When Bragg was driven from Murfreesboro Mrs. Morgan fled too, and after w while, as we know from her own pen, she joined her husband at Tullahoma, where there was a great ball, and she "was the belle," in her beautiful green silk dress "which my (her) dear husband brought to me (Mrs. Morgan) from Kentucky – and it is the favorite dress of my dear husband." And she had a "bewitching bonnet, which my noble husband brought me when he came back from his last raid. My dear sis, I do assure you're the bandit and his bride are very happy" - and so they honeymooned bride proceeded in a very captivating style. But she was almost out of shoes. She couldn't get more until her "noble husband went on another raid." Wouldn't her "dear sis send her some No. 4 gaiters and some No. 21 stays and some blue velvet to trim her exquisite riding dress," and some other wear which we can't mention. Then she went off again into rhapsody about her "sweet promenades with her bandit husband," and so forth. And then her "dear sis" wrote a very ambiguous reply, suggesting is was very likely that the "bandit's bride" was very much enamored of her lord, but she "wouldn't make fun of her just now" – the ladies have such a mischievous was of insinuating things, you know, that we men folks can't help but thing the mean to malicious. That's the last we heard Mrs. General John Morgan. But we never hear anything ill of her, excepting that she was a rebel. After marrying John she couldn't help that.

New York Herald, August 8, 1863.[10]

          ca. 8-18, Anti-guerrilla scouts from Yellow Creek to the Tennessee River, 25 miles south (i.e., Clarksville to Waverly environs)

HDQRS. U. S. FORCES, Fort Donelson, Tenn., August 15, 1863.

Col. S. D. BRUCE, Comdg. First Brigade, Third Division, Clarksville, Tenn.:

The scout I sent out yesterday have orders to scour the country south, and I presume they will go to Waverly or beyond. I learn that the different bands up there propose to unite and form a battalion, to be commanded by one Phillips, expecting to receive large accessions from the deserters in that region upon the promise that joining this gang will save them from any trouble on account of their being deserters. They were to meet at Waverly next Monday [17th] to organize. If Capt. Randall, commanding my mounted infantry, hears of this, he will no doubt be there to participate in the exercises.

I think that frequent and vigorous demonstrations on these gangs will deter others from joining them.

Capt. Randall scouted within 6 miles of Waverly last Sunday [9th] with 70 men. He was fired on several times, but had no casualties. He drove them so closely that he got a few of their horses and some of their arms, and learns that he wounded 2 or 3 of them severely.

I am much pleased with the manner in which these mounted men are performing their duty. They answer all the purposes of cavalry and are much more orderly.

I hope the expedition you sent up Yellow Creek will join Capt. Randall. The force will then be sufficiently strong to go where they please.

I have a surveying party, with a strong infantry escort, out nearly all the time. This week they are running the cross roads between the river and the Waverly road.

I heard last night [14th] of 150 guerrillas on the Tennessee River, 16 miles north of Fort Heiman. I do not believe the report, and have no mounted men to send out to investigate it. I also get reports that large numbers of guerrillas have recently crossed from West Tennessee into Duck River bottom, but I have the most reliable evidence that these reports are unfounded. A Union refugee (Mr. Hopwood, whom I know well), who has recently been on there and left only two days ago, is my informant.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. III, pp. 45-46.


FORT DONELSON, TENN., August 18, 1863.

Capt. WILLIAM C. RUSSELL, Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Nashville, Tenn.:

Mounted infantry scouts have returned. They bring in 17 prisoners, 27 horses, 8 mules, and a quantity of jeans, cotton, yarn, tent cloth, and some arms. They were not attacked. They scouted the country from Yellow Creek to the Tennessee River for 25 miles south, driving out all guerrillas.

WP. P. LYON, Col., Comdg. Post.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 30, pt. III, p. 71.




          8, Skirmish at La Fayette

No circumstantial reports filed

          8, "Almost a Riot"

Quite a disturbance occurred at the depot of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad about dusk yesterday evening, brought about by a regiment of Illinois soldiers, on their way home, who, without provocation, assaulted and knocked down every negro who showed his face in the neighborhood. One negro [sic], we learn, was shot in the melee. Some of the men of the regiment were very boisterous, and it was with considerable trouble that they were quieted.

Nashville Daily Press, August 9, 1864.

          8, The nature of counter-insurgency missions and contraband conditions in the Tullahoma environs, an excerpt from a letter from Major-General R. H. Milroy to his wife in Rensslaer, Indiana.

Tullahoma Tenn.

Aug 8th 1864

My Dear Mary,

I recd [sic] yours of the 29th ult [sic] and 30th some days ago and was glad to learn that you were all well. I am still socializing here [sic]. My most important enjoyment is sending out after gurillas [sic] that are committing depredations in the country. I have one Regt [sic] of Tennessee Cavalry here that are splendid gurilla [sic] hunters. They are well acquainted with the country and there is a deadly hatred between them and the gurillas [sic], caused by out rages [sic] committed by the latter upon the families or friends of the former. The most of my Tennessee troops are refugees who have been driven from their homes, and all have wrongs to avenge so they take no prisoners. This suits me exactly and they know it so I never see any guerrilla prisoners and frequently hear of them being killed and see their horses and arms. A great many negroes [sic] both male and female run away from their masters and come here and at other points along the R.R. [sic] and hire to Qr [sic] Masters, rail road repairers and wood contractors and I have daily application from them to send for their children that they could not get away with them and they are afraid to go back for them. I have turned this branch of the business over to Col. Dunn. He is an abolitionist and takes pains to give all the help he can to those poor creatures in getting their families together,

* * *

Your Husband Truly,

R. H. Milroy

Papers of General Milroy, pp. 372-374.



          8, U. S. Army relinquishes control of Tennessee railroads to private control

WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, August 8, 1865.

Maj. Gen. GEORGE H. THOMAS, Comdg. Military Division of the Tennessee, Nashville, Tenn.:

GEN.: It having been determined by the Government to relinquish control over all railroads in the State of Tennessee and their continuations in adjoining States that have been in charge of and are now occupied by the U. S. military authorities and no longer needed for military purposes, you are hereby authorized and directed to turn over the same to the respective owners thereof at as early a date as practicable, causing in all cases of transfer as aforesaid the following regulations to be observed and carried out:

1. Each and every company will be required to reorganize and elect a board of directors whose loyalty shall be established to your satisfaction.

2. You will cause to be made out in triplicate, by such person or persons as you may indicate, a complete inventory of the rolling-stock, tools, and other materials and property one each road.

3. Separate inventories will be, in the same manner, made of the rolling-stock and other property originally belonging to each of said roads, and that furnished by and belonging to the Government.

4. Each company will be required to give bonds satisfactory to the Government that they will, in twelve months from the date of transfer as aforesaid, or such other reasonable time as may be agreed upon, pay a fair valuation for the Government property turned over to said companies, the same being first appraised by competent and disinterested parties at a fair valuation, the United States reserving all Government dues for carrying mails and other service performed by each company until said obligations are paid; and if the maturity of said debt the amount of Government dues retained as aforesaid does not liquidate the same the balance is to be paid by the company in money.

5. Tabular statements will be made of all expenditures by the Government for repairing each road, with a full statement of receipts from private freights, passage, and other sources; also a full statement of all transportation performed on Government account, giving the number of persons transported, and amount of fight, and the distance carried in each case; all of said reports or tabular statements to be made in triplicate, one each for the Secretary of War, the military headquarters of the department, and the railroad company.

6. All railroads in Tennessee will be required to pay all arrearages of interest due on the bonds issued by that State prior to the date of its pretended secession from the Union, to aid in the construction of said roads, before any dividends are declared or paid to the stockholders thereof.

7. Buildings erected for Government purposes on the line of railroads, and not valuable or useful for the business of said companies, should not from a legitimate charge against such companies; nor should they be charged for rebuilding houses, bridges, or other structures which were destroyed by the Federal Army.

8. You are authorized to give any orders to quartermasters within your division which you may deem necessary to carry into execution this order.

By order of the President:

EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War.

OR, Ser. III, Vol. 5, pp. 355-356.


[1] It is difficult to know to what extent the women of Tennessee responded to this call, and the degree to which their response aided or debilitated the Confederate cause during the cold, wet month of February. In any event, it was clear to the state's military and financial planners that they themselves hadn't done enough to provide for the Tennessee's soldiers. This letter then indicates that Tennesseans were not prepared for war and that its citizens went into the war without proper supplies and backing from the state government they were called upon to serve and save from the "Yankee aggressors."

[2] As cited in:

[3] As cited in PQCW.

[4] As cited in PQCW.

[5] See also: Philadelphia Inquier, August 14, 1862.

[6] Apparently James L. Guest, one time mayor of Columbia, Tennessee, who had served as a private and 3rd lieutenant of Co. K, 48th Tennessee Infantry. See Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 601, fn 1.

[7] A Confederate sympathizer sent south by General Negley on July 29. See The Papers of Andrew Johnson, Vol. 5, p. 601, fn 2.

[8] As cited from the Cairo (Illinois) Gazette, August 16, 1862.

[9] As cited in TSL&ACW.

[10] See also Daily Cleveland Herald, August 7, 1863.


James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214


(615)-532-1549  FAX


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