Tuesday, January 20, 2015

1.20.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        20, Pro-secessionist proposal to construct a fort at Randolph, Tennessee, on the Mississippi River
Randolph is the proper point for Memphis to prepare to receive her invaders. A good battery, skillfully manned, at this point, and sustained by a regiment or two or men with Minnie[1] or Maynard guns[2], can stop a flotilla with 25,000 men here, and prevent them from descending one mile further, while the flood in [the] Hatchie [River] would prevent their landing above or taking us in the rear or flank; but if they should land on the Arkansas side, a few shovels of dirt from the levee would turn a Hurry up gentlemen! Tipton [County] stands flood upon them that would sent them 'up a tree.' And when they are thus caught, or Arkansas friends can give them abundant entertainment, and my word for it, not one in one thousand will reach his destination, in this world, at least with open arms to receive you, and to make the Thermopylae of the South in her own borders, and to throw the stalwart arms and brave hearts of her own hardy sons into the 'deadly imminent breach.'"
Memphis Appeal, January 20, 1861.
        20, …"I trust every citizen would fire his home and fall arms in hand with the Southern banner waving from every house…."One Nashville woman's anxieties about war.
Nashville Jan 20th/62
My Dear Sister
It has been two weeks since I had a letter from you--I am afraid either you or the children are sick but I hope not, but that the delay may be attributed to the irregularity of the mails. But I must tell you of my beautiful, beautiful birthday present. It is from Mr. Sehon and is a Set of jewelry made of his hair, breast pin, ear rings, bracelet and necklace. It is what I have wanted and wished for so much, & nothing would have been so acceptable. It was my twentieth birthday--out of my teens and 20 years old! The thought makes me feel quite aged. Yesterday we attended the funeral of Men Nichol, Son of James Nichol. You probably remember him, he was a clerk in Mr. McNairy's store. Father preached his funeral by the request of his family, although they are all Presbyterians. Do you remember Bettie which hymns and chants were Sung at Henry's funeral? Please tell me in your next letter. When I die I wish the same exactly sung over me and would like to have the same over every member of the family. I like the same chants over every member of the family that are sung over one. They thus become peculiarly expressive, and beautiful to those left behind.
For the last two weeks the weather has been like the times, exceedingly gloomy. Thus far we have had no winter, until within the last two weeks we have had almost entirely the most beautiful balmy spring weather, the brightest sunshine and clearest skies. I think it the peculiar blessing of God upon our Southern troops. Accustomed to a warm climate, particularly those from the very far South, they could not bear up under a severe Winter campaign as could the hardier Northerners. The last two weeks have, however, been all rain and so warm fires have often been oppressive and winter wrappings entirely given up. The political excitement now is very great. An attack was made a few days ago on Fort Henry twelve miles from Frank[3]. Our leaders seem to think we have the force to meet them, but I am anxious, fearing Frank's company may be called for to aid them. The attack is considered a flash from the fire, it is believed the Northern plan was to attack these forts, Bowling Green, Columbus and the Coast simultaneously, but they are afraid to advance upon Bowling Green, we are there fully prepared for them and are anxious for them to attack, so the South may See another gymnastic feat in a Bull Run. O for peace, peace! What wouldn't I give to hear it proclaimed! George is now in the most delightful portion of Virginia and under a fine leader Stonewall Jackson--I am looking now to hear of him distinguishing himself, where he is now I think he will have an opportunity. Mr. Sehon received a letter from his partner a day or two ago, saying in the late engagement at Bath, George said to Jackson, though his men had been a day without any thing to eat, they were not willing to stop to get any thing but desired unanimously to be placed in the front rank. But they were not in the engagement, why I do not know. Col. Taylor is now here from Virginia and will I have no doubt be lionized considerably. Will is well and still at the [Cumberland] Gap. Frank I suppose is also well. The young people of Nashville Mr. Alex Porter & others have gotten up a fancy ball to come off next Thursday to which Mr. & Mrs. Sehon have received two invitations, but we will not be present. I don't know how any one can enjoy such gaiety or participate in it, when we know not what moment may bring tidings of friends who have fallen. Since the attack on Fort Henry, some are alarmed for the safety of Nashville, but I have no such fear. Though I read constantly the confident expectation of the enemy to possess Nashville, I can't realize that it is possible. But we will never give it up, we will defend it as long as possible--rather than yield we will not leave one stone upon another. Should they come (but I know they never will, never can) I trust every citizen would fire his home and fall arms in hand with the Southern banner waving from every house as long as they stand. But I must now close, as I have but a short time to write to Will by a gentleman going in two hours. Give best love to Mr. Kimberly with a thousand kisses for the little darlings and love to all the servants.
Annie M. Sehon
Kimberly Family Correspondence.[4]
20, The bridge-burning cases of East Tennesseans Dr. John G. Brown, Charles B. Champion, James S. Bradford, Allen Marlow, Sidney Wise, John F. Kinchelow, Samuel Hunt, --Potts. W. R. Davis, -Gamble, Thomas L. Cate, John Bean, Sr., and John Boon
RICHMOND, VA., January 20, 1862.
SIR: In passing through East Tennessee I have been informed by a gentleman of integrity and whose loyalty to the Confederacy has never been questioned that some forty-five or fifty of the citizens of that section of country have been arrested by persons having or assuming to have military authority under this Government; that after arrest the most of them have been told they must volunteer or be sent to the Government prison at Tuscaloosa, Ala., and that those who refused to volunteer under such compulsion have been sent to and imprisoned at Tuscaloosa where they now remain.
The names of the persons thus dealt with as far as my information extends are as follows: Dr. John G. Brown, Charles B. Champion, James S. Bradford, Allen Marlow, Sidney Wise, John F. Kinchelow, Samuel Hunt, --Potts. W. R. Davis, -Gamble, Thomas L. Cate, John bean, sr., and John Boon. These men were arrested by a captain of Tennessee cavalry and as I learn without ever having been before any tribunal, civil or military, without any specification of charges and without the examination of a single witness they were hurried off to imprisonment. Levi Trewhitt, William Hunt, Stephen Beard, John McPherson, George Munsey, --Thompson were taken to Knoxville but had no investigation before any tribunal. The first two were sent from thence to Tuscaloosa. The remaining four were released either on parole or unconditionally but after returning to their homes they were arrested by the captain of cavalry before alluded to and also sent to Tuscaloosa. As I am informed none of the persons whose names I have given were taken in arms or suspicioned of having been in arms against the Government.
I was requested to bring these facts to the attention of the Tennessee Congressional delegation. I learn that many if not all of them have received corroborative information. By their request I have been induced to bring the subject to your attention that justice might be done in the premises and the character of the Government vindicated. It is insisted and I presume correctly that the terror engendered by these arrests was an efficient cause in changing public sentiment in East Tennessee.
Secretary of War, for attention.
Those who acted for the Government can inform you whether political arrests were made and prisoners sent to Tuscaloosa as herein affirmed.
OR, Ser. II, Vol. 1, pp. 870-871
        20, Report of the killing of 20 negro teamsters near Murfreesboro
The wanton murder near Murfreesboro of 20 negro teamsters, who were in the service of the Unionists, appeared to be taken as a matter of course by the advocates of the South in this country. We must presume that they know their friends, and so no reason [is] to be supplied. And yet, there circumstances in this case which should make them anxious for a reputation with which they have so far involved their own. These negroes were not killed in the pursuit of any military purpose. They were not in the battlefield; they were not making armed resistance. They were on the turnpike-road, driving their wagons, when the Confederate party came up. The trains which they were conducting were captured, and it was after that object had been gained that the negroes were taken out and shot in cold blood.
It is important to notice that their butchery was perpetrated, not in some error of Secessia, by agents out of the reach of authority or public opinion: it was the work of officer of the great Confederate army of the West, under the order of Gen. Bragg. There were nothing in the attitudes of the negroes to take a sudden retaliation necessary; we must, therefore, assume that their murder was the effect of a previous determination.
We forbear to anticipate the apologies that may be offered for this atrocious slaughter of men who had committed no crime to deserve death. Travelers who have visited the slave states say that if ever England should [be] recognized the South, and come into close intimacy with their people, we shall all be astounded at the character of them whom we have chosen to patronize.  It seems that we have not to wait for the contingency. The inevitable hour when the true issues of this war were to be disclosed has come, and the South unfurls the black flag – its own flag-accordingly -. Daily News, Jan. 20, 1862.
As cited in: Colonel Percy Howard, The Barbarities of the Rebels[5]
        20, Comment from Nashville on worth of Tennessee currency
….A letter from Nashville to the Charleston [SC] Courier tells the story of the depreciation of southern bank paper:
["] I went last evening to a stationery store to buy a quire of writing paper; it was fifty cents. I handed a one dollar note on the Bank of Tennessee to pay for it. I was told by the stationer that he must charge me forty per cent on the change, that being the price of gold yesterday, or I might spend the whole dollar. In this dilemma I bought a pack of plain visiting cards to make up the amount. This is one example; it is the same with everything else. Besides having to pay such an increase for goods, as, for instance, fifty cents for an ordinary quire of writing-paper on account of the depreciation of currency, as I was told, thirty or forty per cent is taken out of one's change.["]
Lowell  (Lowell MA) Daily Citizen and News, January 20, 1862.
        20, General Orders, No. 7 issued in Memphis relative to Mississippi River traffic restrictions
GENERAL ORDERS, No. 7. HDQRS. DEPT. OF THE TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., January 20, 1863.
I. All trading, trafficking, or the landing of boats at points south of Memphis other than at military posts, or points guarded by the navy, is positively prohibited.
II. All officers of boats violating this order will be arrested and placed in close confinement. The boats and cargoes, unless the property of the Government, will be turned over to the quartermaster's department for the benefit of the Government.
III. All officers of the army passing up and down the river are directed to report all violations of this order, together with the names of the boats, place, and date, to the first military post on their route and to the commanding officer at the end of their route.
IV. The navy is respectfully requested to co-operation in the enforcement of this order.
By order of Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant:
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 24, pt. III, p. 3.
        20, Skirmish at Chewalla
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
        20, Recollections and reflections on the death of Zollicoffer and the course of the war[6]
[T]he anniversary of Zollicoffer's defeat and death, carried me back, a year, to that memorable field of Fishing Creek [Ky]. The familiar faces of many who passed from the earth, then, and since, rose up rapidly before me, and as rapidly vanished to give place to others. I shall always believe, that if Zollicoffer's army had been 10,000 in force, instead of 4,500 the foot of the Yankee-vandal [would have] never pressed the soil of Tennessee. The want of men has been the continued cause of disaster throughout the entire campaign of the West. It has not been all together from a lack of military genius that the battles of the West have generally resulted disastrously to our arms. From Fishing Creek to [Fort] Donelson, to Shiloh, and Perryville, we have lost the moral effect of great victories from having to yield our positions because of the exhausted condition of our little armies.
Chattanooga Daily Rebel, January 20, 1863.
        20, Investigation into depredations committed by the Seventh Kansas Cavalry in Somerville
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE TENNESSEE, Memphis, Tenn., January 20, 1863.
Brig. Gen. C. S. HAMILTON, Comdg. District of West Tennessee:
GEN.: Complaints have come in from Somerville from the few Union men of the outrageous conduct of the Seventh Kansas, and in one case of Col. Lee's conduct where he was informed of the status of the party. This was the case of Mr. Rivers, who called on Col. Lee to try and get him to restrain his men, and was replied to by being made to dismount and give up the animal he was riding.
If there are any further complaints, well substantiated, I wish you to arrest Col. Lee and have him tried for incompetency and his regiment dismounted and disarmed.
* * * *
Their present course may serve to frighten women and children and helpless old men, but will never drive out an armed enemy.
I am, general, with great respect, yours, &c.,
U. S. GRANT, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 17. pt. II, p. 575.
        20, "We started from Oskosh with 986 able men for duty…." Frank M. Guernsey's letter home
Camp at Jackson, Tenn.
Jan. 20th, 1863
Dear Fanny,
It is a wet unpleasant day and I am about half sick with a cold so that I am off duty for the time being. for [sic] the last week or so we have had some very unpleasant weather. It [sic] commenced storming on the night of the thirteenth and has either rained or snowed almost every day since. On [sic] the fifteenth and sixteenth the snow laid on the ground about four inches deep and it was cold as we could wish for. We all suffered more or less as we were so poorly prepared for such weather. Our tents are only one thickness of canvass, and we have no stoves so that we have to manage to keep war. My duties are such that I have to be out in all kinds of weather and the exposure during those stormy days I suppose gave me this cold as I was wet through most of the time, but I shall be all right again in a few days I guess. We have had the most snow here this winter that they have had for several years, and I expect the next time I hear from you will be all buried up if our storms here are any indication of what you are having there.
The health of our Regmt. [sic] Is not very good at present. We started from Oskosh with 986 able men for duty and to day I dont [sic] believe we can muster over 475 men for duty. We have been in no fight nor have we lost by death so many, but the men have been marched to death or in other words, all worn out with hard fare and forced marches. if [sic] we had comfortable quarters and could lay still a week or two I think our sick list would greatly dimmish [sic] but under the present state of things there is about as many getting sick as the Surgeons are cureing [sic] so that it keep [sic] their hands full all the time.
We have a report that we are going back to Memphis in the course of a week or two, how true it may prove I cant [sic] say. I presume thought that if we do go to Memphis we shall be ordered down the river to Vicksburg. I suppose they will not be able to do anything until the 32nd gets there and leads the way. I don't believe that the 32nd will ever bring a disgrace upon the State if they ever get into a fight. for I know that a good many of our boys are as brave and true as ever shouldered the musket and if they have half a chance they will make their march.
I have a great mind to get mad at U. S. Mail arangments [sic] I have not received a letter since those old ones which I wrote you about before but I guess that the best way will be to keep patient for I may get a letter some time or other, but Fanny the Post Master has called for the mail & I must close and make up for this deficiency some other time. Please give my love to all you people and accept with much yourself.
Yours affectionately,
Frank M. G.
P.S. Glen sends his best respects.
Guernsey Collection.
        20, Skirmish at Tracy City
No. 1 Report of Lieut. Col. William B. Wooster, Twentieth Connecticut Infantry
No. 2. Reports of Col. Joseph M. Sudsburg, Third Maryland Infantry.
No. 3. Report of Capt. John F. George, Second Massachusetts Infantry.
No. 1.
Report of Lieut. Col. William B. Wooster, Twentieth Connecticut Infantry.
HDQRS. TWENTIETH CONNECTICUT VOLUNTEERS, Cowan Station, Tenn., January 22, 1864.
COL.: I have the honor to report that on Wednesday, the 20th instant, the post at Tracy City, commanded by Capt. Andrew Upson, Twentieth Connecticut Volunteers, and garrisoned by Company B of said regiment, commanded by Second Lieut. Theodore Jepson and a company of Tennessee cavalry, almost entirely unarmed and not mounted, and known as Capt. Tipton's company, was attacked by rebel cavalry numbering from 100 to 150 men, a portion of which force is known as Capt. Joe Carter's cavalry.
This force came through Altamont, about 10 a. m. of that day, and 2 mounted men dressed in Union uniforms rode rapidly up to the house of Capt. S. P. Tipton, then absent from his command and at his home in Altamont, and cried out, "Capt., the rebels are coming." As soon as he emerged from his house he was shot and instantly killed by the men that called to him. This force also killed at Altamont a private in Capt. Tipton's company by the name of David Franklin. They arrived at Tracy City about 1 p. m. The picket on the road over which they passed was from Capt. Tipton's men. The sentinel discharged his piece, but so rapid was the movement of the force that no alarm reached the camp until the whole force rode in. The point of entry was from the rear of Howard and Benham's store, and immediately, as the head of the column passed to the front of the store, they fired on the sentinel then on duty, mortally wounding David B. Powell, of Company B, Twentieth Connecticut Volunteers, who was sitting near the sentinel. Many shots were fired by the sentinel and those in and about the store. Repulsed here, the force rapidly moved to the railroad depot, some 40 rods distant, where Capt. Upson then was with a guard of three men. This placed the whole rebel force between Capt. Upson and his command. He at first attempted to join his command, but seeing his position, he threw down his pistol and surrendered, and as he did so was several times shot at, two balls taking effect and seriously wounding him, one having passed through his left lung. While this movement was being enacted, Lieut. Jepson formed his command in the stockade near the store. The rebels formed in line of battle, under cover of an elevation of ground on the right of the stockade, and also under like cover in rear of the railroad depot, and still another portion farther to the left and in rear of the engine-house. In these positions they were completely sheltered, so as to render our fire from the stockade quite ineffectual, while they, from their concealed positions and behind trees, continued to fire at our forces in the stockade without damage. Lieut. Jepson deemed it inexpedient to advance any portion of his force from the stockade, as by so doing he would be exposed to a cross-fire from the rebels and endanger the capture of his whole force. In this position the officer in command of the rebel forces dispatched a flag of truce by a citizen with the following proposition for surrender:
TRACY CITY, TENN., January 20, 1864.
Lieut. JEPSON:
SIR: Capt. Upson, with 10 of your men, are now in my possession. If the remainder of your command will surrender at once, without further, bloodshed, the entire command shall be at once paroled and permitted to retain all their personal effects.
By order of Gen. Wharton:
W. S. BLEDSOE, Maj., Fourth Tennessee Cavalry.
This proposition was promptly declined by Lieut. Jepson. Soon another proposition was sent in like manner of the first, offering to leave the command unmolested provided they could be permitted to take the goods from the store near the stockade. This too, was rejected. Two other propositions for surrender, having in view the possession of the store (the evident object of their raid),were sent in and declined. Under cover of the depot, the engine-house, and the buildings covering the coal-chutes men were advanced, and each was fired and totally consumed.
The stockade, erected long since, was built with reference to a defense of the store and buildings in the immediate vicinity of the store, and is so located as to afford no protection to the buildings that were burned.
Six men were captured with Capt. Upson, all of whom were stripped of overcoats, blankets, and money, and forced to take a parole administered to them under threats of death as the penalty of refusal.
The rebels remained in position until dark, when, fearing re-enforcements from Cowan, by the cars which had been stopped and sent back during the afternoon, they left, resting that night about 7 miles from Tracy City, near the house of David Nunley. They then passed in the direction from which they came (near Altamont) toward White County, where I have reasons to believe a rebel force exceeding 500 can be assembled. During this assault but 3 of Capt. Tipton's men could be found. All had fled to places of supposed safety, and are again slowly returning to Tracy City.
Three of the rebel cavalry are known to have been wounded.
The officers and men of the Twentieth Connecticut Volunteers there engaged exhibited great coolness and determination to do their whole duty.
I have the honor to be, colonel, your obedient servant,
WM. B. WOOSTER, Lieut. Col., Twentieth Connecticut Volunteers, Cmdg. Post.
Col. SAMUEL ROSS, Cmdg. First Brigade.
Addenda.-At the time of the attack on Tracy City on the 20th instant the force consisted of 2 commissioned officers and 72 enlisted men from the Twentieth Connecticut Volunteers and Capt. Tipton's cavalry (1 officer, 73 enlisted men) none of which are armed-except some half-dozen with squirrel rifles-none mounted, and none of the slightest service.
At the time of the attack I was at Anderson, and Col. Sudsburg sent Capt. George with a detail of 100 men, who proceeded by railroad to a point near Tracy City, where he threw out a line of skirmishers and advanced to the place, arriving about 3 a. m. on the 21st instant. Finding matters there quiet, he at once returned with his command to Cowan. Col. Sudsburg then detailed Second Lieut. Gould and 43 men from the Third Maryland Volunteers to proceed at once to Tracy City to remain until further orders. With this force I proceeded to Tracy City, and disposed of the same in such manner to add materially to the strength of the position. I placed 1 sergeant, 2 corporals, and 12 men at an important bridge on the railroad about 1 mile from the place. I placed William W. Morse, captain Twentieth Connecticut Volunteers, in command of the post in place of Capt. Upson, wounded. This addenda is made pursuant to instructions from division headquarters.
WM. B. WOOSTER, Lieut. Col. Twentieth Connecticut Volunteers, Cmdg. Regt. [sic] [Indorsement.]
HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, 12TH CORPS, Decherd, Tenn., January 23, 1864.
Respectfully forwarded, with recommendation that the troops be withdrawn from Tracy City, as I cannot see the public necessity of guarding a private trading establishment and coal mine.
SAML. ROSS, Col. Twentieth Connecticut Vol. Infantry, Cmdg. First Brig.
No. 2.
Reports of Col. Joseph M. Sudsburg, Third Maryland Infantry.
COWAN, January 21, 1864.
Our force at Tracy City was attacked yesterday afternoon by a mounted force of about 150 men. The force made a most determined resistance, being summoned three times to surrender. Capt. Upson is shot through the body, and, it is feared, mortally wounded, and quite a number are missing. Capt. Tipton's cavalry are nearly all missing. They burned the depot and other buildings. The re-enforcements which I sent last night have returned, and I now send a detail of 50 men to permanently re-enforce the post, under command of Lieut.-Col. Wooster. I also sent a surgeon to the wounded. The rebel force is supposed to be Murray's gang from the vicinity of Collins River.
JOSEPH M. SUDSBURG, Col., Cmdg. Post.
HDQRS. THIRD REGT. MARYLAND VOLUNTEERS, Cowan, Tenn., January 21, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit to you report of Capt. J. F. George, Company E, Second Massachusetts Infantry. I have sent to-day 1 commissioned officer and 50 men of my regiment for re-enforcement to Tracy City.
Gen. Knipe, with whom I had an interview some days ago, informed me that Tracy City was not under my command, but under Lieut.-Col. Wooster, Twentieth Connecticut. Lieut.-Col. Wooster not being able to support the post at Tracy City from his regiment, of which the headquarters are in Tantalon, I considered it my duty under existing circumstances to act from here.
I would respectfully request further instruction.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOSEPH M. SUDSBURG, Col. Third Maryland Regiment, Cmdg. Post.
No. 3.
Report of Capt. John F. George, Second Massachusetts Infantry.
SIR: I have the honor to submit to you the following report of the expedition sent by your order under my command to Tracy City on the evening of the 20th instant:
The expedition, consisting of details from the Third Maryland, Fifth Connecticut, and Second Massachusetts (in all about 100 men and 1 commissioned officer, Lieut. Clary, third Maryland), under myself, proceeded about 8 p. m. up the railroad, where we found a train awaiting us. The men were immediately put upon the car, and we proceeded toward Tracy City till within about 4 miles of the town, when we slackened the speed of the train. When within three-fourths of a mile from the trestle bridge which crosses Gizzard Creek, about a mile from the town, and which is somewhat over 150 feet long, the men were disembarked and skirmishers thrown out about 60 paces in advance of the main body, and the command was cautiously advanced toward the bridge. Having learned from the inhabitants of a cottage near by that no firing had been heard and no enemy seen in that vicinity, and that our pickets were posted on their farther side of the bridge, I left a corporal and 10 men in an unoccupied stockade, near the southern end of the bridge, and proceeded across, but found no pickets on the other side.
Thus we were in fear that the enemy had captured them, as well as the troops in the down. I then proceeded cautiously, keeping the skirmishers well advanced, till we reached a small trestle bridge about 300 yards from Tracy City depot, when I halted and sent 10 men across to ascertain who were in possession of the town, and by whom was the stockade then occupied. These men soon returned, reporting that the town and stockade were in our possession; and I thereupon advanced into the town and occupied the stockade, in which latter I found about 40 men and a lieutenant of the Twentieth Connecticut Infantry, it then being about 1 a. m. I found, on investigation, that about 3 p. m. a body of guerrillas, about 100 in number, had made a dash into the town, coming in from two opposite directions so suddenly as completely to surprise the pickets and outposts. The captain (Upson) of the Twentieth Connecticut commanding, who was within the depot at the time, having with him about 15 unarmed men, immediately started for the stockade (about 200 yards distance), but being cut off before reaching it was shot, after throwing down his revolver in token of surrender, and taken prisoner, together with about 15 of his men. Close to the stockade was a log building occupied as a store by a certain Benham. The rebels made a dash for this, and shot 1 of the men of the Twentieth Connecticut who was standing in the door-way, seriously wounding him. The store-keeper, who was within, immediately closed the door and fired with his revolver upon them from the window, wounding 2 of the band.
Upon this they returned toward the railroad, thus giving our men an opportunity to enter the stockade, Connecticut. The enemy then, after deploying along the edge of the woods surrounding the town, sent in under flags of truce four separate summons to surrender, which being refused, they proceeded to set fire to the depot, engine-house, and some buildings connected with the coal works. They paroled and set at liberty 10 of their prisoners. Of the remaining, nothing has been heard. A man named Kennedy, who owns a house in the place, and who was arrested several nights before on suspicion of being a spy, but who effected his escape, is supposed to have guided this rebel party into the town. I remained with my command in the town till 8 a. m. of the 21st, when, seeing no signs of the enemy in the vicinity, and accordance with your orders, I embarked my command on board the cars and returned to Cowan, where I arrived at 12 m.
I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JNO. F. GEORGE, Capt. Co. E, Second Massachusetts Infantry, Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 97-102.

Two weeks have passed since I wrote in my weekly (and often weakly) "record of current events." The most notable affair that has happened during that time was a "rebel raid" into Altamont and Tracy [City]...[o]n the morning of the 20th Jan....The rebels proved to not to such true rebels--they were, it is said, Geo. Caster's men--a guerrilla party--they were, bent on paying off some scores upon these "bushwhackers" on the other side that must have been ruling and ruining everything here all summer, and then doing what damage they could at Tracy [City]. They had a small fight out there--a Yankee captain and Lt. -they were all killed--the depot fired upon, etc. but no great amount of damage done. When a reinforcement was sent up from Cowan--the "rebs [sic]" were off. Great excitement is said to have existed among these mountaineers for some time--indeed it seems not to be quieted yet [February 7]. A Yankee Capt. is said to have been placed over Tipton's men--who will carry them where they will see some service. Many of the men who were instrumental in the sacking of this place [i.e. Beersheba Springs] last July, have met their reward. One of them used to dash about here wearing little Minnie Kennel's hat, was cut so by one of his compeers at a frolic for "talkin' indecent to his wife"--that he died soon after of his wounds.---
War Journal of Lucy Virginia French, February 7, 1864.

COWAN, January 20, 1864.
Lieut. Col. H. C. RODGERS, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.:
I received information from a reliable source that a force of rebel cavalry, supposed to be 200 strong, made their appearance at Tracy City at 5 o'clock a. m. to-day and attacked our post there. I have sent immediately two officers and 100 men (infantry) with the train to support our force at Tracy City, when necessary.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, p. 156.

Excerpt from Reports of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, U. S. Army, commanding Department of the Cumberland, of operations January 1-April 30.
HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Chattanooga, Tenn., March 10, 1864.
GEN.: I have the honor to report the operations of my command for the months of January and February, 1864, as follows:
* * * *
A party of guerrillas, numbering about 150 men, attacked Tracy City on the 20th [of January], and, after having three times summoned the garrison to surrender, were handsomely repulsed by our forces.
* * * *
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, p. 7.
        20, Skirmish at the Holston River
Dyer's Battle Index for Tennessee.
        20, Organization of Federal Home Guard in Memphis, Special Field Orders, No. 6
Memphis, January 20, 1864.
I. The commanding officer at Memphis may organize the loyal citizens of Memphis into a brigade of four regiments for home or local defense and may issue to them arms, accouterments, ammunition, and undress uniforms, to be receipted [sic] for and security given for their safe return to the proper authorities on the order of the commanding officer of the post.
II. The quartermaster may set apart and dedicate to the use of these regiments as armories or places of rendezvous suitable buildings, such as cotton-sheds, one to each regiment, said buildings to be of those already in the possession of the United States by reason of abandonment by disloyal owners. One to be at or near the navy-yard, two to be at or near the railroad depot, and the fourth to be at or near Fort Pickering, and the quartermaster may expend any materials now on hand to adapt these buildings to the uses named, viz.,: armories for the home guards.
III. The troops organized under this order shall be exempt from conscription under department orders (but liable, or course, to the laws of the United States), unless by neglect of duty they render themselves liable to expulsion from their regiment of command. They will take the oath of allegiance required by law and sign a written agreement to do such local guard duty, drills, and defense of the City as may be required of them by the post commander and the brigade commander he may appoint over them, subject to approval of these department headquarters.
IV. The quartermaster and ordnance officer at Memphis will make the necessary issues under this order on the requisition of the colonels of regiments with a bond attached, all to be approved by the post commander.
By order of Maj. Gen. W. T. Sherman:
L. M. DAYTON, Aide-de-Camp.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, pp. 160-161.
        20, Federal scout, Strawberry Plains to north side of the Holston
No circumstantial reports filed.
STRAWBERRY PLAINS, January 20, 1864.
Brig.-Gen. POTTER:
Gen. Spears reports that his scouts and officers sent out cannot find any enemy on the north side of the Holston, and from information regarded as reliable, though indirect, there are none of the enemy save barefooted and sick at New Market and Morristown. All reported to have passed toward and crossed the French Broad. The direction taken after crossing is not known.
J. G. PARKE, Maj.-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. III, p. 152.
Near Armstrong's, January 21, 1864--8 p. m.
Brig. Gen. E. E. POTTER, Chief of Staff:
Since writing my former dispatch Gen. Spears has come into camp on my left, having come down from Bryce's Mill by a road parallel to the main Rutledge road. He reports a force of the enemy at Blain's Cross-Roads this morning, which crossed the Holston a little above Strawberry Plains last night. Says they were both cavalry and infantry, and formed a skirmish line near a mile long. He regards his information as reliable. I send this to you, as Gen. Parke is in telegraphic communication with you, as I suppose, and the information can reach him quicker through you, though I suppose he has it from other sources already.
Very respectfully, &c.,
J. D. COX, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, p. 164.
        20, "Melton Zachary" hard-core juvenile delinquent-a social consequence of civil war
The arrest and imprisonment of this young man leaves an opening for the reformation of some of our juvenile thieves, who, during the past two years or more, have pursued their practice of stealing almost with impunity. During the examination of Mel. [sic] on the recent charges, as well as on other investigations before the Recorder, we have been astonished at the unblushing manner in which young boys acknowledge to their own complicity in burglaries, robberies, and other rascalities. Yesterday morning four boys appeared as witnesses, whose confession alone would entitle them to an apprenticeship in a house of correction until arriving at years of maturity. And there are dozens like these-children of honest and industrious parents-who are on the broad road to ruin, with the penitentiary or the gallows before them. Unfortunately, we have no house of correction for such boys, and therefore the greater necessity for parents to keep a vigilant watch over their boys, many of whom are absent from their homes the greater part of the time, night and day. Perhaps the closing of the Public Schools has much to do with the demoralization of our youth, but this will not excuse parents for their neglect of their children's morals, and especially in allowing them to roam about the city at all hours of the night. We trust the Police will continue their endeavors to break up these juvenile bands, until the evil complained of is removed.
Nashville Dispatch, January 20, 1864.
        20, The trial of Melton Zachary
"Recorder's Court."
* * * *
Melton Zachary was charged upon three separate warrants with stealing jewelry, an overcoat, two boxes of cheese, some brown sugar, a keg of butter, a bale of rope, etc. T.T. Smiley and J.M. Brien, Esq., counsel for the defence.
The rope and sugar case was first taken up, and J. H. Adams examined. He identified the rope as a portion of the property stolen from the Nortwestern [sic] railroad depot, and testified that he was agent for the owner, having receipts for it. The property was there on Saturday night, and he missed it on Sunday night. Joe Phillips testified that he and Charlie Weimar had been running their sled near the Sulphur Springs, and were returning home about eight o'clock on Saturday night, when the met Mel. [sic] under the bridge; Mel. [sic] was sitting on some boxes like the one in Court-a cheese box-with the rope alongside him. He asked Joe to take the things on their sleighs, and they refused; offered to give them a dime, and the still refused, when Mel. [sic] took up a rock and threatened to kill them, unless they consented. Witness and Charlie Weimar then put the boxes and the rope on their sleds and toted them to a black woman's house on the corner of Gay and Cherry streets, where they left them and Mel. [sic]. Heard Mel. [sic]. tell the woman to take care of them until he returned. Charlie Weimar corroborated Joe in every particular, and a severe cross examination by Mel.[sic]'s counsel failed to elicit anything different from their first statement. William Tomlin, recruited out of the workhouse for Col. Croft's regiment, testified that he saw Mel. [sic] at the New Theatre on Saturday; night, and that Mel. [sic] told him he had some cheese and things at the depot, and that if he would go with him, and help him get them away, he would share with him. Refusing to go, Mel. [sic] left and witness went into the theatre. Cross examined-Was mad at Mel. [sic] because he stole a coat from the St. Cloud hotel, and only gave him a dollar for his share; they were partners, and he ought to have had half; has been imprisoned for stealing; don't deny being a thief; belongs to near Franklin [sic]. Officer Lynch testified to finding the rope and sugar in Mel's sleeping room, in the house of his mother, on Sunday night about 12 o'clock . Mel. [sic] was about going to bed when witness and Thompson got there.
On the second warrant, charging Mel. [sic] with stealing jewelry from the store of J. Well & Co. 34 Union street, one of the proprietors testified to the robbery, and identified several article produced in Court as a part of the stolen property, which in the aggregate, amounted to between $50 and $100. Charlie Talman testified that he and the other boys heard Mel. [sic]. say on Saturday night, that he was going to rob the store alluded to, and they watched him. Saw Mel. [sic] take up a rock just as the clock struck 11, and throw it in the window. He then broke through Greig's alley, went around by the tin ship and returned up Union street, when he took from the window all that he could get. Gave witness a breastpin. Three other boys were watching Mel. [sic] that night-Joe Phillips, Charlie Weimar, and Tomlin. He had no spite against Mel. Officer Lynch found a portion of the jewelry in Mel's room on Sunday night, in a pocket book. Tomlin was near by, and heard the glass break; did not get any of the jewelry.
The stolen overcoat was produced in Court and identified by Tomlin as the one stolen from the St. Cloud hotel, as charged in the third warrant. The coat was sold to a negro [sic] for six dollars, of which he paid $2 down, one of which was paid to witness, and the balance was to have been paid the next day, and was paid to Mel. [sic], who refused to share it with witness. The coat was found the officer at the house designate.
The Court ordered that the prisoner give bonds in $4,000 for his appearance the next term of the Criminal Court., or in default to the be committed to jail. Counsel for defence  made an earnest and eloquent appeal for a reduction of the amount of bail, but the Court would have none of it.
Nashville Dispatch, January 20, 1864.
        20, Federal expeditions in West Tennessee ordered
MEMPHIS, January 20, 1864.
Col. FIELDING HURST, Cmdg. Sixth Tennessee Cavalry:
You will relieve the wants of the families of the men of your command, and as soon as possible leave Purdy with your whole command and proceed to Memphis, Tenn., by way of Jackson, crossing the Hatchie at Estenaula, or any other point west of there which in your judgment may be best. You will scour the country well on your route and reach Memphis as soon as possible after the 1st of February. You will gather all serviceable stock on your route as heretofore directed, and subsist your command upon the country. Upon your arrival in Memphis you will report with your regiment to the commanding officer, whoever he may be. A command of cavalry is probably now en route for this place from Union City. You will endeavor to communicate with them, but do not delay your march for that purpose.
By order of Brig. Gen. B. H. Grierson:
S. L. WOODWARD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

Col. EDWARD PRINCE, Cmdg. Seventh Illinois Cavalry:
You will organize a force of 250 men, with five days' light rations, to proceed north to-morrow, the 21st, at 2 o'clock p. m., by the way of New Castle, and scour the country south of Hatchie. You will also endeavor to communicate at Bolivar and Estenaula with the Federal cavalry, which is supposed to be en route to La Grange, instructing them to reach that point as quickly as possible.
Subsist your command, as far as is necessary, upon the country, giving receipts for everything which may be taken. After scouring the country thoroughly as the time will permit, you will return to La Grange, reaching that point by the 26th instant. You will feed your horses well, and keep them in as good condition as possible.
By order of Brig. Gen. B. H. Grierson:
S. L. WOODWARD, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. II, p. 156.
        20, Confederate cavalry dash on the Dandridge road [See January 21, 1864, "Skirmishes at Strawberry Plains," below]
        20, Guarding a Railroad Bridge at Blain's Crossings
Blains's Cross Roads, Tenn.
Mon. Dec. 21st 1863
….Our squad was relieved at the ferry day before yesterday & we are now guarding the new railroad bridge [East TN & Virginia] which our men have built since the siege. It is a very long bridge, I don't know how many yards, but I think it must be 300 or 400 yds. It is built partly on piers of the first bridge which is said to have been one of the finest bridges in the south. It was built by Gen. Saunders command last summer while we were lying at Mt. Vernon. It was rebuilt on trestle work by the rebels a short time before we came into the state. It is now used for crossing wagons & troops & it has more than paid for itself this week. For nearly all our troops have fallen back to this place within the past 2 days to prevent a flank movement (intended to cut us off from Knoxville). It is reported that Longstreet has been heavily reinforced from Lees Army, if this be the case, we may have to fall back to Knoxville again. But I don't think they will besiege us so long again, for we have also been reinforced & the road is still open between here & Chattanooga.
Bentley Letters.
        20, Excerpt from Moses Pittman's inventory of bushwhackers in Franklin County and suggestions to Major-General Milroy for their punishment
Names of some disloyal citizens of the Fourth district Franklin County Tenn. A narration of their crimes and the orders of Maj. Gel Milroy as to what punishment they shall suffer for said crimes.
Richard Arnold
A bushwhacker with Hays, he together with two others murdered a Loyal [sic] man named Samuel Kennedy in cold blood on Oct. 15, 1864
Horace Allred
Harbors bushwhackers and bushwhacks himself occasionally, is one of the murderers of Kennedy, is a shoemaker and makes shoes for all the bushwhackers in the neighborhood.
Bush [sic]
Nothing is known of the residence of this man or his name and probable the name "Bush" is only a nickname. He is a bushwhacker.
Joel Cunningham
He is the leader of a gang of bushwhackers 75 to 100 strong. KILL.[7]
Wesley Davis
Harbors Bushwhackers. CLEAN OUT.
Green Denison
A Bushwhacker with Hays. KILL.
Jane Lipscum
A widow, Harbors bushwhackers. CLEAN OUT.
Curtis McCullum
Harbors bushwhackers and instigated his son and three others to murder in cold blood a Union man named Samuel Kennedy on Oct 15, 1864. He has tried his best to persuade every young man of his acquaintance in the neighborhood to join the gang of bushwhackers. His wife is as bad if not works then he is. has [sic] been doing all the devilment that he could ever since the war began. HANG AND BURN.
Cynthia McCollum
Wife of the above and also instigated here son to murder Kennedy, the same remarks that apply to her husband apply also to her with double force. She is a very bad and a very dangerous woman. SHOOT IF YOU CAN MAKE IT LOOK LIKE AN ACCIDENT [sic]
Charlotte McCollum
An unmarried sister of the above is almost as bad as her mother. BURN EVERYTHING.
[The list continues with a total of 58 names.]
Blood and Fire, pp. 115-117.[8]

[1] This is an altogether too common misspelling of "minie," after the inventor of the projectile the minie ball, utilized in the Civil War. See: Webb Garrison, with Cheryl Garrison, The Encyclopedia of Civil War Usage: An Illustrated Compendium of tgh Everyday Language of Soldiers and Civilians, (Nashville: Cumberland House, 20010, pp. 159-160. This misspelling will be found throughout this sourcebook. [Hereinafter cited as: Encyclopedia of Civil War Usage.]
[2] According to the Encyclopedia of Civil War Usage, the Maynard rifle was the favorite of "wealthy sportsmen before the beginning of the conflict, this may have been the earliest RIFLE [sic] for whch copper rimfire CARTRIDGES [sic] were standard. These were manufactured with tiny holes in their bases so that after having been fired, they could be refilled and reused. Wax paper sealed with the hosles and prevented the poweder from being lost." p. 156.
[3] Annie's and Bettie's brother, serving at Fort Donelson.
[4] As cited in: http://docsouth.unc.edu/imls/kimberly/kimberly.html
[5]Colonel Percy Howard, The Barbarities of the Rebels, as shown in their Cruelty to the Federal Wounded and Prisoners; in their Outrages on Union Men; in the Murder of Negroes, and their Unmanly Conduct Throughout the Rebellion, (Providence, R.I.: Printed by the author, 1863.), pp. 22-23.

[6] Most likely this was written by the owner and editor of the Daily Rebel, Franc M. Paul.
[7] According to Bradley, Blood and Fire, "The notes [in upper-case letters] calling for action appear in a different handwriting and are the orders of General Milroy as to the punishment to be received.". See p. 116.
[8] Major-General Milroy issued action orders based on Pittman's information on February 7, 1865. See below.

James B. Jones, Jr.
Public Historian
Tennessee Historical Commission
2941 Lebanon Road
Nashville, TN  37214
(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456
(615)-532-1549  FAX

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