Thursday, January 22, 2015

1.22.2015 Tennessee Civil War Notes

        22, General J. E. Johnston ordered to inquire of General Braxton Bragg about the Confederate defeat at the battle of Stones River

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, C. S. A., Richmond, Va., January 22, 1863.

Gen. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON, Cmdg., &c., Chattanooga, Tenn.:

GEN.: As announced in my telegram, I address this letter to you, to explain the purpose for which I desire that you will proceed promptly to the headquarters of Gen. Bragg's army. The events connected with the late battle at Murfreesborough, and retreat from that place, have led to criticism upon the conduct of Gen. Bragg, which induced him to call upon commanders of corps for an expression of opinion, and for information as to the feeling in their commands in regard to the conduct of Gen. Bragg, and also whether he had so far lost the confidence of the army as to impair his usefulness in his present position. The answers, I am informed, have been but partially given, but are so far indicative of a want of confidence, such as is essential to success.[1] Why Gen. Bragg should have selected that tribunal, and have invited its judgment upon him, is to me unexplained; it manifests, however, a condition of things which seems to me to require your presence.

The enemy is said to be preparing to advance, and though my confidence in Gen. Bragg is unshaken, it cannot be doubted that if he is distrusted by his officers and troops, a disaster may result which, but for that cause, would have been avoided.

You will, I trust, be able, by conversation with Gen. Bragg and others of his command, to decide what the best interests of the service require, and to give me the advice which I need at this juncture. As that army is a part of your command, no order will be necessary to give you authority there, as, whether present or absent, you have a right to direct its operations and do whatever else belongs to the general commanding.

Very respectfully and truly, yours,


OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, pp. 613-614.

        22, Charity in Lincoln County


Now is the time to think of the impoverished and afflicted. Now, indeed, amid the January winds, is the season of their discontent, and all with whom Fortune has dealt with a liberal hand should feel it incumbent upon them to enter the lists graciously as a soldier in the ranks of humanity.

"What has the gray-haired prisoner done?

Has murder stained his hands with gore!

Not so: his crime's a fouler one –

God made the old man poor!"

We deny the poet's assertion that God occasions any man's misfortunes on earth; such evils are the result of man's inactivity, in-opportunity, or indiscretion. But, alas! Society does [sic] look on poverty as a crime, although society's lips hypocritically repudiate the doctrine; and many a wretch, we all know, is grasped warmly by the hand in the parlors of fashion, though every dollar he possesses is the product of some outrage upon the widow and the fatherless, while many a man of integrity is as "cat" [sic] upon the highway by those whom he once lifted from destitution, because Fortune has capriciously shifted her wanton smiles, and he wears a well-worn suit and pays his debts, instead of dashing behind a 2.40 [sic] team requesting his creditors to await his elegant leisure for attention.

In sooth, the poor man has but an indifferent chance for appreciation in this world, and the worthy poor who have too much self respect left to obtrude their privations upon the public eye, are the worst sufferers of all. The clamorous beggar who makes mendicancy a profession, ever secures the necessary aid. We have nothing to say to him; but, let the most moderately wealthy of us remember, at this inclement season, the hundreds who shiver beside comfortless hearths, who sit before comfortless tables, whose ears tingle with the low wail of hungry babes, who eyes weep over the gaunt cheeks of foodless mothers and wives, yet whose decent pride (the last remnant of a better state) prefers the slow death of starvation to the quicker anguish of published want. Think! oh, think of them!

Fayetteville Observer, January 22, 1863.

        22, "The Government should banish all such visitors from every place where rebel prisoners are confined." Editorial castigating rebel females in Nashville

We hear that some of the secession ladies complain bitterly of the restrictions placed by the military authorities upon visiting rebel prisoners of war. They appear to think that they should be allowed to converse with, and carry delicacies to these men who have been captured while waging war against their country, whenever they see proper to do so. They arrogate it as a right, and not a privilege, to visit the penitentiary, and encourage its inmates to persist in a wicked and murderous rebellion—a rebellion which is atrocious abominable, and detestable in all its aspects. When these prisoners were brought here the Governor's office, the Headquarters of the commander of the Post, and the office of the Provost Marshal, were crowded with secession ladies, eager to administer encouragement to the consolation and rebel prisoners. Every one else had to give way to these importunate visitors, who took possession for a while of every office where a pass could be granted, or a recommendation given. If this state of affairs had been tolerated the civil and military officers of this place would have had to confine their attention exclusively to granting permission to these ladies to visit rebel prisoners.

Now we are for treating the sex with due gallantry and attention upon all occasions, but certainly courtesy does not require that a woman's unreasonable demands should be granted; and experience and observation have convinced us that there are some very reasonable women.

These female visitors, or nineteen-twentieths of them, have a heavy load of responsibility resting upon their heads, for the existence of the present civil war. Thoughtless and giddy women, whose ideas of war had been gathered from books of poetry, and monthly magazines, persuaded, coaxed, entreated, nay, even compelled their sons, brothers, friends, into the rebel army. All the nameless, and to young men, irresistible artifices and blandishments of female society were exercised in the fiendish work of beguiling the flower and hope of the Southern States into the dark den of treason, robbery and murder. Ladies of high position cast aside their proper garb and became the raging priestesses of civil war, brandishing in their hands the torch of destruction, and thoughtlessly invoking on the heads of their kindred and friends, and of themselves, a tempest of mingled fire and blood. We could mention instances of their monstrous and unnatural work which occurred in this very city where noble young men were wooed by the songs of these Syrens, into the rebellion, against their own convictions of right, and their avowed protestations—but we forbear.

On this most painful theme we have only to say, may God have mercy upon the dead, and pity upon their living destroyers! Ah, little did these women then realize the horrors of actual warfare; the unutterable sufferings and agonies of a civil war, where brother is arrayed against brother and where father and son are mortal enemies. Woe to the State convulsed by so dire a conflict! And a double woe to all its guilty originators. The Government should banish all such visitors from every place where rebel prisoners are confined.—These women who are so clamorous to be permitted to preach treason to their unhappy victims, would do a great deal better by doing into their solitary chambers and asking God to forgive their most grievous sin. Instead of besieging the rooms of the authorities for the privilege of tending the dying lamp of rebellion, let them hide their faces for very shame at the work which they have aided in doing—at the thought of the widows they have made broken-hearted; of the orphans they have turned loose upon the streets of Nashville; of the young men, who have either perished miserably in battle, or live to drag out a burdensome existence in bodily disease and suffering.

Nashville Daily Union, January 22, 1863.

        22, Fixing the blame for the capture of a federal wagon train on the Liberty Pike

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Murfreesborough, January 22, 1863.

Gen. JOSEPH J. REYNOLDS, Cmdg. Fifth Division, Center:

GEN.: The general commanding directs me to instruct you to notify Col. [A. S.] Hall, commanding the brigade, whose train was yesterday captured on the Liberty pike, that, until he has cleared himself of all responsibility in the case, the general will hold him responsible for any suffering or hardship that may ensue to the men in his command from loss of transportation; that through his negligence or misconduct the Government, which he was sworn to protect, is made to lose the services of the captured men, as well as the cost of their arms and accouterments, and that of all the wagons and animals, amounting probably to more than $100,000, and for any diminution of confidence or military spirit that may result from this most uncalled-for disaster.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HENRY STONE, Lieut. and Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 23, pt. II, p. 34.

        22, Skirmish with Morgan's cavalry near Liberty, clothing and saluting Washington's birthday

Camp Stanley

Murfreesboro, Tenn.

Jan. 22, l863

Dear and loving Wife:

In answer to your kind and welcome letter of the 11 inst. which I rec'd yesterday ….My health was never better than at this time. Henry is well. I had a letter from Samuel last Thursday and he is well.

And that morning we started out on a three days scout. We went to Liberty and there we had a skirmish with some of Morgan's cavalry, but they ran like fury and we took about 40 prisoners and killed and wounded several. There was some three or four of our men wounded but none killed that I know of. Our regiment did not get in the fight much so that I did not get a chance to fire my carbine at all. We had a good time till yesterday coming back it commenced raining and rained hard all the way, but we have got oil cloths to put over us so that we did not get wet.


Just now the artillery is firing a salute as it is the birthday of Washington. Every Battery in each division is to fire thirty two rounds and that makes it sound like as if there was a battle.


George Kryder

George Kryder Papers[2]

        22, Confederate editorial relative to Federal retribution in Middle Tennessee

Retaliation in Tennessee

We publish, in another column[3] two retaliatory orders, one issued by Rosencranz in relationship to Confederate officers captured in battle the other by Mitchell, the Yankee Commander at Nashville, authorizing the destruction the houses and property of non-combatants, women and children, in relation for injuries done the public property of the enemy by our soldiers. The Abolition Government will justify the order of Rosencranz, on the ground that it is issued in retaliation for the proclamation of President Davis. Instead of discontinuing the barbarous system of warfare which induced the action of the President, and which would at once mitigate the horrors of war which they have forced upon is in defence of life, liberty, property, family, and all that is held dear by civilized man, it more in accordance with their brutal instincts, to take another steps towards utter diabolism and force the dreadful alternative of a war of extermination. They come upon our soil not in defense of their government, which we do not assail; not in defense of life liberty, property or home – not as soldiers of a government fighting against the soldiers of a hostile government, but as murders, incendiaries, insurrectionists and thieves, making war upon society at large – upon   unarmed people, men, women and children, plundering, robbing, murdering and inciting savage insurrection; and when, in defending ourselves against such a foe, we deny them the rites of honorable war, they attempt to justify retaliation. God only knows to what depths of infamy the Puritan can descend! It is plain that the war is assuming the aspect of a war of bloody and relentless extermination. After long forbearance our government has been forced to adopt measures, the object of which was not revenge, but to enforce upon our infamous foe the observance of the usage of civilized warfare. From this position we cannot recede, be the consequences what they may. If it is to result in a war under the black flag, the civilized world and the God of humanity and justice will judge between us. We shudder at the picture that rises before our imagination, but with such a foe we see no alternative. The Chattanooga Rebel, commenting on Mitchell's order, says:

The self-styled "retaliatory order" of one Mitchell, calling himself "Commander of the Post," at Nashville, merits the indignant spurning of civilization, and the promptest action from the Government of the Confederate States.

Beyond this we republish it[4] with a degree is satisfaction. We are glad to present our readers and the people of the South an official endorser to our oft-repeated declarations about the wanton vandalism of the enemy. Here we have the most positive and ceremonial assurance that the refined villainy of house burning is to be henceforth recognized as a legal measure of extermination among the many accomplishments of the ruthless barbarian and invader.

So far as Messrs. McCann and Kilkird[5] are concerned, but little will be made from them; for the "order" above named will prove a double-edged sword; and many a Yankee will pay the debt incurred by an infamous commander. But that part of the document which relates to persons living within one mile of points which may be assailed by our cavalry, evinces the most depraved and wanton lust of power, cruelty and reckless land piracy. What steps shall be taken in regard to this most heinous offence against human nature and civilization?

We submit the case to our military authorities, and the Government at Richmond.

It is proper to state that the first named party, who has provoked this "order" by a gallant and successful exploit, Dick McCann, is a cavalry officer, regularly commissioned as Captain in the Confederate service, and justly distinguished in Tennessee for intrepidity and indomitable energy of character. Of Thomas Kilkird we know less; but doubt not that is also under commission. Thus are given to understand that the legitimate operations of our army will be visited upon defenceless private citizens, women and children, in the most odious and inhuman form, by the miserable cowards and poltroons who compose the officers of Rosencranz's army. These men should be marked, and treated on every occasion as dogs, unfit for civilities, rights or immunities of men; and if this will not avail a cessation of their acts of brutal wrong and oppression, the black flag should be hoisted over every regiment serving in Middle Tennessee.

Daily Morning News, January 22, 1863.[6]

        22, Capture of Federal Forage Wagons near Wilsonville

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. Samuel D. Sturgis, U. S. Army, commanding Cavalry, Department of the Ohio.

HDQRS. CHIEF OF CAVALRY, DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Sevierville, Tenn., January 25, 1864.

GEN.: A small party from Col. McCook's command yesterday captured a small wagon train loaded with supplies for Morristown, and captured also 19 prisoners, consisting of 1 lieutenant, 1 sergeant, and 17 privates. Gen. Elliott's division has captured in all, since we reached this side the river, some 75 prisoners. I am sending a detachment to-day to destroy the pontoon across mouth of Chucky. Gen. Potter and Capt. Gouraud are here.


S. D. STURGIS, Brig.-Gen., Cmdg. Cavalry.

Maj. Gen. J. G. FOSTER,


No. 2.

Reports of Col. Edward M. McCook, Second Indiana Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Division.


GEN.: I send the orderly, who knows the road to my headquarters. A scouting party of the First Tennessee captured a Capt. Bennett, commissary on Gen. Benning's staff, Hood's division, and 7 men who were out looking for forage.

The First Tennessee and Col. Palmer's force are out after a forage train, and I think will get them, unless the guard is too strong. I will move my command before day, so that their withdrawal will not be noticed from the other side.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

EDWARD M. McCOOK, Col., Cmdg.

Brig.-Gen. ELLIOTT, Cmdg. Cavalry.


BREMNER'S CHURCH, TENN., January 23, 1864.

CAPT.: Your order for destroying their pontoon was received at 3 p. m. The party detailed (200 strong) started at 4. Miller's scout was not here. The detachment is in command of Maj. Kimmel, a good officer, provided with an efficient guide, and will execute your order if possible.

There is no pontoon at the mouth of the Chucky. I am informed there was one 3 miles above the mount; another 12 miles above that. It will be necessary to cross the French Broad to get at either of them. Even with bridges destroyed, there is no difficulty in crossing with infantry and artillery, or trains. The guide, Mr. Inman, tells me that there are half a dozen excellent fords, both above and below the bridges, that can be crossed at this stage of the river without finding water more than knee deep to a man.

 The total result of the expedition yesterday was 22 wagons with their teams, and 90 prisoners, 2 captains and lieutenant.

My headquarters are on the Dougherty road, about opposite Fair Garden. Your dispatch of 2.30 p. m. is just received (5.40 p. m.). Col. LaGrange with all his brigade not barefooted, is away in the direction of Wilsonville, and the guides, who know the ford roads, with him. I took the responsibility of sending him out this morning in order to keep the rebels from crossing into the bottoms. I can procure no other guides, and cannot move until to-morrow morning at daylight. I will suggest to Wolford that he move on the main road at the same time, and effect a junction with me at Wilsonville. I ordered LaGrange to destroy the boats at Hays' Ferry if he could get them. I will have full information from him and from Dandridge to-night.

EDWARD M. McCOOK, Col., Cmdg. Division.

J. A. S. MITCHELL, Capt. and Actg. Aide-de-Camp, in absence of Col. McCook.

Capt. W. C. RAWOLLE, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.



HDQRS. CHIEF OF CAVALRY, DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Sevierville, Tenn., January 25, 1864.

Col. E. M. McCOOK, Cmdg. Cav. Div., Dept. of the Cumberland:

COL.: The general commanding the cavalry instructs me to say that it gives him great pleasure to send you the following extract of a letter, written by order of Maj.-Gen. Foster, commanding the department:

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE OHIO, Knoxville, January 23, 1864.

Brig.-Gen. STURGIS, Cmdg. Cavalry:

SIR: By direction of the general commanding I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt by him of your dispatch announcing the capture of train of the enemy by Col.'s McCook and Palmer, and to express to you his gratification and to ask you to make in his name the proper compliments to Col.'s McCook and Palmer and the officers and men serving under them.

JAMES H. STRONG, Lieut.-Col. and Assistant Inspector-Gen.

You will please to publish this very complimentary notice of the major-general commanding to your command in orders.

I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. C. RAWOLLE, Capt. and Aide-de-Camp.


No. 3. Report of Lieut. Gen. James Longstreet, C. S. Army.

HDQRS., January 25, 1864.

Twenty-eighth of our wagons were captured on the south side of French Broad on the 22d. They were foraging and had neglected to get the usual guards. Gen. Martin captured 800 beef-cattle, and reports 200 wagons abandoned and destroyed by the enemy in the retreat to Knoxville. We lost our teams with our wagons, and got none to replace them. Maj. Day made an advance upon Tazewell yesterday. He found the fortifications and forces stronger than was expected, and after a skirmish retired. We lost 1 man, killed; captured 12.

J. LONGSTREET, Lieut.-Gen., Cmdg.

Gen. S. COOPER, Richmond, Va.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. I, pt. I, pp. 110-112.

        22, Skirmish at Armstrong's Ferry[7] [see January 21-22, 1864, Skirmishers at Strawberry Plains above]

        22, Major-General S. A. Hurlbut ordered to make repairs to prison in Memphis

OFFICE COMMISSARY-GEN. OF PRISONERS, Washington, D. C., January 22, 1864.

Maj. Gen. S. A. HURLBUT, Cmdg., Memphis, Tenn.:

GEN.: In a recent report made to the Surgeon-Gen. by Medical Inspector J. E. Summers, U. S. Army, here presents the prison at Memphis in a very bad condition and so much out of repair that in case of cold weather the prisoners must suffer very much. Col. Summers recommends that the repairs be completed as soon as possible and that bunks be put up in the lower rooms, and I respectfully request you will order his recommendation carried out....I have learned....that there is a prison at Memphis containing some 200 rebel prisoners. I have no supervision over Federal prisoners.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. HOFFMAN, Col. Third Infantry and Commissary-Gen. of Prisoners.

OR, Ser. II, Vol. 6, p. 864.

        22, Confederate demonstration at intersection of Armstrong's Ferry road and Knoxville road [see January 21, Skirmish at Strawberry Plains above]

        22, "Wife Whipping"

Pat McCunn was up before the Recorder yesterday, for lavishing those tender blandishments upon the partner of his bosom, for which husbands of this vicinity are becoming so famous. He filled his mean hide with even meaner whisky, which aroused his ugly passions and incited him to the elegant and gallant deed of walloping a woman. How many men can go to work and thrash her at whose feet he once knelt and poured forth a tale of [love?] it is hard to tell. The hours of youth and the remembrance of the first growth of affection ought to withhold his craven hand and make him hate himself for a cowardly scoundrel. What a chivalric gentleman Pat McCunn must be. If his wife is bad he made her so. Fined $10 and costs. He could not pay, so he went to jail.

Memphis Bulletin, January 22, 1864.

        22,"The rebels drove us out of our quarters yesterday morning [21st] about 10 o'ck" Dud ammunition, condemned mules and retreat to Knoxville. An excerpt from of William Bentley, 104th Ohio Volunter Infantry, home

(Knoxville, Jan. 22nd) Here I am again, back in our old camp, 4 of us came down from the Plains yesterday on the cars with the officer's baggage. The rebels drove us out of our quarters yesterday morning baggage. The rebels drove us out of our quarters yesterday morning about 10 o'ck. We fell back a short distance out of range of their shells & watched their movements for an hour or more. They advanced a pretty heavy line of skirmishes on the opposite bank of the river but our boys made them skidaddle on double quick. They rallied again & made our position rather uncomfortable. Gen. Mason came riding along past us & told the Capt. to fall back slowly & to follow up Hd. Qrs. The Capt. sent 3 of us on with a wagon containing his duds. The mules had been condemned as unfit for service & judging from the appearances and actions, hadn't eaten anything for weeks but by dint of hard pushing, whipping & yelling, we managed to get about 4 miles, when along came the post Qr. Master & ordered us to unload the wagon. Here was a nice fix, but there was no help for it & we unloaded & piled our load on the ground. We waited for the company to come up but finally concluded that they had gone on ahead. We made up our minds to burn what we couldn't carry but the Qr. Master went to the conductor of a train of cars that was lying near us & made arrangements for us to get our load aboard. We reached Knoxville at dusk where we got a team to take our things to camp…

We have been on ½ & ¼ rations ever since we came into Tenn. & it takes nearly all our wages to feed us & then we can't always get provisions when we need them….

We have drawn some clothing, pants, shirts, drawers, etc. but no coats yet. I bought a pr. of boots the other day & I am very well fixed for cold weather if we have anymore.

Bentley Letters.


        22-27, Expedition from Union City to Trenton, Tenn.

JANUARY 22-27, 1864.--Expedition from Union City to Trenton, Tenn.

Report of Col. George E. Waring, jr., Fourth Missouri Cavalry, commanding Cavalry Brigade.[8]

TRENTON, TENN., January 27, 1864. CAPT.: In obedience to the order of the commanding general, I marched my command at 7.30 a. m., January 22, from Union City toward Sharp's Ferry, on the Obion River. The road in places was very bad. The marching column reached the vicinity of Sharp's Ferry before night, but the rear of the supply trains was still stuck in the mud, 4 miles from our starting place. I pressed teams and sent back to lighten loads, but nothing could be done that night, as men and animals were exhausted. The river at the ferry was choked with floating ice, the rope broken, and the boat filled with ice and water and in very bad condition. It was nearly daylight before we could commence crossing, and on account of the damaged condition of the boat only 8 horses could be crossed at a time.

Afternoon, January 23, the ice accumulated again, blocked up the river, broke the rope and stopped the crossing for over two hours. At night I received information that the supply trains had all got together at Troy, at which place the seventh Indiana Cavalry (from Hickman) had joined the command as it marched through. I had placed Col. Karge (Second New Jersey Cavalry) in charge of the ferry, and at 9 p. m. the Second Illinois and Nineteenth Pennsylvania pioneer corps and a portion of the Fourth Missouri having crossed, I crossed myself and came ahead to decide on the road to be taken and to send the pioneers ahead. I found the bottom on this side of the river in a horrible condition, and the river and sloughs rising very fast. Just before striking the highland (2 miles from the ferry) I found a place where the water was from 3 to 4 feet deep for a distance of 60 yards, and was covered with 3 inches of ice. Those who had first crossed had cut their way through, and the ice had been pushed on and packed in the channel near the shore, so that for a distance of 20 feet we had to plunge through a mass of ice and water in which horses and men fell and struggled (sometimes head and all under) until they could get out. For the next 3 miles to the ridges more than half of the road is very bad, and it was with the greatest difficulty that we got through with the three wagons which had been crossed with the Second Illinois and the pioneers. They had to be unloaded and drawn through the sloughs with picket ropes.

During the night of the 23d and the day following, the Seventh Indiana crossed with its ambulances. By this time the river had risen to such an event that the horses had to be landed in 3 feet of water.

During the night of the 24th and until noon of the 25th, we were trying to establish a new ferry farther down the river, but the constant rising of the river rendered this impossible. As Col. Karge was cut off from all possibility of communicating with me except by Col. Shanks, of the Seventh Indiana Cavalry, who was the last man to cross, he sent me word by him that he should go back to Jacksonville, and thence by Dresden and Huntingdon to Jackson, unless he heard from me again. He has taken the best course, and has the energy to get through if any man can. I have now sent Col. Shanks with the Seventh Indiana and Nineteenth Pennsylvania to hold the crossings at Mount Pinson and Bolivar. The Second Illinois Cavalry is stationed at the bridge at Rodgers' Mill, near Spring Creek, and will hold the bridge and run the mill until I come up. I am now going back to Dresden by the best road I can find (probably rebuilding King's Bridge with the pioneer corps). I shall bring my train through as fast as possible, and to this end I am pressing all the train through as fast as possible, and to this end I am pressing all the trains I can find in the country. I have been compelled to disobey the order to take a road west of the Columbus and Corinth road, and I cannot get through within the time specified in your conversation with me.

Had we got across the Obion before it commenced to rise we could have gone by the way of Dyersburg, and should have had no difficulty in going as far as the Hatchie River beyond what would have resulted from the bad condition of the roads. As the streams to the east of us are now falling rapidly, and the roads are drying up, we may be able to get through reasonably fast.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. E. WARING, JR., Col. 4th Mo. Cav., Cmdg. Cav. Brig., 6th Div., 16th A. C.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 113-114.

22- February 8, Humdrum Federal cavalry operations from Union City to Collierville

Report of Maj. Edward Langen, Fourth Missouri Cavalry, of operations January 22-February 8.

COLLIERVILLE, TENN., February 10, 1864.

Report of March from Union City, Tenn., to Collierville, Tenn., of the Fourth Missouri Volunteer Cavalry, under command of Maj. Edward Langen:

This command left Union City on the 22d day of January, 1864, and took camp 6 miles from Troy, Tenn.

Left the camp on the morning of the 23d, and marched about 2 miles from Sharp's Ferry, on the Obion River. Camped there again.

Staid in this camp on the 24th, and left the camp on the 25th to return and take another road, as it was, on account of the rise of the Obion River, impossible to cross any more. Passed Troy and arrived on the 25th, 10 miles from Union City, at Widow White', on the Hickman road.

On the 26th, marched at 10 a. m., and camped 3 miles north of Union City.

On the 27th, passed Jacksonville, Gardner's Station, and camped 2½ miles from Dresden.

On the 28th, staid in this camp and waited for supply train, which came about 2 miles from camp.

Left on the 29th, passed Dresden, McKenzie's Station, and camped 4 miles this side of Huntingdon.

Left camp on the 30th, passed Huntingdon, and camped 6 miles on the other side of Huntingdon.

In this camp we staid all the 31st of January and 1st of February, on which day the supply train caught up.

On the 2d, left camp, passed Spring Creek, and camped 4 miles below Spring Creek, on the Cotton Creek road. In this camp sent five teams from the supply train with provisions to Mount Pinson, and passed Cotton Creek. Passed the Hatchie River and swamp, and camped 5 miles from Mount Pinson.

On the 4th February, passed Mount Pinson, camped 8 miles on the Bolivar road.

On the 5th, marched through Medon, crossed the Hatchie River on a flat-boat, camped 2 miles on the other side of Bolivar, and left on the 7th. Passed Somerville and camped 8 miles below that place.

Left camp on the 8th, passed the Wolf River Swamp and river, and arrived at Collierville early in the afternoon.

EDWARD LANGEN, Maj., Fourth Missouri Volunteer Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 277-278.

        22-February 27, Co-operating missions in West Tennessee, Union City to Collierville, associated with the Meridian Expedition, February 3-March 6, 1864.

Report of Col. George E. Waring, jr., Fourth Missouri Cavalry, commanding First Cavalry Brigade, of operations January 22-February 27.

HDQRS. FIRST Brig., CAVALRY DIV., 16TH ARMY CORPS, Collierville, Tenn., February 10, 1864.

CAPT.: In obedience to the order of the chief of cavalry, Military Division of the Mississippi, I respectfully forward the following report of the march of my command from Union City, Tenn., to this post: In obedience to the order of Brig. Gen. A. J. Smith, commanding Sixth Division, Sixteenth Corps (copy inclosed marked A), I marched my command from Union City at daybreak, January 22. The Troy Bottom, which surrounds Union City, was almost impassable and I waited within 2 miles of my starting-place until my supply train had got through it (2 p. m.). I then started for Sharp's Ferry of the Obion River. I found the next 4 miles of the way very bad, and many wagons stuck fast in the mud. Leaving my quartermaster in charge of the train, I pushed on to a point 4 miles from Sharp's Ferry, 13 miles from Union City, passing nearly the whole train on the road. Here I halted for the night, sending orders forward to Col. Karge to commence crossing the command immediately. I sent a party back to press all the teams in the country and send them back to lighten the supply train.

By 10 a. m. of January 23, I received information that the train was over the worst of the road, and I marched on to the Ferry (23 miles from Union City), reaching there about 4 p. m. I found the rope of the ferry broken and the boat swamped in the ice, with which the river was entirely choked. The ice was cut away and the river freed. At 7 p. m. the Nineteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry was nearly all across. The prisoner corps (120 men) of the provost guard (2 companies, Fourth Missouri Cavalry) and the battalion of the Second Illinois Cavalry had crossed before. Seeing that everything was going on well, I crossed the river at 9 p. m. with my staff and orderlies, and started for the camp of the advance, 5 miles from the ferry, intending to decide on the road to be taken and send the pioneers forward to repair the road.

I found the road for 3 miles from the ferry (through the bottom) almost impassable for wagons and even difficult for cavalry, on account of the depth of water in the sloughs. In one place, for about 50 yards, the water was from 2 to 4 feet deep and filled with large cakes of broken ice, which caused the horses and men to fall at every few steps. I sent word to the commanding officer of the Nineteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry not to attempt to cross the bottom until daylight. As the whole bottom was covered with water and it was impossible to see the road in the night, I marched 14 miles instead of 5 and reached camp (Porter's farm) at 4 a. m. January 24. I immediately ordered out scouting parties toward Jackson and Ripley to learn the character of the roads and river crossings by the two routes. It was subsequently reported that the road via Ripley was good all the way through, and that the road from Trenton to Jackson was impassable.

During the night of the 23d and the day following, the whole Seventh Indiana crossed with its ambulances. By this time the river had risen to such an extent that the horses had to be landed in 3 feet of water.

During the night of the 24th and until noon of the 25th, we were trying to establish a new ferry farther down the river, but the constant rising of the river rendered this impossible.

As Col. Karge was cut off from all possibility of communicating with me, except by Col. Shanks, of the Seventh Indiana Cavalry, who was the last man to cross, he sent me word by him that he would go back to Jacksonville, and thence by Dresden and Huntingdon to Jackson, unless he heard from me again. This state of affairs compelled me to take an easterly route, and rendered it impossible for me to go down west of the railroad without great loss of time.

At 8 p. m. of the 25th, I left camp with a small escort and marched 14 miles (to within 11 miles of Trenton), when I met the Second Illinois Cavalry, which I had sent to that place to examine the roads, and I encamped for the night.

That part of my command which had crossed the river marched early on the 26th, and encamped that night 4 miles north of Trenton. I arrived in Trenton early in the day, and immediately instituted inquiries about the roads over which the train might come from Dresden.

On the morning of the 27th, the column came up and I ordered Col. Shanks, Seventh Indiana Cavalry, to proceed with his own regiment and the Nineteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry to Mount Pinson, on the south fork of the Forked Deer; there to leave the Nineteenth Pennsylvania to hold the bridge, and to go on with the Seventh Indiana Cavalry to Bolivar, on the Hatchie; there to make a bridge or ferry, and to hold the same the command to cross. The Second Illinois Cavalry I sent to Rodgers' Mill, on the middle fork of the Forked Deer, there to hold the bridge and to collect provisions for the remainder of the command.

I marched with the pioneer corps and the squadrons of the Fourth Missouri Cavalry to Parker's Ferry, over the south fork of the Obion, 12 miles southeast from Dresden, and crossed the pioneer corps the same night orders to report at once to Col. Karge, and to bring through the train under his orders. I encamped at the ferry.

January 28, I sent a staff officer to communicate with Col. Karge and to inform him of the character of the roads by that ferry, and to tell to use his best discretion as to which course he would take. He decided to go by the way of Huntingdon as the road had dried up and the bottom at Parker's Ferry was very heavy. I received his decision on the 29th of January.

January 30, I marched toward Spring Creek, where Col. Karge was to communicate with me, and encamped for the night near Lavinia, 4 miles north of Spring Creek.

January 31, marched to Spring Creek, and met a messenger from Col. Karge with dispatches stating that he was then 6 miles southeast from Huntingdon, and that the train had not yet reached Huntingdon, as the very heavy trains of two previous nights had rendered the roads almost impassable and had so swollen the streams as to wash away the bridges. He also informed me that he had unloaded ten baggage wagons and sent them back to lighten the train. Thinking that a better road from Huntingdon [to] Pinson might be found than that via Spring Creek (which I knew to be very bad.) I went on the 1st of February to Col. Karge camp, 21 miles distant, and made diligent inquiry, only to find that there was no other way to go. Seeing that Col. Karge was doing all that was possible to expedite matters, I returned on the same day to Spring Creek, where I was informed on my arrival that the road to Mount Pinson was almost if not absolutely impassable.

February 2, I marched with a small escort via Jackson to Mount Pinson with a view to examining the bottom beyond Jackson, having previously sent the Second Illinois Cavalry by the direct road, and left orders for Col. Karge to take that road unless otherwise ordered. I found the bottom at Jackson almost impassable for cavalry, and absolutely so for wagons.

February 3, I sent forward the Nineteenth Pennsylvania with orders to report to Col. Shanks on the south side of the Hatchie River, and waited at Mount Pinson until five wagons of the supply train loaded with 3,500 rations came up under a small escort. With these I pushed on via Medon to Bolivar, arriving at noon of the 4th instant. The boat which had been built by Col. Shanks' command had been found to be Imperfect and was being repaired.

February 5, the boat was made ready during the night, and the troops which had come up with me crossed during the day, though owing to the leaky condition of the boat only 8 horses could be crossed at a time. Toward evening Col. Karge arrived with his command, having left the supply train 10 miles in his rear under a strong guard. The crossing was continued all night, and was effected without serious accident.

February 6, the crossing of the troops and of the supply train occupied the whole day, and in the evening the remaining rations were issued to the command, which had now come together for the first time since January 23.

February 7, marched the whole command at 6.30 a. m. via Somerville to Thorpe's farm, 3 miles north of Macon, where all encamped at sunset, except the supply and baggage train with the Seventh Indiana Cavalry as escort, which had only reached Somerville.

February 8, marched to Collierville in obedience to orders received at Bolivar from Brig.-Gen. Grierson, the head of the column arriving at 1 p. m., and the train escorted by the Third Tennessee Cavalry arriving after night-fall.

The supply train was a heavy incumbrance during the whole march, and caused at least a week's delay, while it was of very little use to the main column, which lived off of the country nearly all the time and could have done so entirely.

The whole distance made by the train was about 220 miles, and the whole time consumed was eighteen days. Had it not been for the sudden thaw which rendered the Obion River impassable, we could have come by the way of Ripley, only 120 miles, and would have made the march in eight days, as the road was comparatively good and the river crossings in tolerable condition.

Attention is respectfully called to the report of Col. J. P. C. Shanks, Seventh Indiana Cavalry [see immediately below], which contains all that is of much importance containing the trifling engagements with guerrillas on the road, and an account of the brilliant affair at LaGrange, where Lieut. Grebe, of my staff, bearing dispatches, with his small escort defeated a considerable force of the enemy; also to the reports of the other commanding officers of the brigade, which (expecting slight geographical inaccuracies) will give you a correct idea of the difficulties of the march.

The Seventh Indiana Cavalry was brigaded with my command while it lay at Hickman, and was ordered to join me on the march. Had this not been the case, the large fragment now at Hickman would have been here for duty, and the regiment would have been in better condition.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

GEO. E. WARING, JR., Col. Fourth Missouri Cavalry, Cmdg. Brigade.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 262-265.


Report of Col. P. C. Shanks, Seventh Indiana Cavalry, of operations January 22-February 9.

COLLIERVILLE, TENN., February 10, 1864.

SIR: In pursuance of your orders, I submit the following report of my march from Hickman, Ky., to this place:

January 22, 8 a. m., left Hickman with 606 men, mounted, armed, and equipped, without rations, but with six teams, and ammunition in pouches only for carbines, none for revolvers except one load, under written orders to march to a point within 3 miles of Sharp's Ferry, on Obion River, or to rear of column. I camped at Childs' farm, 3 ½ miles north of ferry at 8 p. m., having passed in the following order in their camps, Nineteenth Pennsylvania, Fourth Missouri, Second New Jersey Cavalry, having marched 33 miles.

On 23d, regiment remained in camp. I crossed, and examined bottom on south side; found soil light, river rising rapidly and over part of bottom, which is by the most practical route 1 ½ miles in width; Second Illinois and pioneer corps were crossing; also Nineteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry.

On 24th, at 2 a. m., sent Third Battalion to cross; 6 o'clock sent Second, and 8 o'clock First Battalion of Seventh Cavalry. I went to ferry with Second Battalion, and was ordered by Col. Karge to cross and examine possibility of crossing wagons. Did so, and found it impossible. Was then ordered to go down river 6,8,12 miles to the several ferries for crossing; found no boats, and river wider, banks worse, and bottom as bad as at Sharp's. Reported at 9 a. m.; my regiment meantime had crossed and gone on. River rose 18 inches during night.

I crossed on morning of the 25th, with considerable risk, with dispatches from Col. Karge to you. Larger portion of my regiment swam their horses, and lost several horses, some arms, but no men.

On 27th, left camp with Seventh Indiana Cavalry, Nineteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, and two companies of Fourth Missouri for Trenton. Camped 4 miles north of Trenton.

On 28th, marched at 7 a. m.; reported to you at Trenton at 10 a. m.; received orders to proceed with Seventh Indiana Cavalry and Nineteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry to Mount Pinson and Bolivar to repair bridges over Forked Deer and Hatchie Rivers. Camped at Muthers' farm.

On 29th, marched at 7 a. m.; procured some meal of Capt. Moore at Spring Creek, and camped at Banes' farm. On 30th, marched at 7 a. m. and reached Mount Pinson at 10 a. m., having sent Lieut. Skinner with a company to take possession of the bridge and crossing, who found guerrillas there and drove them away. Found the river 100 feet wide and 6 feet deep. Was cloudy; threatening rain. Feared to build low bridge. Repaired old one by putting in span and abutment 50 feet and 10 feet above water. Heavy timbers drawn on wagons from woods by men.

On 31st., 2 p. m., marched for the Hatchie, leaving Nineteenth Pennsylvania to guard bridge at Mount Pinson. Camped at Dean's farm.

February 1,7 a. m. marched to ferry; arrived at 1 p. m., having sent Capt. Moore with company forward. Fired on frequently by guerrillas; took 6 en route. Found only small raft; would carry with safety 3 men and horses with hands; could make trip in six minutes. Proceeded to Bolivar, 1 mile, and procured such material as could to build flat-boat.

February 2, commenced work on boat, Lieut. Fackenthall, of Nineteenth Pennsylvania, in charge, I having detailed him for the purpose before leaving Mount Pinson. Constructed sides of boat of railroad timber spliced and bottom of doors from the depot in Bolivar; they were double stuff, painted and cross-lapped, seasoned, and did not swell to answer the purpose as expected; they were poplar, but the paint prevented swelling. Boat 40 feet long, 10 wide.

February 3, 4 p. m., launched boat with above results.

February 4, 3 p. m., drew boat out again for repairs with another bottom. Nineteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry arrived.

February 5, 4 p. m., Col. Waring, with Second Illinois and part of the Fourth Missouri, arrived. Finished boat at 9 a. m. of that day, Capt. Frank. Moore's men assisting in work. The interference of some of the Fourth Missouri with the hands at the boat caused a short delay. From the arrival of the Nineteenth Pennsylvania, Second Illinois, and part of the Fourth Missouri, the raft had been continually running, the Seventh Cavalry having crossed before their arrival. Light teams had also crossed on raft, all heavy teams being supply train.

February 6, Second Jersey Cavalry arrived in the morning and crossed, and in the evening the supply trains reached the ferry and also the remainder of the Fourth Missouri. Boat was ready, and all crossed without delay. There was no time lost on account of boat, as all crossed before supply and heavy regimental wagons arrived.

February 7, a party of guerrillas attacked a forage party on Pocahontas road, 2 miles from Bolivar, under command of Lieut. Kennedy, of Seventh Indiana. He took 9 men, 8 horses, 1 mule, February 8,6 a. m., marched with column for Collierville, arriving February 9 at 7 p. m.

On February 2, at 8 a. m., I sent Capt. Shoemaker with 40 men to escort Lieut. Grebe with dispatches to Gen. Smith. He reached Grand Junction and learned of the enemy at LaGrange. He reported to me the fact. I sent him Lieut. Skinner and 40 more men.

He then, on the morning of the 3d, drove the enemy from LaGrange, and without further difficulty reported at Memphis. The result of the fray at LaGrange was taking 8 prisoners, killing 2, and wounded 1, and some horses.

Respectfully submitted.

JOHN P. C. SHANKS, Col. Seventh Indiana Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 272-274.

        22-February 27, 1864, "…in addition to that there were numerous parties of guerrillas harassing us in front and rear of the command, so that I was force to move slowly and cautiously." Report on the reconnaissance of the Second New Jersey Cavalry in West Tennessee

Reports of Col. Joseph Karge, Second New Jersey Cavalry, of operations January 22-February 27.

HDQRS. SECOND NEW JERSEY CAVALRY, Collierville, February 10, 1864.

SIR: In compliance with orders received from headquarters Cavalry Brigade, I have the honor to submit the following report:

My command broke camp and took up the line of march for Moscow, Tenn., on Friday, January 22, at 7.30 a. m. I arrived with my command at 4 p. m. the same date at a point within 6 miles of the Obion River, when I was ordered to superintend the crossing of the brigade at a point called Sharp's Ferry. Leaving my regiment in bivouac. I immediately went to the river, and, after innumerable and almost, insurmountable, difficulties, I succeeded in getting the Nineteenth Pennsylvania and Seventh Indiana Cavalry, together with a squadron of the Fourth Missouri Cavalry and a detachment of Second Illinois Cavalry, safely over the stream. Owing to the utter impassability of the swamp on the opposite side of the river, in consequence of its sudden rise, I was forced to relinquish the attempt to cross at that point, and after due consideration I concluded to take the balance of the command (consisting of the Second New Jersey Cavalry, a portion of the Fourth Missouri Cavalry, with three mountain howitzers and the supply and baggage trains of the brigade) to their destination by a more practicable route, if possible.

I accordingly started on the line of march with the detachment on Monday, 25th January, at 2 p. m., after marching about 12 miles I halted the command for the night at the Widow White's farm, where I found forage sufficient for the command.

At 10 a. m. 26th January, the command broke camp and took up the line of march on the Jacksonville road, and halted the command within 4 miles of Jacksonville same date.

The command marched at 8.30 a. m. on the 27th, and arrived within 1 mile of Dresden at 8.30 p. m., same date, where we remained until Friday, 29th, when we broke camp at 6.30 a. m., and reached a point 3 miles beyond McKenzie's Station, where we bivouacked at 5.30 p. m. same day.

We remained at that point until 12 m., Saturday, 22d, when we moved on to Mitchell's farm, 6 miles south of Huntingdon, where we halted at 7 p. m., and received dispatches from the supply train informing me that it was encamped at least 10 miles north of Huntingdon. I immediately gave orders that ten of the baggage wagons of the brigade should be unloaded and sent back to relieve the supply train of a portion of its load, and concluded to remain at the present camp until the supply train arrived.

On the evening of Monday, February 1, the supply train arrived, and on Tuesday, February 2, the command broke camp and reached a point 4 miles south of Spring Creek at 5 p. m., where we remained until the next day, February 3, when we marched at 6.30 a. m. We halted 5 miles north of Mount Pinson, which point we reached at 6 p. m., February 3.

We left camp on the morning of the 4th, and arrived at Medon at 6 p. m., where we halted and bivouacked for the night.

The command left Medon at 7 a. m. Friday, February 5, and arrived at the Hatchie River at 2.30 p. m. same day. I immediately began crossing the command, and by 12 m. the next day had them all safely over, with the exception of the supply train and escort, which did not arrive until some hours after, when it immediately commenced crossing, and by 2 a. m. February 6 the whole command was safely over and ready for marching, according to orders, on the morning of the 7th instant.

During the march of the command the greater portion of the time the roads were in an almost impassable condition, so much so that at times it took several hours to pass over a space 1 mile in extent; in addition to that there were numerous parties of guerrillas harassing us in front and rear of the command, so that I was force to move slowly and cautiously.

I have the honor to be, colonel very respectfully, your obedient servant,

JOSEPH KARGE, Col., Cmdg. 2d New Jersey Volunteer Cavalry.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 32, pt. I, pp. 280-282.

        22, Initiation of anti-guerrilla patrols west of Pulaski, Tennessee and Duck Rivers

No circumstantial reports filed.

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Eastport, Miss., January 22, 1865.

Brig. Gen. R. W. JOHNSON, Pulaski, Tenn.:

The major-general commanding directs me to say that he is constantly in receipt of rumors that there are great numbers of guerrillas in the country west of Pulaski, and between the Tennessee River and Duck River. You are directed to have the country thoroughly patrolled and scouted, and all such persons destroyed....

ROBT. H. RAMSEY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 45, pt. II, p. 626.

        22, The war's effect upon the morals of some Hardeman County women, an excerpt from a Bolivar school girl's diary

* * * *

The war seems to be demoralizing every body. [sic]....Some of the very nicest girls of this county are throwing themselves[,] their honor and good name away, losing control over fiendish passions, ruining themselves forever in the eyes of the world. Oh will people never be brought to their senses!

Diary of Sally Wendel Fentress.

        22-ca. February 2, 1865, Exile of influential citizens of Davidson, Rutherford and Williamson counties

HDQRS. DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Eastport, Miss., February 2, 1865.

Col. J. G. PARKHURST, Provost-Marshal-Gen., Department of the Cumberland:

COL.: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of date January 22 relative to certain persons who have been required to show cause why they should not be sent beyond the Federal lines and asking for further instructions. The major-general commanding directs that you not only require the leading and influential citizens of Davidson, Rutherford, and Williamson Counties, of the State of Tennessee, to show cause why they should not be sent south, but that you require from this class of residents wherever they come within your reach anywhere within the limits of the State, such statements made in accordance with existing orders. He further directs that until further orders you send the papers in each case to these headquarters for final decision.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

ROBT. H. RAMSEY, Assistant Adjutant-Gen.

OR, Ser. I, Vol. 49, pt. I, p. 629.


[1] See OR, Ser. I, Vol. 20, pt. I, pp. 682-684, 699, 701, 702.

[2] Center for Archival Collections, George Kryder Papers, Transcripts, MS 163:

[3] Not found,

[4] Not found.

[5] Richard "Dick" McCann, a Confederate guerrilla leader in Middle Tennessee. Kirlkrid is not identified in the OR.


[7] Long, Almanac, places this event on the 21st.

[8] See also Waring's report of Smith's expedition, January 22 – February 27, 1864, below.

James B. Jones, Jr.

Public Historian

Tennessee Historical Commission

2941 Lebanon Road

Nashville, TN  37214

(615)-770-1090 ext. 123456

(615)-532-1549  FAX


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